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Small cell prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095874/clinicopathological-study-of-9-cases-of-prostate-cancer-involving-the-rectal-wall
#1
Tao Tang, Zhengduo Yang, Dan Zhang, Jie Qu, Guang Liu, Shiwu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer involving the rectal wall is rare and may lead to diagnostic pitfalls. CASE PRESENTATION: Out of 9504 patients with rectal tumors between January 2003 and January 2015, 9 patients (elderly with a mean age of 74 years) with prostate cancer involving the rectal wall were clinically misdiagnosed with rectal cancer. The lesions were located in the rectum, and included 3 circumferential rectal masses, 1 ulceration lesion, 1 crater-like mass, and 4 protruding lesions...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093676/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling-involved-in-the-invasiveness-of-lncap-cells
#2
Hisamitsu Ide, Yan Lu, Jingsong Yu, Takahiro Noguchi, Mayuko Kanayama, Satoru Muto, Raizo Yamaguchi, Suguru Kawato, Shigeo Horie
There is now mounting evidence that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays an important role in physiologic responses such as development, cell cycle regulation, immune function and also malignant transformation in various tissues. The strong nuclear AhR expression is observed in the invasive phenotype, and an elevated nuclear AhR expression is associated with a poor prognosis of human prostate cancer. On the other hand, there are conflicting results that the AhR deficiency results in increased susceptibility to prostate tumors in mouse model...
January 16, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072762/giving-axl-the-axe-targeting-axl-in-human-malignancy
#3
Carl M Gay, Kavitha Balaji, Lauren Averett Byers
The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054319/exosomal-micrornas-in-liquid-biopsies-future-biomarkers-for-prostate-cancer
#4
REVIEW
A Valentino, P Reclusa, R Sirera, M Giallombardo, C Camps, P Pauwels, S Crispi, C Rolfo
Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in males in the world. Plasma quantification of prostate-specific antigen substantially improved the early detection of prostate cancer, but still lacks the required specificity. Clinical management of prostate cancer needs advances in the development of new non-invasive biomarkers, ameliorating current diagnosis and prognosis and guiding therapeutic decisions. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level...
January 4, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054315/the-missing-link-in-the-diagnostic-pathway-of-prostate-cancer
#5
Arne Vidar Tind Wøyen, Gergely Laczkó, Søren Høyer, Laszlo Hegyi
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the Western world. It is among the leading causes of cancer related death. While its incidence and survival increased significantly during the last few decades in Denmark, the mortality rate did not change for patients younger than 80 year old. Development of new techniques, such as multiparametric MRI, helps to increase the accuracy of diagnosis. However, a missing link in the diagnostic pathway may result in mistreatment if an acinar adenocarcinoma of prostate is transformed into a neuroendocrine phenotype such as small cell carcinoma...
January 4, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049638/leukemic-blasts-program-bone-marrow-adipocytes-to-generate-a-pro-tumoral-microenvironment
#6
Manar S Shafat, Thomas Oellerich, Sebastian Mohr, Stephen D Robinson, Dylan R Edwards, Christopher R Marlein, Rachel E Piddock, Matthew Fenech, Lyubov Zaitseva, Amina Abdul-Aziz, Jeremy Turner, Johnathan A Watkins, Matthew Lawes, Kristian M Bowles, Stuart A Rushworth
Despite currently available therapies most patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) die of their disease. Tumor-host interactions are critical for the survival and proliferation of cancer cells; accordingly, we hypothesise that specific targeting of the tumor microenvironment may constitute an alternative or additional strategy to conventional tumor-directed chemotherapy. Since adipocytes have been shown to promote breast and prostate cancer proliferation, and because the bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) accounts for up to 70% of bone marrow volume in adult humans, we examined the adipocyte-leukaemia cell interactions to determine if they are essential for the growth and survival of AML...
January 3, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046375/th-ef-207a-07-an-integrated-x-ray-bioluminescence-tomography-system-for-radiation-guidance-and-tumor-evaluation
#7
J Shi, T Udayakumar, Z Wang, N Dogan, A Pollack, Y Yang
PURPOSE: CT is not able to differentiate tumors from surrounding soft tissue. This study is to develop a bioluminescence tomography (BLT) system that is integrated onto our previously developed CT guided small animal arc radiation treatment system (iSMAART) to guide radiation, monitor tumor growth and evaluate therapeutic response. METHODS: The BLT system employs a CCD camera coupled with a high speed lens, and is aligned orthogonally to the x-ray beam central axis...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045610/evolving-treatment-of-oligometastatic-hormone-sensitive-prostate-cancer
#8
Jessica M Clement, Christopher J Sweeney
Oligometastatic disease was postulated by Hellman and Weichselbaum in 1995 to be a disease state that may reflect a time point in the malignant process that may be amenable to local therapies to allow for patients to achieve a durable response or possible cure despite having advanced disease. Aggressive metastasis-directed therapy has been used in malignancies such as renal cell carcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, and colorectal cancer with some evidence of long-term benefit in selected patients. Recently, it has been proposed that some men with oligometastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer may also benefit from metastasis-directed therapy...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042453/design-and-synthesis-of-selective-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-coactivator-associated-arginine-methyltransferase-1-carm1
#9
H Ü Kaniskan, M S Eram, J Liu, D Smil, M L Martini, Y Shen, V Santhakumar, P J Brown, C Arrowsmith, M Vedadi, J Jin
Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a type I protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that catalyzes the conversion of arginine into monomethylarginine (MMA) and further into asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). CARM1 methylates histone 3 arginines 17 and 26, as well as numerous non-histone proteins including CBP/p300, SRC-3, NCOA2, PABP1, and SAP49, while also functioning as a coactivator for various proteins that have been linked to cancer such as p53, NF-κβ, β-catenin, E2F1 and steroid hormone receptor ERα...
September 1, 2016: MedChemComm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040598/radiolabeled-bombesin-derivatives-for-preclinical-oncological-imaging
#10
REVIEW
Carolina de Aguiar Ferreira, Leonardo Lima Fuscaldi, Danyelle M Townsend, Domenico Rubello, André Luís Branco de Barros
Despite efforts, cancer is still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths each year, according to the World Health Organization. Among the strategies to reduce cancer progression and improving its management, implementing early detection technologies is crucial. Based on the fact that several types of cancer cells overexpress surface receptors, small molecule ligands, such as peptides, have been developed to allow tumor identification at earlier stages...
December 29, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035996/novel-nine-exon-ar-transcripts-exon-1-exon-1b-exons-2-8-in-normal-and-cancerous-breast-and-prostate-cells
#11
Dong Gui Hu, Ross A McKinnon, Julie-Ann Hulin, Peter I Mackenzie, Robyn Meech
Nearly 20 different transcripts of the human androgen receptor (AR) are reported with two currently listed as Refseq isoforms in the NCBI database. Isoform 1 encodes wild-type AR (type 1 AR) and isoform 2 encodes the variant AR45 (type 2 AR). Both variants contain eight exons: they share common exons 2-8 but differ in exon 1 with the canonical exon 1 in isoform 1 and the variant exon 1b in isoform 2. Splicing of exon 1 or exon 1b is reported to be mutually exclusive. In this study, we identified a novel exon 1b (1b/TAG) that contains an additional TAG trinucleotide upstream of exon 1b...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034351/synthesis-and-preliminary-evaluation-of-5-18f-fluoroleucine
#12
Bennett B Chin, Darryl McDougald, Douglas Weitzel, Thomas Hawk, Robert E Reiman, Michael R Zalutsky, Ganesan Vaidyanathan
BACKGROUND: Amino acid transporters, such as LAT1, are overexpressed in aggressive prostate and breast carcinomas, directly influencing pathways of growth and proliferation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to synthesize and characterize a novel 18F labeled leucine analog, 5-[18F]fluoroleucine, as a potential imaging agent for aggressive tumors which may not be amenable to imaging by FDG PET. METHODS: 5-fluoroleucine was synthesized and characterized, and its 18F-labeled analog was synthesized from a mesylate precursor...
December 30, 2016: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034291/radiopharmaceuticals-for-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-neuroendocrine-differentiated-prostate-cancer
#13
Giampiero Giovacchini, Elisabetta Giovannini, Mattia Riondato, Andrea Ciarmiello
Neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer (PCa) is a relatively frequent event, generally understudied, that carries important prognostic information. It is most frequently observed during the advanced stages of disease, when PCa has lost its sensitivity to androgen deprivation therapy or to chemotherapy, moderate to diffuse bone metastatic spread dominates the imaging scenario and it is responsible for painful clinical symptomatology. However, evidences indicate that neuroendocrine differentiation is a progressive phenomenon that starts at the very early part of the pathogenesis of cancer transformation contributing to it...
December 29, 2016: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033303/strong-cis-acting-expression-quantitative-trait-loci-for-the-genes-encoding-snhg5-and-pex6
#14
Jihyeon Lee, Jihye Ryu, Chaeyoung Lee
Expression of quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for the genes located in human chromosome 6 were examined. Data on RNA expression in lymphoblastoid cells of 373 unrelated Europeans were used to identify eQTLs.Genome-wide analysis resulted in 24,447 nucleotide variants associated with gene expression (P < 2.16 × 10). We found 36variants with P < 10, which were all associated with expression levels of the genes encoding small nucleolar RNA host gene 5 (SNHG5) and peroxisomal biogenesis factor 6 (PEX6)...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032524/classifying-circulating-tumor-cells-to-monitor-cancer-progression
#15
Panagiota Economopoulou, Vassilis Georgoulias, Athanasios Kotsakis
The term 'liquid biopsy' refers to molecular analysis of a tumor's genetic features based on circulating genetic material in the peripheral blood derived from circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating miRNAs, and has emerged as a minimally invasive tool in early cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring. CTCs are believed to originate from the primary tumor and obtain genetic heterogeneity during evolution. Areas covered: The presence of CTCs has been associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer and prostate cancer...
December 29, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030804/tumor-suppressive-microrna-218-inhibits-tumor-angiogenesis-via-targeting-the-mtor-component-rictor-in-prostate-cancer
#16
Bing Guan, Kaijie Wu, Jin Zeng, Shan Xu, Lijun Mu, Yang Gao, Ke Wang, Zhenkun Ma, Juanhua Tian, Qi Shi, Peng Guo, Xinyang Wang, Dalin He, Yuefeng Du
MicroRNAs, a kind of small non-coding RNAs, can regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression or degradation. Much evidence has suggested that miR-218 was a tumor suppressor in many human cancers including prostate cancer. However, the underlying role of miR-218 in tumor angiogenesis and the mechanisms in PCa and other cancers remains to be unclear. Here in this present study, we demonstrated that miR-218 inhibited the tumor angiogenesis of PCa cells in vitro and in vivo. RICTOR, the mTOR component 2, was a direct target of miR-218 and miR218-RICTOR-VEGFA axis was the mechanism inhibiting the tumor angiogenesis of PCa cells...
December 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017134/contrast-functions-of-%C3%AE-a-and-%C3%AE-b-crystallins-in-cancer-development
#17
Z Wang, L Wang, Z-X Huang, X Hu, J Liu, W Hu, W Ji, Q Nie, J-W Xiang, Z-G Chen, Y Xiao, W-J Qiang, J Zhu, J W Gigantelli, Q D Nguyen, D W-C Li
α-Crystallins, initially identified as the structural proteins of the ocular lens, belong to the small heat shock protein family. They play significant roles in maintaining the lens transparency and preventing protein aggregation. α-Crystallins exist in two isoforms: αA and αB, and they display differential tissue distribution. Their mutations are implicated in several human diseases including cardiac myopathies, neurodegenerative diseases, cataracts and various types of cancers. Increased αB expression was detected in retinoblastoma, breast cancer, glioblastoma, prostate and renal cell carcinomas, indicating its role in promoting tumor growth...
December 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000866/testin-is-a-tumor-suppressor-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Ming Wang, Qian Wang, Wen-Jia Peng, Jun-Feng Hu, Zu-Yi Wang, Hao Liu, Li-Nian Huang
The Testin gene was previously identified in the fragile chromosomal region FRA7G at 7q31.2. It has been implicated in several types of cancers including prostate, ovarian, breast and gastric cancer. In the present study, we investigated the function of the candidate tumor-suppressor Testin gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In NSCLC cell lines, we observed lower expression of Testin compared to that noted in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. MTT assays, flow cytometry, clonogenic assay and invasion assay showed that the overexpression of the Testin gene inhibited cancer cell proliferation, invasion and colony formation...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993720/synergistic-anticancer-activity-of-combined-histone-deacetylase-and-proteasomal-inhibitor-loaded-zein-nanoparticles-in-metastatic-prostate-cancers
#19
Raj Kumar Thapa, Hanh Thuy Nguyen, Jee-Heon Jeong, Beom Soo Shin, Sae Kwang Ku, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
The development of resistance and subsequent metastasis makes prostate cancer a leading cause of cancer-related death among men. Hence, nanoparticle-based combination chemotherapeutics could be a viable treatment strategy. We aimed to prepare vorinostat (Vor) and bortezomib (Bor) combination-loaded zein nanoparticles (ZNP, ZNP/VB) for treating metastatic prostate cancers. Our results revealed the successful preparation of ZNP/VB with a small particle size (~160nm) and polydispersity index (~0.20). Importantly, controlled and pH-dependent drug release profiles were observed...
December 18, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992601/a-novel-functional-domain-of-tab2-involved-in-the-interaction-with-estrogen-receptor-alpha-in-breast-cancer-cells
#20
Stefania Reineri, Silvia Agati, Valentina Miano, Monica Sani, Paola Berchialla, Laura Ricci, Andrea Iannello, Lucia Coscujuela Tarrero, Santina Cutrupi, Michele De Bortoli
Tab2, originally described as a component of the inflammatory pathway, has been implicated in phenomena of gene de-repression in several contexts, due to its ability to interact with the NCoR corepressor. Tab2 interacts also with steroid receptors and dismisses NCoR from antagonist-bound Estrogen and Androgen Receptors on gene regulatory regions, thus modifying their transcriptional activity and leading to pharmacological resistance in breast and prostate cancer cells. We demonstrated previously that either Tab2 knock-down, or a peptide mimicking the Estrogen Receptor alpha domain interacting with Tab2, restore the antiproliferative response to Tamoxifen in Tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells...
2016: PloS One
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