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Zhiwen Zeng, Hongsheng Wang, Yosry Morsi, Xiumei Mo
Surgical adhesive is the optimal candidate for the replacement of traditional mechanical wound closure. In our paper, mussel adhesive proteins inspired hydrogel adhesive was prepared with 3, 4-dihydroxyphyenylanine acrylamide (DOPA-AA), poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDAA) and thiolated chitosan (CSS) by UV irradiation. DOPA-AA, containing catechol group and vinyl group, was successful synthesized and characterized by FTIR and (1)HNMR. The gelation time, equilibrium water content, degradation, materials properties and adhesive strength of the hydrogels were studied...
October 14, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Ankita Mohapatra, Michael A Harris, David LeVine, Madhav Ghimire, Jessica A Jennings, Bashir I Morshed, Warren O Haggard, Joel D Bumgardner, Sanjay R Mishra, Tomoko Fujiwara
Local antibiotic delivery can overcome some of the shortcomings of systemic therapy, such as low local concentrations and delivery to avascular sites. A localized drug delivery system (DDS), ideally, could also use external stimuli to modulate the normal drug release profile from the DDS to provide efficacious drug administration and flexibility to healthcare providers. To achieve this objective, chitosan microbeads embedded with magnetic nanoparticles were loaded with the antibiotic vancomycin and stimulated by a high frequency alternating magnetic field...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
P Fernández-Serrano, L Casares-Crespo, M P Viudes-de-Castro
This study was designed to develop chitosan (CS)-dextran sulphate (DS) nanoparticles containing a GnRH analogue and to study their effect on rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) semen quality. Six experimental extenders were tested as follows: (control) Tris-citric acid-glucose (TCG), (1) 0.05% CS-0.05% DS (4:1), (2) 0.1% CS-0.05% DS (4:1), (3) 0.05% CS-0.05% DS (3:1), (4) 0.1% CS-0.05% DS (3:1), (5) 0.1% CS-0.05% DS (2:1). CS and DS were dissolved in TCG medium, and nanoparticles were obtained through magnetic stirring...
October 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Ramnarain Ramakrishna, Dipayan Sarkar, Avani Manduri, Shreyas Ganesan Iyer, Kalidas Shetty
Sprouts of cereal grains, such as barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), are a good source of beneficial phenolic bioactives. Such health relevant phenolic bioactives of cereal sprouts can be targeted to manage chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress commonly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore improving phenolic bioactives by stimulating plant endogenous defense responses such as protective pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during sprouting has significant merit. Based on this metabolic rationale, this study aimed to enhance phenolic bioactives and associated antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic functions in dark germinated barley sprouts using exogenous elicitor treatments...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Sanny Verma, Mallikarjuna N Nadagouda, Rajender S Varma
Chitosan-derived, porous nitrogen-enriched carbonaceous carbon nitride catalyst (PCNx) has been synthesized from marine waste and its use demonstrated in a metal-free heterogeneous selective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) using aerial oxygen under mild reaction conditions.
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gangtao Yao, Guilan Quan, Shiqi Lin, Tingting Peng, Qingqing Wang, Hao Ran, Hangping Chen, Qian Zhang, Lili Wang, Xin Pan, Chuanbin Wu
Dissolving microneedles (DMN) have been studied as a drug delivery system to enhance the transport of drug molecules across the skin with almost no pain. However, the poor dissolving ability of microneedles in the skin and low drug loading have limited their potential application. The aim of this study was to develop a novel dissolving microneedle system with improved dissolving ability for the delivery of poorly water soluble contraception drug, levonorgestrel (LNG). Chitosan and beta-sodium glycerophosphate (β-GP) were incorporated in the formulation of microneedles...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Da-Wei Li, Feng-Li He, Jin He, Xudong Deng, Ya-Li Liu, Yang-Yang Liu, Ya-Jing Ye, Da-Chuan Yin
It has been widely accepted that cell culture in two-dimensional (2D) conditions may not be able to represent growth in three-dimensional (3D) conditions. Systematic comparisons between 2D and 3D cell cultures are needed to appropriately use the existing 2D results. In this work, we conducted a comparative study between 2D and 3D cell cultures of MC3T3-E1 using the same type of material (a mixture of silk fibroin (SF) and chitosan (CS)). Our results showed 3D SF/CS scaffold exhibited different effects on cell culture compared with the 2D cases...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xue Li, Jingyu Tang, Luhan Bao, Lin Chen, Feng F Hong
In order to improve property of bacterial nano-cellulose (BNC) to achieve the requirements of clinical application as small caliber vascular grafts, chitosan (CH) was deposited into the fibril network of the BNC tubes fabricated in unique Double-Silicone-Tube bioreactors. Heparin (Hep) was then chemically grafted into the BNC-based tubes using EDC/NHS crosslinking to improve performance of anticoagulation and endothelialization. Physicochemical and mechanical property, blood compatibility, and cytocompatibility were compared before and after compositing...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
E M Costa, S Silva, S Vicente, M Veiga, F Tavaria, M M Pintado
Over the last two decades worldwide levels of antibiotic resistance have risen leading to the appearance of multidrug resistant microorganisms. Acinetobacter baumannii is a known skin pathogen which has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks due to its capacity to colonize indwelling medical devices and natural antibiotic resistance. With chitosan being an effective antimicrobial agent against antibiotic resistant microorganisms, the aim of this work was to access its potential as an alternative to traditional antimicrobials in the management of A...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Wang Qin, Jixiang Li, Jianbing Tu, Hongqin Yang, Qinhui Chen, Haiqing Liu
Low temperature thermally induced phase separation (LT-TIPS) of chitosan solution was developed to fabricate porous chitosan membranes (p-CSMs), which were composed of short nanofibers with diameter of 40-60nm. Compared to the conventional acetic acid/water solvent, a mixed solvent of acetic acid/ethanol/water was used to prepare chitosan solution. The effect of solvent composition, quenching temperature and time, and coagulant on the p-CSM morphology were systematically explored. The optimum conditions for fabricating p-CSM was to quench 2% chitosan/2% acetic acid in water/ethanol (70/30) at -20°C for 12h, followed by coagulating in 1% Na2CO3 in water/ethanol (50/50)...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Gyeong-Won Jeong, Jae-Woon Nah
For efficient gene delivery, non-viral vectors should have high cellular uptake, excellent endosomal escape, and the ability to rapidly release the gene into the cytoplasm. Here, we developed a disulfide bond-conjugated bioreducible LMWSC-g-bPEI (LCP) composed of low molecular-weight water soluble chitosan (LMWSC), bPEI, and cystamine (Cys). The developed LCP had advantages such as low toxicity, great endosomal escape, and rapid release of pDNA into the cytoplasm. The polyplexes with LCP showed higher uptake into the nucleus and greater transfection efficiency than that without disulfide bond...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jie Yang, Hao Lu, Man Li, Jing Liu, Shuangling Zhang, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
Chitosan nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention as a potential carrier for food and pharmaceutical applications. Herein, using natural sodium phytate as a gelation agent, we developed a new type of green and biocompatible chitosan nanoparticles. We discovered that the chitosan-sodium phytate nanoparticles exhibited potent antibacterial activities. The chitosan-sodium phytate nanoparticles prepared from low molecular weight (LMW, 140±7kDa) and medium molecular weight (MMW, 454±21kDa) chitosan were spherical...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Athit Pipattanawarothai, Chomchai Suksai, Klaokwan Srisook, Thanida Trakulsujaritchok
Biohybrid chitosan-silica scaffolds were synthesized through the sol-gel and the freeze drying processes. Hydrolysis and condensation of chitosan with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of 3-isocyanatopropyl triethoxysilane (ICPTES) were successfully carried out. Results obtained from FTIR, swelling test and pyrolysis confirmed that the hybrid scaffolds containing covalent coupling between the organic and inorganic networks were formed with high crosslink density of SiOSi bridging and could be classified as the class II material...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Liefeng Hu, Panpan Zhang, Xin Wang, Xu Cheng, Jiejie Qin, Rupei Tang
Hydrogel systems with favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability are of much interest for application in biomaterials and tissue engineering. In this study, a new ortho ester-based acid-labile crosslink agent with dual-epoxy end groups was synthesized and crosslinked with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) at different molar ratios to prepare a series of pH-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivering. Doxorubicin (DOX) was then readily loaded into the hydrogels and the in vitro release profiles indicated that the release rate increased rapidly while pH decreased from 7...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Lijun Sun, Jin Li, Jun Cai, Lian Zhong, Guohui Ren, Qimin Ma
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized in one-step by reducing gold salt using nontoxic and biodegradable chitosan as dual roles of reducing agent and stabilizer. The obtained AuNPs were characterized with UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that control over the size and shape of AuNPs is achieved through the careful selection of experimental conditions, such as reaction temperature, reaction time, concentration of gold salt and chitosan, and chitosan molecular parameters, i...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Anna A Krasilnikova, David S Sergeevichev, Vladislav V Fomenko, Alexander A Korobeynikov, Maria B Vasilyeva, Alexander S Yunoshev, Alexander M Karaskov, Evgeny A Pokushalov
Vascular xenografts are widely used in cardiovascular surgery as an alternative to autologous vessels and vascular allografts. Calcification is one of the main drawbacks of vascular grafts, especially among young patients and children. Among different anticalcification approaches, chitosan emerges as a highly promising candidate due to its versatility, natural origin, and biocompatibility. We investigated the anticalcification efficacy of globular chitosan ("Chitozol") as it demonstrated the improved rate of water solubility as compared with conventional linear macromolecules of chitosan...
September 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Silvia Rossi, Barbara Vigani, Antonella Puccio, Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Giuseppina Sandri, Franca Ferrari
The aim of the present work was the development of chitosan ascorbate nanoparticles (CSA NPs) loaded into a fast-dissolving matrix for the delivery of antibiotic drugs in the treatment of atrophic vaginitis. CSA NPs loaded with amoxicillin trihydrate (AX) were obtained by ionotropic gelation in the presence of pentasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Different CSA:TPP and CSA:AX weight ratios were considered and their influence on the particle size, polydispersion index and production yield were investigated. CSA NPs were characterized for mucoadhesive, wound healing and antimicrobial properties...
October 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
E M Varoni, S Vijayakumar, E Canciani, A Cochis, L De Nardo, G Lodi, L Rimondini, M Cerruti
Periodontal regeneration is still a challenge for periodontists and tissue engineers, as it requires the simultaneous restoration of different tissues-namely, cementum, gingiva, bone, and periodontal ligament (PDL). Here, we synthetized a chitosan (CH)-based trilayer porous scaffold to achieve periodontal regeneration driven by multitissue simultaneous healing. We produced 2 porous compartments for bone and gingiva regeneration by cross-linking with genipin either medium molecular weight (MMW) or low molecular weight (LMW) CH and freeze-drying the resulting scaffolds...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
Emma Camacho, Christine Chrissian, Radames J B Cordero, Livia Liporagi-Lopes, Ruth E Stark, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that belongs to the phylum Basidiomycetes and is a major pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The ability of C. neoformans to produce melanin pigments represents its second most important virulence factor, after the presence of a polysaccharide capsule. Both the capsule and melanin are closely associated with the fungal cell wall, a complex structure that is essential for maintaining cell morphology and viability under conditions of stress. The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a key constituent of the cell-wall chitin and is used for both N-linked glycosylation and GPI anchor synthesis...
October 18, 2017: Microbiology
Jaleh Varshosaz, Somayeh Taymouri, Mohsen Minaiyan, Fatemeh Rastegarnasab, Azar Baradaran
The aim of this study was to develop hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC)/chitosan gel containing polymeric micelles loaded with simvastatin (Sim) and evaluates its wound healing properties in rats. An irregular full factorial design was employed to evaluate the effects of various formulation variables including polymer/drug ratio, hydration temperature, hydration time and organic solvent type on the physicochemical characteristics of pluronic F127-cholesterol nanomicelles prepared using the film hydration method...
October 18, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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