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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536285/gut-microbiota-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-dietary-capsaicin-against-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-and-associated-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#1
Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Xiaolan Wang, Hedong Lang, Suocheng Hui, Li Huang, Yong Zhang, Ming Zhou, Mengting Chen, Mantian Mi
Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533260/relationship-between-monocyte-platelet-aggregation-and-endothelial-function-in-middle-aged-and-elderly-adults
#2
Andrew Haynes, Matthew D Linden, Elisa Robey, Louise H Naylor, Kay L Cox, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Daniel J Green
Low-grade inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and platelet hyper-reactivity to agonists are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. In vitro and animal studies infer an inverse mechanistic relationship between platelet activation and the production of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and prostacyclin. This concept is supported by evidence of an inverse relationship between endothelial function and platelet activation in high-risk cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to investigate what relationship, if any, exists between platelet and endothelial function in healthy, middle-aged, and elderly adults...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532812/the-occurrence-of-biofilm-in-an-equine-experimental-wound-model-of-healing-by-secondary-intention
#3
E Jørgensen, L Bay, T Bjarnsholt, L Bundgaard, M A Sørensen, S Jacobsen
In humans, biofilm is a well-known cause of delayed healing and low-grade inflammation of chronic wounds. In horses, biofilm formation in wounds has been studied to a very limited degree. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the occurrence of biofilm in equine experimental wounds healing by secondary intention. Tissue biopsies from non-contaminated, experimental excisional shoulder and limb wounds were obtained on day 1-2, day 7-10 and day 14-15 post-wounding. Limb wounds were either un-bandaged or bandaged to induce exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) formation and thereby impaired healing...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527371/lutein-exerts-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Rosanna W S Chung, Per Leanderson, Anna K Lundberg, Lena Jonasson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many coronary artery disease (CAD) patients exhibit chronic low-grade inflammation. Carotenoids are anti-oxidants with potential anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we first assessed relationships between interleukin (IL)-6 and individual carotenoids in plasma from CAD patients. Based on the results, we proceeded to assess anti-inflammatory effects of one carotenoid, lutein, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CAD patients. METHODS: Lutein + zeaxanthin (isomers with lutein being dominant), β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α- and β-carotene and IL-6 were measured in plasma from 134 patients with stable angina (SA) and 59 patients with acute coronary syndrome...
May 6, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523952/is-male-factor-infertility-associated-with-midlife-low-grade-inflammation-a-population-based-study
#5
Katia Keglberg Hærvig, Lene Kierkegaard, Rikke Lund, Helle Bruunsgaard, Merete Osler, Lone Schmidt
Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection in 2009-2011...
May 19, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522899/the-metabolic-syndrome-inflammation-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-an-evaluation-of-large-panels-of-plasma-protein-markers-using-repeated-prediagnostic-samples
#6
Sophia Harlid, Robin Myte, Bethany Van Guelpen
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a set of metabolic risk factors including obesity, dysglycemia, and dyslipidemia, is associated with increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A putative biological mechanism is chronic, low-grade inflammation, both a feature of MetS and a CRC risk factor. However, excess body fat also induces a proinflammatory state and increases CRC risk. In order to explore the relationship between MetS, body size, inflammation, and CRC, we studied large panels of inflammatory and cancer biomarkers...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521867/effect-of-a-single-bout-of-aerobic-exercise-on-high-fat-meal-induced-inflammation
#7
Kelly N Z Fuller, Corey M Summers, Rudy J Valentine
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of metabolic disorders including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome. Aerobic exercise has been shown to be anti-inflammatory and attenuate postprandial blood lipids, however, the effect of exercise on postprandial inflammation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise against postprandial lipemia and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) inflammation and to evaluate associations with changes in the energy-sensing enzyme, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508317/trpc-channels-and-brain-inflammation
#8
Yoshito Mizoguchi, Akira Monji
Nonresolving low-grade inflammation is supposed to underly the basis of chronic disorders including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and psychiatric disorders such as depression and Alzheimer's diseases. There is increasing evidence suggesting that pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders is related to the inflammatory responses mediated by microglial cells. Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) is important for the activation of microglial cell functions, including proliferation, release of NO, cytokines, and BDNF...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506572/inflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-association-with-digestive-symptoms-and-quality-of-life
#9
Razieh Choghakhori, Amir Abbasnezhad, Amin Hasanvand, Reza Amani
A growing body of evidence suggests a possible role for low-grade inflammation in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The objectives of this study were to measure serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-17, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in IBS patients and healthy controls (HCs), and to evaluate possible correlations of such markers with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and quality of life (QoL). Ninety Rome III positive IBS patients and 90 sex and age matched HCs were recruited...
May 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504479/contribution-of-anthocyanin-rich-foods-in-obesity-control-through-gut-microbiota-interactions
#10
REVIEW
Giovana Jamar, Débora Estadella, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation and a number of metabolic disorders. Distal gut microbes' content (microbiota) is not yet fully understood but evidence shows that it is influenced by internal and external factors that modulate its composition and function. The evidence that gut microbiota composition can differ between healthy and obese individuals, as well as for those who maintain specific dietary habits, has led to the study of this environmental factor as a key link between the pathophysiology of obesity and gut microbiota...
May 15, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490511/impact-of-breakfast-skipping-compared-with-dinner-skipping-on-regulation-of-energy-balance-and-metabolic-risk
#11
Alessa Nas, Nora Mirza, Franziska Hägele, Julia Kahlhöfer, Judith Keller, Russell Rising, Thomas A Kufer, Anja Bosy-Westphal
Background: Meal skipping has become an increasing trend of the modern lifestyle that may lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes.Objective: We investigated whether the timing of meal skipping impacts these risks by affecting circadian regulation of energy balance, glucose metabolism, and postprandial inflammatory responses.Design: In a randomized controlled crossover trial, 17 participants [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 23.7 ± 4.6] underwent 3 isocaloric 24-h interventions (55%, 30%, and 15% carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively): a breakfast skipping day (BSD) and a dinner skipping day (DSD) separated by a conventional 3-meal-structure day (control)...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484748/tangeretin-improves-glucose-uptake-in-a-coculture-of-hypertrophic-adipocytes-and-macrophages-by-attenuating-inflammatory-changes
#12
Hye-Sun Shin, Seong-Il Kang, Hee-Chul Ko, Deok-Bae Park, Se-Jae Kim
Obesity is characterized by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance, which are aggravated by the interaction between hypertrophic adipocytes and macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effects of tangeretin on inflammatory changes and glucose uptake in a coculture of hypertrophic adipocytes and macrophages. Tangeretin decreased nitric oxide production and the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in a coculture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264...
March 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476623/syringin-attenuates-insulin-resistance-via-adiponectin-mediated-suppression-of-low-grade-chronic-inflammation-and-er-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#13
Bobae Kim, Min-Seok Kim, Chang-Kee Hyun
In the treatment of type 2 diabetes, improvements in glucose control are often linked to side effects such as weight gain and altered lipid metabolism, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to develop antidiabetic drugs that exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism at the same time. Here we demonstrate that syringin, a naturally occurring glucoside, improves glucose tolerance without increased weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Syringin augmented insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, epididymal adipose tissue (EAT), and the liver, showing an insulin-sensitizing activity...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474840/cox2-and-nos3-gene-polymorphisms-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#14
Maciej Tarnowski, Marta Tkacz, Violetta Dziedziejko, Krzysztof Safranow, Andrzej Pawlik
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is carbohydrate intolerance occurring in pregnancy. Low-grade inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. The aim of this study was to examine the association between COX2 (rs6681231) and NOS3 (rs1799983, rs2070744) gene polymorphisms and GDM. METHODS: This study included 204 pregnant women with GDM and 207 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The diagnosis of GDM was based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks' gestation...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473884/characterisation-of-adipocyte-derived-extracellular-vesicle-subtypes-identifies-distinct-protein-and-lipid-signatures-for-large-and-small-extracellular-vesicles
#15
Maëva Durcin, Audrey Fleury, Emiliane Taillebois, Grégory Hilairet, Zuzana Krupova, Céline Henry, Sandrine Truchet, Martin Trötzmüller, Harald Köfeler, Guillaume Mabilleau, Olivier Hue, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina, Patrice Martin, Soazig Le Lay
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological vectors that can modulate the metabolism of target cells by conveying signalling proteins and genomic material. The level of EVs in plasma is significantly increased in cardiometabolic diseases associated with obesity, suggesting their possible participation in the development of metabolic dysfunction. With regard to the poor definition of adipocyte-derived EVs, the purpose of this study was to characterise both qualitatively and quantitatively EVs subpopulations secreted by fat cells...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473441/apolipoprotein-ciii-levels-and-incident-coronary-artery-disease-risk-the-epic-norfolk-prospective-population-study
#16
Julian C van Capelleveen, Sophie J Bernelot Moens, Xiaohong Yang, John J P Kastelein, Nicholas J Wareham, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Erick S G Stroes, Joseph L Witztum, G Kees Hovingh, Kay-Tee Khaw, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Sotirios Tsimikas
OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein CIII (apo CIII) is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism. Elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apo CIII levels are causally linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. The mechanism(s) through which apo CIII increases CAD risk remains largely unknown. The aim was to confirm the association between apo CIII plasma levels and CAD risk and to explore which lipoprotein subfractions contribute to this relationship between apo CIII and CAD risk. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Plasma apo CIII levels were measured in baseline samples from a nested case-control study in the prospective EPIC-Norfolk study...
May 4, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472252/new-insights-into-the-role-of-adipose-tissue-in-thrombosis
#17
Gemma Vilahur, Soumaya Ben-Aicha, Lina Badimon
Central obesity is independently associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly thrombotic complications. Increasing data supports a link between excess body weight and the risk to suffer acute myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis after percutaneous interventions, ischemic stroke and vein thrombosis.Experimental and in vitro data have provided insights as to the mechanisms currently presumed to increase the thrombotic risk in obese subjects. Obesity is characterized by a chronic low grade inflammation and systemic oxidative stress that eventually damage the endothelium losing its antithrombotic properties...
May 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469403/effects-of-acute-exercise-on-circulating-soluble-form-of-the-urokinase-receptor-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Anna Gustafsson, Filip Ventorp, Anita Gm Wisén, Lars Ohlsson, Lennart Ljunggren, Åsa Westrin
Inflammation has been proposed to play a role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Previously, we demonstrated that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased plasma levels of the soluble form of the urokinase receptor (suPAR), a marker for low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute exercise would induce inflammatory response characterized by increased suPAR and elucidate whether patients with MDD display altered levels of suPAR in response to acute exercise...
2017: Biomarker Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468307/markers-of-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-defense-in-romanian-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-obesity
#19
Ariana Picu, Laura Petcu, Simona Ştefan, Manuela Mitu, Daniela Lixandru, Constantin Ionescu-Tîrgovişte, Grațiela Grădișteanu Pîrcălăbioru, Felicia Ciulu-Costinescu, Maria-Viorica Bubulica, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with obesity. The adipose tissue secretes bioactive adipokines leading to low grade inflammation, amplified by oxidative stress, which promotes the formation of advanced glycation end products and eventually leads to dyslipidemia and vascular complications. The aim of this study was to correlate anthropometric, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in newly diagnosed (ND) T2DM patients and to investigate the role of oxidative stress in T2DM associated with obesity...
May 1, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466852/temporal-and-tissue-specific-requirements-for-t-lymphocyte-il-6-signalling-in-obesity-associated-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#20
Elaine Xu, Mafalda M A Pereira, Ismene Karakasilioti, Sebastian Theurich, Mona Al-Maarri, Gunter Rappl, Ari Waisman, F Thomas Wunderlich, Jens C Brüning
Low-grade inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance through the activation of tissue-infiltrating immune cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a crucial regulator of T cells and is increased in obesity. Here we report that classical IL-6 signalling in T cells promotes inflammation and insulin resistance during the first 8 weeks on a high-fat diet (HFD), but becomes dispensable at later stages (after 16 weeks). Mice with T cell-specific deficiency of IL-6 receptor-α (IL-6Rα(T-KO)) exposed to a HFD display improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and inflammation in liver and EWAT after 8 weeks...
May 3, 2017: Nature Communications
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