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Chunhua Cao, Eunkyoung Kim, Yi Liu, Mijeong Kang, Jinyang Li, Jun-Jie Yin, Huan Liu, Xue Qu, Changsheng Liu, William E Bentley, Gregory F Payne
Recent studies showed that melanin-mimetic catechol-chitosan films are redox-active and their ability to exchange electrons confers pro-oxidant activities for the sustained, in situ generation of reactive oxygen species for antimicrobial bandages. Here we electrofabricated catechol-chitosan films, demonstrate these films are redox-active, and show their ability to exchange electrons confers sustained radical scavenging activities that could be useful for protective coatings. Electrofabrication was performed in two steps: cathodic electrodeposition of a chitosan film followed by anodic grafting of catechol to chitosan...
June 21, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Naveen K Kalagatur, Oriparambil S Nirmal Ghosh, Naveen Sundararaj, Venkataramana Mudili
Application of synthetic fungicides in agricultural commodities has been restricted due to development of fungicide resistance fungi and deleterious impact on environment and health of farm animals and humans. Hence, there is an urge for development of mycobiocides, and the present study was undertaken to determine the antifungal activity of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (CMEO) on post-harvest pathogen Fusarium graminearum . The CMEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and GC-MS chemical profile revealed the presence of 46 compounds and abundant was geraniol (19...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
C R M de Lima, D N Gomes, J R de Morais Filho, M R Pereira, J L C Fonseca
Interpolyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) [NaPSS] were synthesized and obtained in the form of solid particles, with two different sulfonate to aminium molar ratios: 0.7, resulting in particles with positive zeta potential (IPEC+ ), and 1.4, yielding particles with negative zeta potential (IPEC- ). Both particles were characterized as potential drug sorbents using differently charged drugs: sodium cromoglycate (negatively charged), and tetracycline hydrochloride (positively charged)...
June 15, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Juanjuan Li, Ruitao Cha, Kaiwen Mou, Xiaohui Zhao, Keying Long, Huize Luo, Fengshan Zhou, Xingyu Jiang
In recent years, nanocellulose-based antimicrobial materials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their unique and potentially useful features. In this review, several representative types of nanocellulose and modification methods for antimicrobial applications are mainly focused on. Recent literature related with the preparation and applications of nanocellulose-based antimicrobial materials is reviewed. The fabrication of nanocellulose-based antimicrobial materials for wound dressings, drug carriers, and packaging materials is the focus of the research...
June 19, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
S Deepthi, Jobin Jose
PURPOSE: Conventional dosage form like eye drops showed poor therapeutic response and also require frequent dosing. Therefore, developing the dosage form to deliver the drug to the target site without much loss of drug or without causing any systemic side effects is the challenging job for the researchers in pharmaceutical industries. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the present work was to formulate and evaluate hydrogel-based drug delivery containing combination of neomycin sulphate and betamethasone sodium phosphate in order to provide prolonged release and also better bioavailability of drugs for the treatment of eye infections...
June 19, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Ye Peng, Kai-Yuan Li, Yu-Fei Chen, Xiao-Jie Li, Shu Zhu, Zheng-Yu Zhang, Xiao Wang, Li-Na Duan, Zhuo-Jing Luo, Jun-Jie Du, Jian-Chang Wang
Longitudinally oriented microstructures are essential for a nerve scaffold to promote the significant regeneration of injured peripheral axons across nerve gaps. In the current study, we present a novel nerve-guiding collagen-chitosan (CCH) scaffold that facilitated the repair of 30 mm-long sciatic nerve defects in beagles. The CCH scaffolds were observed with a scanning electron microscope. Eighteen beagles were equally divided into CCH group, autograft group and non-graft group. The posture and gait of each dog was recorded at 12 and 24 weeks after surgery...
March 22, 2018: Injury
Muhammed Anwary, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Posterior segment diseases are commonly implicated in the occurrence of curable as well as incurable diseases which could lead to blindness. An example of one such disease is age-related macular degeneration, which would require chronic treatment over an extended period and as such the development of an intravitreal drug delivery system that would optimize patient outcomes is essential. The major contributor of the difficulty in treating diseases in the posterior segment is the structure of the eye, particularly the blood-ocular barriers...
June 19, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Sreekar B Marpu, Erin N Benton
Chitosan (CS) is a natural polymer derived from chitin that has found its usage both in research and commercial applications due to its unique solubility and chemical and biological attributes. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of CS have helped researchers identify its utility in the delivery of therapeutic agents, tissue engineering, wound healing, and more. Industrial applications include cosmetic and personal care products, wastewater treatment, and corrosion protection, to name a few. Many researchers have published numerous reviews outlining the physical and chemical properties of CS, as well as its use for many of the above-mentioned applications...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Emna Ben Slimane, Saloua Sadok
The acid solubilised collagen (ASC) and pepsin solubilised collagen (PSC) were extracted from the by-products (skin) of a cartilaginous fish ( Mustelus mustelus ). The ASC and PSC yields were 23.07% and 35.27% dry weight, respectively and were identified as collagen Type I with the presence of α, β and γ chains. As revealed by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra analysis, pepsin did not alter the PSC triple helix structure. Based on the various type of collagen yield, only PSC was used in combination with chitosan to produce a composite film...
June 15, 2018: Marine Drugs
Pang-Hu Zhou, Bo Qiu, Rong-Hui Deng, Hua-Jie Li, Xiong-Feng Xu, Xi-Fu Shang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interleukin (IL)-1β plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) can prevent the generation of active IL-1β. This study aimed to explore the chondroprotective effects of hyaluronic acid-chitosan nanoparticles containing plasmid DNA encoding CrmA (HA/CS-CrmA) in a rat OA model. METHODS: HA/CS-CrmA nanoparticles were synthesized through the complex coacervation of cationic polymers. The characteristics, toxicity, and transfection of the nanoparticles were investigated...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Kim Min, Seung Cheol Jee, Jung-Suk Sung, Avinash A Kadam
Owing to the ubiquitous availability and simple biocatalysis, the anti-proliferative laccase holds enormous opportunities for anti-cancer applications. However, accessing efficient and specific (super-magnetically targetable) new delivery system for anti-proliferative laccase is vital step towards laccase based anti-cancer approach. Therefore, in this investigation, super-magnetized (Fe3 O4 ) and chitosan (CS) functionalized halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) (termed as Fe3 O4 -HNTs-CS) was facile synthesized. Further, laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on Fe3 O4 -HNTs-CS (termed as Fe3 O4 -HNTs-CS-Lac)...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ana Carolina Martínez-Torres, Diana G Zarate-Triviño, Helen Yarimet Lorenzo-Anota, Andrea Ávila-Ávila, Carolina Rodríguez-Abrego, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla
Background: Nanotechnology has gained important interest, especially in the development of new therapies; the application of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the treatment and detection of diseases is a growing trend in this field. As cancer represents a serious health problem around the world, AuNPs are studied as potential drugs or drug carriers for anticancer agents. Recent studies show that AuNPs stabilized with chitosan (CH) possess interesting biological activities, including potential antitumor effects that could be selective to cancer cells...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Pelin Demircivi
To enhance the adsorption capacity of chitosan for acid orange II (AOII) adsorption, a novel adsorbent, zirconium(IV) doped immobilized cross-linked chitosan/perlite (Zr(IV)-CS-PT) composite was synthesized and characterized. Batch studies were conducted to analyze the effect of different parameters on AOII adsorption, such as Zr (IV) loading amount, pH, adsorbent dosage and temperature. Also, kinetic data revealed that AOII adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order kinetic model. Langmuir adsorption isotherm model was best described the isotherm data and maximum adsorption capacity was found 476...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Wei Zheng, Haiyan Wu, Yan Jiang, Jicheng Xu, Xin Li, Wenchi Zhang, Fengxian Qiu
In this work, a novel molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor (MIECS) based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with carbon dots (CDs) and chitosan (CS) for the determination of glucose was proposed for the first time. The use of the environmental-friendly CDs and CS as electrode modifications improved the active area and electron-transport ability substantially, while 3-aminobenzeneboronic acid was used as a functional monomer and glucose as template for the fabrication of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film to detect glucose via differential pulse voltammetry...
June 14, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Durairajan Rubini, Sanaulla Farisa Banu, B Narayanan Vedahari, Durai Ramyadevi, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Paramasivam Nithyanand
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of biofilm-associated and indwelling device related infections. The present study explores the anti-virulent and antibiofilm potency of chitosan extracted from the shells of the marine crab Portunus sanguinolentus against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The chemical characterization results revealed that the extracted chitosan (EC) has structural analogy to that of a commercial chitosan (CC). The extracted chitosan was found to be effective in reducing the staphyloxanthin pigment, a characteristic virulence feature of MRSA that promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species...
June 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
H Sasimali M Soysa, Wipa Suginta, Watcharaporn Moonsap, M F Smith
The outer membrane protein channel EcChiP, associated with a silent gene in E. coli, is a monomeric chitoporin. In a glucose-deficient environment, E. coli can express the ChiP gene to exploit chitin degradation products. Single-channel small ion current measurements, which reveal the dynamics of single sugar molecules trapped in channel, are used here to study the exotic transport of chitosugars by E. coli. Molecules escape from the channel on multiple timescales. Voltage-dependent trapping rates observed for charged chitosan molecules, as well as model calculations, indicate that the rapid escape processes are those in which the molecule escapes back to the side of the membrane from which it originated...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Yunfei Tang, Yun Chai, Xiaoqiang Liu, Lele Li, Liwei Yang, Peipei Liu, Yanmei Zhou, Huangxian Ju, Yunzhi Cheng
In this work, a CuS-TiO2 heterojunction composite was prepared by dispersedly depositing CuS nanoparticles on TiO2 nanospheres surface with a hydrothermal method, and was then used to construct a photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor for sensitive detection of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in aquatic environment. The energy bands of CuS nanoparticles and spherical anatase TiO2 were well matched, which enhanced the photo-to-current conversion efficiency. The composite exhibited the enhanced visible light absorption, the improved separation of photo-generated charges, and the reduced self-aggregation of CuS nanoparticles, leading to the enhanced photocurrent response...
June 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Veysel Turan, Shahbaz Ali Khan, Mahmood-Ur-Rahman, Muhammad Iqbal, Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Maryam Fatima
Depleting aquifers, lack of planning and low socioeconomic status of Pakistani farmers have led them to use wastewater (WW) for irrigating their crops causing food contamination with heavy metals and ultimately negative effects on human health. This study evaluates the effects of chitosan (CH) and biochar (BC) on growth and nutritional quality of brinjal plant together with in situ immobilization of heavy metals in a soil polluted with heavy metals due to irrigation with wastewater (SPHIW) and further irrigated with the same WW...
June 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jessica Fernandes, M Vivek Ghate, Sanchari Basu Mallik, Shaila A Lewis
Saxagliptin (SAX) is dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme inhibitor molecule now explored for its activity in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Being extremely hydrophilic, it is unable to permeate the blood-brain barrier by the conventional therapy modalities. Further repurposing the drug, SAX is associated with a reduction in the blood sugar level in the periphery. In the present study, the chitosan-L-valine conjugate was synthesized by carbodiimide chemistry. The conjugate was then used to prepare nanoparticles encapsulating SAX...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Jinlei Miao, Haihui Liu, Yongbing Li, Xingxiang Zhang
Electronic waste (E-waste) contain large environmental contaminants such as toxic heavy metals and hazardous chemicals. These contaminants would migrate into drinking water or food chains and pose a serious threat to environment and human health. Biodegradable green electronics has great potential to address the issue of E-waste. Here we report on a novel biodegradable and flexible transparent electrode, integrate three-dimensionally (3D) interconnected conductive nanocomposites into edible starch-chitosan based substrates...
June 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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