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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135086/can-mr-enterography-screen-for-perianal-disease-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
Zehour AlSabban, Nicholas Carman, Rahim Moineddin, Ryan T Lo, Sebastian K King, Jacob C Langer, Thomas D Walters, Anne M Griffiths, Peter C Church, Mary-Louise C Greer
BACKGROUND: Pediatric Crohn's disease is associated with perianal disease (PAD). Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) assesses small bowel involvement in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD). Pelvic MRI (P-MRI) is the gold standard for assessing PAD. PURPOSE: To determine if MRE can accurately detect PAD in PIBD, distinguishing perianal fistulae (PAF) from perianal abscesses (PAA), referenced against P-MRI. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132529/celiac-disease-and-gluten-sensitivity
#2
REVIEW
Katharine C DeGeorge, Jeanetta W Frye, Kim M Stein, Lisa K Rollins, Daniel F McCarter
Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten that affects genetically predisposed individuals, typically causing intestinal symptoms and malabsorption. Diagnosis requires stepwise evaluation with anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA and histologic analysis of the small bowel. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is the primary treatment. Patients with symptoms thought to be related to gluten but without evidence of celiac disease are difficult to diagnose and treat. Consider first advising general nutritional improvements...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132484/abdominal-ct-findings-in-patients-with-primary-lymphoma-causing-small-bowel-obstruction
#3
Elif Karadeli, Gurcan Erbay, Alper Parlakgumus, Hakan Yabanoglu
The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively CTfindings in patients with primary lymphoma causing small bowel obstruction. CTscans of 11 patients with small bowel lymphoma were separately analysed in terms of affected section of the small bowel, focality, wall thickness, pattern and degree of contrast enhancement, lymphadenopathy, organ involvement, perforation, and the presence of intraabdominal fluid. Eight patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and one patient each had marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), T-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic T-cell lymphoma...
November 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130230/-protective-measures-in-laparoscopic-resection-for-upper-or-mid-rectal-cancer-and-sigmoid-colon-cancer-with-transrectal-specimen-extraction-surgery
#4
Chuangang Fu, Zhuqing Zhou, Junyi Han, Bin Lu, Wei Gao, Zhe Zhu, Qixin Jiang, Fang Ji, Tao Du
OBJECTIVE: To introduce the use of a self-made specimen protective sleeve in laparoscopic resection for upper or mid rectal cancer and sigmoid colon cancer with transrectal specimen extraction surgery and the improvement of implantation method, so as to avoid and reduce bacterial contamination and tumor cell dissemination in abdominal cavity. METHODS: During June 2015 and May 2017, 48 cases of high located rectal or sigmoid colon cancer were operated laparoscopically with natural orifices specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) using a self-made specimen protecting sleeve...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130227/-recognition-of-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-small-intestinal-obstruction
#5
Qiyi Chen, Jun Jiang
Small intestinal obstruction is a common and frequent disease in general surgery. Delayed diagnosis and surgical timing, and inaccurate treatment strategy will lead to life-threatening complications. Therefore, how to diagnose and treat quickly and accurately is still a difficult problem in current gastrointestinal surgery. This paper summarizes and analyzes the diagnosis and treatment strategies of small intestinal obstruction based on current laboratory technology, medical imaging technology, perioperative management and improvement of surgical concepts...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126506/surgical-care-of-the-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-patient
#6
Dylan Stewart
Despite the significant advances in the medical management of inflammatory bowel disease over the last decade, surgery continues to play a major role in the management of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). While adult and pediatric Crohn's disease may share many clinical characteristics, pediatric Crohn's patients often have a more aggressive phenotype, and the operative care given by the pediatric surgeon to the newly diagnosed Crohn's patient is very different in nature to the surgical needs of adult patients after decades of disease progression...
December 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119527/multifocality-in-small-bowel-neuroendocrine-tumors
#7
Alexandra Gangi, Emily Siegel, Galinos Barmparas, Simon Lo, Laith H Jamil, Andrew Hendifar, Nicholas N Nissen, Edward M Wolin, Farin Amersi
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) account for 30% of small bowel (SB) neoplasms. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence of multifocality in primary small bowel neuroendocrine tumors (SBNETs) and to examine the associated outcomes. METHODS: Patients with multifocal SBNET were compared to those with a solitary lesion. Only patients who underwent diagnostic workup and surgical intervention at our institution were included in this study. The primary aim of our study was surgical outcomes and mortality and recurrence...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118753/intestinal-epithelial-cell-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-pathogenesis-an-update-review
#8
REVIEW
Xiaoshi Ma, Zhaolai Dai, Kaiji Sun, Yunchang Zhang, Jingqing Chen, Ying Yang, Patrick Tso, Guoyao Wu, Zhenlong Wu
The intestinal epithelial cells serve essential roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, which relies on appropriate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function for proper protein folding, modification, and secretion. Exogenous or endogenous risk factors with an ability to disturb the ER function can impair the intestinal barrier function and activate inflammatory responses in the host. The last decade has witnessed considerable progress in the understanding of the functional role of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) in the gut homeostasis and its significant contribution to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114847/intestinal-anti-transglutaminase2-iga-deposits-in-children-at-risk-for-coeliac-disease-data-from-the-prevent-cd-study
#9
Melissa Borrelli, Mariantonia Maglio, Ilma R Korponay-Szabó, Viktória Vass, M Luisa Mearin, Caroline Meijer, Hagit Niv-Drori, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, María Roca, Raanan Shamir, Riccardo Troncone, Renata Auricchio
In Coeliac Disease (CD) anti-tissue transglutaminase2 IgA antibodies(anti-TG2) are produced and deposited in the intestine. PreventCD (www.preventcd.com) is a European multicenter study, which studies the influence of infant nutrition, and that of genetic, immunologic and other environmental factors, on the risk of developing CD. The aim of the current study was to evaluate in very early intestinal biopsies from at-risk infants the appearance of intestinal anti-TG2 deposits and their predictive value for villous atrophy...
November 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114832/association-between-use-of-thiopurines-or-tumor-necrosis-factor-antagonists-alone-or-in-combination-and-risk-of-lymphoma-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Magali Lemaitre, Julien Kirchgesner, Annie Rudnichi, Fabrice Carrat, Mahmoud Zureik, Franck Carbonnel, Rosemary Dray-Spira
Importance: An increased risk of lymphoma has been reported among patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The risk of lymphoma associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents either alone or in combination with thiopurines is uncertain. Objective: To assess the risk of lymphoma associated with thiopurines and anti-TNF agents, used alone or in combination, for the management of IBD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Nationwide cohort study based on French National Health Insurance databases...
November 7, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114386/suppression-of-inflammation-and-tissue-damage-by-a-hookworm-recombinant-protein-in-experimental-colitis
#11
Ivana B Ferreira, Darren A Pickering, Sally Troy, John Croese, Alex Loukas, Severine Navarro
Gastrointestinal parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts when present in small numbers, allowing them to establish chronic infections for decades. They do so by creating an immunoregulatory environment that promotes their own survival, but paradoxically also benefits the host by protecting against the onset of many inflammatory diseases. To harness the therapeutic value of hookworms without using live parasites, we have examined the protective properties of the recombinant protein anti-inflammatory protein (AIP)-1, secreted in abundance by hookworms within the intestinal mucosa, in experimental colitis...
October 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111754/chemical-modulation-of-the-human-oligopeptide-transporter-1-hpept1
#12
Claire Colas, Masayuki Masuda, Kazuaki Sugio, Seiji Miyauchi, Yongjun Hu, David E Smith, Avner Schlessinger
In humans, peptides derived from dietary proteins and peptide-like drugs are transported via the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter hPepT1 (SLC15A1). hPepT1 is located across the apical membranes of the small intestine and kidney, where it serves as a high-capacity low-affinity transporter of a broad range of di- and tri-peptides. hPepT1 is also overexpressed in the colon of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients, where it mediates the transport of harmful peptides of bacterial origin. Therefore, hPepT1 is a drug target for prodrug substrates interacting with intracellular protein or inhibitors blocking the transport of toxic bacterial products...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111083/postoperative-outcomes-in-vedolizumab-treated-pediatric-patients-undergoing-abdominal-operations-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Amy L Lightner, Chung Sang Tse, D Dean Potter, Christopher Moir
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have found vedolizumab to be an independent predictor of increased rates of postoperative complications and surgical site infections (SSIs) in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but studies in the pediatric surgical population are lacking. We sought to determine the 30-day postoperative infectious complication rate among pediatric IBD patients who received vedolizumab within 12weeks of a major abdominal operation. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on pediatric IBD patients who underwent an abdominal operation between 5/20/2014 and 6/1/2017...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109767/dexamethasone-loaded-polymeric-nanoconstructs-for-monitoring-and-treating-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Aeju Lee, Claudia De Mei, Miguel Fereira, Roberto Marotta, Hong Yeol Yoon, Kwangmeyung Kim, Ick Chan Kwon, Paolo Decuzzi
Corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone (DEX), are the mainstays for the treatment of moderate to severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, their relatively poor bioavailability and lack of specificity is often the origin of short and long-term adverse effects. Here, spherical polymeric nanoconstructs (SPNs) encapsulating dexamethasone are proposed for the systemic treatment of IBD. In a mouse model of colitis, the accumulation of SPNs within the inflamed intestine is firstly assessed using near infra-red fluorescent (NIRF) imaging at different stages of the disease - 5, 7 and 10 days of Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) administration...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104284/jak-inhibition-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-immune-and-inflammatory-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Daniella M Schwartz, Yuka Kanno, Alejandro Villarino, Michael Ward, Massimo Gadina, John J O'Shea
The discovery of cytokines as key drivers of immune-mediated diseases has spurred efforts to target their associated signalling pathways. Janus kinases (JAKs) are essential signalling mediators downstream of many pro-inflammatory cytokines, and small-molecule inhibitors of JAKs (jakinibs) have gained traction as safe and efficacious options for the treatment of inflammation-driven pathologies such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Building on the clinical success of first-generation jakinibs, second-generation compounds that claim to be more selective are currently undergoing development and proceeding to clinical trials...
November 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099567/duodenal-perforation-secondary-to-erlotinib-therapy-in-a-patient-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Rafiullah, Wardah Sayed Shah, Navid Abdul Majid, Rezwan Islam
Lung cancer is a lethal disease with high mortality, and treatment modality varies with type of tumor and stage of the disease. Targeted molecular therapies have been developed for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation qualifies the patient for EGFR-TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) therapy such as erlotinib, which is not without risk. We report an interesting case of duodenal perforation secondary to erlotinib therapy. This is the second reported case of bowel perforation after erlotinib therapy in a patient with advanced non-small cell lung cancer...
February 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097866/how-to-perform-gastrointestinal-ultrasound-anatomy-and-normal-findings
#17
REVIEW
Nathan S S Atkinson, Robert V Bryant, Yi Dong, Christian Maaser, Torsten Kucharzik, Giovanni Maconi, Anil K Asthana, Michael Blaivas, Adrian Goudie, Odd Helge Gilja, Dieter Nuernberg, Dagmar Schreiber-Dietrich, Christoph F Dietrich
Gastrointestinal ultrasound is a practical, safe, cheap and reproducible diagnostic tool in inflammatory bowel disease gaining global prominence amongst clinicians. Understanding the embryological processes of the intestinal tract assists in the interpretation of abnormal sonographic findings. In general terms, the examination principally comprises interrogation of the colon, mesentery and small intestine using both low-frequency and high-frequency probes. Interpretation of findings on GIUS includes assessment of bowel wall thickness, symmetry of this thickness, evidence of transmural changes, assessment of vascularity using Doppler imaging and assessment of other specific features including lymph nodes, mesentery and luminal motility...
October 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097649/characteristics-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-induced-small-bowel-injury-identified-by-single-balloon-endoscopy-or-capsule-endoscopy
#18
Ning Xu, Zhenhai Yu, Xiaoling Cao, Zhihua Wang, Ming Yan
BACKGROUND The special features of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) enteropathy were partially clarified by single-balloon endoscopy(SBE). We aimed to investigate the characteristics of NSAIDs injuries that were differ from other ulcer diseases and efficacy of SBE compared with capsule endoscopy(CE). MATERIAL AND METHODS 1,644 symptomatic patients (221 patients taking NSAIDs) hospitalized between January 2006 and March 2016 were recruited and underwent SBE and/or CE. RESULTS NSAIDs damages were identified in 110 patients (49...
November 3, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083538/functional-dyspepsia-and-duodenal-eosinophilia-a-new-disease-model
#19
REVIEW
Kening Fan, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects more than 10% of the population. In the past decade, the conceptual underpinning of FD has begun to change, and new data are unraveling the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder with a focus on the duodenum. The Rome IV criteria were published in 2016, and notably suggests that gastroesophageal reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome may all be part of the same disease spectrum as FD. Helicobacter pylori explains a minority of FD cases and in Rome IV is considered a separate entity...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083037/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
C A Woodhouse, V C Patel, A Singanayagam, D L Shawcross
BACKGROUND: Mortality from chronic liver disease is rising exponentially. The liver is intimately linked to the gut via the portal vein, and exposure to gut microbiota and their metabolites translocating across the gut lumen may impact upon both the healthy and diseased liver. Modulation of gut microbiota could prove to be a potential therapeutic target. AIM: To characterise the changes in the gut microbiome that occur in chronic liver disease and to assess the impact of manipulation of the microbiome on the liver...
October 30, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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