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Sadaf Hafeez, Atif Islam, Nafisa Gull, Abbas Ali, Shahzad Maqsood Khan, Saba Zia, Kalsoom Anwar, Saba Urooge Khan, Tahir Jamil
Novel pH-sensitive γ-irradiated low molecular weight chitosan (CS) (pre-irradiated) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended injectable hydrogels, crosslinked with varying concentrations of glycerol, were fabricated for drug delivery application. The effect of low molecular weight irradiated CS on controlled drug release was evaluated to address the problem of higher viscosity and lower solubility of high molecular weight CS. The FTIR spectra of hydrogels depicted the presence of all the incorporated functional groups and the developed interactions (physical and chemical)...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Luiza Rayanna Amorim de Lima, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes da Silva, Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida, Thiago Barbosa Cahú, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro Beltrão, Luiz Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior
In order to characterize the affinity between specific carbohydrate-binding proteins such as lectins, a model is proposed to study these interactions using a polysaccharide membrane to simulate such adsorption. Here, lectin-carbohydrate interactions were chemiluminescently investigated using lectins conjugated to acridinium ester (AE) and polysaccharides composed of their respective specific carbohydrates. The lectin-AE conjugates were incubated with discs (0.0314-0.6358 cm2 ) of phytagel, chitosan and carrageenan...
February 16, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Hai Chao Yu, He Zhang, Ke-Feng Ren, Zhimin Ying, Fengbo Zhu, Jin Qian, Jian Ji, Zi Liang Wu, Qiang Zheng
Designing tough biopolymer-based hydrogels as structural biomaterials has both scientific and practical significances. We report a facile approach to prepare polysaccharide-based hydrogel films with remarkable mechanical performances and anti-adhesion property. The hydrogel films with thickness of 40-60 μm were prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of κ-carrageenan (κ-CG) and protonated chitosan (CS), evaporating the solvent, and then swelling the casted film in water to achieve the equilibrium state. The obtained κ-CG/CS gel films with water content of 48-88 wt% possessed excellent mechanical properties superior to most existing biopolymer-based hydrogels, with breaking stress of 2-6...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Farzad Khademi, Mohammad Derakhshan, Arshid Yousefi-Avarvand, Mohsen Tafaghodi
Objectives: Production of effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is necessity. However, the development of new subunit vaccines is faced with concerns about their weak immunogenicity. To overcome such problems, polymers-based vaccine delivery systems have been proposed to be used via various routes. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of polymeric particles as future vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants for parenteral and non-parenteral immunization against TB. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Science-Direct, and the ISI web of knowledge databases were searched for related keywords...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Wei Zhang, Xin Jin, Heng Li, Run-Run Zhang, Cheng-Wei Wu
Hydrogels based on chitosan/hyaluronic acid/β-sodium glycerophosphate demonstrate injectability, body temperature sensitivity, pH sensitive drug release and adhesion to cancer cell. The drug (doxorubicin) loaded hydrogel precursor solutions are injectable and turn to hydrogels when the temperature is increased to body temperature. The acidic condition (pH 4.00) can trigger the release of drug and the cancer cell (Hela) can adhere to the surface of the hydrogels, which will be beneficial for tumor site-specific administration of drug...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jinjian Huang, Youming Deng, Jianan Ren, Guopu Chen, Gefei Wang, Feng Wang, Xiuwen Wu
Injectable hydrogels have been an attractive topic in biomaterials. However, during gelation in vivo, they are easy to disperse due to tissue exudates, thus leading to failure of controlled drug release. To solve this problem, we present a novel polysaccharide-based injectable hydrogel via self-crosslinking of aldehyde-modified xanthan (Xan-CHO) and carboxymethyl-modified chitosan (NOCC). The physical properties were optimized by adjusting the mass ratio of Xan-CHO and NOCC. Experiments revealed that this material exhibited the characteristics of self-healing, anti-enzymatic hydrolysis, biocompatibility and biodegradability...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Phornsiri Pechsrichuang, Silje B Lorentzen, Berit B Aam, Tina R Tuveng, Anne G Hamre, Vincent G H Eijsink, Montarop Yamabhai
BsCsn46A, a GH family 46 chitosanase from Bacillus subtilis had been previously shown to have potential for bioconversion of chitosan to chito-oligosaccharides (CHOS). However, so far, in-depth analysis of both the mode of action of this enzyme and the composition of its products were lacking. In this study, we have employed size exclusion chromatography,1 H NMR, and mass spectrometry to reveal that BsCsn46A can rapidly cleave chitosans with a wide-variety of acetylation degrees, using a non-processive endo-mode of action...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Suse Botelho da Silva, Malgorzata Krolicka, Lambertus A M van den Broek, August E Frissen, Carmen Gabriela Boeriu
Chitosan is a polysaccharide with recognized antioxidant, antimicrobial and wound healing activities. However, this polymer is soluble only in dilute acidic solutions, which restricts much of its applications. A usual strategy for improving the functionality of polysaccharides is the selective oxidation mediated by 2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-1-piperidinidyloxy (TEMPO) using laccase as a co-oxidant. In this work, the TEMPO-laccase redox system was used for the first time to selectively oxidize chitosan in order to produce tailored derivatives...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Hadi Almasi, Paria Jafarzadeh, Laleh Mehryar
The efficiency of bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCNF) and chitosan nanofibers (CHNF) were compared, aiming at fabricating novel organic-inorganic nanohybrids containing copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs). FT-IR spectra confirmed the formation of real nanohybrids through occurring new interactions between CuO NPs and nanofibers. XRD results indicated that both the crystallite size and the crystallinity index of nanofibers decreased after nanohybrid formation. Noticeably, these morphological changes for CHNF were more than those for BCNF...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Silvana Gjoseva, Nikola Geskovski, Simona Dimchevska Sazdovska, Riste Popeski-Dimovski, Gjorgji Petruševski, Kristina Mladenovska, Katerina Goracinova
The aim of this study was to develop chitosan (CS) microparticulated mucoadhesive drug delivery system (DDS) with improved therapeutic performance and biological responce. Ionotropic gelation/spray drying process was used for preparation of doxycycline hyclate (DOXY) loaded low and medium molecular weight (LMw and MMw) CS/sodium tripolyphosphate microparticles (CS/TPP MPs), further coated with ethyl cellulose (EC) using coacervation/solvent displacement technique. The relevant physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical properties were optimized using experimental design approach...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Si Wu, Wenqi Wang, Kun Yan, Fuyuan Ding, Xiaowen Shi, Hongbing Deng, Yumin Du
Polysaccharide films used as intelligent food packaging possess the advantages of renewability, safety and biodegradability. Printing on the polysaccharidic food packaging is challenging due to the high demand for edible-ink and the need for a suitable printing technique. In this work, we propose an electrochemical method for writing on polysaccharide film. Unlike conventional printing, this electrochemical writing process relies on the pH responsive color change of anthocyanin embedded in the chitosan/agarose hydrogel...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jie Wang, Chunli Gong, Sheng Wen, Hai Liu, Caiqin Qin, Chuanxi Xiong, Lijie Dong
Poor dispersion and inert ionic conduction are two major obstacles towards using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to modify polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) in energy conversion devices. In this work, solvent-free carbon nanotube fluids (CNT fluids) with liquid-like behavior are prepared through an ion exchange method and incorporated into a chitosan (CS) matrix to fabricate composite membranes. The electrostatic interactions between SO3 - groups in the CNT fluids and NH2 groups in the CS matrix, in addition to the unique flow properties of the CNT fluids, promote the uniform dispersion of CNT fluids in the CS matrix...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sedat Ondaral, Elif Çelik, Orçun Çağlar Kurtuluş, Elif Aşıkuzun, İsmail Yakın
The chitosan adsorption on films prepared using nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with different content of aldehyde group was studied by means of Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D). Results showed that frequency change (Δf) was higher when the chitosan adsorbed on NFC film consisting more aldehyde group indicating the higher adsorption. The (Δf) and dissipation (ΔD) factors completely changed during adsorption of chitosan pre-treated with acetic acid: Δf increased and ΔD decreased, oppositely to un-treated chitosan adsorption...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Maria Valentina Dinu, Ionel Adrian Dinu, Maria Marinela Lazar, Ecaterina Stela Dragan
An original strategy is proposed here to design chitosan-based ion-imprinted cryo-composites (II-CCs) with pre-organized recognition sites and tailored porous structure by combining ion-imprinting and ice-templating techniques. The cryo-composites showed a tube-like porous morphology with interconnected parallel micro-channels, the distance between the channel walls being around 15 μm. Both the entrapment of a natural zeolite and the presence of carboxylate groups, generated by partial hydrolysis of amide moieties, led to II-CCs with controlled swelling ratios (25-40 g/g, depending on pH) and enhanced overall chelating efficiency (260 mg Cu2+ /g composite)...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Peter Bösiger, Isabelle M T Richard, Luce Le Gat, Benjamin Michen, Mark Schubert, René M Rossi, Giuseppino Fortunato
Chitosan is a promising biocompatible polymer for regenerative engineering applications, but its processing remains challenging due to limited solubility and rigid crystalline structure. This work represents the development of electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) blend nanofibrous membranes by means of a numerical analysis in order to identify and tailor the main influencing parameters with respect to accessible surface nitrogen functionalities which are of importance for the biological activity as well as for further functionalization...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Danilo Martins Dos Santos, Ilaiáli Souza Leite, Andrea de Lacerda Bukzem, Rachel Passos de Oliveira Santos, Elisabete Frollini, Natalia Mayumi Inada, Sérgio Paulo Campana-Filho
Blend solutions of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and N-(2-hydroxy)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (QCh) were successfully electrospun. The weight ratio PCL/QCh ranged in the interval 95/5-70/30 while two QCh samples were used, namely QCh1 (DQ¯ = 47.3%; DPv¯ = 2218) and QCh2 (DQ¯ = 71.1%; DPv¯ = 1427). According to the characteristics of QCh derivative and to the QCh content on the resulting PCL/QCh nonwoven, the nanofibers displayed different average diameter (175 nm-415 nm), and the nonwovens exhibited variable porosity (57...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yongli Zhang, Xingrui Wang, Chen Xu, Weiwei Yan, Qiang Tian, Zhiming Sun, Hongduo Yao, Jianping Gao
Hydrophobic and dispersible functionalized reduced graphene oxide (FrGO) was employed to prepare chitosan gel droplets by crosslinking an inverse Pickering emulsion. The emulsion was prepared using toluene as the continuous phase and a chitosan aqueous solution as the dispersed phase. The effects of the FrGO concentration and the water/oil ratio on the chitosan droplet morphology were studied. At appropriate concentrations, the FrGO acted as a stabilizer and chitosan gel droplets were formed. Decreasing the FrGO concentration or increasing the water/oil ratio was unfavorable to the formation of chitosan droplets...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
M Ghalavand, M Saadati, A Ahmadi, E Abbasi, J Salimian
OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed at comparing tetanus toxoid (TT)‑loaded-chitosan nanoparticles with aluminum hydroxide as a common vaccine adjuvant. BACKGROUND: Tetanus remains to be a major public health problem. Nanoparticles have been extensively used as immune adjuvants. Tetanus toxoid (TT) encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles is considered to be a promising tetanus vaccine candidate. METHODS: TT‑loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the ionic gelation method...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Y Q Xu, Y Y Xing, Z Q Wang, S M Yan, B L Shi
The protective effects of chitosan (CS) supplementations on oxidative stress induced by diquat in weaned piglets were investigated. A total of 36 crossbreed piglets with an average live body weight (BW) of 8.80 ± 0.53 kg were weaned at 28 ± 2 days and randomly divided into six dietary treatments (n = 6): control (basal diet), negative control (10 mg diquat/kg BW injected to piglets fed with basal diet), and basal diet treatments containing either 250, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg of CS administered to piglets injected with 10 mg diquat/kg BW...
February 17, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Xu Wang, Fang Li, Ziqi Cai, Kaifan Liu, Jing Li, Boyang Zhang, Jianbo He
In this work, a multilayer-modified paper-based colorimetric sensing platform with improved color uniformity and intensity was developed for the sensitive and selective determination of uric acid and glucose with smartphone as signal readout. In detail, chitosan, different kinds of chromogenic reagents, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) combined with a specific oxidase, e.g., uricase or glucose oxidase (GOD), were immoblized onto the paper substrate to form a multilayer-modified test paper. Hydrogen peroxide produced by the oxidases (uricase or GOD) reacts with the substrates (uric acid or glucose), and could oxidize the co-immoblized chromogenic reagents to form colored products with HRP as catalyst...
February 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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