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Bone anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721557/the-mystery-of-a-missing-bone-revealing-the-orbitosphenoid-in-basal-epicynodontia-cynodontia-therapsida-through-computed-tomography
#1
Julien Benoit, Sandra C Jasinoski, Vincent Fernandez, Fernando Abdala
The basal non-mammaliaform cynodonts from the late Permian (Lopingian) and Early Triassic are a major source of information for the understanding of the evolutionary origin of mammals. Detailed knowledge of their anatomy is critical for understanding the phylogenetic transition toward mammalness and the paleobiological reconstruction of mammalian precursors. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), we describe the internal morphology of the interorbital region that includes the rarely fossilized orbitosphenoid elements in four basal cynodonts...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719779/cement-casting-to-optimize-reconstruction-of-chronic-osteochondral-lesions-of-the-talus
#2
Jorge Pulgar, Mario Escudero, Giovanni Carcuro, Adam Schiff, Manuel Pellegrini
Few surgical techniques have been described for reconstruction in massive osteochondral lesions of the talus, and there is limited evidence of techniques for accurately reproducing native talar anatomy with bone auto/allograft techniques. In this article, we present a novel technique, which is highly reproducible, using bone cement to restore the congruence and anatomy of the ankle joint. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: Level V: Technical tip.
August 2017: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716518/virtual-animation-of-victim-specific-3d-models-obtained-from-ct-scans-for-forensic-reconstructions-living-and-dead-subjects
#3
C Villa, K B Olsen, S H Hansen
Post-mortem CT scanning (PMCT) has been introduced at several forensic medical institutions many years ago and has proved to be a useful tool. 3D models of bones, skin, internal organs and bullet paths can rapidly be generated using post-processing software. These 3D models reflect the individual physiognomics and can be used to create whole-body 3D virtual animations. In such way, virtual reconstructions of the probable ante-mortem postures of victims can be constructed and contribute to understand the sequence of events...
July 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713632/radiographic-assessment-of-the-presigmoid-retrolabyrinthine-approach
#4
Andrew K Wong, Melissa M Stamates, Anita P Bhansali, Michael Shinners, Ricky H Wong
BACKGROUND: Lesions of the petroclival fissure are difficult to access surgically. Both retrosigmoid and presigmoid retrolabyrinthine approaches have been described to successfully treat these complex tumors. The retrosigmoid approach offers quick and familiar access, whereas the presigmoid retrolabyrinthine approach reduces the operative distance and the need for cerebellar retraction. The presigmoid retrolabyrinthine approach, however, is constrained by anatomical limits that can be subject to patient variation...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712634/management-of-dens-invaginatus-type-ii-associated-with-immature-apex-and-large-periradicular-lesion-using-platelet-rich-fibrin-and-biodentine
#5
Shruti Goel, Ruchika Roongta Nawal, Sangeeta Talwar
Dens invaginatus (DI) poses peculiar challenges in endodontic treatment of teeth because of distortion of pulpal space. A case of Oehlers type II DI with open apex and large periapical lesion is reported. The case was managed using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), operating microscope, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), and Biodentine. A 15-year-old male patient presented with palatal swelling. Pulp sensibility testing of right maxillary lateral incisor was negative. Intraoral periapical digital radiograph revealed an Oehlers type II DI with open apex and periapical radiolucency...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708910/influence-of-the-posterior-mandible-ridge-morphology-on-virtual-implant-planning
#6
German O Gallucci, Shirin Khoynezhad, Alfa I Yansane, Jacob Taylor, Daniel Buser, Bernard Friedland
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the anatomy of the mandibular posterior region to develop an anatomical categorization for implant-prosthodontic planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using cone beam computed tomography scans, 313 cross-sectional views of edentulous posterior mandibular sites were evaluated with respect to the anatomical ridge morphology. Virtual implant planning was performed, and the need for bone grafting was assessed. The level of complexity for planning implants in those positions was assessed...
July 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706811/surgical-technique-for-arthroscopy-assisted-anatomical-reconstruction-of-acromioclavicular-and-coracoclavicular-ligaments-using-autologous-hamstring-graft-in-chronic-acromioclavicular-joint-dislocations
#7
Bancha Chernchujit, Prashant Parate
Injuries to the acromioclavicular (AC) joint are becoming common with contact sports and bike accidents. It is well known that in AC dislocations, the first structure to fail is the AC capsule followed by the trapezoid and conoid ligaments. The function of these ligaments must be restored to restore the anatomy and physiology of the AC joint to get the best results. Until now, no technique has emerged as the gold standard for restoration of the AC joint anatomy and function. In our technique, the stress is on recreating the anatomy to make it more individualized based on individual variations...
June 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704342/a-novel-compact-small-field-of-view-hybrid-gamma-camera-first-clinical-results
#8
Aik H Ng, Patricia E Blackshaw, Mohammed S Alqahtani, Layal K Jambi, Sarah L Bugby, John E Lees, Alan C Perkins
INTRODUCTION: Hybrid imaging has proven to be a major innovation in nuclear medicine, allowing the fusion of functional information with anatomical detail. In the past, the use of hybrid imaging such as PET-CT, PET-MRI and SPECT-CT has been of great clinical benefit; however, these scanners are relatively large and bulky. We have developed and investigated the clinical application of a compact small field of view hybrid gamma camera (HGC) that is suitable for small-organ imaging at the patient bedside...
July 12, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703332/validation-of-biplane-high-speed-fluoroscopy-combined-with-two-different-non-invasive-tracking-methodologies-for-measuring-in-vivo-distal-limb-kinematics-of-the-horse
#9
S M Geiger, E Reich, P Böttcher, S Grund, J Hagen
BACKGROUND: Biplane high-speed fluoroscopy is a new method for gait analysis of the equine distal extremity. This is the first study validating the non-invasive tracking possibilities (Autoscoping and Scientific Rotoscoping) taking equine anatomy into account. OBJECTIVES: To determine the resolution with which Autoscoping and Scientific Rotoscoping depict motion of the equine phalanges in comparison to the invasive gold standard marker-based registration. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative ex vivo study...
July 13, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692497/the-safety-and-accuracy-of-surgical-navigation-technology-in-the-treatment-of-lesions-involving-the-skull-base
#10
Bin Wei, Guowen Sun, Qingang Hu, Enyi Tang
OBJECTIVE: As compared with the normal anatomy, structures of the skull base and its surroundings have been dramatically altered of the lesion near the skull base. How to remove the lesion at the skull base was mainly depending on surgeon's personal experience during past years. In this study, the authors explored the safety and accuracy of the surgical navigation system in resecting lesions near the skull base. METHODS: The surgical cases consisted of 15 patients who underwent surgery involving the skull base with the using of surgical navigation technology...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692450/advances-in-midface-reconstruction-beyond-the-reconstructive-ladder
#11
Antoine Eskander, Stephen Y Kang, Theodoros N Teknos, Matthew O Old
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the anatomy and function of the midface, defect classifications and the breadth of common and novel reconstructive techniques including medical modeling, dental splints, and dental rehabilitation. RECENT FINDINGS: Historically many classification systems for midface and maxillary defects exist but most defects are unique and an individualized approach is required. There has been an increased interest in using regional pedicled flaps with bone for reconstruction...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690926/razanandrongobe-sakalavae-a-gigantic-mesoeucrocodylian-from-the-middle-jurassic-of-madagascar-is-the-oldest-known-notosuchian
#12
Cristiano Dal Sasso, Giovanni Pasini, Guillaume Fleury, Simone Maganuco
Razanandrongobe sakalavae Maganuco, Dal Sasso & Pasini, 2006 is a large predatory archosaur from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of the Mahajanga Basin, NW Madagascar. It was diagnosed on the basis of teeth and a fragmentary maxilla, but its affinities were uncertain. Here we describe new cranial remains (above all, an almost complete right premaxilla and a caudally incomplete left dentary) that greatly improve our knowledge on this enigmatic species and reveal its anatomy to be crocodylomorph. The right premaxilla indicates that the rostrum was deep, wide, and not pointed; it bears five teeth that are sub-vertical and just slightly curved lingually; the mesial teeth are U-shaped in cross-section and have serrated carinae on the lingual side; the aperturae nasi osseae (external bony nares) are confluent and face rostrally; and there is no lateral groove at the premaxillomaxillary suture for reception of a hypertrophied lower caniniform tooth...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687426/quantitative-imaging-analysis-of-transcanal-endoscopic-infracochlear-approach-to-the-internal-auditory-canal
#13
Judith S Kempfle, Benjamin Fiorillo, Vivek V Kanumuri, Samuel Barber, Albert S B Edge, Marybeth Cunnane, Aaron K Remenschneider, Daniel J Lee, Elliott D Kozin
PURPOSE: A transcanal endoscopic infracochlear surgical approach to the internal auditory canal (IAC) in a human temporal bone model has previously been described. However, the proportion of patients with favorable anatomy for this novel surgical technique remains unknown. Herein, we perform a quantitative analysis of the transcanal endoscopic infracochlear corridor to the IAC based on computed tomography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High resolution computed tomography scans of adult temporal bones were measured to determine the accessibility of the IAC when using an endoscopic transcanal, cochlear-sparing surgical corridor...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681490/a-novel-method-for-observation-of-the-mandibular-foramen-application-to-a-better-understanding-of-dental-anatomy
#14
Joe Iwanaga, Koichi Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Saga, R Shane Tubbs, Kengo Tanaka, Shogo Kikuta, Yoko Tabira, Chistian Fisahn, Yasuhiko Kamura, Jingo Kusukawa, Koh-Ichi Yamaki
INTRODUCTION: Cone-beam computed tomography gives us much useful morphological information about the mandibular bone. Many studies of the mandible include findings from this technique. However, there have been no endoscopic studies of the mandible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen sides of eight dry mandibles resected from cadavers (age range 38-83 years) were examined by endoscopy. The head of the endoscope was 2.0 mm in diameter. We examined the mandibular foramen, lingula, mylohyoid groove and mandibular canal...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677057/forensic-age-estimation-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-knee-the-definite-relevance-in-bony-fusion-of-the-distal-femoral-and-the-proximal-tibial-epiphyses-using-closest-to-bone-t1-tse-sequence
#15
Christian Ottow, Ronald Schulz, Heidi Pfeiffer, Walter Heindel, Andreas Schmeling, Volker Vieth
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the relevance of the bony fusion of the distal femoral and the proximal tibial epiphyses by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a prospective cross-sectional cohort study was performed with a special focus on a reliable determination of the 14th, 16th and 18th years of life. METHODS: We scanned 658 German volunteers in the age bracket 12-24 years using a 3.0 T MR-scanner and utilising a T1 turbo spin-echo sequence representing true bone anatomy...
July 4, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676358/anatomy-and-physiology-of-the-pelvic-floor
#16
REVIEW
Sarah M Eickmeyer
Understanding the anatomic relationship of the pelvic floor muscles with the pelvic girdle, spine, and hips aids the rehabilitation provider in diagnosis, management, and appropriate referrals. The bony anatomy of the pelvic girdle consists of 3 bones and 3 joints. The pelvic floor muscles are comprised mainly of the levator ani muscles with somatic innervation from the lumbosacral plexus. The bony and muscular pelvis is highly interconnected to the hip and gluteal musculature, which together provide support to the internal organs and core muscles...
August 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674653/the-comparative-osteology-of-plesiochelys-bigleri-n-sp-a-new-coastal-marine-turtle-from-the-late-jurassic-of-porrentruy-switzerland
#17
Christian Püntener, Jérémy Anquetin, Jean-Paul Billon-Bruyat
BACKGROUND: During the Late Jurassic, several groups of eucryptodiran turtles inhabited the shallow epicontinental seas of Western Europe. Plesiochelyidae are an important part of this first radiation of crown-group turtles into coastal marine ecosystems. Fossils of Plesiochelyidae occur in many European localities, and are especially abundant in the Kimmeridgian layers of the Swiss Jura Mountains (Solothurn and Porrentruy). In the mid-19th century, the quarries of Solothurn (NW Switzerland) already provided a large amount of fossil turtles, most notably Plesiochelys etalloni, the best-known plesiochelyid species...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669310/comparing-cancellous-bone-volume-of-the-manubrium-to-iliac-crest-in-fresh-cadavers
#18
Aaron Smith, Sarah Kortebein, Anas Eid, John Boughter, Nathan Cary, Jeffrey Brooks, Merry Sebelik
Objective The iliac crest is the gold standard for cancellous bone grafting. This site is distant from head and neck reconstruction and may lead to significant postoperative morbidity. We propose an alternative harvest site within the head and neck with potentially less mobility deficits, the manubrium. Study Design Fresh-frozen cadaveric study. Setting Gross anatomy laboratory. Subjects and Methods Access to 18 cadavers was granted from the Medical Education and Research Institute in Memphis, Tennessee. The anterior iliac crests were exposed and H-type osteotomies performed...
July 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666703/a-comparative-study-of-med-el-fmt-attachment-to-the-long-process-of-the-incus-in-intact-middle-ears-and-its-attachment-to-disarticulated-stapes-head
#19
Tao Chen, Liu-Jie Ren, Dong-Ming Yin, Jia Li, Lin Yang, Pei-Dong Dai, Tian-Yu Zhang
The Vibrant Soundbridge(©) (VSB) active middle-ear implant provides an effective treatment for mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss in the case of normal middle ear anatomy and mixed hearing loss in middle ear malformation. The VSB floating mass transducer (FMT), with proper couplers, can be installed on various structures of the ossicular chain, e.g., the short and long process of the incus, the stapes head, and the stapes footplate. A long process (LP) coupler is most commonly used for FMT attachment to the long process of the incus with intact ossicular chain, while CliP and Bell couplers are two standardized and reliable methods for FMT attachment to the stapes head with missing incus and malleus...
June 23, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666671/arthroscopic-management-of-elbow-osteoarthritis
#20
REVIEW
Leo T Kroonen, Samantha L Piper, Andrew C Ghatan
The incidence of osteoarthritis in the general population is low, but it can be seen in manual laborers, throwing athletes, and people dependent on crutches and wheelchairs. Patients often complain of pain at the terminal extents of motion, and imaging shows osteophyte formation at the tips of the coronoid and olecranon processes as well as thickening of the bone between the coronoid and the olecranon fossae. Recent advances in arthroscopic instrumentation and techniques have led to a growing interest in the arthroscopic treatment of elbow osteoarthritis...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
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