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Bone anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155874/morphological-characteristics-of-diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-in-the-cervical-spine
#1
Jessica T Bakker, Jonneke S Kuperus, Hugo J Kuijf, F Cumhur Oner, Pim A de Jong, Jorrit-Jan Verlaan
OBJECTIVES: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is characterized by anterior ossification of the spine and can lead to dysphagia and airway obstruction. The morphology of the newly formed bone in the cervical spine is different compared to the thoracic spine, possibly due to dissimilarities in local vascular anatomy. In this study the spatial relationship of the new bone with the arterial system, trachea and esophagus was analyzed and compared between subjects with and without DISH...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152182/selective-regimes-and-functional-anatomy-in-the-mustelid-forelimb-diversification-toward-specializations-for-climbing-digging-and-swimming
#2
Brandon M Kilbourne
Anatomical traits associated with locomotion often exhibit specializations for ecological niche, suggesting that locomotor specializations may constitute selective regimes acting on limb skeletal traits. To test this, I sampled 42 species of Mustelidae, encompassing climbing, digging, and swimming specialists, and determined whether trait variation reflects locomotor specialization by performing a principal components analysis on 14 forelimb traits. In addition to Brownian motion models, three Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of selective regimes were applied to PC scores describing trait variation among mustelids: one without a priori defined phenotypic optima, one with optima based upon locomotor habit, and one with a single phenotypic optimum...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150315/surgical-options-for-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fractures-complicated-with-spinal-deformity-and-neurologic-deficit
#3
Kalliopi Alpantaki, Michael Dohm, Panagiotis Korovessis, Alexander G Hadjipavlou
INTRODUCTION: This paper describes surgical options for Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) with acute flexible or chronic rigid kyphosis, and pseudarthrosis complicated with pain and neurologic deficit. METHODS: This study has two components. a) A prospective clinical study of surgical treatment of 31 patients (age: 69±11 years) with either acute flexible or progressive pseudarthrotic kyphosis manifested with severe pain or neurological deficit between 2010 and 2014...
November 12, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149982/marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-effectively-reduce-histologic-changes-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-renal-allograft-rejection
#4
P Yu, Z Wang, Y Liu, Z Xiao, Y Guo, M Li, M Zhao
BACKGROUND: Chronic allograft rejection remains as the leading cause of the chronic renal grafts loss post-transplantation. No therapy has been found really effective to prevent and treat chronic allograft rejection. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have characteristics of immunomodulation and are expected to be used for inducing graft immune tolerance in organ transplantation. We investigated the efficacy and safety of early infusion of donor-derived marrow MSCs in a rat model of chronic renal allograft rejection...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145401/anatomically-specific-intratubular-and-interstitial-biominerals-in-the-human-renal-medullo-papillary-complex
#5
Ling Chen, Ryan S Hsi, Feifei Yang, Benjamin A Sherer, Marshall L Stoller, Sunita P Ho
Limited information exists on the anatomically-specific early stage events leading to clinically detectable mineral aggregates in the renal papilla. In this study, quantitative multiscale correlative maps of structural, elemental and biochemical properties of whole medullo-papillary complexes from human kidneys were developed. Correlative maps of properties specific to the uriniferous and vascular tubules using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and immunolocalization of noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) along with their association with anatomy specific biominerals were obtained...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144891/a-plea-for-an-extension-of-the-anatomical-nomenclature-the-locomotor-system
#6
REVIEW
Vladimir Musil, Alzbeta Blankova, Vaclav Baca
Anatomical nomenclature is the main tool of communication in morphology, anatomy and other medical disciplines as well as in medical education, and thus needs to be exact, flawless, elaborate and correct. The Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is a thorough and extensive list of anatomical terms and their definitions, and the current standard for human anatomical terminology. Although several revisions to the TA have been made in the last 20 years, some important anatomical structures are still not included. This article is aimed at correcting and extending the anatomical nomenclature described in the TA...
November 16, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138871/revision-shoulder-arthroplasty-with-a%C3%A2-reverse-shoulder-prosthesis-use-of-structural-allograft-for-glenoid-bone-loss
#7
S E Ozgur, R Sadeghpour, T R Norris
INTRODUCTION: Revision shoulder arthroplasty presents many unique and complex challenges when glenoid bone loss is involved. A distorted and medialized anatomy prevents the proper mechanics of the reverse prosthesis with regard to deltoid tension and ultimate function. This paper highlights one surgeon's experience using structural allograft for glenoid bone loss. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 20 patients for a total of 24 surgeries with a medialized glenoid and/or substantial glenoid bone loss of grade IIB or higher were evaluated in this retrospective study...
November 14, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135880/histological-osteoarthritic-changes-in-the-human-cervical-spine-facet-joints-related-to-age-and-gender
#8
Lars Uhrenholt, Annie Vesterby Charles, Markil Gregersen, Jan Hartvigsen, Ellen-Margrethe Hauge
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional autopsy study. OBJECTIVE: Quantify histological changes in the lower cervical spine facet joints with regard to age and gender using systematic random sampling of entire joints. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a common debilitating musculoskeletal condition and one of the highest ranked causes of years lived with disability. The cause of neck pain is multifactorial and osteoarthritis is one potential cause...
November 10, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134161/pneumatization-patterns-of-the-petrous-apex-and-lateral-sphenoid-recess
#9
Alexander Malone, Margherita Bruni, Robert Wong, Mark Tabor, K Paul Boyev
Introduction  The petrous apex poses a challenge for surgical intervention due to poor access. As intraoperative image guidance and surgical instrumentation improve, newer endoscopic approaches are increasingly favored. This study aims to provide normative data on the anatomy of the lateral sphenoid sinus recess and petrous apex. These normative data could assist in determining the efficacy of a transnasal transsphenoidal approach to lesions of the anteroinferior petrous apex. Methods  This is a retrospective study investigating normative data on all maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) scans performed at a level I trauma center over a 6-month period...
December 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131389/a-new-porcine-vascularized-tibial-bone-allotransplantation-model-anatomy-and-surgical-technique
#10
Dimitra Kotsougiani, Joost I Willems, Alexander Y Shin, Patricia F Friedrich, Caroline A Hundepool, Allen T Bishop
INTRODUCTION: Vascularized bone allotransplantation may provide new options for reconstruction of segmental defects if problems of long-term immune modulation can be solved. The current literature lacks an orthotopic large animal model, limited to bone and without the confounding effects of other tissue types, permitting a multifaceted evaluation before new methods are used clinically. The purpose of this study was to develop a large animal model for vascularized bone allotransplantation...
November 13, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129577/pelvic-bone-anatomy-vs-implanted-gold-seed-marker-registration-for-image-guided-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-for-prostate-carcinoma-comparative-analysis-of-inter-fraction-motion-and-toxicities
#11
Madhup Rastogi, Sambit Swarup Nanda, Ajeet Kumar Gandhi, Divakar Dalela, Rohini Khurana, Surendra Prasad Mishra, Anoop Srivastava, S Farzana, Madan Lal Brahma Bhatt, Nuzhat Husain
OBJECTIVES: We compared the prostate motion variability and toxicities between patients treated with gold marker registration based IG-IMRT (IG-IMRT-M) and bony landmark registration based IG-IMRT (IG-IMRT-B). METHODS: T1c-T3b (node negative), intermediate and high risk (non-metastatic) adenocarcinoma of prostate, age ≥18years, Karnofsky Performance Status of ≥70 were included in this retrospective study. The prostate motion variability, acute and late radiation toxicities between the two treatment arms (IG-IMRT-M versus IG-IMRT-B) were compared...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123273/in-vivo-imaging-of-the-microvasculature-of-the-soft-tissue-margins-of-osteonecrotic-jaw-lesions
#12
P Bastos, V Patel, F Festy, N Hosny, R J Cook
Introduction Given the increasing incidence of medication-related jaw osteonecrosis, and recognition of the mucosal blood supply's importance, we have developed a non-invasive Real Time Optical Vascular Imaging (RTOVI) instrument. Imaging the red blood cells within the sub-mucosal capillary networks demonstrates the microcirculatory anatomy. We report a small trial, demonstrating the technique's viability, examining mucosal microcirculatory changes adjacent to osteonecrotic lesions.Aims Imaging the microvasculature of soft tissue margins of patients' exposed necrotic bone lesions in situ was intended to provide unique observational as well as quantitative data, using an image analysis routine, based on ImageJ software...
November 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122452/estimated-landmark-calibration-of-biomechanical-models-for-inverse-kinematics
#13
Ursula Trinler, Richard Baker
Inverse kinematics is emerging as the optimal method in movement analysis to fit a multi-segment biomechanical model to experimental marker positions. A key part of this process is calibrating the model to the dimensions of the individual being analysed which requires scaling of the model, pose estimation and localisation of tracking markers within the relevant segment coordinate systems. The aim of this study is to propose a generic technique for this process and test a specific application to the OpenSim model Gait2392...
November 6, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122120/comparison-of-volar-and-dorsal-plate-osteosynthesis-for-radial-shaft-fractures-an-anatomical-pilot-study
#14
Patrick Holweg, Gloria M Hohenberger, Angelika M Schwarz, Mario Staresinic, Renate Krassnig, Stephan Grechenig
BACKGROUND: No publication has yet described the interface between the radius and the plate in various positions. Neither clinical examination nor assessment of fracture radiographs provides information about the anatomy of the radius before injury. PURPOSE: We investigated radius anatomy to analyse dorsal and volar plate-to-bone fit for radial shaft fracture management. METHODS: We examined 20 specimens from human adult cadavers. An 8-hole 3...
November 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119039/osirix-software-as-a-preoperative-planning-tool-in-cranial-neurosurgery-a-step-by-step-guide-for-neurosurgical-residents
#15
REVIEW
Toma Spiriev, Vladimir Nakov, Lili Laleva, Christo Tzekov
Background: OsiriX (Pixmeo, Switzerland) is an open-source Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) viewer that is gaining more and more attention in the neurosurgical community because of its user-friendly interface, powerful three-dimensional (3D) volumetric rendering capabilities, and various options for data integration. This paper presents in detail the use of OsiriX software as a preoperative planning tool in cranial neurosurgery. Methods: In January 2013, OsiriX software was introduced into our clinical practice as a preoperative planning tool...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117061/three-dimensional-analysis-of-the-fundus-of-the-human-internal-acoustic-canal
#16
Nadine Schart-Morén, Sune Larsson, Helge Rask-Andersen, Hao Li
OBJECTIVES: Documentation of the nerve components in the internal acoustic canal is essential before cochlea implantation surgery. Interpretations may be challenged by wide anatomical variations of the VIIIth nerve and their ramifications. Malformations may further defy proper nerve identification. DESIGN: Using microcomputed tomography, we analyzed the fundus bone channels in an archival collection of 113 macerated human temporal bones and 325 plastic inner molds...
November 7, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112481/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-central-auditory-pathways-in-patients-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss-a-systematic-review
#17
Osama Tarabichi, Elliott D Kozin, Vivek V Kanumuri, Samuel Barber, Satra Ghosh, Kevin R Sitek, Katherine Reinshagen, Barbara Herrmann, Aaron K Remenschneider, Daniel J Lee
Objective The radiologic evaluation of patients with hearing loss includes computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to highlight temporal bone and cochlear nerve anatomy. The central auditory pathways are often not studied for routine clinical evaluation. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an emerging MRI-based modality that can reveal microstructural changes in white matter. In this systematic review, we summarize the value of DTI in the detection of structural changes of the central auditory pathways in patients with sensorineural hearing loss...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110185/positioning-error-of-custom-3d-printed-surgical-guides-for-the-radius-influence-of-fitting-location-and-guide-design
#18
G Caiti, J G G Dobbe, G J Strijkers, S D Strackee, G J Streekstra
PURPOSE: Utilization of 3D-printed patient-specific surgical guides is a promising navigation approach for orthopedic surgery. However, navigation errors can arise if the guide is not correctly positioned at the planned bone location, compromising the surgical outcome. Quantitative measurements of guide positioning errors are rarely reported and have never been related to guide design and underlying bone anatomy. In this study, the positioning accuracy of a standard and an extended guide design with lateral extension is evaluated at different fitting locations (distal, mid-shaft and proximal) on the volar side of the radius...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105591/treatment-of-the-scaphoid-humpback-deformity-is-correction-of-the-dorsal-intercalated-segment-instability-deformity-critical
#19
Christophe L Mathoulin, Margareta Arianni
Treatment of scaphoid fractures has been focused mainly on achieving union, with less attention to restoring normal scaphoid shape and orientation. Malalignment of one carpal bone will disrupt the kinetics of the entire wrist. The dorsal intercalated segment instability deformity associated with scaphoid waist nonunion is a nondissociative form of carpal instability. It has to be reduced in the treatment of scaphoid waist nonunions to avoid kinetic problems that will lead to arthritic changes. Computerized tomography scanning has become indispensable to visualize the humpback deformity clearly...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102769/a-scale-space-curvature-matching-algorithm-for-the-reconstruction-of-complex-proximal-humeral-fractures
#20
Lazaros Vlachopoulos, Gábor Székely, Christian Gerber, Philipp Fürnstahl
The optimal surgical treatment of complex fractures of the proximal humerus is controversial. It is proven that best results are obtained if an anatomical reduction of the fragments is achieved and, therefore, computer-assisted methods have been proposed for the reconstruction of the fractures. However, complex fractures of the proximal humerus are commonly accompanied with a relevant displacement of the fragments and, therefore, algorithms relying on the initial position of the fragments might fail. The state-of-the-art algorithm for complex fractures of the proximal humerus requires the acquisition of a CT scan of the (healthy) contralateral anatomy as a reconstruction template to address the displacement of the fragments...
October 27, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
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