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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912756/mechanisms-of-inflammatory-responses-and-development-of-insulin-resistance-how-are-they-interlinked
#1
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the major hallmark for pathogenesis and etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). IR is directly interlinked with various inflammatory responses which play crucial role in the development of IR. Inflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of IR which is one of the main causative factor for the etiology of T2DM. METHODS: A comprehensive online English literature was searched using various electronic search databases...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911334/matrix-metalloproteinases-and-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinases-in%C3%A2-inflammation-and-fibrosis-of-skeletal-muscles
#2
Hala S Alameddine, Jennifer E Morgan
In skeletal muscles, levels and activity of Matrix MetalloProteinases (MMPs) and Tissue Inhibitors of MetalloProteinases (TIMPs) have been involved in myoblast migration, fusion and various physiological and pathological remodeling situations including neuromuscular diseases. This has opened perspectives for the use of MMPs' overexpression to improve the efficiency of cell therapy in muscular dystrophies and resolve fibrosis. Alternatively, inhibition of individual MMPs in animal models of muscular dystrophies has provided evidence of beneficial, dual or adverse effects on muscle morphology or function...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909909/obesity-biomarkers-metabolism-and-risk-of-cancer-an-epidemiological-perspective
#3
Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon
Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations that may pose a biological link between body fatness and risk of cancer. Elucidating the role of obesity-related biomarkers in cancer development is essential for developing targeted strategies aiming at obesity-associated cancer prevention. Molecular epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided evidence that major hormonal pathways linking obesity and cancer risk include the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, sex-steroid hormones, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903155/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-tumor-microenvironment-and-inflammation
#4
Neil M Iyengar, Ayca Gucalp, Andrew J Dannenberg, Clifford A Hudis
Purpose There is growing evidence that inflammation is a central and reversible mechanism through which obesity promotes cancer risk and progression. Methods We review recent findings regarding obesity-associated alterations in the microenvironment and the local and systemic mechanisms through which these changes support tumor growth. Results Locally, hyperadiposity is associated with altered adipose tissue function, adipocyte death, and chronic low-grade inflammation. Most individuals who are obese harbor inflamed adipose tissue, which resembles chronically injured tissue, with immune cell infiltration and remodeling...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900676/functional-implications-of-the-il-23-il-17-immune-axis-in-schizophrenia
#5
REVIEW
Monojit Debnath, Michael Berk
The aetiology of schizophrenia seems to stem from complex interactions amongst environmental, genetic, metabolic, immunologic and oxidative components. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been persistently linked to schizophrenia, and this has primarily been based on the findings derived from Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. While the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, it has remained relatively unexplored in neuropsychiatric disorders. Altered levels of cytokines related to IL-23/IL-17 axis have been observed in schizophrenia patients in a few studies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894747/reduction-of-coagulability-state-one-year-after-bariatric-surgery
#6
Jérémie Thereaux, Fanny Mingant, Charles Roche, Hubert Galinat, Francis Couturaud, Karine Lacut
BACKGROUND: Obese patients are in a hypercoagulable state relative to normal-weight patients. Low-grade inflammation may be a key factor for this condition. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to compare the coagulability state of morbidly obese patients before and 1 year after bariatric surgery (BS) using the Thrombin Generation (TG) test, a validated method to assess coagulation in vitro. SETTING: University hospital. METHODS: All patients undergoing BS between September 1, 2014 and April 30, 2015 were eligible for this prospective study (n = 42)...
October 1, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893763/the-role-of-morbid-obesity-in-the-promotion-of-metabolic-disruptions-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-helicobacter-pylori
#7
Albert Lecube, Silvia Valladares, Carolina López-Cano, Liliana Gutiérrez, Andreea Ciudin, José Manuel Fort, Josep Maria Reñé, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Inés de Torres, Marta Bueno, Judit Pallarés, Juan Antonio Baena
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylory (HP) infection has been associated to an increased rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and liver disease through its effect on insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. However, results are inconstant and no studies exist in morbidly obese patients, in which both insulin resistance and inflammation coexist. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationship between HP infection and alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile, inflammation markers, and liver disease in patients awaiting for bariatric surgery...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892954/a-purified-membrane-protein-from-akkermansia-muciniphila-or-the-pasteurized-bacterium-improves-metabolism-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#8
Hubert Plovier, Amandine Everard, Céline Druart, Clara Depommier, Matthias Van Hul, Lucie Geurts, Julien Chilloux, Noora Ottman, Thibaut Duparc, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Antonis Myridakis, Nathalie M Delzenne, Judith Klievink, Arnab Bhattacharjee, Kees C H van der Ark, Steven Aalvink, Laurent O Martinez, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Dominique Maiter, Audrey Loumaye, Michel P Hermans, Jean-Paul Thissen, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos, Patrice D Cani
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with low-grade inflammation and specific changes in gut microbiota composition. We previously demonstrated that administration of Akkermansia muciniphila to mice prevents the development of obesity and associated complications. However, the underlying mechanisms of this protective effect remain unclear. Moreover, the sensitivity of A. muciniphila to oxygen and the presence of animal-derived compounds in its growth medium currently limit the development of translational approaches for human medicine...
November 28, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889689/osteoarthritis-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-what-are-the-links
#9
REVIEW
Alice Courties, Jérémie Sellam
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disorder and one of the leading cause of disability. During a long time, it was considered as the consequence of aging and mechanical stress on cartilage. Recent advances in the knowledge of OA have highlighted that it is a whole joint disease with early modifications of synovium and subchondral bone but also that it is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome through systemic mechanisms. In the past year, type 2 diabetes has been described in two meta-analyzes as an independent risk factor for OA...
November 5, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886242/exploring-the-molecular-basis-of-age-related-disease-comorbidities-using-a-multi-omics-graphical-model
#10
Jonas Zierer, Tess Pallister, Pei-Chien Tsai, Jan Krumsiek, Jordana T Bell, Gordan Lauc, Tim D Spector, Cristina Menni, Gabi Kastenmüller
Although association studies have unveiled numerous correlations of biochemical markers with age and age-related diseases, we still lack an understanding of their mutual dependencies. To find molecular pathways that underlie age-related diseases as well as their comorbidities, we integrated aging markers from four different high-throughput omics datasets, namely epigenomics, transcriptomics, glycomics and metabolomics, with a comprehensive set of disease phenotypes from 510 participants of the TwinsUK cohort...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875962/the-beneficial-effects-of-taurine-to-counteract-sarcopenia
#11
Bianca M Scicchitano, Gigliola Sica
Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875822/cellular-senescence-immunosenescence-and-hiv
#12
Tamàs Fülöp, Georges Herbein, Andrea Cossarizza, Jacek M Witkowski, Eric Frost, Gilles Dupuis, Graham Pawelec, Anis Larbi
Aging is a complex biological process that leads to several physiological changes. Among these changes, the most striking are those involving the innate and adaptive parts of the immune system. Furthermore, these changes are associated with a low-grade inflammation called inflamm-aging, which is the result of several lifelong antigenic stimulations, including chronic viral infections such as cytomegalovirus. Immunosenescence, concomitantly with inflamm-aging, is considered as the leading cause of age-related diseases including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, and cancer...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875786/inflammation-dysregulated-metabolism-and-aromatase-in-obesity-and-breast-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Heba Zahid, Evan R Simpson, Kristy A Brown
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of estrogen-dependent breast cancer after menopause. Adipose tissue undergoes important changes in obesity due to excess storage of lipids, leading to adipocyte cell death and the recruitment of macrophages. The resultant state of chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the activation of NFkB signaling and elevated levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. This occurs not only in the visceral and subcutaneous fat, but also in the breast fat...
November 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873088/anti-inflammatory-and-insulin-sensitizing-effects-of-free-fatty-acid-receptors
#14
Junki Miyamoto, Mayu Kasubuchi, Akira Nakajima, Ikuo Kimura
Chronic low-grade inflammation in macrophages and adipose tissues can promote the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Free fatty acids (FFAs) have important roles in various tissues, acting as both essential energy sources and signaling molecules. FFA receptors (FFARs) can modulate inflammation in various types of cells and tissues; however the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects are unclear. FFARs are activated by specific FFAs; for example, GPR40 and GPR120 are activated by medium and long chain FFAs, GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by short chain FFAs, and GPR84 is activated by medium-chain FFAs...
November 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868170/protein-kinases-mechanisms-and-downstream-targets-in-inflammation-mediated-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#15
REVIEW
Kalyana C Nandipati, Saravanan Subramanian, Devendra K Agrawal
Obesity-induced low-grade inflammation (metaflammation) impairs insulin receptor signaling. This has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Insulin signaling in the target tissues is mediated by stress kinases such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, inhibitor of NF-kB kinase complex β (IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase, protein kinase C, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase, and RNA-activated protein kinase. Most of these kinases phosphorylate several key regulators in glucose homeostasis...
November 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866330/human-gut-microbiota-the-links-with-dementia-development
#16
REVIEW
Rashad Alkasir, Jing Li, Xudong Li, Miao Jin, Baoli Zhu
Dementia is a comprehensive category of brain diseases that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning. The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease, which makes most of cases. New researches indicate that gastrointestinal tract microbiota are directly linked to dementia pathogenesis through triggering metabolic diseases and low-grade inflammation progress. A novel strategy is proposed for the management of these disorders and as an adjuvant for psychiatric treatment of dementia and other related diseases through modulation of the microbiota (e...
November 19, 2016: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865620/consumption-of-chokeberry-aronia-mitschurinii-products-modestly-lowered-blood-pressure-and-reduced-low-grade-inflammation-in-patients-with-mildly-elevated-blood-pressure
#17
Britt-Marie Loo, Iris Erlund, Raika Koli, Pauli Puukka, Jarkko Hellström, Kristiina Wähälä, Pirjo Mattila, Antti Jula
Previous studies suggest that consumption of chokeberries may improve cardiovascular disease risk factor profiles. We hypothesized that chokeberries (Aronia mitschurinii) have beneficial effects on blood pressure, low-grade inflammation, serum lipids, serum glucose, and platelet aggregation in patients with untreated mild hypertension. A total of 38 participants were enrolled into a 16-week single blinded crossover trial. The participants were randomized to use cold-pressed 100% chokeberry juice (300 mL/d) and oven-dried chokeberry powder (3 g/d), or matched placebo products in random order for 8 weeks each with no washout period...
September 14, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861126/gut-microbiota-influences-pathological-angiogenesis-in-obesity-driven-choroidal-neovascularization
#18
Elisabeth Mma Andriessen, Ariel M Wilson, Gaelle Mawambo, Agnieszka Dejda, Khalil Miloudi, Florian Sennlaub, Przemyslaw Sapieha
Age-related macular degeneration in its neovascular form (NV AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among adults above the age of 60. Epidemiological data suggest that in men, overall abdominal obesity is the second most important environmental risk factor after smoking for progression to late-stage NV AMD To date, the mechanisms that underscore this observation remain ill-defined. Given the impact of high-fat diets on gut microbiota, we investigated whether commensal microbes influence the evolution of AMD Using mouse models of NV AMD, microbiotal transplants, and other paradigms that modify the gut microbiome, we uncoupled weight gain from confounding factors and demonstrate that high-fat diets exacerbate choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by altering gut microbiota...
December 1, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843953/considerations-for-defining-cytokine-dose-duration-and-milieu-that-are-appropriate-for-modeling-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-in-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Craig S Nunemaker
Proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). T1D is an autoimmune disease involving the adaptive immune system responding to pancreatic beta-cells as antigen-presenting cells. This attracts immune cells that surround pancreatic islets (insulitis) and secrete cytokines, such as IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha, in close proximity to pancreatic beta-cells. In contrast, there is little evidence for such a focused autoimmune response in T2D...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837402/adipose-tissue-macrophage-in-immune-regulation-of-metabolism
#20
REVIEW
Yifu Qiu, Bo Shan, Liu Yang, Yong Liu
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is escalating to an epidemic proportion worldwide. Obesity is known to be associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Emerging lines of evidence have shown that both innate and adaptive immune responses play crucial roles in the control of metabolic homeostasis. Macrophages in adipose tissues are the essential effector cells in orchestrating metabolic inflammation, which is thought to promote the pathogenic progression of obesity and obesity-related disorders...
November 9, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
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