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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457134/trophic-signatures-of-seabirds-suggest-shifts-in-oceanic-ecosystems
#1
Tyler O Gagne, K David Hyrenbach, Molly E Hagemann, Kyle S Van Houtan
Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level-based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher-trophic level to lower-trophic level prey...
February 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430151/azoospermia-factor-c-subregion-of-the-y-chromosome
#2
REVIEW
Mili Nailwal, Jenabhai B Chauhan
The azoospermia factor (AZF) region on the Y chromosome consists of genes required for spermatogenesis. Among the three subregions, the AZFc subregion located at the distal portion of AZF is the driver for genetic variation in Y chromosome. The candidate gene of AZFc is known as deleted in azoospermia gene, which is studied with interest because it is involved in germ cell development and most frequently deleted genes leading to oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Recently, two partial deletions in AZFc gr/gr and b2/b3 are characterized at the molecular level which showed homologous recombination between amplicons, affecting spermatogenesis process...
October 2017: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423533/biologically-validating-the-measurement-of-oxytocin-in-western-lowland-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-urine-and-saliva-using-a-commercial-enzyme-immunoassay
#3
Austin Leeds, Patricia M Dennis, Kristen E Lukas, Tara S Stoinski, Mark A Willis, Mandi W Schook
The neuroendocrine hormone oxytocin, which is an important physiological driver of social behavior and bonding, is increasingly being measured in conjunction with behavior to better understand primate sociality. However, no data are available on oxytocin concentrations within the genus Gorilla, even though the members of this genus are of great interest to researchers due to their close genetic relatedness to humans and their tolerance-based social system. The purpose of this study was to validate the measurement of urinary and salivary oxytocin in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to facilitate future study of the interaction between oxytocin and behavior in this subspecies...
February 8, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397874/prevalence-of-operator-fatigue-in-winter-maintenance-operations
#4
Matthew C Camden, Alejandra Medina-Flintsch, Jeffrey S Hickman, James Bryce, Gerardo Flintsch, Richard J Hanowski
Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations...
February 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370273/growth-performance-and-survival-of-larval-atlantic-herring-under-the-combined-effects-of-elevated-temperatures-and-co2
#5
Michael Sswat, Martina H Stiasny, Fredrik Jutfelt, Ulf Riebesell, Catriona Clemmesen
In the coming decades, environmental change like warming and acidification will affect life in the ocean. While data on single stressor effects on fish are accumulating rapidly, we still know relatively little about interactive effects of multiple drivers. Of particular concern in this context are the early life stages of fish, for which direct effects of increased CO2 on growth and development have been observed. Whether these effects are further modified by elevated temperature was investigated here for the larvae of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), a commercially important fish species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366873/modeling-marek-s-disease-virus-transmission-a-framework-for-evaluating-the-impact-of-farming-practices-and-evolution
#6
David A Kennedy, Patricia A Dunn, Andrew F Read
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a pathogen of chickens whose control has twice been undermined by pathogen evolution. Disease ecology is believed to be the main driver of this evolution, yet mathematical models of MDV disease ecology have never been confronted with data to test their reliability. Here, we develop a suite of MDV models that differ in the ecological mechanisms they include. We fit these models with maximum likelihood using iterated filtering in 'pomp' to data on MDV concentration in dust collected from two commercial broiler farms...
January 10, 2018: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313024/evolving-trends-in-mab-production-processes
#7
REVIEW
Abhinav A Shukla, Leslie S Wolfe, Sigma S Mostafa, Carnley Norman
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have established themselves as the leading biopharmaceutical therapeutic modality. The establishment of robust manufacturing platforms are key for antibody drug discovery efforts to seamlessly translate into clinical and commercial successes. Several drivers are influencing the design of mAb manufacturing processes. The advent of biosimilars is driving a desire to achieve lower cost of goods and globalize biologics manufacturing. High titers are now routinely achieved for mAbs in mammalian cell culture...
March 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301221/low-cost-servomotor-driver-for-pfm-control
#8
David Aragon-Jurado, Arturo Morgado-Estevez, Fernando Perez-Peña
Servomotors have already been around for some decades and they are extremely popular among roboticists due to their simple control technique, reliability and low-cost. They are usually controlled by using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and this paper aims to keep the idea of simplicity and low-cost, while introducing a new control technique: Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM). The objective of this paper is to focus on our development of a low-cost servomotor controller which will allow the research community to use them with PFM...
December 31, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290146/multifunctional-role-of-35-kilodalton-hyaluronan-in-promoting-defense-of-the-intestinal-epithelium
#9
Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Kourtney P Nickerson, Aaron C Petrey, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Intestinal epithelium plays a critical role in host defense against orally acquired pathogens. Dysregulation of this protective barrier is a primary driver of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's and ulcerative colitis) and also infant gastrointestinal infections. Previously, our lab reported that hyaluronan (HA) isolated from human milk induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin in vivo and protects against Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated that commercially available 35 kDa size HA induces the expression of β-defensin, upregulates the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and attenuates murine Citrobacter rodentium infection in vivo...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283352/ultraino-an-open-phased-array-system-for-narrowband-airborne-ultrasound-transmission
#10
Asier Marzo, Tom Corkett, Bruce W Drinkwater
Modern ultrasonic phased-array controllers are electronic systems capable of delaying the transmitted or received signals of multiple transducers. Configurable transmit-receive array systems, capable of electronic steering and shaping of the beam in near real-time, are available commercially, for example, for medical imaging. However, emerging applications, such as ultrasonic haptics, parametric audio, or ultrasonic levitation, require only a small subset of the capabilities provided by the existing controllers...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279246/complement-system-biomarkers-in-first-episode-psychosis
#11
Maja Kopczynska, Wioleta Zelek, Samuel Touchard, Fiona Gaughran, Marta Di Forti, Valeria Mondelli, Robin Murray, Michael C O'Donovan, B Paul Morgan
Several lines of evidence implicate immunological/inflammatory factors in development of schizophrenia. Complement is a key driver of inflammation, and complement dysregulation causes pathology in many diseases. Here we explored whether complement dysregulation occurred in first episode psychosis (FEP) and whether this provides a source of biomarkers. Eleven complement analytes (C1q, C3, C4, C5, factor B [FB], terminal complement complex [TCC], factor H [FH], FH-related proteins [FHR125], Properdin, C1 inhibitor [C1inh], soluble complement receptor 1 [CR1]) plus C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in serum from 136 first episode psychosis (FEP) cases and 42 mentally healthy controls using established in-house or commercial ELISA...
December 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226033/patterns-in-artisanal-coral-reef-fisheries-revealed-through-local-monitoring-efforts
#12
David G Delaney, Lida T Teneva, Kostantinos A Stamoulis, Jonatha L Giddens, Haruko Koike, Tom Ogawa, Alan M Friedlander, John N Kittinger
Sustainable fisheries management is key to restoring and maintaining ecological function and benefits to people, but it requires accurate information about patterns of resource use, particularly fishing pressure. In most coral reef fisheries and other data-poor contexts, obtaining such information is challenging and remains an impediment to effective management. We developed the most comprehensive regional view of shore-based fishing effort and catch published to date, to show detailed fishing patterns from across the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225599/promoter-specificity-and-efficacy-in-conditional-and-inducible-transgenic-targeting-of-lung-macrophages
#13
Alexandra L McCubbrey, Kristen C Allison, Alisa B Lee-Sherick, Claudia V Jakubzick, William J Janssen
Conditional and inducible Cre-loxP systems are used to target gene deletion to specific cell lineages and tissues through promoter-restricted expression of the bacterial DNA recombinase, Cre. Although Cre-loxP systems are widely used to target gene deletion in lung macrophages, limited data are published on the specificity and efficiency of "macrophage targeting" Cre lines. Using R26-stopfl/fl-TdTomato and tetOn-GFP reporter lines, we assessed the specificity and efficiency of four commercially available Cre driver lines that are often considered "macrophage specific...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224165/helper-dependent-chain-reaction-hdcr-for-selective-amplification-of-methylated-dna-sequences
#14
Susan M Mitchell, Keith N Rand, Zheng-Zhou Xu, Thu Ho, Glenn S Brown, Jason P Ross, Peter L Molloy
Over the last few years a number of restriction enzymes that cut DNA only if cytosines within their recognition sequences are methylated have been characterized and become commercially available. Cleavage with these enzymes to release DNA fragments in a methylation-dependent manner can be combined with a novel method of amplification, Helper Dependent Chain Reaction (HDCR), to selectively amplify these fragments. HDCR uses "Helper" oligonucleotides as templates for extension of the free 3' end of target fragments to incorporate tag sequences at the ends of fragments...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201347/the-creation-and-evaluation-of-a-model-to-simulate-the-probability-of-conception-in-seasonal-calving-pasture-based-dairy-heifers
#15
Caroline Fenlon, Luke O'Grady, Stephen Butler, Michael L Doherty, John Dunnion
Background: Herd fertility in pasture-based dairy farms is a key driver of farm economics. Models for predicting nulliparous reproductive outcomes are rare, but age, genetics, weight, and BCS have been identified as factors influencing heifer conception. The aim of this study was to create a simulation model of heifer conception to service with thorough evaluation. Methods: Artificial Insemination service records from two research herds and ten commercial herds were provided to build and evaluate the models...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182662/threats-from-urban-expansion-agricultural-transformation-and-forest-loss-on-global-conservation-priority-areas
#16
Victoria Veach, Atte Moilanen, Enrico Di Minin
Including threats in spatial conservation prioritization helps identify areas for conservation actions where biodiversity is at imminent risk of extinction. At the global level, an important limitation when identifying spatial priorities for conservation actions is the lack of information on the spatial distribution of threats. Here, we identify spatial conservation priorities under three prominent threats to biodiversity (residential and commercial development, agricultural expansion, and forest loss), which are primary drivers of habitat loss and threaten the persistence of the highest number of species in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, and for which spatial data is available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181493/neflamapimod-clinical-phase-2b-ready-oral-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-p38%C3%AE-to-reverse-synaptic-dysfunction-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
J Alam, K Blackburn, D Patrick
Neflamapimod (previously code named VX-745) is a clinical phase 2b-ready highly specific inhibitor of the intra-cellular enzyme p38 mitogen activated protein kinase alpha ("p38α") that is being developed as a disease-modifying drug for Alzheimer's disease (AD) that acts via targeting synaptic dysfunction. Neflamapimod was discovered through a proprietary structure-based drug discovery platform at Vertex Pharmaceuticals, and developed previously by Vertex through to phase 2a in rheumatoid arthritis. EIP Pharma licensed the compound in 2014 for development and commercialization as a treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174330/association-between-commercial-vehicle-driver-at-fault-crashes-involving-sleepiness-fatigue-and-proximity-to-rest-areas-and-truck-stops
#18
Terry L Bunn, Svetla Slavova, Peter J Rock
INTRODUCTION: There is ongoing concern at the national level about the availability of adequate commercial vehicle rest areas and truck stops for commercial vehicle drivers to rest or to wait for a delivery window. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to determine the association between the occurrence of sleepiness/fatigue-related (cases) vs. all other human factor-related commercial vehicle driver at-fault crashes (controls) and proximity to rest areas, weigh stations with rest havens, and truck stops...
November 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135266/fast-metabolite-identification-in-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-metabolomic-studies-statistical-peak-sorting-and-peak-overlap-detection-for-more-reliable-database-queries
#19
Pablo A Hoijemberg, Istvan Pelczer
A lot of time is spent by researchers in the identification of metabolites in NMR-based metabolomic studies. The usual metabolite identification starts employing public or commercial databases to match chemical shifts thought to belong to a given compound. Statistical total correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY), in use for more than a decade, speeds the process by finding statistical correlations among peaks, being able to create a better peak list as input for the database query. However, the (normally not automated) analysis becomes challenging due to the intrinsic issue of peak overlap, where correlations of more than one compound appear in the STOCSY trace...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122353/enteric-methane-emissions-and-their-response-to-agro-ecological-and-livestock-production-systems-dynamics-in-zimbabwe
#20
Walter Svinurai, Farai Mapanda, Dingane Sithole, Elisha N Moyo, Kudzai Ndidzano, Alois Tsiga, Washington Zhakata
Without disregarding its role as one of the key sources of sustainable livelihoods in Zimbabwe and other developing countries, livestock production contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through enteric fermentation. For the livestock sector to complement global efforts to mitigate climate change, accurate estimations of GHG emissions are required. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation in Zimbabwe were quantified over 35years under four production systems and five agro-ecological regions...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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