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Small cell prostate cancer

Veronica Ferrucci, Francesco Paolo Pennino, Roberto Siciliano, Fatemeh Asadzadeh, Massimo Zollo
The understanding of protein-protein interactions is crucial in order to generate a second level of functional genomic analysis in human disease. Within a cellular microenvironment, protein-protein interactions generate new functions that can be defined by single or multiple modes of protein interactions. We outline here the clinical importance of targeting of the Nme-1 (NDPK-A)-Prune-1 protein complex in cancer, where an imbalance in the formation of this protein-protein complex can result in inhibition of tumor progression...
February 15, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Xin Xie, Zhaoping Xu, Chenghe Wang, Chen Fang, Juping Zhao, Le Xu, Xiaoqiang Qian, Jun Dai, Fukang Sun, Danfeng Xu, Wei He
Tip60, an oncogene, accelerates cell growth by regulating androgen receptor translocation into the nucleus in prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of Tip60 in the response of prostate cancer to radiotherapy, and radioresistance, has not been studied. Using human prostate cancer samples and two human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and DU145), Tip60 protein expression and the acetylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutant (ATM) were analysed by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. Tip60 was downregulated with small interfering RNA...
February 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Fei Liu, Liang Hu, Yuefan Ma, Bingyu Huang, Zihan Xiu, Peihua Zhang, Keyuan Zhou, Xudong Tang
Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a mitochondrial enzyme, is closely associated with neurological disorders. Recently, MAOA has been linked to the progression of prostate cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. However, MAOA was reported to have different effects on the progression of these types of cancer, and the role of MAOA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression remains unclear. The present study determined the expression of MAOA and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in 45 pairs of NSCLC and matched non-tumor adjacent lung tissues, and further analyzed the correlation between MAOA expression and the EMT or the development of clinicopathological features...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Yoshitaka Sekine, Hiroshi Nakayama, Yoshiyuki Miyazawa, Haruo Kato, Yosuke Furuya, Seiji Arai, Hidekazu Koike, Hiroshi Matsui, Yasuhiro Shibata, Kazuto Ito, Kazuhiro Suzuki
Statins have become of interest in research due to their anticancer effects. However, the exact mechanism of their anticancer properties remains unclear. The authors previously reported that statins decrease intracellular cholesterol levels in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. In de novo androgen synthesis, cholesterol is the primary material and certain enzymes have important roles. The present study aimed to determine whether simvastatin alters the expression of androgen synthesis-associated enzymes in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Fang Chen, Yinghao Yin, Zhifeng Yan, Ke Cao, Kuangbiao Zhong
Nucleus accumbens-associated protein 1 (NAC1), a transcriptional co-regulator, is overexpressed in advanced prostate cancer. However, the NAC1-regulated transcriptome has not been completely explored. In the present study, the functional silencing of NAC1 blocked the migration of prostate cancer cells and suppress osteoclastogenesis. The present study also determined that NAC1 was overexpressed in the highly aggressive prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP. NAC1 small interfering RNA treatment of DU-145 cells decreased cell migration, but interestingly had no significant effects on cell proliferation...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Asma Jabeen, Brandon Reeder, Soleiman Hisaindee, Salman Ashraf, Naeema Al Darmaki, Sinan Battah, Sulaiman Al-Zuhair
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need to find natural bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical applications, because they have less harmful side effects compared to their chemical alternatives. Microalgae (MA) have been identified as a promising source for these bioactive compounds, and this work aimed to evaluate the anti-proliferative effects of semi-purified protein extracted from MA against several tumor cell lines. METHODS: Tested samples comprised MA cell extracts treated with cellulase and lysozyme, prior to extraction...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
Andrew Gdowski, Kaitlyn Johnson, Sunil Shah, Ignacy Gryczynski, Jamboor Vishwanatha, Amalendu Ranjan
BACKGROUND: The process of optimization and fabrication of nanoparticle synthesis for preclinical studies can be challenging and time consuming. Traditional small scale laboratory synthesis techniques suffer from batch to batch variability. Additionally, the parameters used in the original formulation must be re-optimized due to differences in fabrication techniques for clinical production. Several low flow microfluidic synthesis processes have been reported in recent years for developing nanoparticles that are a hybrid between polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Younghun Jung, Frank C Cackowski, Kenji Yumoto, Ann Decker, Jingcheng Wang, Jinkoo Kim, Eunsohl Lee, Yugang Wang, Jae-Seung Chung, Amy M Gursky, Paul H Krebsbach, Kenneth J Pienta, Todd M Morgan, Russell S Taichman
There is evidence that cancer stem-like cells (CSC) and neuroendocrine (NE) behavior play critical roles in the pathogenesis and clinical course of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (m-CRPC). However, there is limiting mechanistic understanding of how CSC and NE phenotypes impact the development of m-CRPC, which could improve opportunities to identify useful biomarkers and therapeutics. In this study, we explored the role of the intracellular chemokine CXCL12γ in CSC induction and NE differentiation and its impact on m-CRPC...
February 5, 2018: Cancer Research
Andrea Hinsch, Meta Brolund, Claudia Hube-Magg, Martina Kluth, Ronald Simon, Christina Möller-Koop, Guido Sauter, Stefan Steurer, Andreas Luebke, Alexander Angerer, Corinna Wittmer, Emily Neubauer, Cosima Göbel, Franziska Büscheck, Sarah Minner, Waldemar Wilczak, Thorsten Schlomm, Frank Jacobsen, Till Sebastian Clauditz, Till Krech, Maria Christina Tsourlakis, Cornelia Schroeder
BACKGROUND: IDH1 mutations are oncogenic through induction of DNA damage and genome instability. They are of therapeutic interest because they confer increased sensitivity to radiation and cytotoxic therapy and hold potential for vaccination therapy. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed more than 17,000 primary prostate cancer tissues with a mutation-specific antibody for the IDH1R132H mutation. RESULTS: IDH1 mutation-specific staining was found in 42 of 15,531 (0...
February 9, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Angela Corvino, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Irene Saccone, Francesco Frecentese, Elisa Perissutti, Paola Di Vaio, Vincenzo Santagada, Giuseppe Caliendo, Elisa Magli
The 5-HT1A receptor is a pharmacologically well characterized serotonin receptor subtype and it has long been investigated because of its involvement in several physio-pathological mechanisms and treatment of neurological diseases like ansia and depression. Serotonin (5-HT) also shows many non-neural functions such as essential hypertension, embryogenesis, follicle maturation and behavior. Moreover it exerts a growth factor function on different types of non-tumoral cells, and it was also found to be related to oncogenes...
February 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Mrinal K Das, Kari Furu, Herman F Evensen, Øyvind P Haugen, Trine B Haugen
Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) is the most common cancer in young men in large parts of the world, but the aetiology is mainly unknown. Genome-wide association studies have so far identified about 50 susceptibility loci associated with TGCT, including SPRY4. SPRY4 has shown tumour suppressor activity in several cancer cells, such as lung and prostate, while it was found to act as an oncogene in ovarian cancer. An intronic region within the SPRY4 gene produces a long non-coding RNA, SPRY4-IT1, which has been reported to act as an oncogene in melanoma, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer, and as a tumour suppressor in lung cancer...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nefeli Zacharopoulou, Anna Tsapara, Galatea Kallergi, Evi Schmid, Philip N Tsichlis, Sotirios C Kampranis, Christos Stournaras
The histone demethylase KDM2B is an epigenetic factor with oncogenic properties that is regulated by the basic fibroblasts growth factor (FGF-2). It has recently been shown that KDM2B co-operates with Polycomb Group proteins to promote cell migration and angiogenesis in tumors. In the present study we addressed the role of KDM2B in regulating actin cytoskeleton signaling, cell-cell adhesion and migration of prostate tumor cells. We report here that KDM2B is functionally expressed in DU-145 prostate cancer cells, activated by FGF-2 and regulates EZH2...
February 1, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Feng Cai, Yingying Miao, Chenyang Liu, Ting Wu, Simei Shen, Xin Su, Yi Shi
Disordered tumor cell metabolism is involved in the process of tumorigenesis. Proline metabolism is of critical importance for tumor cells, and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1), a key proline biosynthesis enzyme, has been reported to be overexpressed in prostate cancer and to promote tumor cell growth in breast cancer. The present study investigated the relationship between PYCR1 and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results revealed that PYCR1 was overexpressed in NSCLC tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Shusuke Akamatsu, Takahiro Inoue, Osamu Ogawa, Martin E Gleave
Treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer is a lethal form of prostate cancer that emerges in the later stages of castration-resistant prostate cancer treatment. Treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer transdifferentiates from adenocarcinoma as an adaptive response to androgen receptor pathway inhibition. The incidence of treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer has been rising due to the increasing use of potent androgen receptor pathway inhibitors. Typically, treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer is characterized by either low or absent androgen receptor expression, small cell carcinoma morphology and expression of neuroendocrine markers...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Mingchao Wang, Yin Sun, Junjie Xu, Jieyang Lu, Kefeng Wang, Dong-Rong Yang, Guosheng Yang, Gonghui Li, Chawnshang Chang
While testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) may promote prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis, its roles in the clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unclear. Here we found a higher expression of TR4 in ccRCC tumors from patients with distant metastases than those from metastasis-free patients, suggesting TR4 may play positive roles in the ccRCC metastasis. Results from in vitro multiple ccRCC cell lines also confirmed TR4's positive roles in promoting ccRCC cell invasion/migration via altering the microRNA (miR-32-5p)/TR4/HGF/Met/MMP2-MMP9 signaling...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Yongchang Lai, Zhenzhen Kong, Tao Zeng, Shaohong Xu, Xiaolu Duan, Shujue Li, Chao Cai, Zhijian Zhao, Wenqi Wu
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, such as olaparib or rucaparib, have shown treatment efficacy in BRCA1/2-deficient tumors. However, since PARP inhibitors (PARPi) mainly modulate the activation of PARP but not its expression, whether small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to PARP has the same function as PARPi has not been well defined. In the present study it was demonstrated that PARP1-siRNA could reduce prostate cancer (PCa) cell progression regardless of the BRCA1/2 mutation. PARP1 silencing could significantly inhibit PC3 cell migration and invasion...
January 26, 2018: Oncology Reports
Yayun Qian, Songhua Lu, Youyang Shi, Xueyu Zhao, Ting Yang, Feng Jin, Yanqing Liu
Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. has been used as a remedy against cancer and inflammatory diseases for thousands of years in China. Maspin is expressed in normal cells and downregulated in prostate tumor cells. The underlying mechanisms between C. orbiculatus extract (COE) and maspin remain unclear. In the present study, 3 target-specific 19-25 nucleotide maspin small interfering RNAs were designed and synthesized to knockdown maspin expression. The effects of COE on MGC-803/maspin- cell proliferation were evaluated by the MTT assay...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Abhijeet Deshmukh, Frank Arfuso, Philip Newsholme, Arun Dharmarajan
Tumours contain a small number of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is through these that tumour regrowth originates at secondary sites, thus rendering CSCs an attractive target for treatment. Cancer cells adapt cellular metabolism for aggressive proliferation. Tumour cells use less efficient glycolysis for the production of ATP and increasing tumour mass, instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). CSCs show distinct metabolic shift and, depending on the cancer type, can be highly glycolytic or OXPHOS dependent...
January 31, 2018: Cancers
Natalia Glatzel-Plucinska, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Jedrzej Grzegrzolka, Mateusz Olbromski, Adam Rzechonek, Piotr Dziegiel, Marzenna Podhorska-Okolow
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), mainly adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), account for about 80% of all lung cancer cases. One of the proteins involved in NSCLC progression may be special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1), a potent transcriptional regulator, able to control the expression of whole sets of genes simultaneously. SATB1 has been found to be associated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in numerous malignancies, including breast, colon, ovary and prostate cancer...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
Matthew G Oser, Pasi A Janne
Small cell neuroendocrine cancers often originate in the lung, but can also arise in the bladder or prostate. Phenotypically, small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) shares many similarities with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). It is unknown whether SCCB and SCLC share common genetic driver mutations.
January 26, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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