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Personality disorder

Preethi Premkumar, Juliana Onwumere, Lucy Betts, Fränze Kibowski, Elizabeth Kuipers
Schizotypal traits are a cluster of personality styles suggesting a potential liability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Interpersonal schizotypal traits include cognitive disorganisation which consists of social anxiety, and introvertive anhedonia which consists of a lack of pleasure in social activities. Rejection sensitivity is evident all along this continuum. This study aimed to determine whether psychosocial quality of life (QOL), neuroticism and agreeableness mediates the relation between schizotypy and rejection sensitivity...
June 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Mia Atoui, Fatima El Jamil, Joseph El Khoury, Mark Doumit, Nathalie Syriani, Munir Khani, Ziad Nahas
Background: Schizophrenia is often associated with poor clinical insight (unawareness of mental illness and its symptoms) and deficits in empathy, which are important for social functioning. Cognitive empathy has been linked to clinical insight while affective empathy and its role in insight and pathology have received mixed evidence. Methods: Instruments assessing symptomatology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), clinical insight (Scales to assess awareness of mental disorders; SUMD), and cognitive and affective empathy were administered to 22 participants with first episode and chronic schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Josh Allen, Raquel Romay-Tallon, Kyle J Brymer, Hector J Caruncho, Lisa E Kalynchuk
Human and animal studies suggest an intriguing link between mitochondrial diseases and depression. Although depression has historically been linked to alterations in monoaminergic pharmacology and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, new data increasingly implicate broader forms of dampened plasticity, including plasticity within the cell. Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, and they also regulate brain function through oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this paper, we make the case that mitochondrial dysfunction could play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Karolis Baronas, Tautvydas Rančelis, Aidas Pranculis, Ingrida Domarkienė, Laima Ambrozaitytė, Vaidutis Kučinskas
Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using (1). Abusive alcohol consumption directly affects a person's physical and psychological health and social life. The World Health Organization has shown that Lithuania is a leading country in pure alcohol consumption in the world (2). The aim of this study is to find novel genome variants that are associated with the AUD in the Lithuanian cohort...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
Andrew M Kiselica, Amy Duhig, Ivan Montoya, Phil Skolnick, Jennifer Floyd, Cigi Byars
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) as described/defined in DSM 5, is characterized by impaired control of marijuana use and related personal, health, and legal consequences. CUD is a serious public health problem, affecting nearly 6 million individuals in the United States. There are no FDA approved medications to treat this disorder. The lack of available treatment options contributes to uncertainties by drug sponsors about formulary and reimbursement decision-making for CUD pharmacotherapies...
June 21, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
A R Rasulov
AIM: To determine the factors that shape attitudes towards people with severe mental disorders as well as to establish correlations between these factors and socio-demographic variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 1000 respondents in five regions of the country. The questionnaire included different aspects concerning the relation of society towards people with mental disorders. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The study established three-factor structure of attitudes towards people with mental illness: social distance, perseption of social threat, tolerant attitude Older age and a personal acquaintance with the patient were associated with lower ratings of social distance, while female gender was associated with a greater level of perception of social threat...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Ora Nakash, Maayan Nagar, Drew Westen
Prototype matching, which involves comparing a patient clinical presentation with a prototype description of the disorder addresses some of the clinical limitations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases symptom-count approach. Here, we investigated the validity and clinical utility of three diagnostic systems in predicting patient adaptive functioning using a multimethod multi-informant approach. Specifically, we compared a prototype matching approach based on DSM criteria, an empirically derived prototype matching approach, and DSM symptom count diagnostic systems...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Robert F Bornstein
The current debate regarding how best to conceptualize, operationalize, and assess personality pathology is often framed as a choice between categorical ("type") and dimensional ("trait") models, but when viewed from the perspective of the diagnostician, these two approaches actually have much in common. It is not possible to assign symptom ratings in any categorical personality disorder framework without first evaluating the severity of each symptom on a continuum, nor to implement dimensional personality disorder assessments in clinical settings without using thresholds that demarcate the presence of personality pathology, or severity of personality dysfunction...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Jacqueline Liggett, Martin Sellbom
The current study evaluated the continuity between the diagnostic operationalizations of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, both as traditionally operationalized and from the perspective of the alternative model of personality disorders. Using both self-report and informant measures, the study had the following four aims: (a) to examine the extent to which self-report and informant data correspond, (b) to investigate whether both self-report and informant measures of the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, (c) to determine if any traits additional to those proposed in the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, and (d) to investigate whether a measure of OCPD-specific impairment is better at predicting traditional OCPD than are measures of general impairment in personality functioning...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Madeline G Nagel, Ashley L Watts, Brett A Murphy, Scott O Lilienfeld
General personality traits and interests, both vocational and avocational, have long been considered intertwined constructs. Nevertheless, the linkages between personality disorder features, such as psychopathy, and interests are poorly understood. This study bridges this gap by examining how psychopathic traits relate to vocational and avocational interests, and to what extent these associations are distinctive to psychopathy as opposed to a broader pattern of general and abnormal personality traits. In a sample of 426 community participants, Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Fearless Dominance features of psychopathy were associated with interest in a broad swath of vocational and avocational interests, whereas Self-Centered Impulsivity features were associated with realistic, artistic, enterprising, and conventional interests; most zero-order associations were in the small to medium range...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Haang Jeung, Stephan Walther, Christoph W Korn, Katja Bertsch, Sabine C Herpertz
Although emotional reactivity to social rejection has been examined in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in several studies, the effects of other aspects of social feedback, such as evaluation of one's opinions that concern self-esteem, have not been addressed yet. The objective of this study was to examine emotional responses of BPD patients after exchanging personal opinions in a new, ecologically valid virtual peer interaction paradigm ("chatroom paradigm"). In this paradigm, 21 BPD patients and 21 healthy controls received peer feedback on their own statements and rated the intensity of their own emotional responses (happiness, sadness, anger, and shame) and the self or other affirmation in response to agreement, disagreement, and neutral statements...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Michael J Roche
The alternative model for personality disorders includes a single dimension of personality dysfunction severity (Criterion A) and five dimensions of personality dysfunction styles (Criterion B). Some consider Criteria A and B distinctions redundant, and this appears mostly true in cross-sectional designs. The present research demonstrated that incremental validity can be found when examining personality dysfunction longitudinally. Participants ( n = 175) completed a 14-day electronic diary, capturing daily levels of Criteria A and B, along with daily outcomes of personality dysfunction across several domains...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Heather A Davis, Gregory T Smith
Binge eating and purging behaviors are associated with significant harm and distress among adolescents. The process by which these behaviors develop (often in the high school years) is not fully understood. We tested the Acquired Preparedness (AP) model of risk involving transactions among biological, personality, and psychosocial factors to predict binge eating and purging behavior in a sample of 1,906 children assessed in the spring of 5th grade (the last year of elementary school), the fall of 6th grade (the first year of middle school), spring of 6th grade, and spring of 10th grade (second year of high school)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Emma M Parrish, Nancy S Kim, Kristen A Woodberry, Michelle Friedman-Yakoobian
AIM: Schizophrenia is a highly stigmatized disorder. Identification of youth at high risk for psychosis has the potential for improved outcomes. However, identifying youth at risk could subject them to increased public stigma. Using an experimental vignette design, this study examined relative levels of public stigma elicited by the labels "schizophrenia," "clinical high risk (CHR)," "attenuated psychotic symptoms syndrome (APSS)," a label implying normative adolescent development ("a bad breakup"), and a no-label control condition...
June 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Alexandra Pârvan
The paper proposes that frameworks typical to metaphysics and art could be used in clinical treatment in somatic and psychiatric contexts to ensure improved care. The concept of the "body electric" of somatic patients which I introduced in previous work is developed further and paired with the "mind electric" of psychiatric patients. Both are defined as a patient's personally generated metaphysical possibility of being healthy-within-illness which is experientially actualized. Both concepts are used here to explore the alternative and the serious challenges to treatment approaches focused on clinical categories, disease, provision, and promotion of standardized or "black-box" therapies...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Petr Winkler, Tomáš Formánek, Karolína Mladá, Pavla Cermakova
OBJECTIVES: The CZEch Mental health Study (CZEMS) was launched to inform the ongoing mental health care reform. This paper describes rationale, methods, and the plan for the future analyses of this project. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey on a representative sample of the general adult noninstitutionalized population of the Czech Republic was conducted. Two-stage sampling was utilized and respondents were interviewed by centrally trained staff using a paper and pencil interviewing...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Corinna Pehrs, Jamil Zaki, Liila Taruffi, Lars Kuchinke, Stefan Koelsch
People are better able to empathize with others when they are given information concerning the context driving that person's experiences. This suggests that people draw on prior memories when empathizing, but the mechanisms underlying this connection remain largely unexplored. The present study investigates how variations in episodic information shape the emotional response towards a movie character. Episodic information is either absent or provided by a written context preceding empathic film clips. It was shown that sad context information increases empathic concern for a movie character...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sandra M Meier, Barbara Pavlova, Søren Dalsgaard, Merete Nordentoft, Ole Mors, Preben B Mortensen, Rudolf Uher
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders have been proposed as precursors of bipolar disorder, but their joint and relative roles in the development of bipolar disorder are unknown.AimsTo test the prospective relationship of ADHD and anxiety with onset of bipolar disorder. METHOD: We examined the relationship between ADHD, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder in a birth cohort of 2 409 236 individuals born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Kneginja Richter, Lukas Peter, Hartmut Lehfeld, Harald Zäske, Salina Brar-Reissinger, Günter Niklewski
BACKGROUND: In the study, the frequency and nature of asylum seekers' psychiatric diagnoses in a German admission center were examined. Additional aims were to identify changes in those diagnoses over time and to investigate health care utilization of mentally ill asylum seekers in the community. METHODS: The sample for the study "Psychiatric Examination of Asylum Seekers" in Bavaria consisted of a total of 283 asylum seekers and included 2 subsamples: help-seeking individuals and a randomly selected group...
June 20, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Mathieu Dufour, Thomas Hastings, Richard O'Reilly
The United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in 2006. When Canada ratified the CRPD, it reserved the right to continue using substitute decision making schemes even if the CRPD was 'interpreted as requiring their elimination'. This was a prescient decision because the CRPD Committee, which is tasked with overseeing the interpretation and implementation of the CRPD, subsequently opined that all legislation supporting substitute decision making schemes contravene the CRPD and must be revoked...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
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