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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432842/low-grade-inflammation-and-tryptophan-kynurenine-pathway-activation-are-associated-with-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism-the-epath-trial
#1
Nicolas Verheyen, Andreas Meinitzer, Martin Robert Grübler, Klemens Ablasser, Ewald Kolesnik, Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer, Evgeny Belyavskiy, Christian Trummer, Verena Schwetz, Elisabeth Pieske-Kraigher, Jakob Voelkl, Ioana Alesutan, Cristiana Catena, Leonardo Alberto Sechi, Helmut Brussee, Dirk von Lewinski, Winfried März, Burkert Pieske, Stefan Pilz, Andreas Tomaschitz
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is associated with low-grade inflammation, left ventricular hypertrophy and increased cardiovascular mortality, but the association between inflammatory markers and parameters of adverse cardiac remodeling is unknown. We investigated the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP), the essential amino acid tryptophan and its pro-inflammatory derivatives kynurenine and quinolinic acid (QUIN) with echocardiographic parameters. METHODS: Cross-sectional baseline data from the "Eplerenone in Primary Hyperparathyroidism" trial were analyzed...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432400/-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-metabolic-diseases-from-obesity-to-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#2
S C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome consists of about 10 million genes, many of which encode digestive enzymes. This explains why animal and human experiments revealed that the intestinal microbiome adapts to food intake and optimizes energy harvest from food. This function is considered beneficial in states of lack of food, but following overnutrition, it might support the development of obesity. OBJECTIVES: The relevance of the intestinal microbiome for the pathogenesis of obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and for the clinical management of such diseases shall be discussed...
April 21, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430884/a-20-year-temporal-change-analysis-in-incidence-presenting-phenotype-and-mortality-in-the-dutch-ibdsl-cohort-can-diagnostic-factors-explain-the-increase-in-ibd-incidence
#3
Tim R A van den Heuvel, Steven F G Jeuring, Maurice P Zeegers, Dorien H E van Dongen, Anouk Wolters, Ad A M Masclee, Wim H Hameeteman, Marielle J L Romberg-Camps, Liekele E Oostenbrug, Marieke J Pierik, Daisy M Jonkers
Background: The aim was to study temporal changes in incidence, disease phenotype at diagnosis, and mortality of adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in South Limburg, the Netherlands, diagnosed between 1991 and 2010. In addition, the 2010 IBD prevalence was estimated. Methods: A multi-faceted approach including hospital administrations, the national pathology registry, and general practitioners led to the identification of 1162 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 1663 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 84 with unclassified IBD (IBD-U)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429893/significant-associations-between-c-reactive-protein-levels-body-adiposity-distribution-and-peripheral-blood-cells-in-school-age-children
#4
Aralia Berenice Salgado-Bernabé, Luz Elena Ramos-Arellanol, Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Natividad Castro-Alarcón, Amalia Vences-Velázquez, Lorenzo Salga-do-Goytia, Isela Parra-Rojas
Obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Ge- nerally, there are significant correlations between body mass index and increased C-reactive protein levels. We investigated the relationship of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels with body adiposity distribution and blood cell count in obese children. A cross-sec- tional study was performed in 225 Mexican children. In the study were included 106 obese and 119 normal-weight children, aged 6-13 years old. The body composition was evaluated by BMI, body circumferences and skinfold thickness...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427273/association-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-duration-with-systemic-inflammation-markers-in-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Emilio González-Jiménez, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle, Laura Sinausía, Javier S Perona
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding duration has been associated with less low-grade inflammation in healthy adolescents, but there is scarce information regarding obese subjects. This study aimed to evaluate whether exclusive breastfeeding is related to serum concentrations of inflammatory markers in a population of Spanish adolescents. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was performed on 1,001 adolescents (13.2 ± 1.2 years) randomly recruited from schools in southeast Spain...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407665/enhanced-inflammation-without-impairment-of-insulin-signaling-in-the-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-5%C3%AE-dihydrotestosterone-induced-animal-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
Danijela Vojnović Milutinović, Marina Nikolić, Nataša Veličković, Ana Djordjevic, Biljana Bursać, Jelena Nestorov, Ana Teofilović, Ivana Božić Antić, Jelica Bjekić Macut, Abdulbaset Shirif Zidane, Gordana Matić, Djuro Macut
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Since abdominal obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation, the aim of the study was to investigate whether visceral adipose tissue inflammation linked to abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia could lead to impaired insulin sensitivity in the animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome.Female Wistar rats were treated with nonaromatizable 5α-dihydrotestosterone pellets in order to induce reproductive and metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome...
April 13, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403789/metaflammation-tissue-specific-alterations-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-platform
#7
Raffaella Mastrocola, Manuela Aragno, Giuseppe Alloatti, Massimo Collino, Claudia Penna, Pasquale Pagliaro
In the last decades, the extension of life expectancy and the increased consumption of foods rich in saturated fats and added sugars have exposed the general population to emerging health problems. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), composed of a cluster of factors as obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension, is rapidly increasing in industrialized and developing countries leading to precocious onset of age-related diseases. Indeed, oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts, and a chronic low-grade inflammation are common features of MS and physiological ageing...
April 7, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402325/the-bioenergetics-of-inflammation-insights-into-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
K N Keane, E K Calton, R Carlessi, P H Hart, P Newsholme
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic metabolic disorders worldwide, and its incidence in Asian countries is alarmingly high. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is closely associated with obesity, and the staggering rise in obesity is one of the primary factors related to the increased frequency of T2DM. Low-grade chronic inflammation is also accepted as an integral metabolic adaption in obesity and T2DM, and is believed to be a major player in the onset of insulin resistance. However, the exact mechanism(s) that cause a persistent chronic low-grade infiltration of leukocytes into insulin-target tissues such as adipose, skeletal muscle and liver are not entirely known...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402022/steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-star-overexpression-reduces-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-mice
#9
Yanyan Qiu, Xianxian Sui, Shengxuan Cao, Xiaobo Li, Yanxia Ning, Songmei Wang, Lianhua Yin, Xiuling Zhi
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), a mitochondrial cholesterol delivery protein, plays a beneficial role in hyperlipidemia, NAFLD and endothelial inflammation. Elevated circulating fatty acids and low grade inflammation are known as key risk factors of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the present study, C57BL/6J mice were fed with a HFD and infected with recombinant adenovirus expressing StAR by tail-vein injection. Intraperitoneal glucose/insulin tolerance test was performed to assess the insulin sensitivity...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397877/indolepropionic-acid-and-novel-lipid-metabolites-are-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-the-finnish-diabetes-prevention-study
#10
Vanessa D de Mello, Jussi Paananen, Jaana Lindström, Maria A Lankinen, Lin Shi, Johanna Kuusisto, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Seppo Auriola, Marko Lehtonen, Olov Rolandsson, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Elise Nordin, Pirjo Ilanne-Parikka, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Rikard Landberg, Johan G Eriksson, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Kati Hanhineva, Matti Uusitupa
Wide-scale profiling technologies including metabolomics broaden the possibility of novel discoveries related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). By applying non-targeted metabolomics approach, we investigated here whether serum metabolite profile predicts T2D in a well-characterized study population with impaired glucose tolerance by examining two groups of individuals who took part in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS); those who either early developed T2D (n = 96) or did not convert to T2D within the 15-year follow-up (n = 104)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396144/supplementation-of-diet-with-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-bifidobacteria-but-not-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-prediabetic-individuals
#11
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Gerben D A Hermes, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W E Jocken, Jens J Holst, Hans M van Eijk, Koen Venema, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigate the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention study of 44 overweight or obese (body mass index, 28-40 kg/m2) prediabetic men and women (ages, 45-70 years) from October 2014 through October 2015 in Maastricht, The Netherlands...
April 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395010/inflammation-and-metabolic-cardiomyopathy
#12
Kazuhiko Nishida, Kinya Otsu
Excessive feeding is associated with an increase in the incidence of chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic disturbance induces chronic low-grade inflammation in metabolically-important organs, such as the liver and adipose tissue. Many of the inflammatory signalling pathways are directly triggered by nutrients. The pro-inflammatory mediators in adipocytes and macrophages infiltrating adipose tissue promote both local and systemic pro-inflammatory status...
March 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390891/aging-and-cancer-the-role-of-macrophages-and-neutrophils
#13
REVIEW
Connie Jackaman, Federica Tomay, Lelinh Duong, Norbaini Bintu Abdol Razak, Fiona J Pixley, Pat Metharom, Delia J Nelson
Impaired immune function has been implicated in the declining health and higher incidence of cancer in the elderly. However, age-related changes to immunity are not completely understood. Neutrophils and macrophages represent the first line of defence yet their ability to phagocytose pathogens decrease with aging. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are critical in eliminating tumors, but T cell function is also compromised with aging. T cell responses can be regulated by macrophages and may depend on the functional phenotype macrophages adopt in response to microenvironmental signals...
April 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389517/skeletal-muscle-as-an-endocrine-organ-the-role-of-myokines-in-exercise-adaptations
#14
Christoph Hoffmann, Cora Weigert
Exercise stimulates the release of proteins with autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine functions produced in skeletal muscle, termed myokines. Based on the current state of knowledge, the major physiological function of myokines is to protect the functionality and to enhance the exercise capacity of skeletal muscle. Myokines control adaptive processes in skeletal muscle by acting as paracrine regulators of fuel oxidation, hypertrophy, angiogenesis, inflammatory processes, and regulation of the extracellular matrix...
April 7, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387565/the-therapeutic-potential-of-piceatannol-a-natural-stilbene-in-metabolic-diseases-a-review
#15
Jonathan Kershaw, Kee-Hong Kim
Metabolic disease comprises a set of risk factors highly associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is a consequence of central adiposity, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, obesity increases the risk of the development of metabolic disease due to ectopic fat deposition, low-grade inflammation, and systemic energy disorders caused by dysregulated adipose tissue function. Piceatannol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic stilbene found in various fruits and vegetables and has been reported to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383567/endoscopy-guided-evaluation-of-duodenal-mucosal-permeability-in-functional-dyspepsia
#16
Hideaki Ishigami, Tomoaki Matsumura, Shingo Kasamatsu, Shinsaku Hamanaka, Takashi Taida, Kenichiro Okimoto, Keiko Saito, Shoko Minemura, Daisuke Maruoka, Tomoo Nakagawa, Tatsuro Katsuno, Mai Fujie, Makoto Arai
OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD) is not fully understood. Impaired duodenal mucosal integrity characterized by increased mucosal permeability and/or low-grade inflammation was reported as potentially important etiologies. We aimed to determine the utility of a recently developed simple catheterization method to measure mucosal admittance (MA), the inverse of mucosal impedance, for evaluation of duodenal mucosal permeability in patients with FD. METHODS: We conducted two prospective studies...
April 6, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382033/old-mice-accumulate-activated-effector-cd4-t-cells-refractory-to-regulatory-t-cell-induced-immunosuppression
#17
Idan Harpaz, Udayan Bhattacharya, Yehezqel Elyahu, Itai Strominger, Alon Monsonego
Chronic low-grade inflammation and reduced lymphocyte potency are implicated in the pathogenesis of major illnesses associated with aging. Whether this immune phenotype results from a loss of cell-mediated regulation or intrinsic dysregulated function of effector T cells (Teffs) requires further research. Here, we report that, as compared with young C57BL6 mice, old mice show an increased frequency of CD4+CD62L- Teffs with a dysregulated activated phenotype and markedly increased effector functions. Analysis of the frequency and suppressive function of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) indicates an increase in the frequency of FoxP3+ T cells with aging which, however, occurs within the CD4+CD25- T cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380372/gpcr-mediated-signaling-of-metabolites
#18
REVIEW
Anna Sofie Husted, Mette Trauelsen, Olga Rudenko, Siv A Hjorth, Thue W Schwartz
In addition to their bioenergetic intracellular function, several classical metabolites act as extracellular signaling molecules activating cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), similar to hormones and neurotransmitters. "Signaling metabolites" generated from nutrients or by gut microbiota target primarily enteroendocrine, neuronal, and immune cells in the lamina propria of the gut mucosa and the liver and, through these tissues, the rest of the body. In contrast, metabolites from the intermediary metabolism act mainly as metabolic stress-induced autocrine and paracrine signals in adipose tissue, the liver, and the endocrine pancreas...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380135/mcp-1-levels-are-associated-with-cardiac-remodeling-but-not-with-resistant-hypertension
#19
Alessandra Mileni Versuti Ritter, Ana Paula Cabral de Faria, Andrea Sabbatini, Nathalia Batista Corrêa, Veridiana Brunelli, Rodrigo Modolo, Heitor Moreno
Background: Hypertension is a chronic, low-grade inflammation process associated with the release of cytokines and development of target organ damage. Deregulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels have been associated with high blood pressure and cardiovascular complications; however, the mechanisms involved are complex and not fully understood. Objective: This study aimed to compare the levels of MCP-1 in patients with resistant (RH) versus mild-to-moderate (HTN) hypertension and their association with the presence or absence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in all hypertensive subjects...
March 30, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379573/the-effect-of-chronic-ammonia-exposure-on-acute-phase-proteins-immunoglobulin-and-cytokines-in-laying-hens
#20
Y N Wu, F F Yan, J Y Hu, H Chen, C M Tucker, A R Green, H W Cheng
Ammonia ( ) is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing local and systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and exposure durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 45 wk of exposure to 30 ppm NH 3 on the concentrations of acute-phase proteins, immunoglobulins, and cytokines in laying hens. At 18 wk of age, a group of Hy-Line W-36 hens was randomly assigned to 4-hen cages. These cages were evenly divided between 2 environmentally controlled chambers. At 25 wk of age, one chamber was maintained continuously with fresh air (NH 3 < 5 ppm; control group) and the other one was injected with NH 3 and controlled at 30 ppm (NH 3 group) for 45 wk...
March 31, 2017: Poultry Science
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