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Bone anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091426/mri-based-detailed-evaluation-of-the-anatomy-of-the-human-coccyx-among-turkish-adults
#1
H Tetiker, M I Koşar, N Çullu, U Canbek, I Otağ, Y Taştemur
AIM: The human coccyx varies considerably in shape and size. The objective of this study was to investigate the morphology and morphometry of the coccyx on pelvic magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic individuals among Turkish adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted retrospectively on the pelvic magnetic resonance images of 456 adult patients without a history of trauma in the coccyx region. The coccygeal vertebrae count, number of bone segments, and intercoccygeal and sacrococcygeal joint fusions were determined from the sagittal plane images...
February 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079677/cadaveric-testing-of-robot-assisted-access-to-the-internal-auditory-canal-for-vestibular-schwannoma-removal
#2
Neal P Dillon, Ramya Balachandran, Michael A Siebold, Robert J Webster, George B Wanna, Robert F Labadie
HYPOTHESIS: An image-guided robotic system can safely perform the bulk removal of bone during the translabyrinthine approach to vestibular schwannoma (VS). BACKGROUND: The translabyrinthine approach to VS removal involves extensive manual milling in the temporal bone to gain access to the internal auditory canal (IAC) for tumor resection. This bone removal is time consuming and challenging due to the presence of vital anatomy (e.g., facial nerve) embedded within the temporal bone...
January 10, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076015/us-and-mr-imaging-of-pectoralis-major-injuries
#3
Yauk K Lee, Matt R Skalski, Eric A White, Anderanik Tomasian, Diane D Phan, Dakshesh B Patel, George R Matcuk, Aaron J Schein
During the past 2 decades, the frequency of pectoralis major muscle injuries has increased in association with the increased popularity of bench press exercises. Injury of the pectoralis major can occur at the muscle origin, muscle belly, musculotendinous junction, intratendinous region, and/or humeral insertion-with or without bone avulsion. The extent of the tendon injury ranges from partial to complete tears. Treatment may be surgical or conservative, depending on the clinical scenario and anatomic characteristics of the injury...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065163/diagnostic-approach-to-catastrophic-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-racehorses
#4
Santiago S Diab, Susan M Stover, Francisco Carvallo, Akinyi C Nyaoke, Janet Moore, Ashley Hill, Rick Arthur, Francisco A Uzal
Catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries are the most common cause of euthanasia or spontaneous death in racehorses, and the most common cause of jockey falls with potential for serious human injury. Horses are predisposed to the vast majority of these injuries by preexisting lesions that can be prevented by early diagnosis and adequate bone injury management. A thorough examination of the musculoskeletal system in racehorses often determines the cause of these injuries and generates data to develop injury prevention strategies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064327/application-of-neuroendoscopy-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-complicated-hemifacial-spasm
#5
Ming Zhi, Xiao J Lu, Qing Wang, Bing Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of neuroendoscopy in surgery for primary hemifacial spasm (HFS) in patients with complicated local anatomy. METHODS: Endoscopic-assisted microvascular decompression (MVD) was performed in 42 patients with HFS with complicated local anatomy from Janurary 2008 to Janurary 2012 in our department, in the event of a significant blind spot, endoscopic exploration was performed with multi-angle 360-degree observation, including exploration of the brainstem facial nerve root exit zone (REZ) and exploration of the distal end of the nerve, and the relationships between blood vessels and nerves were carefully determined...
January 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063076/automatic-detection-of-vertebral-number-abnormalities-in-body-ct-images
#6
Shouhei Hanaoka, Yoshiyasu Nakano, Mitsutaka Nemoto, Yukihiro Nomura, Tomomi Takenaga, Soichiro Miki, Takeharu Yoshikawa, Naoto Hayashi, Yoshitaka Masutani, Akinobu Shimizu
PURPOSE: The anatomical anomaly of the number of vertebral bones is one of the major anomalies in the human body, which can cause confusion of the spinal level in, for example, surgery. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic detection system for this type of anomaly. METHODS: We utilized our previously reported anatomical landmark detection system for this anomaly detection problem. This system uses a landmark point distribution model (L-PDM) to find multiple landmark positions...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058662/os-peroneum-imaging-normal-appearance-and-pathological-findings
#7
REVIEW
Stefano Bianchi, Chandra Bortolotto, Ferdinando Draghi
The os peroneum (OP) is a small sesamoid bone located inside the peroneus longus tendon (PLT), close to the cuboid. The OP can be the cause of pain and can be associated with lesions of the PLT. OP involvement in PLT disorders is frequently misdiagnosed by radiologists. Painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) refers to a variety of conditions presenting with pain localized on the lateral aspect of the cuboid area. The syndrome can be observed as a consequence of local acute trauma such as ankle sprains or chronic overuse...
January 5, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054384/computational-anatomy-of-the-dens-axis-evaluated-by-quantitative-computed-tomography-implications-for-anterior-screw-fixation
#8
Dominic Gehweiler, Dirk Wähnert, Norbert Meier, Maarten Spruit, Michael Johannes Raschke, Robert Geoff Richards, Hansrudi Noser, Lukas Kamer
The surgical fracture fixation of the odontoid process (dens) of the second cervical vertebra (C2/axis) is a challenging procedure, particularly in elderly patients affected by bone loss, and includes screw positioning close to vital structures. The aim of this study was to provide an extended anatomical knowledge of C2, the bone mass distribution and bone loss, and to understand the implications for anterior screw fixation. 120 standard clinical quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans of the intact cervical spine from 60 female and 60 male European patients, aged 18-90 years, were used to compute a three-dimensional statistical model and an averaged bone mass model of C2...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053268/implant-options-for-the-treatment-of-intertrochanteric-fractures-of-the-hip-rationale-evidence-and-recommendations
#9
A R Socci, N E Casemyr, M P Leslie, M R Baumgaertner
AIMS: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence relating to the anatomy of the proximal femur, the geometry of the fracture and the characteristics of implants and methods of fixation of intertrochanteric fractures of the hip. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant papers were identified from appropriate clinical databases and a narrative review was undertaken. RESULTS: Stable, unstable, and subtrochanteric intertrochanteric fractures vary widely in their anatomical and biomechanical characteristics, as do the implants used for their fixation...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052828/forearm-instability-anatomy-biomechanics-and-treatment-options
#10
REVIEW
Julie E Adams
The forearm unit consists of the radius and ulna, a complex and interrelated set of joints (distal radioulnar joint, proximal radioulnar joint) and the soft tissue stabilizers between the 3 bones. Distally, this is represented by the triangular fibrocartilage complex at the wrist, proximally by the annular ligament at the elbow, and in the forearm by the interosseous membrane. Disruptions in any of these structures may lead to forearm instability, with consequences at each of the remaining structures.
January 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050532/foot-and-ankle-fractures-during-childhood-review-of-the-literature-and-scientific-evidence-for-appropriate-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Stefan Rammelt, Alexandre Leme Godoy-Santos, Wolfgang Schneiders, Guido Fitze, Hans Zwipp
Foot and ankle fractures represent 12% of all pediatric fractures. Malleolar fractures are the most frequent injuries of the lower limbs. Hindfoot and midfoot fractures are rare, but inadequate treatment for these fractures may results in compartment syndrome, three-dimensional deformities, avascular necrosis and early post-traumatic arthritis, which have a significant impact on overall foot and ankle function. Therefore, the challenges in treating these injuries in children are to achieve adequate diagnosis and precise treatment, while avoiding complications...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050473/evaluation-of-sinonasal-diseases-by-computed-tomography
#12
Rashmi Kandukuri, Suresh Phatak
INTRODUCTION: Computed Tomography (CT) plays an important diagnostic role in patients with sinonasal diseases and determines the treatment. The CT images clearly show fine structural architecture of bony anatomy thereby determining various anatomical variation, extent of disease and characterization of various inflammatory, benign and malignant sinonasal diseases. AIM: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of CT in diagnosis of sinonasal diseases and to characterise the benign and malignant lesions with the help of various CT parameters...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048775/mo-fg-campus-tep1-04-pseudo-in-vivo-dose-verification-of-a-new-mono-isocentric-technique-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-brain-metastases
#13
E P Pappas, N Papanikolaou, G Kalaitzakis, T Boursianis, D Makris, V Lahanas, I Genitsarios, S Stathakis, L Watts, T Maris, E Pappas
PURPOSE: To validate dose calculation and delivery accuracy of a recently introduced mono-isocentric technique for the treatment of multiple brain metastases in a realistic clinical case. METHODS: Anonymized CT scans of a patient were used to model a hollow phantom that duplicates anatomy of the skull. A 3D printer was used to construct the phantom of a radiologically bone-equivalent material. The hollow phantom was subsequently filled with a polymer gel 3D dosimeter which also acted as a water-equivalent material...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048519/su-f-t-316-a-model-to-deal-with-dosimetric-and-delivery-uncertainties-in-radiotherapy-treatment-planning
#14
P Haering, C Lang, M Splinter
PURPOSE: The conventional way of dealing with uncertainties resulting from dose calculation or beam delivery in IMRT, is to do verification measurements for the plan in question. Here we present an alternative based on recommendations given in the AAPM 142 report and treatment specific parameters that model the uncertainties for the plan delivery. METHODS: Basis of the model is the assignment of uncertainty parameters to all segment fields or control point sequences of a plan...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048469/th-cd-207a-08-simulated-real-time-image-guidance-for-lung-sbrt-patients-using-scatter-imaging
#15
G Redler, G Cifter, A Templeton, C Lee, D Bernard, Y Liao, H Zhen, J Turian, J Chu
PURPOSE: To develop a comprehensive Monte Carlo-based model for the acquisition of scatter images of patient anatomy in real-time, during lung SBRT treatment. METHODS: During SBRT treatment, images of patient anatomy can be acquired from scattered radiation. To rigorously examine the utility of scatter images for image guidance, a model is developed using MCNP code to simulate scatter images of phantoms and lung cancer patients. The model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated images of phantoms of different complexity...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048208/su-g-jep4-13-continuous-intra-fractional-monitoring-of-the-prostate-using-dynamic-kv-collimation-and-tube-current-modulation
#16
D Parsons, J Robar
PURPOSE: The focus of this work is to improve the available kV image quality for continuous intra-fraction monitoring of the prostate. This is investigated using a novel blade collimation system enabling modulated volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging of prostate fiducial markers. METHODS: A four-blade dynamic kV collimator was used to track a VOI during gantry rotation. Planar image quality was investigated as a function of collimator dimension, while maintaining the same dose to isocenter, for a 22...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048185/su-f-j-31-dual-energy-imaging-in-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-tumors-a-phantom-study
#17
J Roeske, R Patel, M Surucu
PURPOSE: Organ motion, due to swallowing, can significantly affect the PTV margins used in head and neck patients. Evaluation of swallowing motion 2016 AAPM Annual Meeting Program Medical Physics, Vol. 43, No. 6, June 2016 3412 3412 may be performed using x-ray fluoroscopy. However, regions such as the soft palette and epiglottis may be difficult to visualize due to the presence of bone (mandible, teeth). The goal of this phantom study is to determine if dual energy (DE) subtraction would improve the visualization in these regions...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047989/tu-ab-bra-03-atlas-based-algorithms-with-local-registration-goodness-weighting-for-mri-driven-electron-density-mapping
#18
R Farjam, N Tyagi, H Veeraraghavan, A Apte, K Zakian, M Hunt, J Deasy
PURPOSE: To develop image-analysis algorithms to synthesize CT with accurate electron densities for MR-only radiotherapy of head & neck (H&N) and pelvis anatomies. METHODS: CT and 3T-MRI (Philips, mDixon sequence) scans were randomly selected from a pool of H&N (n=11) and pelvis (n=12) anatomies to form an atlas. All MRIs were pre-processed to eliminate scanner and patient-induced intensity inhomogeneities and standardize their intensity histograms. CT and MRI for each patient were then co-registered to construct CT-MRI atlases...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047873/su-f-t-397-evaluating-the-impact-of-bladder-filling-status-for-the-organs-at-risk-dose-distribution-in-cervical-cancer-patients-with-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy
#19
J Y Zhang, D L Hong
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of bladder filling status of the organs at risk (OARs) on dose distribution during intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer patients. METHODS: Twelve cervical cancer patients treated with IMRT were selected for this study. The prescription dose was 45Gy/25 fractions with the 6 MV photon beam. All patients performed two CT scans, one with an empty bladder, the other one with bladder filled. For the registration of two CT scans, the fusion was automatically carried out upon the bony anatomy...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047768/th-ab-207a-06-the-use-of-realistic-phantoms-to-predict-ct-dose-to-pediatric-patients
#20
D Carver, S Kost, P Segars, N Fraser, D Pickens, R Price, M Stabin
PURPOSE: To predict pediatric patient dose from diagnostic CT scans using Monte Carlo simulation of realistic reference phantoms of various ages, weights, and heights. METHODS: A series of deformable pediatric reference phantoms using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) was developed for a large range of ages, percentiles, and reference anatomy. Individual bones were modeled using age-dependent factors, and red marrow was modeled as functions of age and spatial distribution based on Cristy1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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