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"low grade inflammation"

Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
There is bidirectional communication between the immune system and the gut microbiome, however the precise mechanisms regulating this crosstalk are not well understood. Microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) within the gut, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that produces a quick and robust activation of the immune system, may be one way by which these interactions occur. Endogenous levels of LPS in the gut are low enough that they do not usually cause disease, although, in times of increased LPS loads, they may be capable of increasing vulnerability of the gut to pathogenic bacteria...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Christina Boeck, Sophia Pfister, Alexander Bürkle, Valerie Vanhooren, Claude Libert, Juan Salinas-Manrique, Detlef E Dietrich, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Alexander Karabatsiakis
BACKGROUND: Glycans are short chains of saccharides linked to glycoproteins that are known to be involved in a wide range of inflammatory processes. As depression has been consistently associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, we asked whether patients with Major Depressive Disorder show alterations in the N-glycosylation pattern of serum proteins that might be linked to associated changes in inflammatory processes. METHODS: In a study cohort of 21 female patients with an acute depressive episode and 21 non-depressed female control subjects aged between 50 and 69 years, we analyzed the serum N-glycan profile by DNA Sequencer Adapted-Fluorophore Assisted Carbohydrate Electrophoresis (DSA-FACE) and assessed the serum levels of interleukin (IL)- 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) by chemiluminescence immunoassays and nephelometry...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Leen Catrysse, Geert van Loo
Adipose tissue is a special tissue environment due to its high lipid content. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) help maintain adipose tissue homeostasis in steady state by clearing dead adipocytes. However, adipose tissue changes drastically during obesity, resulting in a state of chronic low grade inflammation and a shift in the adipose immune landscape. In this review we will discuss how these changes influence the polarization of ATMs.
March 5, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Ines Delgado, Lison Huet, Sandra Dexpert, Cédric Beau, Damien Forestier, Patrick Ledaguenel, Agnès Aubert, Julie Sauvant, Bruno Aouizerate, Eric Magne, Lucile Capuron
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that the risk of depressive symptoms in obesity is potentiated in subjects presenting a metabolically unhealthy phenotype. Inflammation is often considered a defining criteria of metabolic health. However, this factor may drive the association of metabolic health with depressive symptoms given its well-known role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed at determining the relative contribution of inflammation and metabolic abnormalities to depressive symptoms in obesity...
March 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ivana Novak, Anna Solini
Type 2 diabetes is reaching an alarming prevalence worldwide. Its complex pathogenesis certainly includes a pivotal role of low-grade inflammation, which could be triggered by excessive purinergic signaling. In this complex scenario, extracellular ATP impairs the function of two key players: β-cell and adipose tissue. In the former, P2Y and possibly some P2X receptors-ion channels regulate insulin secretion, but it is still debated whether excessive ATP can via P2X receptors impair β-cell function directly or whether cell damage is due to an excessive systemic release of cytokines...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Jie Bai, Xin Liu, Le Goff Laetitia, Gargala Gilles, Francois Arnaud, Ballet Jean Jacques, Ducrotte Phillipe, Favennec Loic, Liqianhai Towledahong
Somatostatins are proteins that are involved in gastrointestinal function. However, little is known with regard to somatostatin receptor subtype (SSTR) expression changes that occur in the jejunum during low-grade inflammation and during subsequent octreotide treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of SSTRs in the jejunums of Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum)-infected rats by immunohistochemisty, reverse transcription (RT) PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. Five-day-old suckling Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 15 for each group) were orally gavaged with 105 Nouzilly isolate (NoI) oocysts...
2018: PloS One
Dorte Glintborg, Katrine Hass Rubin, Mads Nybo, Bo Abrahamsen, Marianne Andersen
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with obesity and low grade inflammation and the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) could be increased in PCOS. METHODS: National register-based study including women with PCOS and no previous diagnosis of CVD, hypertension, or dyslipidemia. PCOS Denmark (N = 18,112) included women with PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. PCOS Odense University Hospital (OUH, N = 1165) was an embedded cohort including premenopausal women with PCOS and clinical and biochemical examination...
March 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
François Cossais, Sebastian Leuschner, Martina Barrenschee, Christina Lange, Michael Ebsen, Ilka Vogel, Martina Böttner, Thilo Wedel
BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal inflammatory disorder associated with an enteric neuropathy. Although enteric glial cells (EGCs) are essential regulators of intestinal inflammation and motility functions, their contribution to the pathophysiology of DD remains unclear. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of specific EGC markers in patients with DD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of the glial markers S100β, GFAP, Sox10, and Connexin 43 was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR in colonic specimens of patients with DD and in that of controls...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Kristen L Nowak, Michel Chonchol
Chronic, low-grade inflammation is a common comorbid condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and particularly in chronic dialysis patients. In this review, we consider the question of whether inflammation affects outcomes in dialysis patients. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as C-reactive protein, are elevated in chronic dialysis patients. Multiple factors likely contribute to chronic inflammatory activation in kidney disease patients including the uremic milieu, lifestyle and epigenetic influences, infectious and thrombotic events, the dialysis process, and dysbiosis...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Nikolaos Lazaridis, Georgios Germanidis
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder associated with abdominal pain and alterations in bowel habits. The presence of IBS greatly impairs patients' quality of life and imposes a high economic burden on the community; thus, there is intense pressure to reveal its elusive pathogenesis. Many etiological mechanisms have been implicated, but the pathophysiology of the syndrome remains unclear. As a result, novel drug development has been slow and no pharmacological intervention is universally accepted...
March 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Marco Del Giudice, Steven W Gangestad
Behavioral researchers have increasingly become interested in the idea that chronic, low-grade inflammation is a pathway through which social and behavioral variables exert long-term effects on health. Much research in the area employs putative inflammatory biomarkers to infer an underlying state of inflammation. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP, whose production is stimulated by IL-6) are arguably the two most commonly assayed biomarkers. Yet, in contrast with near-universal assumptions in the field, discoveries in immunology over the past two decades show that neither IL-6 nor CRP are unambiguous inflammatory markers...
February 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hideaki Inoue, Jun Shirakawa, Yu Togashi, Kazuki Tajima, Tomoko Okuyama, Mayu Kyohara, Yui Tanaka, Kazuki Orime, Yoshifumi Saisho, Taketo Yamada, Kimitaka Shibue, Rohit N Kulkarni, Yasuo Terauchi
Chronic low-grade inflammation in the pancreatic islets is observed in individuals with type 2 diabetes, and macrophage levels are elevated in the islets of these individuals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between the pancreatic β-cells and macrophages and their involvement in inflammation are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8), a member of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) in β-cell inflammation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
María Juncal-Ruiz, Laura Riesco-Dávila, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Mariluz Ramírez-Bonilla, Obdulia Martínez-García, Juan Irure-Ventura, Juan Carlos Leza, Marcos López-Hoyos, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation has been repeatedly associated with both excess weight and psychosis. However, no previous studies have addressed the direct effect of body mass index (BMI) on basal serum cytokines in individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of BMI on basal serum cytokine levels in FEP patients and control subjects, separating the total sample into two groups: normal-weight and overweight individuals...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Aya Mousa, Negar Naderpoor, Helena Teede, Robert Scragg, Barbora de Courten
Background: Vitamin D has been proposed to have anti-inflammatory properties; however, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation in type 2 diabetes has not been established. Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify relevant gaps in knowledge. Data sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and EBM Reviews were searched systematically from inception to January 25, 2017...
February 27, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
John L Wallace
Eicosanoids play important roles in modulating inflammation throughout the body. The gastrointestinal tract, in part because of its intimate relationship with the gut microbiota, is in a constant state of low-grade inflammation. Eicosanoids like prostaglandins, lipoxins and leukotrienes play essential roles in maintenance of mucosal integrity. On the other hand, in some circumstances these mediators can become major drivers of inflammatory processes when the lining of the GI tract is breached. Drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, by altering the production of various eicosanoids, can dramatically impact the ability of the GI tract to respond appropriately to injury...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Mahanand Chatoo, Yi Li, Zhiqiang Ma, John Coote, Jizeng Du, Xuequn Chen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder defined by ROME IV criteria as pain in the lower abdominal region, which is associated with altered bowel habit or defecation. The underlying mechanism of IBS is not completely understood. IBS seems to be a product of interactions between various factors with genetics, dietary/intestinal microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and stress playing a key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The crosstalk between the immune system and stress in IBS mechanism is increasingly recognized...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Stoyan Ivanov, Johanna Merlin, Man Kit Sam Lee, Andrew J Murphy, Rodolphe R Guinamard
The increasing incidence of obesity and its socio-economical impact is a global health issue due to its associated co-morbidities, namely diabetes and cardiovascular disease [1-5]. Obesity is characterized by an increase in adipose tissue, which promotes the recruitment of immune cells resulting in low-grade inflammation and dysfunctional metabolism. Macrophages are the most abundant immune cells in the adipose tissue of mice and humans. The adipose tissue also contains other myeloid cells (dendritic cells (DC) and neutrophils) and to a lesser extent lymphocyte populations, including T cells, B cells, Natural Killer (NK) and Natural Killer T (NKT) cells...
February 20, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Delfien Syx, Phuong B Tran, Rachel E Miller, Anne-Marie Malfait
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and a major source of pain and disability worldwide. OA-associated pain is usually refractory to classically used analgesics, and disease-modifying therapies are still lacking. Therefore, a better understanding of mechanisms and mediators contributing to the generation and maintenance of OA pain is critical for the development of efficient and safe pain-relieving therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Both peripheral and central mechanisms contribute to OA pain...
February 26, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
William Trim, James E Turner, Dylan Thompson
Ageing, like obesity, is often associated with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory processes resulting in morbidity from diseases characterised by poor metabolic control, insulin insensitivity, and inflammation. Ageing populations also exhibit a decline in immune competence referred to as immunosenescence, which contributes to, or might be driven by chronic, low-grade inflammation termed "inflammageing". In recent years, animal and human studies have started to uncover a role for immune cells within the stromal fraction of adipose tissue in driving the health complications that come with obesity, but relatively little work has been conducted in the context of immunometabolic adipose function in ageing...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
H L Kammoun, T L Allen, D C Henstridge, S Barre, R C Coll, G I Lancaster, L Cron, S Reibe, J Y Chan, M Bensellam, D R Laybutt, M S Butler, A A B Robertson, L A O'Neill, M A Cooper, M A Febbraio
OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with chronic, low grade inflammation. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and secretion of its target interleukin-1β (IL-1β) have been implicated in pancreatic β cell failure in T2D. Specific targeting of the NLRP3 inflammasome to prevent pancreatic β cell death could allow for selective T2D treatment without compromising all IL-1β-associated immune responses. We hypothesized that treating a mouse model of T2D with MCC950, a compound that specifically inhibits NLRP3, would prevent pancreatic β cell death, thereby preventing the onset of T2D...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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