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Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shi-Jun Liu, Zhi-Shu Tang, Zhi-Xin Liao, Chun-Li Cui, Hong-Bo Liu, Yan-Ni Liang, Yu Zhang, Hong-Bo Xu, Dong-Bo Zhang, Ya-Ting Zheng, Huan-Xian Shi, Shi-Ying Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ligularia przewalskii (Maxim.) Diels (LP) (called zhangyetuowu in Chinese), is generally found in moist forest areas in the western regions of China. The root, leaves and flower of LP are utilized as a common traditional medicine in China. It has been utilized conventionally in herbal remedies for the remedy of haemoptysis, asthma, pulmonary phthisis, jaundice hepatitis, food poisoning, bronchitis, cough, fever, wound healing, measles, carbuncle, swelling and phlegm diseases...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jovana M Pavlović, Aleksandar D Pavlovic, Milica V Bulajić, Dragica P Pešut
A previously known association of tuberculosis (TB), now a global emergency, with diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease of increasing prevalence worldwide, has resurfaced. DM is a recognised TB risk factor and M. tuberculosis infection usually disturbs glycoregulation. We aimed to estimate DM prevalence among TB patients and to analyse clinical and radiologic manifestations of TB in this group. The cross-sectional study included 1017 patients discharged with a TB diagnosis from a tertiary level facility in a five-year period...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
G-D Lu, Q-Q Zu, J-X Zhang, C-G Zhou, J-G Xia, W Ye, S Liu, H-B Shi
OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for early and late relapse of haemoptysis after bronchial artery embolisation (BAE). DESIGN: We performed a retrospective study of 255 patients with haemoptysis who underwent BAE from January 2009 to June 2016 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Using a Cox regression model, risk factors contributing to early (within the first month) and late (>1 month) recurrence were analysed...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Justyna Maria Torbiarczyk, Patryk Aleksander Sobczak, Katarzyna Krystyna Torbiarczyk, Joanna Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Adam Antczak, Paweł Górski, Adam J Białas, Wojciech J Piotrowski
INTRODUCTION: Fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FOB) is commonly performed in the first line in diagnostic process of haemoptysis. However, lots of evidences suggest that in haemoptysis FOB do not always provide additional, useful information to radiological diagnostics. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the validity of performing FOB as a method of choice in first line diagnostics of haemoptysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data comprised consecutively collected results from patients referred for FOB assessment for clinical purposes were retrospectively analysed...
2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Bruno Pochulu, Omar Sarsam, Christophe Peillon, Jean-Marc Baste
A 37-year-old patient presented with a self-limiting episode of moderate haemoptysis. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography showed a tortuous and dilated right bronchial artery arising from the descending aorta at the level of T6. Therapeutic angiography was attempted, but in the presence of spinal artery arising from the bronchial artery in question, selective embolization was contraindicated due to risk of spinal cord ischaemia. After a multidisciplinary meeting, it was decided to attempt surgery to ligate this pathological artery...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Anne G Ording, Katalin Veres, Dóra K Farkas, Kasper Adelborg, Henrik T Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract bleeding may be a marker of cancer. We quantified the risk of specific cancer types among patients with hospital-based diagnoses of epistaxis and haemoptysis relative to risk in the general population. METHODS: We used Danish, nationwide databases to conduct a population-based cohort study of 80460 patients diagnosed with epistaxis and 18487 patients presenting with haemoptysis (1995-2013). We followed patients until a cancer diagnosis, emigration, death, or 31 December 2013, whichever came first...
February 20, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Francesco Gavelli, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Statti, Piero E Balbo
Mild-to-moderate haemoptysis is defined as the expectoration of blood or blood-streaked sputum originating from the lower respiratory tract, in volumes that do not immediately threaten the patient's life. Nevertheless, it is a very common respiratory symptom and the list of underlying respiratory or non-respiratory diseases is vast, ranging from the most worrying to more easily manageable aetiologies. In this narrative review, we have analysed the most recent recommendations inferred from the literature, in terms of diagnostic as well as therapeutic approach...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Medica
Faiza Khalid, Sofiya Rehman, Rania AbdulRahman, Shikha Gupta
A 76--year--old male cigarette smoker presented with a 2-week history of cough and haemoptysis. Chest CT on admission revealed multiple new lung nodules concerning for malignancy. CT--guided biopsy of the nodule in left lower lobe was attempted in prone oblique position for tissue diagnosis. Local anaesthetic (lidocaine) was administered using a 25--gauge (1.5-inch) needle to anaesthetise the skin and subcutaneous tissue. This was followed by insertion of a 25-gauge (3.5-inch) Whitacre needle to anaesthetise deeper tissues and parietal pleura...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Sarah J Nevitt, Judith Thornton, Clare S Murray, Tiffany Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Several agents are used to clear secretions from the airways of people with cystic fibrosis. Mannitol increases mucociliary clearance, but its exact mechanism of action is unknown. The dry powder formulation of mannitol may be more convenient and easier to use compared with established agents which require delivery via a nebuliser. Phase III trials of inhaled dry powder mannitol for the treatment of cystic fibrosis have been completed and it is now available in Australia and some countries in Europe...
February 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
U D Kombila, F B R Mbaye, Y Dia Kane, W Ka, N O Toure Badiane
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoke alters lung defense mechanisms against infections and so increases the risk of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the particular clinical features of tuberculosis in smokers and identify risk factors. METHODS AND PATIENTS: We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study over a period of nine months in Dakar, Senegal. The Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to identify differences between smokers and non-smokers and to identify factors associated with clinical outcomes...
January 27, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
P Govier, J M Coulson
INTRODUCTION: Halogen pulmonary irritants (HPIs) are volatile liquids that directly damage the respiratory mucosa. Chlorine is readily available in large volumes as an industrial chemical and has a significant potential for accidental or deliberate release. We conducted a systematic review to determine the clinical features; treatment and long-term sequelae of civilian chlorine gas exposure. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology...
January 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Ramesh S Pal, Sonam Spalgais, Amit Kumar Murar, Umesh Chandra Ojha
A 19 year female, presented with life threatening haemoptysis and cough with minimum expectoration for 3 months. Bronchoscopy showed multiple nodules in airway. The direct microscopy and culture of sputum revealed fungal elements and Aspergillus flavus respectively. Serum Galactomannan was positive. Thus diagnosis of invasive aspergillus tracheo-bronchitis made. She responded to voriconazole. Aspergillus tracheo-bronchitis is a rare form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immuno-competent host. Aspergillus spp in respiratory samples should not be routinely discarded as colonization...
November 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Irena Hammen, Achhe Lal Yadav
A 16-year-old girl presented with intermittent left chest pain and breathlessness on exertion for last 4 months with one episode of haemoptysis. There has been loss of appetite and weight loss of 4 kg over a period of 1 month. A chest radiograph revealed a large mass like opacity with pleural effusion in the left lung field. Computerized Tomography scanning (CT scanning) and Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography scanning (PET/CT scanning) demonstrated a 7 cm round, cystic lesion in the anterior mediastinum...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Thai Truong, Thuong Vu Le, David L Smith, Stephen P Kantrow, Van Ngoc Tran
We report a case of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and haemoptysis following low-voltage electricity exposure in an agricultural worker. A 58-year-old man standing in water reached for an electric watering machine and sustained an exposure to 220 V circuit for an uncertain duration. The electricity was turned off by another worker, and the patient was asymptomatic for the next 10 h until he developed haemoptysis. A chest radiograph demonstrated bilateral infiltrates, and chest computed tomography (CT) revealed ground-glass opacities with interstitial thickening...
February 2018: Respirology Case Reports
Leonardo Martinez, Ye Shen, Andreas Handel, Srijita Chakraburty, Catherine M Stein, LaShaunda L Malone, W Henry Boom, Frederick D Quinn, Moses L Joloba, Christopher C Whalen, Sarah Zalwango
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality; however, interventions to detect undiagnosed tuberculosis in children are underused. Child contact tracing has been widely recommended but poorly implemented in resource-constrained settings. WHO has proposed a pragmatic screening approach for managing child contacts. We assessed the effectiveness of this screening approach and alternative symptom-based algorithms in identifying secondary tuberculosis in a prospectively followed cohort of Ugandan child contacts...
December 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Georgia L Narsavage, Yea-Jyh Chen, Bettina Korn, Ronit Elk
Based on the demonstrated effectiveness of palliative care in the alleviation of symptoms and enhancement of life quality, it is important to incorporate palliative care early in the respiratory disease trajectory. Quality palliative care addresses eight domains that are all patient and family centred. Palliative care interventions in respiratory conditions include management of symptoms such as dyspnoea, cough, haemoptysis, sputum production, fatigue and respiratory secretion management, especially as the end-of-life nears...
December 2017: Breathe
Prashant P Patil
Recurrent unilateral pneumonia poses a diagnostic dilemma for all paediatricians. Isolated pulmonary venous atresia is an uncommon entity, which presents with recurrent unilateral pulmonary infections, dyspnoea on exertion and haemoptysis. It is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Owing to rarity of condition, there may be some difficulties in the diagnosis and therapy. Pulmonary angiography is the investigation of choice. However, the current multislice CT scanners may obviate the need for pulmonary angiography...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Sreekar Gundapaneni, Vishesh Jain, Shilpa Sharma, Devendra Kumar Gupta
A 3-month-old child was presented with haemoptysis with respiratory distress. Imaging was suggestive of a cavitary lesion in the lung with surrounding consolidation. Diagnosis of a primary lung pathology like congenital pulmonary airway malformation was considered. Based on clinical suspicion and prior experience, a Tc-99m pertechnetate radionuclide study was performed, which clinched the diagnosis of foregut duplication cyst. Intraoperative findings confirmed the presence of a neuroenteric cyst. The child remains asymptomatic on follow-up awaiting neurosurgical intervention for the intraspinal component of the cyst...
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Manal R Hafez, Eman Sm Sobh, Sawsan B Elsawy, Omaima I Abo-Elkheir
Aim: To evaluate (1) the usefulness of thoracic ultrasound in diagnosis and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma by comparing lesion detectability between thoracic- ultrasound and computed tomography and (2) the outcome of thoracic-ultrasound-guided biopsy in diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 53 patients of confirmed bronchogenic carcinoma. All patients had been investigated by thoracic-ultrasound and chest-computed tomography; data regarding the presence of mass (its size, necrosis), lymph nodes invasion, peritumoural atelectasis, consolidations, pleural effusion, chest wall invasion, and paralysis of the diaphragm were recorded...
November 2017: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
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