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Pingping Fang, Jill A Madden, Lisa Neums, K Ryan Moulder, M Laird Forrest, Jeremy Chien
FOXM1 transcription factor network is activated in over 84% of cases in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), and FOXM1 upregulates the expression of genes involved in the homologous recombination (HR) DNA damage and repair (DDR) pathway. However, the role of FOXM1 in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor response has not yet been studied. The present study demonstrates that PARP inhibitor (PARPi), olaparib, induces the expression and nuclear localization of FOXM1. Based on ChIP-qPCR, olaparib enhances the binding of FOXM1 to genes involved in HR repair...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Chaoyang Sun, Jun Yin, Yong Fang, Jian Chen, Kang Jin Jeong, Xiaohua Chen, Christopher P Vellano, Zhenlin Ju, Wei Zhao, Dong Zhang, Yiling Lu, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Timothy A Yap, Maureen Hattersley, Mark J O'Connor, Huawei Chen, Stephen Fawell, Shiaw-Yih Lin, Guang Peng, Gordon B Mills
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are selectively active in cells with homologous recombination (HR) deficiency (HRD) caused by mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and other pathway members. We sought small molecules that induce HRD in HR-competent cells to induce synthetic lethality with PARPi and extend the utility of PARPi. We demonstrated that inhibition of bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) induced HRD and sensitized cells across multiple tumor lineages to PARPi regardless of BRCA1/2, TP53, RAS, or BRAF mutation status through depletion of the DNA double-stand break resection protein CtIP (C-terminal binding protein interacting protein)...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
Isabella Faraoni, Francesca Aloisio, Antonio De Gabrieli, Maria Irno Consalvo, Serena Lavorgna, Maria Teresa Voso, Francesco Lo-Coco, Grazia Graziani
Olaparib is a potent orally bioavailable poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi), approved for BRCA-mutated ovarian and breast cancers. We recently showed that olaparib at clinically achievable concentrations exerts anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in vitro as monotherapy against primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts, while sparing normal bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic cells. Since AML expresses low levels of death receptors that may contribute to apoptosis resistance, in this study we investigated whether the anti-leukemia activity of olaparib involves modulation of FAS and TRAIL receptors DR5 and DR4...
March 8, 2018: Cancer Letters
Enrico Mini, Ida Landini, Laura Lucarini, Andrea Lapucci, Cristina Napoli, Gabriele Perrone, Renato Tassi, Emanuela Masini, Flavio Moroni, Stefania Nobili
The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes play a key role in the regulation of cellular processes (e.g., DNA damage repair, genomic stability). It has been shown that PARP inhibitors (PARPIs) are selectively cytotoxic against cells having dysfunctions in genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms (synthetic lethality). Drug-induced PARP inhibition potentiates the activity of anticancer drugs such as 5-fluorouracil in enhancing DNA damage, whose repair involves PARP-1 activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of a novel PARPI, HYDAMTIQ, on growth in human tumor cell lines characterized by different features with regard to DNA damage response pathways (BRCA mutational status, microsatellite status, and ATM expression level) and degree of sensitivity/resistance to 5-fluorouracil...
March 5, 2018: Oncology Research
Pedro Miguel Lacal, Maria Grazia Atzori, Federica Ruffini, Lucio Tentori, Grazia Graziani
The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) is a tyrosine kinase receptor activated by the angiogenic factors VEGF‑A and placental growth factor (PlGF). While VEGF‑A binds to both VEGFR‑1 and VEGFR‑2, PlGF interacts exclusively with VEGFR‑1 triggering a signaling pathway involved in: i) tumor‑associated angiogenesis; ii) chemotaxis and invasion of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by cancer cells; and iii) mobilization of bone marrow‑derived myeloid cells that generate tumor‑associated macrophages...
March 5, 2018: Oncology Reports
Gloria Mittica, Eleonora Ghisoni, Gaia Giannone, Sofia Genta, Massimo Aglietta, Anna Sapino, Giorgio Valabrega
BACKGROUND: Treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC), historically based on surgery and platinum doublet chemotherapy, is associated with high risk of relapse and poor prognosis for recurrent disease. In this landscape, the innovative treatment with PARP inhibitors (PARPis) demonstrated an outstanding activity in EOC, and is currently changing clinical practice in BRCA mutant patients. OBJECTIVES: To highlight the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical activity, indications and current strategies of development of Olaparib, Niraparib, Rucaparib, Talazoparib and Veliparib, the 5 most relevant PARPis...
March 5, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Qi Liu, Liliana Gheorghiu, Michael Drumm, Rebecca Clayman, Alec Eidelman, Matthew F Wszolek, Aria Olumi, Adam Feldman, Meng Wang, Lynnette Marcar, Deborah E Citrin, Chin-Lee Wu, Cyril H Benes, Jason A Efstathiou, Henning Willers
Biomarkers and mechanisms of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity in tumor cells lacking a BRCA-mutant or BRCA-like phenotype are poorly defined. We sought to explore the utility of PARP-1 inhibitor (PARPi) treatment with/without ionizing radiation in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), which has poor therapeutic outcomes. We assessed the DNA damaging and cytotoxic effects of the PARPi olaparib in nine bladder cancer cell lines. Olaparib radiosensitized all cell lines with dose enhancement factors from 1...
March 7, 2018: Oncogene
Paul Lesueur, François Chevalier, Elias A El-Habr, Marie-Pierre Junier, Hervé Chneiweiss, Laurent Castera, Etienne Müller, Dinu Stefan, Yannick Saintigny
Despite continuous improvements in treatment of glioblastoma, tumor recurrence and therapy resistance still occur in a high proportion of patients. One underlying reason for this radioresistance might be the presence of glioblastoma cancer stem cells (GSCs), which feature high DNA repair capability. PARP protein plays an important cellular role by detecting the presence of damaged DNA and then activating signaling pathways that promote appropriate cellular responses. Thus, PARP inhibitors (PARPi) have recently emerged as potential radiosensitizing agents...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Saud H AlDubayan, Marios Giannakis, Nathanael D Moore, G Celine Han, Brendan Reardon, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Reiko Nishihara, Zhirong Qian, Li Liu, Matthew B Yurgelun, Sapna Syngal, Levi A Garraway, Shuji Ogino, Charles S Fuchs, Eliezer M Van Allen
Colorectal cancer (CRC) heritability has been estimated to be around 30%. However, mutations in the known CRC-susceptibility genes explain CRC risk in fewer than 10% of affected individuals. Germline mutations in DNA-repair genes (DRGs) have recently been reported in CRC, but their contribution to CRC risk is largely unknown. We evaluated the gene-level germline mutation enrichment of 40 DRGs in 680 unselected CRC individuals and 27,728 ancestry-matched cancer-free adults. Significant findings were then examined in independent cohorts of 1,661 unselected CRC individuals and 1,456 individuals with early-onset CRC...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Robert D Morgan, Andrew R Clamp, D Gareth R Evans, Richard J Edmondson, Gordon C Jayson
PURPOSE: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) have changed the management of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). The rationale for the development of PARPi was based on the concept of synthetic lethality, in which a cell can survive a deficiency of one gene/gene product, but may die if there is a deficiency in a combination of genes/gene products. In women with BRCA1/2 deficiency within their ovarian cancer tissue, inhibition of PARP imposes an intolerable burden of DNA damage repair deficiency and may induce cell death...
February 20, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Joaquin Mateo, Heather H Cheng, Himisha Beltran, David Dolling, Wen Xu, Colin C Pritchard, Helen Mossop, Pasquale Rescigno, Raquel Perez-Lopez, Verena Sailer, Michael Kolinsky, Ada Balasopoulou, Claudia Bertan, David M Nanus, Scott T Tagawa, Heather Thorne, Bruce Montgomery, Suzanne Carreira, Shahneen Sandhu, Mark A Rubin, Peter S Nelson, Johann S de Bono
BACKGROUND: Germline DNA damage repair gene mutation (gDDRm) is found in >10% of metastatic prostate cancer (mPC). Their prognostic and predictive impact relating to standard therapies is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gDDRm status impacts benefit from established therapies in mPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a retrospective, international, observational study. Medical records were reviewed for 390 mPC patients with known gDDRm status...
January 29, 2018: European Urology
Benigno C Valdez, Yang Li, David Murray, Yan Liu, Yago Nieto, Richard E Champlin, Borje S Andersson
Combination of drugs that target different aspects of aberrant cellular processes is an efficacious treatment for hematological malignancies. Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) and inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPis) and histone deacetylases (HDACis) are clinically active anti-tumor drugs. We hypothesized that their combination would be synergistically cytotoxic to leukemia and lymphoma cells. Exposure of AML and lymphoma cell lines to the combination of the PARPi niraparib (Npb), the HMA decitabine (DAC) and the HDACi romidepsin (Rom) or panobinostat (Pano) synergistically inhibited cell proliferation by up to 70% via activation of the ATM pathway, increased production of reactive oxygen species, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and activated apoptosis...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Talia Golan, Chani Stossel, Dikla Atias, Ella Buzhor, Sharon Halperin, Keren Cohen, Maria Raitses-Gurevich, Yulia Glick, Stephen Raskin, Daniel Yehuda, Anna Feldman, Michael Schvimer, Eitan Friedman, Rotem Karni, Julie M Wilson, Robert E Denroche, Ilinca Lungu, John M S Bartlett, Faridah Mbabaali, Steven Gallinger, Raanan Berger
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies. BRCA-associated PDAC comprises a clinically relevant subtype. A portion of these patients are highly susceptible to DNA damaging therapeutics, however, responses are heterogeneous and clinical resistance evolves. We have developed unique patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models from metastatic lesions of germline BRCA-mutated patients obtained at distinct time points; before treatment and at progression. Thus, closely mimicking clinical scenarios, to further investigate treatment naïve and resistant patients...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Yongchang Lai, Zhenzhen Kong, Tao Zeng, Shaohong Xu, Xiaolu Duan, Shujue Li, Chao Cai, Zhijian Zhao, Wenqi Wu
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, such as olaparib or rucaparib, have shown treatment efficacy in BRCA1/2-deficient tumors. However, since PARP inhibitors (PARPi) mainly modulate the activation of PARP but not its expression, whether small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to PARP has the same function as PARPi has not been well defined. In the present study it was demonstrated that PARP1-siRNA could reduce prostate cancer (PCa) cell progression regardless of the BRCA1/2 mutation. PARP1 silencing could significantly inhibit PC3 cell migration and invasion...
January 26, 2018: Oncology Reports
Ethan Brill, Takuhei Yokoyama, Jayakumar Nair, Minshu Yu, Yeong-Ran Ahn, Jung-Min Lee
PARP inhibitors (PARPi) have been effective in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), although clinical activity is limited against BRCA wild type HGSOC. The nearly universal loss of normal p53 regulation in HGSOCs causes dysfunction in the G1/S checkpoint, making tumor cells reliant on Chk1-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest for DNA repair. Therefore, Chk1 is a reasonable target for a combination strategy with PARPi in treating BRCA wild type HGSOC. Here we investigated the combination of prexasertib mesylate monohydrate (LY2606368), a Chk1 and Chk2 inhibitor, and a PARP inhibitor, olaparib, in HGSOC cell lines (OVCAR3, OV90, PEO1 and PEO4) using clinically attainable concentrations...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
Yu-Ting Wang, Bo Yuan, Hua-Dong Chen, Lin Xu, Yu-Nan Tian, Ao Zhang, Jin-Xue He, Ze-Hong Miao
With increasing uses of PARP inhibitors (PARPis) for cancer therapy, understanding their resistance is becoming urgent. However, acquired PARPi resistance in the PTEN-deficient background is poorly understood. We generated 3 PARPi-resistant PTEN-deficient glioblastoma U251 variants separately with olaparib (U251/OP), talazoparib (U251/TP) and simmiparib (U251/SP). These variants displayed consistent resistance (2.46~71.78-fold) to all 5 PARPis including niraparib and rucaparib and showed higher degrees of resistance to the PARPis to which the parental cells were more sensitive...
December 22, 2017: Cancer Science
Roberto Ferrara, Francesca Simionato, Chiara Ciccarese, Elisabetta Grego, Sara Cingarlini, Roberto Iacovelli, Emilio Bria, Giampaolo Tortora, Davide Melisi
PARP1 and BRCA genes are essential genome caretakers and their interaction has been the first example of synthetic lethality, a genetic concept proposed in the early 20th century, but deeply explored in cancer patients only in the last decade. Areas covered: This review describes PARP1 and BRCA main functions and different roles in genome protection. Furthermore, an overview of the principle mechanisms of action and resistance to PARP inhibitors (PARPi) is presented. This review illustrates the concept of BRCAness, and how this discovery has broadened the routes of PARPi to several different malignancies such as ovarian, breast and prostate cancer...
December 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Ettore Capoluongo, Gillian Ellison, José Antonio López-Guerrero, Frederique Penault-Llorca, Marjolijn J L Ligtenberg, Susana Banerjee, Christian Singer, Eitan Friedman, Birgid Markiefka, Peter Schirmacher, Reinhard Büttner, Christi J van Asperen, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Volker Endris, Suzanne Kamel-Reid, Natalie Percival, Jane Bryce, Benno Röthlisberger, Richie Soong, David Gonzalez de Castro
The approval, in 2015, of the first poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi; olaparib, Lynparza) for platinum-sensitive relapsed high-grade ovarian cancer with either germline or somatic BRCA1/2 deleterious mutations is changing the way that BRCA1/2 testing services are offered to patients with ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer patients are now being referred for BRCA1/2 genetic testing for treatment decisions, in addition to familial risk estimation, and irrespective of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer...
June 2017: Seminars in Oncology
E Pujade-Lauraine
In targeting DNA repair pathways of the most genomic instable cancer, poly-(adenosine diphosphate [ADP])-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) have been demonstrated as the most effective drug since platinum in high grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancer. Immunotherapy is strongly pushing the door of ovarian cancer and has the ambition to change the fate of this deadly disease when combined with chemotherapy, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor or PARPi. The activity of PARPi could also be improved by modulators of the cell cycle, which are required to give time enough for DNA repair...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Maeve A Lowery, David P Kelsen, Marinela Capanu, Sloane C Smith, Jonathan W Lee, Zsofia K Stadler, Malcolm J Moore, Hedy L Kindler, Talia Golan, Amiel Segal, Hannah Maynard, Ellen Hollywood, MaryEllen Moynahan, Erin E Salo-Mullen, Richard Kinh Gian Do, Alice P Chen, Kenneth H Yu, Laura H Tang, Eileen M O'Reilly
PURPOSE: BRCA-associated cancers have increased sensitivity to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis). This single arm, non-randomised, multicentre phase II trial evaluated the response rate of veliparib in patients with previously treated BRCA1/2- or PALB2-mutant pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: Patients with stage III/IV PDAC and known germline BRCA1/2 or PALB2 mutation, 1-2 lines of treatment, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0-2, were enrolled...
January 2018: European Journal of Cancer
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