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Dopamine amantadine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492457/the-role-of-amantadine-withdrawal-in-3-cases-of-treatment-refractory-altered-mental-status
#1
Leah D Fryml, Kristen R Williams, Christopher G Pelic, James Fox, Gregory Sahlem, Sophie Robert, Gonzalo J Revuelta, Edward Baron Short
Amantadine, which was originally developed as an antiviral medication, functions as a dopamine agonist in the central nervous system and consequently is utilized in the treatment of Parkinson disease, drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. For reasons that are not entirely understood, abrupt changes in amantadine dosage can produce a severe withdrawal syndrome. Existing medical literature describes case reports of amantadine withdrawal leading to delirium, which at times has progressed to neuroleptic malignant syndrome...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449715/functional-implications-of-microbial-and-viral-gut-metagenome-changes-in-early-stage-l-dopa-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#2
J R Bedarf, F Hildebrand, L P Coelho, S Sunagawa, M Bahram, F Goeser, P Bork, U Wüllner
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) presently is conceptualized as a protein aggregation disease in which pathology involves both the enteric and the central nervous system, possibly spreading from one to another via the vagus nerves. As gastrointestinal dysfunction often precedes or parallels motor symptoms, the enteric system with its vast diversity of microorganisms may be involved in PD pathogenesis. Alterations in the enteric microbial taxonomic level of L-DOPA-naïve PD patients might also serve as a biomarker...
April 28, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418820/case-241-hemiparkinsonism-hemiatrophy-spect-with-99m-tc-trodat-1-and-muscle-mr-imaging-abnormalities
#3
Thiago Cardoso Vale, Flávia Cristina de Lima Pinto, José Luiz Pedroso, Marília Alves Dos Reis, Ilza Rosa Batista, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, René Leandro Magalhães Rivero, Renato Adam Mendonça, Orlando G Barsottini
History A 43-year-old right-handed man presented with a history of progressive mild left-sided weakness and slowness of movements. Symptoms began 4 years earlier, and the patient noticed a progressive decline in his daily routine due to gait difficulties in the past year. There was no history of head trauma, surgery, drug therapy, smoking, or alcohol abuse, nor was there any relevant family history. Examination revealed normal cognition (29 of 30 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination and 27 of 30 points on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and normal cerebellar, sensory, cranial nerve, and autonomic function...
May 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391443/non-human-primate-models-of-pd-to-test-novel-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Marc Morissette, Thérèse Di Paolo
Non-human primate (NHP) models of Parkinson disease show many similarities with the human disease. They are very useful to test novel pharmacotherapies as reviewed here. The various NHP models of this disease are described with their characteristics including the macaque, the marmoset, and the squirrel monkey models. Lesion-induced and genetic models are described. There is no drug to slow, delay, stop, or cure Parkinson disease; available treatments are symptomatic. The dopamine precursor, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) still remains the gold standard symptomatic treatment of Parkinson...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283756/dopamine-t-cells-and-multiple-sclerosis-ms
#5
REVIEW
Mia Levite, Franca Marino, Marco Cosentino
Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that induces critical effects in the nervous system and in many peripheral organs, via 5 dopamine receptors (DRs): D1R-D5R. Dopamine also induces many direct and very potent effects on many DR-expressing immune cells, primarily T cells and dendritic cells. In this review, we focus only on dopamine receptors, effects and production in T cells. Dopamine by itself (at an optimal concentration of~0.1 nM) induces multiple function of resting normal human T cells, among them: T cell adhesion, chemotactic migration, homing, cytokine secretion and others...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273839/parkinson-s-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-pharmacogenomics
#6
REVIEW
Ramón Cacabelos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most important age-related neurodegenerative disorder in developed societies, after Alzheimer's disease, with a prevalence ranging from 41 per 100,000 in the fourth decade of life to over 1900 per 100,000 in people over 80 years of age. As a movement disorder, the PD phenotype is characterized by rigidity, resting tremor, and bradykinesia. Parkinson's disease -related neurodegeneration is likely to occur several decades before the onset of the motor symptoms. Potential risk factors include environmental toxins, drugs, pesticides, brain microtrauma, focal cerebrovascular damage, and genomic defects...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190402/preserving-brain-function-in-a-comatose-patient-with-septic-hyperpyrexia-41-6%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-a-case-report
#7
Samantha Sterkel, Akinboyede Akinyemi, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez, George Michel
BACKGROUND: Pyrexia is a physiological response through which the immune system responds to infectious processes. Hyperpyrexia is known to be neurodegenerative leading to brain damage. Some of the neurotoxic effects of hyperpyrexia on the brain include seizures, decreased cognitive speed, mental status changes, coma, and even death. In the clinical management of hyperpyrexia, the goal is to treat the underlying cause of elevated temperature and prevent end organ damage. CASE PRESENTATION: This case illustrates a 39-year-old white American man referred from another medical facility where he had undergone an upper gastrointestinal tract diagnostic procedure which became complicated by blood aspiration and respiratory distress...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044943/forgotten-but-not-gone-new-developments-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#8
Jonathan M Meyer
The broad use of atypical antipsychotics was expected to dramatically reduce the prevalence and incidence of tardive dyskinesia (TD), but data show that TD remains an important challenge due the persistent nature of its symptoms and resistance to numerous treatment modalities, including antipsychotic discontinuation. Recent insights on genetic risk factors and new concepts surrounding pathophysiology have spurred interest in the possibility of targeted treatment for TD. As will be reviewed in this article, the number of evidence-based strategies for TD treatment is small: only clonazepam, amantadine, ginkgo biloba extract, and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor tetrabenazine have compelling data...
December 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981352/the-clinical-heterogeneity-of-drug-induced-myoclonus-an-illustrated-review
#9
REVIEW
Sabine Janssen, Bastiaan R Bloem, Bart P van de Warrenburg
A wide variety of drugs can cause myoclonus. To illustrate this, we first discuss two personally observed cases, one presenting with generalized, but facial-predominant, myoclonus that was induced by amantadine; and the other presenting with propriospinal myoclonus triggered by an antibiotic. We then review the literature on drugs that may cause myoclonus, extracting the corresponding clinical phenotype and suggested underlying pathophysiology. The most frequently reported classes of drugs causing myoclonus include opiates, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and antibiotics...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670207/medical-management-of-parkinson-s-disease-after-initiation-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#10
REVIEW
Alfonso Fasano, Silke Appel-Cresswell, Mandar Jog, Mateusz Zurowkski, Sarah Duff-Canning, Melanie Cohn, Marina Picillo, Christopher R Honey, Michel Panisset, Renato Puppi Munhoz
In this review, we have gathered all the available evidence to guide medication management after deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Surprisingly, we found that almost no study addressed drug-based management in the postoperative period. Dopaminergic medications are usually reduced, but whether the levodopa or dopamine agonist is to be reduced is left to the personal preference of the treating physician. We have summarized the pros and cons of both approaches. No study on the management of cognitive problems after DBS has been done, and only a few studies have explored the pharmacological management of such DBS-resistant symptoms as voice (amantadine), balance (donepezil) or gait disorders (amantadine, methylphenidate)...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597526/validation-of-an-improved-scale-for-rating-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-the-mouse-and-effects-of-specific-dopamine-receptor-antagonists
#11
Irene Sebastianutto, Natallia Maslava, Corey R Hopkins, M Angela Cenci
Rodent models of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) are essential to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment options. Ratings of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) are used to capture both qualitative and quantitative features of dyskinetic behaviors. Thus far, validated rating scales for the mouse have anchored the definition of severity to the time during which AIMs are present. Here we have asked whether the severity of axial, limb, and orolingual AIMs can be objectively assessed with scores based on movement amplitude...
September 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577098/current-and-experimental-treatments-of-parkinson-disease-a-guide-for-neuroscientists
#12
REVIEW
Wolfgang Oertel, Jörg B Schulz
Over a period of more than 50 years, the symptomatic treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) has been optimized using pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation, and physiotherapy. The arsenal of pharmacotherapies includes L-Dopa, several dopamine agonists, inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), and amantadine. In the later course of the disease, motor complications occur, at which stage different oral formulations of L-Dopa or dopamine agonists with long half-life, a transdermal application or parenteral pumps for continuous drug supply can be subscribed...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536120/emerging-approaches-in-parkinson-s-disease-adjunctive-role-of-safinamide
#13
REVIEW
Thomas Müller
Ongoing neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) causes an altered neurotransmission of various biogenic amines, particularly dopamine. As these changes do not follow a distinct pattern, they vary individually, and are differently pronounced. As a result, a heterogeneous onset of motor and nonmotor features occurs in each patient with PD during the whole course of the disease. PD actually describes a set of distinct diseases that manifest themselves in clinical syndromes with certain similarities but also great differences...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527886/-successful-amantadine-treatment-of-a-patient-with-ect-resistant-catatonia
#14
A N Walstra, M VAN den Broek, E J Giltay, J van Paassen, M S van Noorden
Catatonia is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome. There is a life-threatening subtype of this disease known as malignant catatonia. One of the hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis is an imbalance of multiple neurotransmitters (gaba, glutamate and dopamine). The first step in treatment is to administer benzodiazepines; if the response is insufficient, the treatment can be replaced by electroconvulsive therapy (ect). So far, there is no consensus with regard to the tertiary treatment step. On the basis of a case report we describe the beneficial effects of administering an nmda receptor antagonist, amantadine, as the tertiary step for treating a patient with treatment-resistant malignant catatonia...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495198/treating-the-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-disease
#15
John C Morgan, Susan H Fox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After a patient is diagnosed with Parkinson disease (PD), there are many therapeutic options available. This article provides examples of prototypical patients encountered in clinical practice and illustrates the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment options for the motor symptoms of PD. RECENT FINDINGS: Levodopa became available in the late 1960s and remains the gold standard for the treatment of PD even today. Since that time, amantadine, monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors, dopamine agonists, and catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors have emerged as monotherapy, add-on therapies, or both, in the armamentarium against PD...
August 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476416/initial-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-2016-the-2000-consensus-conference-revisited
#16
REVIEW
C Laurencin, T Danaila, E Broussolle, S Thobois
In 2000, a French consensus conference proposed guidelines for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Since then, new drugs have been concocted, new studies have been published and clinicians have become aware of some drug-induced adverse effects that were little known in the past. This has led us to reconsider the recommendations published 16 years ago. Thus, the aim of the present review is to present the recent data related to the different medications and non-pharmacological approaches available for PD, with a special focus on early-stage PD...
August 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373317/management-of-impulse-control-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Susan Zhang, Nadeeka N Dissanayaka, Andrew Dawson, John D O'Sullivan, Philip Mosley, Wayne Hall, Adrian Carter
BACKGROUND: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have become a widely recognized non-motor complication of Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients taking dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). There are no current evidence-based recommendations for their treatment, other than reducing their dopaminergic medication. METHODS: This study reviews the current literature of the treatment of ICDs including pharmacological treatments, deep brain stimulation, and psychotherapeutic interventions...
October 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27091215/drug-induced-dyskinesia-part-1-treatment-of-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia
#18
REVIEW
Dhanya Vijayakumar, Joseph Jankovic
Dyskinesias encompass a variety of different hyperkinetic phenomenologies, particularly chorea, dystonia, stereotypies, and akathisia. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is one of the main types of drug-induced dyskinesia, occurring in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have been treated with levodopa for long time, but this side effect may be encountered even within a few weeks or months after initiation of levodopa therapy. Based on the temporal pattern in relationship to levodopa dosing, LIDs are divided into "peak-dose dyskinesia," "diphasic dyskinesia," and "wearing off" or "off-period" dyskinesia, of which peak-dose dyskinesia is the most common, followed by off-period, and then diphasic dyskinesia...
May 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037047/lithium-use-in-older-adults-is-associated-with-increased-prescribing-of-parkinson-medications
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Connie Marras, Nathan Herrmann, Hadas D Fischer, Kinwah Fung, Andrea Gruneir, Paula A Rochon, Soham Rej, Simone Vigod, Dallas Seitz, Kenneth I Shulman
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis of an increased incidence of antiparkinson drug prescribing or Parkinson disease (PD) diagnostic codes after chronic lithium treatment compared with chronic valproic acid or antidepressant treatment among older adults. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using healthcare administrative databases in Ontario, Canada included 1,749 lithium users, 1,787 valproic acid users, and 285,154 other antidepressant users ≥ 66 years old having used the drug continuously in monotherapy for at least 1 year...
April 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989558/national-trends-of-antiparkinsonism-treatment-in-taiwan-2004-2011
#20
Weng-Ming Liu, Ruey-Meei Wu, Chia-Hsuin Chang, Jou-Wei Lin, Ying-Chun Liu, Chin-Hsien Lin
Background. Several guidelines for Parkinson's disease (PD) management were recently updated. We examined temporal trends for antiparkinsonism drugs in Taiwan. Methods. Antiparkinsonism prescriptions, including levodopa, ergot/nonergot dopamine agonists (DAs), amantadine, selegiline, entacapone, and anticholinergics, were identified in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2004 to 2011. Time trend analyses were estimated assuming Poisson distribution. Results. A total of 19,302 PD patients in 2004 and 41,606 PD patients in 2011 were analyzed...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
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