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Commercial Drivers

Brenda Burgess, Melania Melis, Katelyn Scoular, Michael Driver, Karen M Schaich, Kathleen L Keller, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa, Beverly J Tepper
Previous studies demonstrate humans can detect fatty acids via specialized sensors on the tongue, such as the CD36 receptor. Genetic variation at the common single nucleotide polymorphism rs1761667 of CD36 has been shown to differentially impact the perception of fatty acids, but comparative data among different ethnic groups are lacking. In a small cohort of Caucasian and East Asian young adults, we investigated if: (1) participants could detect oleic acid (C18:1) added to safflower oil emulsions at a constant ratio of 3% (w/v); (2) supplementation of oleic acid to safflower oil emulsions enhanced perception of fattiness and creaminess; and (3) variation at rs1761667 influenced oleic acid detection and fat taste perception...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Eva Junqué, Mercè Garí, Rosa Maria Llull, Joan O Grimalt
An integrated assessment of lean fish of commercial value as Hg and organochlorine compound source into the population of the Balearic Islands were reported. Dependences between pollutant concentrations, trophic level, fish species, specimen weight and physical-chemical properties were evaluated. Hg and total DDTs showed highest variability between fish species whereas PCBs and HCB displayed more constant median values. The organochlorine compounds found in highest concentrations were those with highest hydrophobicity, consistently with their higher bioaccumulation potential...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Daniel Mollicone, Kevin Kan, Chris Mott, Rachel Bartels, Steve Bruneau, Matthew van Wollen, Amy R Sparrow, Hans P A Van Dongen
Fatigue causes decrements in vigilant attention and reaction time and is a major safety hazard in the trucking industry. There is a need to quantify the relationship between driver fatigue and safety in terms of operationally relevant measures. Hard-braking events are a suitable measure for this purpose as they are relatively easily observed and are correlated with collisions and near-crashes. We developed an analytic approach that predicts driver fatigue based on a biomathematical model and then estimates hard-braking events as a function of predicted fatigue, controlling for time of day to account for systematic variations in exposure (traffic density)...
April 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Florence Malongane, Lyndy J McGaw, Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Fhatuwani N Mudau
Increased preference to herbal drinks has led to global interest in the use and production of different plant species for the preparation of various drink formulations. Medicinal properties derived from bioactive compounds remain the main driver of choice for herbal teas. This study determined the chemical variation in honeybush, rooibos, special and bush tea, profiled compounds responsible for such differences and compared their peak areas. Nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine compound variation and profiling...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Christian Ezeibe, Chukwudi Ilo, Chika Oguonu, Alphonsus Ali, Ifeanyi Abada, Ezinwanne Ezeibe, Chukwunonso Oguonu, Felicia Abada, Edwin Izueke, Humphrey Agbo
This study assesses the impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria. The participants were 720 commercial vehicle drivers. While simple random sampling was used to select 6 out of 137 federal highways, stratified random sampling was used to select six categories of commercial vehicle drivers. The study used qual-dominant mixed methods approach comprising key informant interviews; group interviews; field observation; policy appraisal and secondary literature on traffic signs. Result shows that the failure of government to provide and maintain traffic signs in order to guide road users through the numerous accident black spots on the highways is the major cause of road accidents in Nigeria...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
R Stuart Haszeldine, Stephanie Flude, Gareth Johnson, Vivian Scott
How will the global atmosphere and climate be protected? Achieving net-zero CO2 emissions will require carbon capture and storage (CCS) to reduce current GHG emission rates, and negative emissions technology (NET) to recapture previously emitted greenhouse gases. Delivering NET requires radical cost and regulatory innovation to impact on climate mitigation. Present NET exemplars are few, are at small-scale and not deployable within a decade, with the exception of rock weathering, or direct injection of CO2 into selected ocean water masses...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Rebecca L Hammond Olson, Susan A Soccolich, Richard J Hanowski
Driver distraction has become an increasing concern over the last decade as portable technology has emerged and its presence while driving has become more common. Driver distraction occurs when inattention leads to a delay in recognition of information necessary to accomplish the driving task. Two recent studies were conducted using a naturalistic data collection method and analysis of driver distraction. The Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Distraction study (Olson et al., 2009) was conducted using heavy truck data, and the Distraction and Drowsiness in Motorcoach Drivers study (Hammond et al...
March 30, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mohammad Ghasemi, Amir Hossein Khoshakhlagh, Ali Ghanjal, Saeid Yazdanirad, Fereydoon Laal
PURPOSE: The objective of this paper aimed to determine the impacts of rest breaks and stretching exercises on low back pain (LBP) in commercial truck drivers. METHODS: This quasi-experiment was carried out on 92 truck drivers suffering from chronic LBP. Subjects were categorized into 3 groups (stretching exercises and rest breaks, rest breaks only, and reference). Pain severity and related disability were measured at the beginning of the survey and after 6 and 12 weeks...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Simon Patrick Barr, Ernie W Hill, Ardeshir Bayat
Background: Silicone elastomer, a ubiquitous biomaterial and main constituent of breast implants, has been used for breast augmentation and reconstruction for over 50 years. Breast implants have direct local and purported systemic effects on normal tissue homeostasis dictated by the chemical and physical presence of the implant. Objectives: Protein adsorption has been demonstrated to be a key driver of local reactions to silicone. We sought to develop an assay and identify the proteins that coat implants during breast implantation...
March 26, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass
Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in commercial poultry flocks are rare but highly disruptive to the industry. There is evidence that low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) can transfer from wild birds to domestic flocks, where it may mutate to HPAI, and the industry is concerned that an increasing demand for free-range produce may affect the risk of LPAI and HPAI outbreaks. In this paper we focus on LPAI introduction and establishment, and formulate a branching process model to compare risk between sectors and their contribution to overall industry-level risk...
March 23, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Ido Massad, Sagi Dalyot
Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) used for the representation of the bare earth are produced from elevation data obtained using high-end mapping platforms and technologies. These require the handling of complex post-processing performed by authoritative and commercial mapping agencies. In this research, we aim to exploit user-generated data to produce DTMs by handling massive volumes of position and elevation data collected using ubiquitous smartphone devices equipped with Assisted-GPS sensors. As massive position and elevation data are collected passively and straightforwardly by pedestrians, cyclists, and drivers, it can be transformed into valuable topographic information...
March 17, 2018: Sensors
Michael K Lemke, Yorghos Apostolopoulos, Adam Hege, Sharon Newnam, Sevil Sönmez
INTRODUCTION: Long-haul truck drivers experience poor sleep health and heightened accident rates, and undiagnosed sleep disorders contribute to these negative outcomes. Subjective sleep disorder screening tools may aid in detecting drivers' sleep disorders. This study sought to evaluate the value of subjective screening methods for detecting latent sleep disorders and identifying truck drivers at-risk for poor sleep health and safety-relevant performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from 260 long-haul truck drivers, we: 1) used factor analysis to identify possible latent sleep disorders; 2) explored the construct validity of extracted sleep disorder factors by determining their associations with established sleep disorder risk factors and symptoms; and 3) explored the predictive validity of resulting sleep disorder factors by determining their associations with sleep health and safety-relevant performance...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Katherine A Farquharson, Carolyn J Hogg, Catherine E Grueber
Successfully establishing captive breeding programs is a priority across diverse industries to address food security, demand for ethical laboratory research animals, and prevent extinction. Differences in reproductive success due to birth origin may threaten the long-term sustainability of captive breeding. Our meta-analysis examining 115 effect sizes from 44 species of invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals shows that, overall, captive-born animals have a 42% decreased odds of reproductive success in captivity compared to their wild-born counterparts...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Suresh Neethirajan, Vasanth Ragavan, Xuan Weng, Rohit Chand
Current food production faces tremendous challenges from growing human population, maintaining clean resources and food qualities, and protecting climate and environment. Food sustainability is mostly a cooperative effort resulting in technology development supported by both governments and enterprises. Multiple attempts have been promoted in tackling challenges and enhancing drivers in food production. Biosensors and biosensing technologies with their applications, are being widely applied to tackling top challenges in food production and its sustainability...
March 12, 2018: Biosensors
Hal S Stern, Daniel Blower, Michael L Cohen, Charles A Czeisler, David F Dinges, Joel B Greenhouse, Feng Guo, Richard J Hanowski, Natalie P Hartenbaum, Gerald P Krueger, Melissa M Mallis, Richard F Pain, Matthew Rizzo, Esha Sinha, Dylan S Small, Elizabeth A Stuart, David H Wegman
This article summarizes the recommendations on data and methodology issues for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue of a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine study. A framework is provided that identifies the various factors affecting driver fatigue and relating driver fatigue to crash risk and long-term driver health. The relevant factors include characteristics of the driver, vehicle, carrier and environment. Limitations of existing data are considered and potential sources of additional data described...
March 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Obieze Chiemeka Nwanna-Nzewunwa, Marquise Kouo Ngamby, Elinor Shetter, Georges Alain Etoundi Mballa, Isabelle Feldhaus, Martin Ekeke Monono, Adnan A Hyder, Rochelle Dicker, Kent A Stevens, Catherine Juillard
INTRODUCTION: About 54% of deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are attributable to lack of prehospital care. The single largest contributor to the disability-adjusted life years due to poor prehospital care is injury. Despite having disproportionately high injury burdens, most LMIC trauma systems have little prehospital organization. An understanding of existing prehospital care patterns in LMICs is warranted as a precursor to strengthening prehospital systems. METHODS: In this retrospective pilot study, we collected demographic and injury characteristics, therapeutic itinerary, and transport data of patients that were captured by the trauma registry at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé (CHY) from April 15, 2009 to October 15, 2009...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Rui Zhai, Jinguang Hu, Jack N Saddler
In this study, the influence of major hemicellulosic sugars (mannose and xylose) on cellulose hydrolysis and major enzyme activities were evaluated by using both commercial enzyme cocktail and purified cellulase monocomponents over a "library" of cellulosic substrates. Surprisingly, the results showed that unlike glucose, mannose/xylose did not inhibit individual cellulase activities but significantly decreased their hydrolytic performance on cellulose substrates. When various enzyme-substrate interactions (e...
December 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Masako Ueyama, Hiroyuki Kokuto, Hitoshi Sugihara, Shinichi Oikawa, Fumio Suzuki, Hajime Goto, Shoji Kudoh
AIMS: The identification and appropriate management of commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers with unrecognized obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major public health concern and priority; OSA among drivers has not been fully investigated in Japan, and a better understanding of this undiagnosed disease is warranted. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of OSA and the factors related to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in Japanese CMV drivers. METHODS: This retrospective study included 1309 Japanese CMV drivers aged 40-69 years...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Jason D Wright, Laura J Havrilesky, David E Cohn, Yongmei Huang, Jill Rathbun, Laurel W Rice, Carol L Brown, Ronald D Alvarez, Emily M Ko
OBJECTIVE: To design an endometrial cancer (EC) alternative payment (ECAP) model focused on surgical management of EC, as well as identify drivers of cost in order to develop opportunities for cost-savings while maintaining quality of care. METHODS: National practice patterns and reimbursements were compared between private payers (MarketScan data, years 2009-13) and public payers (Medicare, year 2014) of EC patients who underwent hysterectomy. An episode of care for EC included the hysterectomy, stratified by surgical approach (laparotomy versus robotic versus laparoscopy), and in- and outpatient reimbursements from 30days preoperatively to 60days postoperatively...
February 26, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
S Charles Doret
We present an inexpensive, low-noise (<260 μVrms , 0.1 Hz-100 kHz) design for a piezo driver suitable for frequency tuning of external-cavity diode lasers. This simple driver improves upon many commercially available drivers by incorporating circuitry to produce a "feed-forward" signal appropriate for making simultaneous adjustments to the piezo voltage and laser current, enabling dramatic improvements in a mode-hop-free laser frequency tuning range. We present the theory behind our driver's operation, characterize its output noise, and demonstrate its use in absorption spectroscopy on the rubidium D1 line...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
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