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Cardiovascular mortality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550660/achieving-smoking-cessation-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-special-considerations
#1
REVIEW
Corinne Cather, Gladys N Pachas, Kristina M Cieslak, A Eden Evins
Premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease in those with schizophrenia is the largest lifespan disparity in the US and is growing; adults in the US with schizophrenia die, on average, 28 years earlier than those in the general population. The rate of smoking prevalence among individuals with schizophrenia is estimated to be from 64 to 79%. Smokers with schizophrenia have historically been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies. However, converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with schizophrenia want to quit smoking, and that available pharmacotherapeutic smoking cessation aids are well tolerated by this population of smokers and are effective when combined with behavioral treatment...
May 26, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550608/shifting-paradigms-in-the-medical-management-of-type-2-diabetes-reflections-on-recent-cardiovascular-outcome-trials
#2
Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, Etie Moghissi, Mikhail Kosiborod, Silvio E Inzucchi
An important challenge in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes is cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While it is well established that intensive glycemic control prevents the onset and slows the progression of certain microvascular complications, such a strategy utilized in multiple clinical trials over the past few decades has failed to show a similar benefit with regard to cardiovascular events, including mortality. Despite this, a major hope has been the discovery of glucose-lowering medications that simultaneously improve cardiovascular outcomes...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550591/cardiovascular-risk-in-survivors-of-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Henry Chen Zheng, Laura Onderko, Sanjeev A Francis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Survivors of childhood and adult cancers face increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We review the current evidence base and guidelines for this rapidly growing population. RECENT FINDINGS: Research continues to show that cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. Cardiotoxicity related to chemotherapy and radiotherapy accounts for part of this increased risk. There is emerging evidence that cancer and cardiovascular disease share a similar biology and risk factors...
July 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550474/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-coactivator-1%C3%AE-pgc-1%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-on-hemodialysis-relation-to-hemodialysis-related-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality
#4
Eman Tayae Elsayed, Rasha Adel Nassra, Yasmine Salah Naga
PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to investigate some of the key regulators of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in ESRD patients on hemodialysis (ESRD/HD) focusing on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) gene expression and its relation to ESRD/HD-related cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality in an effort to identify new potential targets for pharmacological interventions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The expression of PGC-1α and one of its downstream genes: COX6C were evaluated in 49 ESRD/HD patients and in 33 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls using quantitative real-time PCR...
May 26, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550272/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-chronic-disease-of-the-21-st-century
#5
Metrakos Peter, Nilsson Tommy
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a spectrum of metabolic states ranging from simple steatosis to inflammation with associated fibrosis to cirrhosis. Though accumulation of hepatic fat is not associated with a significant increase in mortality rates, hepatic inflammation is, as this augments the risk of terminal liver disease, i.e., cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation (liver failure) and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Disease progression is usually slow, over a decade or more and, for the most part, remains asymptomatic...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550080/two-phosphate-targets-in-end-stage-renal-disease-trial-target-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Ron Wald, Christian G Rabbat, Louis Girard, Amit X Garg, Karthik Tennankore, Jessica Tyrwhitt, Andrew Smyth, Andrea Rathe-Skafel, Peggy Gao, Andrea Mazzetti, Jackie Bosch, Andrew T Yan, Patrick Parfrey, Braden J Manns, Michael Walsh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hyperphosphatemia is common among recipients of maintenance dialysis and is associated with a higher risk of mortality and cardiovascular events. A large randomized trial is needed to determine whether lowering phosphate concentrations with binders improves patient-important outcomes. To inform such an effort we conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of prevalent hemodialysis recipients already receiving calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder at five Canadian centers between March 31, 2014 and October 2, 2014...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549748/prevalence-of-electrocardiographic-unrecognized-myocardial-infarction-and-its-association-with-mortality
#7
M Yldau van der Ende, Minke H T Hartman, Remco A J Schurer, Hindrik W van der Werf, Erik Lipsic, Harold Snieder, Pim van der Harst
BACKGROUND: Identifying unrecognized myocardial infarction (MI) is important for secondary prevention. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and correlates of unrecognized MI and the association with mortality in the general population. METHODS: All participants ≥18years participating in the Lifelines population, a three-generation Cohort Study and Biobank, were included (n=152,180). Participants with unrecognized MI were matched with controls without MI (1:2) based on age and gender...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549705/association-of-grip-strength-with-risk-of-all-cause-mortality-cardiovascular-diseases-and-cancer-in-community-dwelling-populations-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#8
Yili Wu, Weijing Wang, Tianwei Liu, Dongfeng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Grip strength has been linked to risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to quantitatively assess the associations between grip strength and risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in community-dwelling populations. DESIGN: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was conducted. SETTING: Embase, Medline, and PubMed were searched from inception to September 14, 2016. Study-specific most adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were combined with a random effects model...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549428/rheumatoid-factors-do-not-predict-cardiovascular-disease-and-mortality-in-the-general-population-in-the-busselton-health-survey
#9
Johannes Nossent, Warren Raymond, Mark Divitini, Matthew Knuiman
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid Factors (RF) are antibodies directed against the Fc portion of IgG and are involved in clearance of immune complexes. While RF can develop in a wide range of conditions, higher RF levels indicate a greater risk for a severe disease course in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients including cardiovascular complications and premature death. We investigated whether RF also constitute a risk factor for these outcomes in the general population. METHODS: We included 2,323 participants (46% male, mean age 50 years) free of CVD at baseline in 1972...
May 26, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549070/the-atherogenic-index-of-plasma-and-the-risk-of-mortality-in-incident-dialysis-patients-results-from-a-nationwide-prospective-cohort-in-korea
#10
Mi Jung Lee, Jung Tak Park, Seung Hyeok Han, Yong-Lim Kim, Yon Su Kim, Chul Woo Yang, Nam-Ho Kim, Shin-Wook Kang, Hyung Jong Kim, Tae-Hyun Yoo
BACKGROUND: The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), which is the logarithmic ratio of triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), had a linear relationship with clinical outcomes in the general population. However, the association of each lipid profile, TG and HDL-C, with survival was not straightforward in dialysis patients. This non-linear association led us to further investigate the prognostic impact of the AIP in these patients. METHODS: From a nationwide prospective cohort, 1,174 incident dialysis patients were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548300/first-night-effect-on-cardiac-autonomic-function-in-different-female-reproductive-states
#11
Irina Virtanen, Nea Kalleinen, Anna S Urrila, Päivi Polo-Kantola
Decreases in heart rate variability, a marker of autonomic nervous system function, are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Heart rate variability increases in non-rapid eye movement sleep, peaking in slow-wave sleep. Therefore, decreasing the amount of deep sleep, for example, by introducing patients to a sleep laboratory environment, could decrease heart rate variability, increasing cardiovascular risk. We studied four groups of women with no previous sleep laboratory experience: young [n = 11, 23...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548185/-evaluation-the-american-college-of-cardiology-and-american-heart-association-predictive-score-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#12
Mónica Acevedo, Giovanna Valentino, Verónica Kramer, María José Bustamante, Marcela Adasme, Lorena Orellana, Fernando Baraona, Carlos Navarrete
BACKGROUND: Recently, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) proposed a new cardiovascular risk (CV) score. AIM: To evaluate the new risk score (ACC/AHA 2013) in a Chilean population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2002 and 2014, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting blood glucose levels were measured and a survey about CV risk factors was responded by 3,284 subjects aged 40 to 79 years (38% females), living in urban Santiago...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547375/the-effects-of-ozone-on-human-health
#13
Daniela Nuvolone, Davide Petri, Fabio Voller
Ozone is a highly reactive, oxidative gas associated with adverse health outcome, including mortality and morbidity. Data from monitoring sites worldwide show levels of ozone often exceeding EU legislation threshold and the more restrictive WHO guidelines for the protection of human health. Well-established evidence has been produced for short-term effects, especially on respiratory and cardiovascular systems, associated to ozone exposure. Less conclusive is the evidence for long-term effects, reporting suggestive associations with respiratory mortality, new-onset asthma in children and increased respiratory symptom effects in asthmatics...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547122/trauma-and-bmi-mortality
#14
REVIEW
Tejal S Brahmbhatt, Michael Hernon, Charles Jeffrey Siegert, Leneé Plauché, Lorrie S Young, Peter Burke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has been recognized as an impactful comorbid condition. It has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality following trauma. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies and reviews have strongly suggested obesity to be associated with increased risk for post-injury morbidity and mortality. As obesity is associated with a pro-inflammatory state, it has been suggested to negatively affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, coagulation, and renal systems and the ability and manner in which an obese patient heals...
May 25, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546848/estimation-of-maximal-oxygen-consumption-and-heart-rate-recovery-using-the-tecumseh-sub-maximal-step-test-and-their-relationship-to-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#15
Alun D Hughes, Nish Chaturvedi
BACKGROUND: Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) is associated with lower cardiovascular and total mortality. Step tests can be used to provide an estimate of (VO2max) in epidemiological or home-based studies. We compared different methods of estimation of VO2max and heart rate recovery and evaluated the relationship of these estimates with cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Data were analysed from 2286 participants in the Tecumseh Community Health Study (>16y and <70y) who performed a step test...
June 2017: Artery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546765/vitamin-d-prohormone-in-the-treatment-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
REVIEW
Claudia Friedl, Emanuel Zitt
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) represents the adaptive and very often, finally, maladaptive response of the organism to control the disturbed homeostasis of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D metabolism caused by declining renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD). sHPT leads to cardiovascular and extravascular calcifications and is directly linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as excess all-cause mortality. Vitamin D plays an important role in the development of sHPT...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546762/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-clinical-implications-in-the-evaluation-of-connective-tissue-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Sophie Mavrogeni, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Genovefa Kolovou
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is a recently developed noninvasive, nonradiating, operator-independent technique that has been successfully used for the evaluation of congenital heart disease, valvular and pericardial diseases, iron overload, cardiomyopathies, great and coronary vessel diseases, cardiac inflammation, stress-rest myocardial perfusion, and fibrosis. Rheumatoid arthritis and other spondyloarthropathies, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory myopathies, mixed connective tissue diseases (CTDs), systemic sclerosis, vasculitis, and sarcoidosis are among CTDs with serious cardiovascular involvement; this is due to multiple causative factors such as myopericarditis, micro/macrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and finally heart failure...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546442/post-transplant-hypophosphatemia-and-the-risk-of-death-censored-graft-failure-and-mortality-after-kidney-transplantation
#18
Marco van Londen, Brigitte M Aarts, Petronella E Deetman, Jessica van der Weijden, Michele F Eisenga, Gerjan Navis, Stephan J L Bakker, Martin H de Borst
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypophosphatemia is common in the first year after kidney transplantation, but its clinical implications are unclear. We investigated the relationship between the severity of post-transplant hypophosphatemia and mortality or death-censored graft failure in a large cohort of renal transplant recipients with long-term follow-up. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We performed a longitudinal cohort study in 957 renal transplant recipients who were transplanted between 1993 and 2008 at a single center...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546086/physical-activity-and-cardiovascular-aging-physiological-and-molecular-insights
#19
REVIEW
Djordje G Jakovljevic
Aging is associated with significant changes in both cardiac and vascular structure and function that lower the threshold for clinical signs and symptoms, making older people more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases, morbidity and mortality. Understanding of age-related cardiovascular changes is necessary for effective and efficient prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in older people. Cardiac aging is associated with left ventricular remodelling marked by increased mass-to-volume ratio and accompanied by systolic and diastolic myocardial dysfunction, and reduced sensitivity to sympathetic stimuli that compromises myocardial contractility and pumping ability in older people...
May 22, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545937/treatment-of-nafld-with-diet-physical-activity-and-exercise
#20
REVIEW
Manuel Romero-Gómez, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Michael Trenell
Lifestyle intervention can be useful across all the spectrum of NAFLD patients. Losing weight decreases cardiovascular / diabetes risk and also regresses liver disease. Weight reductions of ≥ 10% are required for inducing near universal NASH resolution or fibrosis improvement by at least one stage. However, modest weight losses (>5%) also produce important benefits on NAS and its components. In addition, to improve the success of this intervention we need to explore, beyond total calories and type of weight loss diet, the role of micro and macronutrients, evidence-based benefits of physical activity and exercise and finally supporting these modifications through established behaviour change models and techniques...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
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