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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913273/the-endocrine-vitamin-d-system-in-the-gut
#1
Antonio Barbáchano, Asunción Fernández-Barral, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Alba Costales-Carrera, María Jesús Larriba, Alberto Muñoz
The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has important regulatory actions in the gut through endocrine and probably also intracrine, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. By activating the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed at a high level in the small intestine and colon, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates numerous genes that control gut physiology and homeostasis. 1,25(OH)2D3 is a major responsible for epithelial barrier function and calcium and phosphate absorption, and the host's defense against pathogens and the inflammatory response by several types of secretory and immune cells...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908521/neoplastic-diseases-of-the-small-bowel
#2
REVIEW
Emanuele Rondonotti, Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Diana E Yung, Surekha N Reddy, Julius Georgiou, Marco Pennazio
The incidence of small bowel tumors is increasing over time. Until recently, their diagnosis was delayed and it was often reached only at the time of surgery. New diagnostic tools, such as capsule endoscopy, device-assisted enteroscopy, and dedicated small bowel cross-sectional imaging techniques, have been introduced recently in clinical practice. The combination of these tools allows medical practitioners to detect small bowel tumors at an early stage and to reach a definite diagnosis before surgery, thus enabling minimally invasive treatments...
January 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908519/inflammatory-disorders-of-the-small-bowel
#3
REVIEW
Jonathan A Leighton, Shabana F Pasha
The most common small bowel inflammatory disorders include Crohn disease, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) enteropathy, and celiac disease. Capsule endoscopy, computed tomography enterography, and magnetic resonance enterography have a complementary role in the diagnosis of Crohn disease and evaluation of patients with established Crohn disease. The higher risk of capsule retention with known Crohn disease and NSAID enteropathy can be minimized by cross-sectional imaging or the patency capsule. The main role of deep enteroscopy is tissue diagnosis, endoscopic management of small bowel lesions and strictures, and retrieval of retained capsules...
January 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908513/small-bowel-imaging-computed-tomography-enterography-magnetic-resonance-enterography-angiography-and-nuclear-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Jeff L Fidler, Ajit H Goenka, Chad J Fleming, James C Andrews
Radiology examinations play a major role in the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of small bowel diseases and are complementary to endoscopic techniques. Computed tomography enterography and magnetic resonance enterography are the cross-sectional imaging studies of choice for many small bowel diseases. Angiography still plays an important role for catheter-directed therapies. With the emergence of hybrid imaging techniques, radionuclide imaging has shown promise for the evaluation of small bowel bleeding and Crohn disease and may play a larger role in the future...
January 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908510/anatomy-and-physiology-of-the-small-bowel
#5
REVIEW
Neil Volk, Brian Lacy
Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients.
January 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904441/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-of-the-bowel-wall-with-quantitative-assessment-of-crohn-s-disease-activity-in-childhood
#6
Damjana Kljucevsek, Dubravka Vidmar, Darja Urlep, Rok Dezman
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become an established non-invasive, patient-friendly imaging technique which improves the characterization of lesions. In addition, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) provides valuable information concerning perfusion of examined organs. This review addresses current applications of CEUS in children, focused on DCE-US of the bowel wall in patients with Crohn disease, which enables realtime assessment of the bowel wall vascularity with semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of disease activity and response to medical treatment...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898351/a-case-report-of-small-bowel-obstruction-secondary-to-congenital-peritoneal-band-in-adult
#7
Yahmadi Abdelwahed, Rebii Saber, Ben Ismail Imen, Zenaidi Hakim, Zoghlami Ayoub
INTRODUCTION: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is common in adult surgical procedures, mainly due to postoperative adhesions. Acute SBO in adults without history of abdominal surgery, trauma or clinical hernia is less common and has various etiologies. Congenital band is an extremely rare cause. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a two-day history of abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. He had no history of abdominal surgery or any other medical problems...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896155/colonic-atresia-association-with-other-anomalies
#8
Khaled M El-Asmar, Mohammed Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid A El-Kassaby, Mohamed H Soliman, Mosad M El-Behery
BACKGROUND: Colonic atresia (CA) is a rare form of congenital intestinal atresia. Although CA may be isolated, it is more commonly reported in literature in association with other congenital anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a review of prospectively collected data of all the patients with colonic atresia presented to our center (Ain Shams University) during 2008 to 2016. RESULTS: Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. The atresia was of type I in one case, type II in four cases, type IIIa in six cases, type IV in one case...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895873/value-of-computerized-tomography-enterography-in-predicting-crohn-s-disease-activity-correlation-with-crohn-s-disease-activity-index-and-c-reactive-protein
#9
Eun Kyung Park, Na Yeon Han, Beom Jin Park, Deuk Jae Sung, Sung Beom Cho, Yoon Tae Jeen, Bora Keum, Min Ju Kim
BACKGROUND: The accurate evaluation of Crohn's disease activity is important for the treatment of the disease and for monitoring the response. Computerized tomography (CT) enterography is a useful imaging modality that reflects enteric inflammation, as well as extramural complications. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CT enterographic (CTE) findings of active Crohn's disease and the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895862/cutaneous-angiosarcoma-metastatic-to-small-bowel-with-nodal-involvement
#10
Vidya A Fleetwood, Jamie C Harris, Minh B Luu
A 77-year-old male with a history of metastatic scalp angiosarcoma presented with intractable gastrointestinal bleeding from a jejunal mass detected on capsule endoscopy. He underwent laparoscopic-assisted resection of the mass. Intraoperatively, an isolated small bowel mass with bulky lymphadenopathy was seen and resected en bloc. Pathology showed a 6.8cm high-grade metastatic angiosarcoma with nodal involvement and negative margins. Angiosarcoma is a sarcoma with a grim prognosis. The incidence is 2% of all soft tissue sarcomas; cutaneous lesions comprise 27% of manifestations and usually appear on head and neck...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893174/is-there-a-relationship-between-objectively-measured-cognitive-changes-in-patients-with-solid-tumours-undergoing-chemotherapy-treatment-and-their-health-related-quality-of-life-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Marie-Rose Dwek, Lorna Rixon, Catherine Hurt, Alice Simon, Stanton Newman
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review examines whether there is a relationship between objective measures of chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment in patients with solid cancer tumours and health related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: Multiple online databases were searched (including Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, PubMed and Web of Science) in order to identify articles published between 1980 and 2016 examining the extent of chemotherapy-related cognitive deficit and its relationship with HRQoL in cancer patients...
November 28, 2016: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891750/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-with-and-without-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-an-australian-cohort
#12
Ken Liu, Ruoxi Wang, Viraj Kariyawasam, Mark Wells, Simone I Strasser, Geoff McCaughan, Crispin Corte, Rupert W Leong
BACKGROUND&AIMS: Epidemiological data on primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) outside the Northern hemisphere is limited. Similarly, the impact of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on PSC outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to study the epidemiology and outcomes of PSC patients with and without IBD in an Australian cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively studied PSC patients attending two tertiary referral hospitals over 20years. Diagnosis of PSC was made according to international guidelines by positive cholangiography and/or liver biopsy (for small duct PSC) with supporting clinical and laboratory evidence RESULTS: 208 PSC patients (61% male) were studied (2,271patient-years follow-up)...
November 28, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889847/diagnostic-value-of-small-bowel-capsule-endoscopy-in-isolated-ileitis-a-capentry-study
#13
Hyun Seok Lee, Yun Jeong Lim, Ki Nam Shim, Chang Mo Moon, Hyun Joo Song, Jin Oh Kim, Seong Ran Jeon, Dae Young Jung, Ji Hyun Kim, Kyeong Ok Kim, Bo-In Lee
BACKGROUND: Capsule endoscopy (CE) has proven to be highly effective at detecting small bowel lesions, but studies regarding the diagnostic impact of CE on ileitis are rare. AIMS: We evaluated the diagnostic value of small bowel CE for isolated ileitis observed during ileocolonoscopy. METHODS: The CE results in 137 patients initially diagnosed with ileitis without colonic mucosal abnormalities on ileocolonoscopy at one of eight tertiary referral centers between October 2002 and June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed...
November 26, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889728/pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Akshay Kapoor, Vidyut Bhatia, Anupam Sibal
Background: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is increasing in the pediatric population worldwide. NEED AND PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is paucity of high quality scientific data regarding pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Most of the guidelines are offshoots of work done in adults, which have been adapted over time to diagnose and treat pediatric patients. This is in part related to the small numbers in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and less extensive collaboration for multicentric trials both nationally and internationally...
November 15, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888391/small-bowel-adenocarcinoma-in-celiac-disease-a-case-report
#15
Haitam Buaisha, Eric Nippoldt, Abdullah N Alsuwaidan, Savio Reddymasu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885894/mr-enterography-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-with-endoscopic-correlation
#16
Pankaj Kaushal, Alexander S Somwaru, Aline Charabaty, Angela D Levy
Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two main forms of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is a transmural chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract in a discontinuous distribution. UC is a mucosal and submucosal chronic inflammatory disease that typically originates in the rectum and may extend proximally in a continuous manner. In treating patients with CD and UC, clinicians rely heavily on accurate diagnoses and disease staging. Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography used in conjunction with endoscopy and histopathologic analysis can help accurately diagnose and manage disease in the majority of patients...
November 25, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885812/a-whole-animal-chemical-screen-approach-to-identify-modifiers-of-intestinal-neutrophilic-inflammation
#17
Stefan H Oehlers, Maria Vega Flores, Christopher J Hall, Liuyang Wang, Dennis C Ko, Kathryn E Crosier, Philip S Crosier
By performing two high-content small molecule screens on DSS- and TNBS-induced zebrafish enterocolitis models of inflammatory bowel disease, we have identified novel anti-inflammatory drugs from the John Hopkins Clinical Compound Library that suppress neutrophilic inflammation. Live imaging of neutrophil distribution was used to assess the level of acute inflammation and concurrently screen for off-target drug effects. Supporting the validity of our screening strategy, most of the anti-inflammatory drug hits were known antibiotics or anti-inflammatory agents...
November 25, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885681/dynamics-of-occurrence-of-refractory-coeliac-disease-and-associated-complications-over-25%C3%A2-years
#18
W Eigner, K Bashir, C Primas, L Kazemi-Shirazi, F Wrba, M Trauner, H Vogelsang
BACKGROUND: Refractory coeliac disease, enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma and small bowel adenocarcinoma are rare but prognostically important complications in coeliac disease. AIM: To analyse potential changes in occurrence of complicated coeliac disease over the last 25 years. METHODS: One thousand one hundred and thirty eight patients were included and evaluated based on their time of first presentation at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria...
November 25, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875505/radiologic-predictors-of-surgery-in-newly-diagnosed-pediatric-crohn-disease-patients
#19
Damien Parker, Boaz Karmazyn, Steven J Steiner
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess whether small bowel imaging conducted at the time of diagnosis could be used as a predictor of small bowel surgical intervention in a population of pediatric patients with Crohn disease (CD). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of small bowel imaging within 30 days of diagnosis of pediatric CD was conducted. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on small bowel imaging: those with no or minor abnormalities (71%) and those with more extensive or obstructive abnormalities (29%)...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875354/antiviral-treatment-for-colonic-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients-significantly-improved-their-surgery-free-survival
#20
Yinghong Wang, Pankaj Aggarwal, Xiuli Liu, Haiyan Lu, Lei Lian, Xianrui Wu, Shibin Guo, Nitin Aggarwal, Bret Lashner, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: The frequency of cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis in steroid-refractory inflammatory bowel disease has been reported to range from 15.8% to 34.0%. Infected patients are more likely to become hospitalized, have longer lengths of stay, and higher mortality rates. Current data are limited to small scale studies and showed conflicting result regarding the role of antiviral therapy. AIMS: (1) To investigate the role of antiviral treatment in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with CMV infection...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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