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Bone anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541579/tailored-extended-bifrontal-craniotomy-for-anterior-skull-base-tumors-anatomic-description-of-a-modified-surgical-technique-and-case-series
#1
Michael M Safaee, Michael W McDermott, Arnau Benet, Philip V Theodosopoulos
BACKGROUND: Open transcranial approaches to the anterior skull base remain an integral component of current skull base practice. Evolution of these and other techniques has resulted in revisions of standard, tried-and-true methods in attempts to improve patient outcomes and cosmesis, while still providing the best combination of surgical exposure and ergonomics. OBJECTIVE: To describe a modified approach for midline tumors of the anterior skull base. METHODS: We describe the anatomy and techniques of a modified extended bifrontal craniotomy for anterior skull base tumors...
May 24, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540513/utility-of-3d-printed-temporal-bones-in-pre-surgical-planning-for-complex-bonebridge-cases
#2
Payal Mukherjee, Kai Cheng, Sean Flanagan, Simon Greenberg
With the advent of single-sided hearing loss increasingly being treated with cochlear implantation, bone conduction implants are reserved for cases of conductive and mixed hearing loss with greater complexity. The BoneBridge (BB, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) is an active fully implantable device with no attenuation of sound energy through soft tissue. However, the floating mass transducer (FMT) part of the device is very bulky, which limits insertion in complicated ears. In this study, 3D printed temporal bones of patients were used to study its utility in preoperative planning on complicated cases...
May 24, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538072/surgical-treatment-of-posttraumatic-ophthalmoplegia-through-the-reconstruction-of-the-lateral-orbital-wall
#3
Pedro Henrique da Hora Sales, Suellen Sombra da Rocha, Paulo Henrique Carvalho Rodrigues, Edson Luiz Cetira Filho, Leonardo de Freitas Silva, Manoel de Jesus Rodrigues Mello
Orbital fractures are injuries frequently related to traumas of the midface. These fractures can be associated with ocular lesions, ranging from small abrasions on the cornea to serious complications such as hyphema and ocular globe rupture. Diplopia and ophthalmoplegia are common findings in orbital fractures. They can be caused by mechanical factors as bone fragments or muscle imprisonment. The aim of this study was to report a case of a 40-year patient, male showing diplopia and ophthalmoplegia due to the orbital fracture...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532970/improving-resident-familiarity-with-the-translabyrinthine-approach-to-the-internal-auditory-canal
#4
Matthew M Dedmon, Brendan P O'Connell, Austin S Adams, George B Wanna, David S Haynes
OBJECTIVE: To increase otolaryngology resident experience with drilling and dissection of the internal auditory canal (IAC) via a translabyrinthine approach. STUDY DESIGN: Pilot study involving temporal bone education and drilling with completion of pre- and post-drilling surveys. METHODS: Participants observed an educational presentation on IAC anatomy and drilling, followed by manipulation of IAC nerves using a prosected cadaveric temporal bone...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527848/combined-therapy-for-a-rare-case-of-type-iii-dens-invaginatus-in-a-mandibular-central-incisor-with-a-periapical-lesion-a-case-report
#5
Ping Zhang, Xin Wei
Type III dens invaginatus has a complex root canal structure that poses a greater challenge when endodontic treatment is necessary. Type III dens invaginatus rarely affects mandibular central incisors. In this case, we reported a combined therapy of type III dens invaginatus in a mandibular central incisor with a periapical lesion. Cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging was used in the diagnosis and management of the unusual anatomy of dens invaginatus. First, the hard tissue of the dens invaginatus was removed using a dental operating microscope...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524458/forelimb-myology-of-carnivorous-marsupials-marsupialia-dasyuridae-implications-for-the-ancestral-body-plan-of-the-australidelphia
#6
Natalie M Warburton, Charlie-Rose Marchal
Carnivorous marsupials of the family Dasyuridae represent a more generalized anatomical condition of both craniodental and postcranial features in comparison to other groups of Australidelphian marsupials. Plesiomorphic characters include polyprotodont dentition, didactylous (rather than syndactylous) pedal morphology, the retention of clavicles and epipubic bones, and an unossified patelloid. In light of the anatomy of the postcranial skeleton, we hypothesized that the muscular anatomy of the Dasyuridae would likely display a range of plesiomorphic traits...
May 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516487/the-petrosal-and-bony-labyrinth-of-diplobune-minor-an-enigmatic-artiodactyla-from-the-oligocene-of-western-europe
#7
Maeva J Orliac, Ricardo Araújo, Fabrice Lihoreau
Anoplotheriinae are Paleogene European artiodactyls that present a unique postcranial morphology with a tridactyl autopodium and uncommon limb orientation. This peculiar morphology led to various hypotheses regarding anoplotheriine locomotion from semiaquatic to partly arboreal or partly bipedal. The petrosal bone, housing the organs of balance, and hearing, offers complementary information to postcranial morphology on the ecology of this uncommon artiodactyl. Here, we investigate the middle ear and bony labyrinth of the small anoplotheriine Diplobune minor based on four specimens from the Early Oligocene locality of Itardies (Quercy, France)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514499/surface-anatomy-of-major-anatomical-landmarks-of-the-neck-in-an-adult-population-a-ct-evaluation-of-vertebral-level
#8
Masroor Badshah, Roger Soames, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Jaffar Khan, Adnan Khan
Introduction To compare the projectional surface anatomy of healthy individuals in an adult population with those with a thyroid mass, using computed tomography (CT). Methods Sixteen slice CT images of 101 individuals were analyzed using a 32-bit Radiant DICOM viewer to establish the relationships among major anatomical landmarks in the neck and their vertebral levels. The structures investigated included: hard palate (HP), hyoid bone (HB) including body and lesser horns, soft palate (SP), thyroid gland (TG) (both superior and inferior poles), thyroid gland anteroposterior (APD) and superoinferior (SID) diameters, thyroid isthmus (TI) superoinferior dimension, epiglottis, vertebral arteries (right and left), and both right and left parotid glands (superior and inferior extents)...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514129/-hand-injuries-in-rock-climbers
#9
REVIEW
Hagay Orbach, Guy Rubin, Alejandro Wolovelsky, Micha Rinott, Uriel Giwnewer, Nimrod Rozen
Rock climbing, whether practiced in nature on cliffs and boulders or indoors on walls made of resin and wood, has gained tremendous popularity in recent decades. More people are exposed to injuries associated with the unique biomechanical forces of rock climbing. A series of repetitive high torque movements of the upper limbs are needed to ascend a wall or rockface. These movements subject the hand and wrist to large forces, potentially resulting in ligament and tendon sprains or rupture and even bone fracture...
July 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512008/3d-printing-and-modelling-of-customized-implants-and-surgical-guides-for-non-human-primates
#10
Xing Chen, Jessy K Possel, Catherine Wacongne, Anne F van Ham, P Christiaan Klink, Pieter R Roelfsema
BACKGROUND: Primate neurobiologists use chronically implanted devices such as pedestals for head stabilization and chambers to gain access to the brain and study its activity. Such implants are skull-mounted, and made from a hard, durable material, such as titanium. NEW METHOD: Here we present a low-cost method of creating customized 3D-printed cranial implants that are tailored to the anatomy of individual animals. We performed pre-surgical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans to generate three-dimensional (3D) models of the skull and brain...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507860/aging-and-sexual-differences-of-the-human-skull
#11
Luiz Eduardo Toledo Avelar, Márcio Alberto Cardoso, Leonardo Santos Bordoni, Lorena de Miranda Avelar, João Victor de Miranda Avelar
BACKGROUND: The aging process of the face comprises all layers: skin, subcutaneous fat, muscles, and skeleton, and the signs of aging depend mainly on which layer is mostly affected. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the aging facial skeleton, as well as establish the sexual differences, areas with a strong predisposition to resorption, and aesthetic repercussion for better treatment approach. METHODS: Skulls from the Forensic Anthropology Department of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were classified according to gender and age group (i...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506491/mapping-of-glenoid-bone-loss-in-recurrent-anterior-shoulder-instability-is-there-a-particular-deficit-pattern
#12
Benjamin Bockmann, Arne Johannes Venjakob, Frank Reichwein, Marthe Hagenacker, Wolfgang Nebelung
BACKGROUND: Glenoid bone loss in recurrent anterior shoulder instability is a challenging problem for shoulder surgeons, and knowledge about the anatomy of glenoid deficits is scarce. In this study, we tried to evaluate the pattern of this pathology. METHODS: Our analysis included 44 shoulders from 44 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability accompanied by a clinically relevant glenoid bone loss. The defect size, the localization of the inferior defect edge, and the defect angle were measured, and osseous landmarks were identified...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502535/even-cementless-surgeons-use-cement
#13
A Gulati, A R J Manktelow
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with hip arthritis have huge variability in anatomy, bone quality, and functional expectation. These can contribute to a varying degree of complexity on both the femoral and acetabular sides. Surgeons should be aware of all the various options in fixation, bearing surface, and surgical technique. METHODS: In this article, based on a presentation given at the recent American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons meeting in Dallas, we will discuss why and how cemented fixation can, and indeed should, be considered when making decisions regarding how a primary, complex primary, or revision hip arthroplasty should be performed...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500091/forensic-age-estimation-using-the-medial-clavicular-epiphysis-a-study-review
#14
Mary B Buckley, Kevin R Clark
PURPOSE: To discuss current literature evaluating the medial clavicular epiphysis to assess an individual's age using various imaging modalities. METHODS: Four scholarly research databases were searched to find studies that examined living subjects. Several articles were included that used cadavers, and a textbook was used to detail the anatomy of the clavicle. Thirty-nine articles were analyzed. RESULTS: The literature indicated that several imaging modalities, including conventional radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and sonography, are being used to evaluate the medial clavicular epiphysis to estimate an individual's age in the forensic context...
May 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493011/mri-of-thoracic-outlet-syndrome-in-children
#15
REVIEW
Govind B Chavhan, Vaishnavi Batmanabane, Prakash Muthusami, Alexander J Towbin, Gregory H Borschel
Thoracic outlet syndrome is caused by compression of the neurovascular bundle as it passes from the upper thorax to the axilla. The neurovascular bundle can be compressed by bony structures such as the first rib, cervical ribs or bone tubercles, or from soft-tissue abnormalities like a fibrous band, muscle hypertrophy or space-occupying lesion. Thoracic outlet syndrome commonly affects young adults but can be seen in the pediatric age group, especially in older children. Diagnosis is based on a holistic approach encompassing clinical features, physical examination findings including those triggered by various maneuvers, electromyography, nerve conduction studies and imaging...
May 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484716/anatomic-variation-in-morphometry-of-human-coracoid-process-among-asian-population
#16
Manal Fathi, Pike-See Cheah, Umar Ahmad, M Nizlan Nasir, Aye Aye San, Ezamin Abdul Rahim, Paisal Hussin, Rozi Mahmud, Fauziah Othman
Ethnic origin plays an important role in bone morphometry. Studies examining the influence of coracoid process have focused primarily on adults and have not included people from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore ethnic differences in morphometry of coracoid among Asian population. We performed morphometric measurements of coracoid process on cadaveric shoulders and shoulder CT scans from 118 specimens. The cadaveric sample included Indian (46%), Chinese (27%), and Myanmarese (27%) subjects, while the CT scans sample included Chinese (67%) and Malay (33%) subjects...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480090/atypical-pharyngeal-pouch-arising-bilaterally-between-the-hyoid-bone-and-thyroid-cartilage
#17
Lawrence J Oh, Lyndon Chan, David Veivers
Introduction. Pharyngoesophageal diverticuli are a common cause of dysphagia; they are associated with various morbidities and a decreased quality of life. There are several different types of the diverticuli, and they are divided based on the anatomical location of origin relative to the cricopharyngeal muscle; these include Zenker's, Killian-Jamieson's, and Laimer's diverticula. The authors present a unique case of pharyngoesophageal diverticulum that has not been previously described. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 12-month history of dysphagia and odynophagia for solids...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479913/an-anatomical-and-osteometric-study-of-the-femoral-sulcus-angle-in-adult-malawians
#18
Anthony Mwakikunga, Kondwani Katundu, Boniface Msamati, Anthony Gbenga Adefolaju, Lynne Schepartz
BACKGROUND: Femoral sulcus angle is particularly important in clinical evaluation of patellofemoral joint. Individuals show considerable differences in asymmetrical dimensions of the femur. OBJECTIVES: To determine the size of femoral sulcus angles in adult black Malawians using the skeletal collection in the department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and assess their gender differences; to compare femoral sulcus angles of Malawians with other ethnic groups. METHODS: A cross sectional study was done in which femoral sulcus angles of dry bones were measured using a goniometer...
December 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471817/effects-of-tibial-rotational-guided-growth-on-the-geometries-of-tibial-plateaus-and-menisci-in-rabbits
#19
Figen Sevil-Kilimci, Mutlu Cobanoglu, Mehmet K Ocal, Deniz Korkmaz, Emre Cullu
BACKGROUND: There are studies on the use of oblique plate over epiphyses for rotational deformities but the effects of this method on bone are not yet known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect and rebound effect of rotational-guided growth on the geometries of the tibial plateaus and menisci in a rabbit model of tibial axial rotation. METHODS: Thirty male rabbits were 6 weeks old when medial and lateral plates were applied to the proximal tibias of the left side...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465350/myostatin-inhibits-osteoblastic-differentiation-by-suppressing-osteocyte-derived-exosomal-microrna-218-a-novel-mechanism-in-muscle-bone-communication
#20
Yiwen Qin, Yuanzhen Peng, Wei Zhao, Jianping Pan, Hanna Ksiezak-Reding, Christopher Cardozo, Yingjie Wu, Paola Divieti Pajevic, Lynda F Bonewald, William A Bauman, Weiping Qin
Muscle and bone are closely associated in both anatomy and function, but the mechanisms that coordinate their synergistic action remain poorly defined. Myostatin, a myokine secreted by muscles, has been shown to inhibit muscle growth, and the disruption of the myostatin gene has been reported to cause muscle hypertrophy and increase bone mass. Extracellular vesicle-exosomes that carry microRNA (miRNA), mRNA, and proteins are known to perform an important role in cell-cell communication. We hypothesized that myostatin may play a crucial role in muscle-bone interactions and may promote direct effects on osteocytes and on osteocyte-derived exosomal miRNAs, thereby indirectly influencing the function of other bone cells...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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