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Personality disorder

Kevin R Patel, Vivek Singam, Supriya Rastogi, Harrison H Lee, Nanette B Silverberg, Jonathan I Silverberg
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo has a complex bidirectional relationship with mental health (MH) disturbances. However, little is known about the relationship between vitiligo and MH emergencies. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of vitiligo and MH hospitalizations in the United States. METHODS: Data from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample were analyzed, including a ~20% sample of all US hospitalizations (n=87,053,155 children and adults). Prevalence of hospitalization for MH disorders, their length of stay (LOS), and cost of care were determined for those with vitiligo compared to those without vitiligo...
September 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Farnoosh Moafi, Maryam Momeni, Mohadeseh Tayeba, Sarah Rahimi, Hamideh Hajnasiri
Loss of pregnancy is a major stressor which can cause mental disorders. In stressful conditions, spiritual intelligence can be used as a coping strategy to manage and cope with the stressor. It may also produce positive outcomes in spontaneous abortion. This study aimed to assess the relationship of spiritual intelligence with depression after spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional descriptive-correlational study was done in 2015-2016 on 185 women with spontaneous abortion who were hospitalized in the postnatal care ward of Kowsar teaching hospital, Qazvin, Iran...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
W Häuser, T Schubert, N Scherbaum, T Tölle
BACKGROUND: One major concern of long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) is the risk of abuse of prescribed opioids. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and predictors of opioid use-related hospitalizations and potential abuse of prescribed opioids by persons with LTOT for CNCP in a sample representative of the German statutory health insurance companies. METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional study in 2014. Anonymized German health claims database, including 4,028,618 insured individuals of 69 German statutory health insurances...
September 21, 2018: Der Schmerz
Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke
Epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation are considered key mechanisms at the crossroads between genetics and environment in the etiology of mental disorders. The monoamine oxidases A and B (MAOA/MAOB) are prime candidates for the investigation into the role of DNA methylation in mental disorders, given their pivotal role in the metabolism of monoamines and as pharmacological targets of potent antidepressant drugs such as tranylcypromine, phenelzine or moclobemide. The present mini-review aims at summarizing and critically discussing the growing body of the literature supporting a role of DNA methylation of the MAOA gene promoter/exon I/intron I region and its interaction with environmental factors in several mental disorders, i...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Marco Aurélio Vinhosa Bastos, Paulo Roberto Haidamus de Oliveira Bastos, Maria Lucília Dos Santos, Décio Iandoli, Renata Boschi Portella, Giancarlo Lucchetti
CONTEXT: Mediumship is the alleged ability to communicate with deceased personalities. Previous studies have suggested that the endogenous psychotomimetic molecules bufotenine (BT) and dimethyltryptamine (DMT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders. Distortion of perceptions observed during spiritual experiences could supposedly relate to these substances. OBJECTIVE: To compare the presence of BT and DMT in human urine samples between individuals with and without mediumistic experiences...
August 23, 2018: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Quanhe Yang, Julia L Durmer, Anne G Wheaton, Sandra L Jackson, Zefeng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Insufficient sleep negatively impacts the cardiovascular system. No study has examined the association between sleep duration and heart age (person's predicted vascular age based on cardiovascular disease [CVD] risk profile). This study examines association between sleep duration and excess heart age (EHA; difference between heart age and chronological age) among US adults. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for respondents aged 30-74 years without CVD or stroke (n = 12,775)...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Bertrand de Toffol, Michael Trimble, Dale C Hesdorffer, Lauren Taylor, Perminder Sachdev, Maurice Clancy, Naoto Adachi, José Augusto Bragatti, Marco Mula, Kousuke Kanemoto
The recognition and treatment of psychosis in persons with epilepsy (PWE) is recommended with the apparent dilemma between treating psychosis and opening the possibility of exacerbating seizures. The pooled prevalence estimate of psychosis in PWE is 5.6%. It has been proposed that a 'two hit' model, requiring both aberrant limbic activity and impaired frontal control, may account for the wide range of clinical phenotypes. The role of antiepileptic drugs in psychosis in PWE remains unclear. Alternating psychosis, the clinical phenomenon of a reciprocal relationship between psychosis and seizures, is unlikely to be an exclusively antiepileptic drug-specific phenomenon but rather, linked to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying seizure control...
September 18, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Joshua D Rosenblat, Gregory E Simon, Gary S Sachs, Ingrid Deetz, Allen Doederlein, Denisse DePeralta, Mary Mischka Dean, Roger S McIntyre
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patient-reported determinants of treatment effectiveness and tolerability amongst persons with major depressive or bipolar disorders. METHODS: The Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA) conducted an online survey February 2016-April 2016 asking participants about which outcomes are most important in determining subjective treatment effectiveness and tolerability. RESULTS: In total, 896 participants completed the survey [49...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Emil F Coccaro, Carolyn K Shima, Royce J Lee
There is ambiguity in how recurrent anger and aggression are accounted for by psychiatric nosology. One area of uncertainty is the extent to which Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) overlaps with and is distinct from Personality Disorder (PD). Accordingly, we conducted a study of individuals with IED and PD in order to understand the nature of comorbidity relationships seen across these two areas of psychopathology. One-thousand-five-hundred-twenty-one adults were studied (441 Healthy Controls (HC), 430 Psychiatric Controls (PC), and 650 IED subjects) and assessed for DSM-5 psychiatric disorders, life history of aggressive behavior, trait aggression, state and trait anger reactivity, and impulsivity...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Deborah Gibson-Smith, Mariska Bot, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Marjolein Visser, Brenda W J H Penninx
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the association of depressive and anxiety disorders and their clinical characteristics (disorder type, severity, chronicity and clinical subtypes) with diet quality. METHOD: Data from 1634 adults (controls = 336, current disorder = 414, remitted = 886) were sourced from the 9-year follow-up of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Depressive and anxiety disorders were established with Composite International Diagnostic Interviews...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jose María Pascual, Ruth Prieto, Inés Castro-Dufourny, Lorenzo Mongardi, Maria Rosdolsky, Sewan Strauss, Rodrigo Carrasco, Laura Barrios
OBJECTIVE: This study provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychiatric disorders caused by craniopharyngiomas and the hypothalamic alterations underlying these symptoms. METHODS: We investigated a collection of 210 craniopharyngiomas published from 1823 to 2017 providing detailed clinical and pathological information about psychiatric disturbances, including 10 of our own series, and compared the hypothalamic damage in this cohort with the present in a control cohort of 105 cases without psychiatric symptoms...
September 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Magda Flinik-Jankowska
In the present analysis 60 professional soldiers who were patients at the Department of Psychiatry of the 10th Military Clinical Hospital in Bydgoszcz in the years 2015-2017 were analyzed. AIM: The aim of the work was to analyze non-psychotic mental disorders of professional soldiers residing in the Department of Psychiatry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a group of 60 patients, men, professional soldiers, in whom made one of the diagnoses, i...
August 29, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Benjamin A E Hunt, Elizabeth B Liddle, Lauren E Gascoyne, Lorenzo Magazzini, Bethany C Routley, Krish D Singh, Peter G Morris, Matthew J Brookes, Peter F Liddle
Introduction: Schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) lie on a single spectrum of mental illness and converging evidence suggests similarities in the etiology of the 2 conditions. However, schizotypy is a heterogeneous facet of personality in the healthy population and so may be seen as a bridge between health and mental illness. Neural evidence for such a continuity would have implications for the characterization and treatment of schizophrenia. Based on our previous work identifying a relationship between symptomology in schizophrenia and abnormal movement-induced electrophysiological response (the post-movement beta rebound [PMBR]), we predicted that if subclinical schizotypy arises from similar neural mechanisms to schizophrenia, schizotypy in healthy individuals would be associated with reduced PMBR...
September 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Glorimar Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Early discharge from psychiatric inpatient care may pose challenges for the patient's recovery and may incite a rapid return to the hospital. This study identified demographic, clinical, and the continuing of care characteristics associated with rapid readmission into a sample of psychiatric inpatient hospitals. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 60,254 discharges from state psychiatric hospitals. Logistic regression explored the relationship between predictors of rapid readmission...
September 19, 2018: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
Kourosh Amini, Dougie Marks, Mohammad Ali Cheraghi, Mehrdad Eftekhar, Reza Negarandeh
BACKGROUND: The cultural and social background of the individual would seem to be important factors that can affect recovery from major depressive disorder (MDD). Currently, there is little information on the process of recovery from MDD in Middle Eastern countries, such as Iran. AIMS: This study was conducted to explore the process of recovery from MDD in Iran. METHOD: A grounded theory approach by Corbin and Strauss was used to explore recovery from MDD...
September 21, 2018: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
Louis Jacob, Josep Maria Haro, Ai Koyanagi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our goal was to examine the association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and gambling problems, and to identify potential mediating factors of this association. METHODS: This study used cross-sectional, community-based data from 7,403 people aged ≥16 years who participated in the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. Problem gambling was assessed using a questionnaire based on the 10 DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Bárbara García-Caro, Fulvia Prever, Belle Gavriel-Fried, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Laura Moragas, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Teresa Mena-Moreno, Virginia Martín-Romera, José M Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of gambling disorder (GD) in women has increased, but, to date, few studies have explored the features of clinical GD subtypes in female samples. AIMS: The aim of this study is to identify empirical clusters based on clinical/sociodemographic variables in a sample of treatment-seeking women with GD. METHODS: Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was applied to a sample of n = 280 patients, using sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and personality traits as indicators for the grouping procedure...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Jelena Radulovic, Lynn Y Ren, Can Gao
N-Methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are central mediators of glutamate actions underlying learning and memory processes including those required for extinction of fear and fear-related behaviors. Consistent with this view, in animal models, antagonists of NMDAR typically impair fear extinction, whereas partial agonists have facilitating effects. Promoting NMDAR function has thus been recognized as a promising strategy towards reduction of fear symptoms in patients suffering from anxiety disorders and post-traumatic disorder (PTSD)...
September 20, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jeannette LeGris
Background: Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) manifest poor performance on tasks of decision making which may be congruent with their decisional and interpersonal conflicts in real life. Poor decision making is often assumed to be due to impulsive behaviour or weak inhibitory control despite inconsistent evidences of these relationships, leaving questions about the specific nature of these decisional deficits. Decision making in BPD may be compromised by different domains of impulsivity, affective dysregulatory processes or unknown co-morbid ADHD which is considered a developmental precursor to BPD...
2018: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Philip I Chow, Sam Portnow, Diheng Zhang, Elske Salemink, Reinout W Wiers, Bethany A Teachman
BACKGROUND: In two studies, the present research examined whether being high in both social anxiety and alcohol use disorder symptoms is associated with a comorbid interpretation and expectancy bias that reflects their bidirectional relationship. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, quantitative surveys. METHODS: Measures of social anxiety and alcohol use disorder symptoms, as well as an interpretation and expectancy bias task assessing biases for social anxiety, drinking, and comorbid social anxiety and drinking...
September 20, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
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