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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323992/quantification-of-thyroid-cancer-and-multinodular-goiter-risk-in-the-dicer1-syndrome-a-family-based-cohort-study
#1
Nicholas E Khan, Andrew J Bauer, Kris Ann P Schultz, Leslie Doros, Rosamma M Decastro, Alexander Ling, Maya B Lodish, Laura A Harney, Ron G Kase, Ann G Carr, Christopher T Rossi, Amanda Field, Anne K Harris, Gretchen M Williams, Louis P Dehner, Yoav H Messinger, D Ashley Hill, Douglas R Stewart
Context: The risk of thyroid cancer and multinodular goiter (MNG) in the DICER1 syndrome, a rare tumor-predisposition disorder, is unknown. Objective: To quantify the risk of thyroid cancer and MNG in individuals with the DICER1 syndrome. Design: Family-based cohort study. Setting: National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center (CC). Participants: The National Cancer Institute DICER1 syndrome cohort consisted of 145 individuals with a DICER1 germline mutation and 135 family controls from 48 families...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320146/stroke-related-stigma-among-west-africans-patterns-and-predictors
#2
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Michelle Nichols, Suparna Qanungo, Abeba Teklehaimanot, Arti Singh, Nathaniel Mensah, Raelle Saulson, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Uvere Ezinne, Mayowa Owolabi, Carolyn Jenkins, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: Disability-adjusted life-years lost after stroke in Low & Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) is almost seven times those lost in High-income countries. Although individuals living with chronic neurological and mental disorders are prone to stigma, there is a striking paucity of literature on stroke-related stigma particularly from LMICs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, severity, determinants and psycho-social consequences of stigma among LMIC stroke survivors...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319789/group-schema-therapy-for-personality-disorders-a-pilot-study-for-implementation-in-acute-psychiatric-in-patient-settings
#3
Igor Nenadić, Sina Lamberth, Neele Reiss
Group schema therapy (GST) has been proposed as a novel long-term treatment programme for borderline and cluster C personality disorders. We implemented a short-term GST programme (12-15 sessions, based on the manual by Farrell and Shaw (2012), including both cognitive / behavioural and experiential interventions for in-patients (n=9) with either borderline or cluster C personality disorders (and axis I co-morbidities) treated in a (sub)acute psychiatric in-patient setting. We evaluated pre- and post-treatment self-report of maladaptive and adaptive schema modes (using the SMI) and early maladaptive schemas (YSQ-3), as well as overall symptom severity (brief symptom check list, BSCL-53-S), patient satisfaction (ZUF-8) and group climate and coherence (GCQ-S)...
February 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319785/the-long-and-complex-road-in-the-search-for-treatment-for-mental-disorders-an-analysis-of-the-process-in-five-groups-of-patients
#4
Gema Del Valle, Amparo Belloch, Carmen Carrió
Seeking treatment for mental-health problems is a complex process, with different underlying motives in each stage. However, the entire process and these motives have hardly been investigated. This study aims to analyze the different stages of the help-seeking process and their underlying motives in five groups of patients with different mental disorders. In all, 156 patients seeking treatment in outpatient mental health clinics were individually interviewed: 71 had Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), 21 had Agoraphobia (AGO), 18 had Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), 20 had Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and 22 had Cocaine Dependence (COC)...
March 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319752/energy-drink-use-frequency-among-an-international-sample-of-people-who-use-drugs-associations-with-other-substance-use-and-well-being
#5
Amy Peacock, Raimondo Bruno, Jason Ferris, Adam Winstock
OBJECTIVE: The study aims were to identify: i.) energy drink (ED), caffeine tablet, and caffeine intranasal spray use amongst a sample who report drug use, and ii.) the association between ED use frequency and demographic profile, drug use, hazardous drinking, and wellbeing. METHOD: Participants (n=74,864) who reported drug use completed the online 2014 Global Drug Survey. They provided data on demographics, ED use, and alcohol and drug use, completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI), and reported whether they wished to reduce alcohol use...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319204/responses-to-others-pain-in-adults-with-autistic-traits-the-influence-of-gender-and-stimuli-modality
#6
Jing Meng, Zuoshan Li, Lin Shen
Individuals with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit impairments in response to others' pain. Evidence suggests that features of autism are not restricted to individuals with ASD, and that autistic traits vary throughout the general population. To investigate the association between autistic traits and the responses to others' pain in typically developing adults, we employed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to quantify autistic traits in a group of 1670 healthy adults and explored whether 60 participants (30 males and 30 females) with 10% highest AQ scores (High-AQ) would exhibit difficulties in the responses to others' pain relative to 60 participants (30 males and 30 females) with 10% lowest AQ scores (Low-AQ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318842/ethnic-density-urbanicity-and-psychosis-risk-for-migrant-groups-a-population-cohort-study
#7
Peter Schofield, Malene Thygesen, Jay Das-Munshi, Laia Becares, Elizabeth Cantor-Graae, Carsten Pedersen, Esben Agerbo
BACKGROUND: Rates of psychotic disorder are raised for many migrant groups. Understanding the role played by the social context in which they live may help explain why. This study investigates the effect of both neighbourhood ethnic density and urbanicity on the incidence of non-affective psychosis for migrant groups. METHOD: Population based cohort of all those born 1965 or later followed from their 15th birthday (2,224,464 people) to 1st July 2013 (37,335,812 person years)...
March 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318468/understanding-adolescent-personality-pathology-from-growth-trajectories-of-childhood-oddity
#8
Barbara De Clercq, Lize Verbeke, Elien De Caluwé, Tom Vercruysse, Joeri Hofmans
Research on developmental trajectories of early maladaptive features for understanding later personality disorders (PDs) is increasingly recognized as an important study area. The course of early odd features is highly relevant in this regard, as only a few researchers have addressed childhood oddity in the context of emerging PDs. Using latent growth modeling, the current study explores growth parameters of odd features in a mixed sample of Flemish community and referred children (N = 485) across three measurement waves with 1-year time intervals...
March 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318449/through-the-lens-of-attachment-relationship-stable-did-active-did-and-other-trauma-based-mental-disorders
#9
Adah Sachs
Some people with DID, despite years of DID-specific therapy (using the three-phase approach, ISSTD, 2011), seem unable to get better. In particular, they seem unable to remain physically safe ("Phase One") and report continued exposure to abuse. As every fresh hurt causes fresh dissociation, their DID becomes further entrenched over time. Moreover, as dissociation makes the person more vulnerable to being re-abused, they become caught up in a vicious cycle, which further obstructs their efforts toward recovery...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318416/conflicts-between-motivational-systems-related-to-attachment-trauma-key-to-understanding-the-intra-family-relationship-between-abused-children-and-their-abusers
#10
Giovanni Liotti
Research on disorganization of infant attachment provides evidence that it can be caused not only by violent aggression or very early sexual abuse, but also by covert maltreating behavior, which includes the abdication of the caregiver's responsibility to soothe the infant's distress. This paper argues that both overtly abusive caregivers and merely "abdicating" caregivers may cause disorganization of infant attachment through a simultaneous and conflicting activation of the motivational systems governing attachment and survival defense in the infant...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318413/treatment-strategies-for-programming-and-ritual-abuse
#11
Colin Ross
Individuals in treatment for dissociative identity disorder not uncommonly describe childhood involvement in organized, multi-perpetrator ritual abuse. They described being "programmed" by the perpetrators and feel that the programming is out of their control. The author has developed a set of treatment strategies and interventions for such cases. These are based on the principle of therapeutic neutrality and can be used no matter what assumptions the therapist makes about the historical accuracy of the memories and beliefs...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317511/randomized-study-of-assessment-effects-on-alcohol-use-by-persons-with-hiv-in-rural-uganda
#12
Nneka I Emenyonu, Robin Fatch, Winnie R Muyindike, Allen Kekibiina, Sarah Woolf-King, Judith A Hahn
OBJECTIVE: Unhealthy alcohol use is a crucial driver of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, and interventions are needed. The goal of this study was to assess whether assessment itself (assessment reactivity) causes declines in alcohol use in a research study in persons with HIV in Uganda. METHOD: Study participants were adult patients of the Immune Suppression Syndrome (ISS) Clinic in Mbarara, Uganda, who were new to HIV care and reported any alcohol consumption in the prior year...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317502/no-reliable-evidence-that-emotional-disorders-are-proximal-antecedents-concomitants-or-short-term-consequences-of-first-episode-alcohol-use-disorders-in-a-representative-community-sample
#13
Richard F Farmer, John R Seeley, Derek B Kosty, Jeff M Gau, Susan C Duncan, Kenneth J Sher, Peter M Lewinsohn
OBJECTIVE: Emotional disorders and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently demonstrate significant 12-month and lifetime comorbid associations. This comorbidity has been incorporated into influential theories of addiction processes that posit direct or indirect causal associations between these disorder categories. There is currently no consensus, however, about the sequencing of these disorders. In this research, longitudinal data from a regionally representative community sample were used to evaluate whether emotional disorders constitute a proximal antecedent, concomitant, or short-term consequence of first episode (or index) AUDs...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317450/personality-traits-are-potentially-associated-with-the-presence-of-chronic-temporomandibular-joint-pain-in-patients-without-effusion-as-determined-by-t-2-weighted-magnetic-resonance
#14
Daniele Manfredini, Silvia Cerea, Chiara Pavan, Luca Guarda-Nardini
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed at investigating personality traits in chronic temporomandibular joints (TMJ) pain patients with and without joint effusion. METHODS: Two groups of chronic TMJ pain patients were recruited. The TMJ pain control group was composed of patients showing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of TMJ effusion, while the TMJ pain test group included patients with chronic TMJ pain seemingly not justified, due to the absence of MRI-detected disorders...
March 20, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317414/anxiety-depression-and-the-suicidal-spectrum-a-latent-class-analysis-of-overlapping-and-distinctive-features
#15
Matthew C Podlogar, Megan L Rogers, Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Bruno Chiurliza, Thomas E Joiner
Anxiety and depression diagnoses are associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours. However, a categorical understanding of these associations limits insight into identifying dimensional mechanisms of suicide risk. This study investigated anxious and depressive features through a lens of suicide risk, independent of diagnosis. Latent class analysis of 97 depression, anxiety, and suicidality-related items among 616 psychiatric outpatients indicated a 3-class solution, specifically: (1) a higher suicide-risk class uniquely differentiated from both other classes by high reported levels of depression and anxious arousal; (2) a lower suicide-risk class that reported levels of anxiety sensitivity and generalised worry comparable to Class 1, but lower levels of depression and anxious arousal; and (3) a low to non-suicidal class that reported relatively low levels across all depression and anxiety measures...
March 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317077/de-novo-cancer-in-patients-on-dialysis-and-after-renal-transplantation-north-western-italy-1997-2012
#16
Valentina Mazzucotelli, Pierluca Piselli, Diana Verdirosi, Claudia Cimaglia, Giovanni Cancarini, Diego Serraino, Silvio Sandrini
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) are known to have a higher risk of cancer than the general population, especially of malignancies related to oncogenic viral infections. This study assessed the incidence of de novo malignancies (DNMs) in patients receiving kidney transplantation and in dialysis patients (DP) on the waiting list for transplantation at the same centre. The aim was to quantify the contribution of post-transplant immunosuppression to the underlying risk of developing a DNM in dialysis patients on the waiting list for kidney transplant...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316029/impulsivity-and-stress-response-in-pathological-gamblers-during-the-trier-social-stress-test
#17
G Maniaci, A E Goudriaan, C Cannizzaro, R J van Holst
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314554/an-evaluation-of-the-absolute-and-relative-stability-of-alexithymia-over-11years-in-a-finnish-general-population
#18
A Hiirola, S Pirkola, M Karukivi, N Markkula, R M Bagby, M Joukamaa, A Jula, E Kronholm, S Saarijärvi, J K Salminen, J Suvisaari, G Taylor, A K Mattila
OBJECTIVE: We investigated if alexithymia, a personality construct with difficulties in emotional processing, is stable in the general population. METHODS: Altogether 3083 unselected subjects aged 30 and older in Finland completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) in the longitudinal Health 2000 and Health 2011 general population surveys (BRIF8901). The stability of alexithymia at the 11-year follow-up was assessed with t-tests, correlations, and separate linear regression models with base-line and follow-up age, gender, marital status, education, and 12-month depressive and anxiety disorders as confounders...
April 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314458/facilitating-transition-from-high-school-and-special-education-to-adult-life-focus-on-youth-with-learning-disorders-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-speech-language-impairments
#19
REVIEW
Lee I Ascherman, Julia Shaftel
Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314129/crack-cocaine-inhalation-induces-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-and-molecular-alterations-in-mice-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Lorena Bianchine Areal, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires
Crack cocaine (crack) addiction represents a major social and health burden, especially seeing as users are more prone to engage in criminal and violent acts. Crack users show a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities - particularly antisocial personality disorders - when compared to powder cocaine users. They also develop cognitive deficits related mainly to executive functions, including working memory. It is noteworthy that stimulant drugs can induce psychotic states, which appear to mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia among users...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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