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Small cell prostate cancer

Bahareh Movafegh, Razieh Jalal, Zobeideh Mohammadi
OBJECTIVE: Cell resistance to doxorubicin and its toxicity to healthy tissue reduce its efficiency. The use of cell penetrating peptides as drug delivery system along with doxorubicin is a strategy to reduce its side effects. In this study, the influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin cytotoxicity, its cellular uptake and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis on human prostate cancer DU145 cells are assessed. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and poly-L-arginine, alone and in combination, in DU145 cells was evaluated at different exposure times using MTT assay...
April 11, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Julian C Hong, Diandra N Ayala-Peacock, Jason Lee, A William Blackstock, Paul Okunieff, Max W Sung, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Johnny Kao, James J Urbanic, Michael T Milano, Steven J Chmura, Joseph K Salama
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is increasingly used to treat oligometastatic patients. We sought to identify prognostic criteria in oligometastatic patients undergoing definitive hypofractionated image-guided radiotherapy (HIGRT). METHODS: Exclusively extracranial oligometastatic patients treated with HIGRT were pooled. Characteristics including age, sex, primary tumor type, interval to metastatic diagnosis, number of treated metastases and organs, metastatic site, prior systemic therapy for primary tumor treatment, prior definitive metastasis-directed therapy, and systemic therapy for metastasis associated with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and treated metastasis control (TMC) were assessed by the Cox proportional hazards method...
2018: PloS One
Amir Afkham, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Homayoon Siahmansouri, Sanam Sadreddini, Majid Ahmadi, Sanam Dolati, Nahid Manafi Afkham, Parvin Akbarzadeh, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Vahid Younesi, Mehdi Yousefi
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is known as the most common malignancy in men. Chitosan has generated great interest as a useful biopolymer for the encapsulation of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Due to cationic nature, chitosan is able to efficiently encapsulate siRNA molecules and form nanoparticles. Furthermore, the biocompatible and biodegradable attributes of chitosan have paved the way for its potential application in the in vivo delivery of therapeutic siRNAs. In this study, we aimed to design chitosan/CMD nanoparticles for the efficient encapsulation of the anti-cancer drugs SN38 and Snail-specific siRNA...
November 20, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Tobias Maurer, Stephanie Robu, Margret Schottelius, Kristina Schwamborn, Isabel Rauscher, Nynke S van den Berg, Fijs W B van Leeuwen, Bernhard Haller, Thomas Horn, Matthias M Heck, Jürgen E Gschwend, Markus Schwaiger, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Matthias Eiber
BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) can visualize metastatic lesions in recurrent prostate cancer (PC). However, reliable identification of small and/or atypically localized lesions during salvage surgery procedures is challenging. OBJECTIVE: To describe the technique, feasibility, and short-term outcomes of99m Technetium (99m Tc)-based PSMA-radioguided surgery (99m Tc-PSMA-RGS) for removal of recurrent PC lesions...
April 3, 2018: European Urology
Alejandro Sanchez-Crespo, Emma Jussing, Ann-Charlotte Björklund, Katja Pokrovskaja Tamm
BACKGROUND: Gallium-68-labeled prostate-specific antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging (Ga68-PSMA-11-PET/CT) has emerged as a potential gold standard for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. However, the imaging limitations of this technique at the early state of PCa recurrence/metastatic spread are still not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the quantitative properties and the fundamental imaging limits of Ga68-PSMA-11-PET/CT in localizing small PCa cell deposits...
April 4, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Anna Collins, Vijaya Sundararajan, Jodie Burchell, Jeremy Millar, Sue-Anne McLachlan, Meinir Krishnasamy, Brian H Le, Linda Mileshkin, Peter Hudson, Jennifer Philip
CONTEXT: Increasing emphases are being placed upon early integration of palliative care for patients with advanced cancers, yet barriers to implementation in clinical practice remain. Criteria to standardise referral have been endorsed, but their application are yet to be tested at the population level. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to: 1) establish the need for standardised referral by examining current end of life care outcomes of decedents with cancer; and 2) define transition points within a cancer illness course which are associated with poor prognosis, whereby palliative care should be routinely introduced to augment clinician- based decision making...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Rama Soundararajan, Ana M Aparicio, Christopher J Logothetis, Sendurai A Mani, Sankar N Maity
Combined loss of tumor suppressors (TSPs), PTEN, TP53, and RB1, is highly associated with small cell carcinoma of prostate phenotype. Recent genomic studies of human tumors as well as analyses in mouse genetic models have revealed a unique role for these TSPs in dictating epithelial lineage plasticity-a phenomenon that plays a critical role in the development of aggressive variant prostate cancer (PCa) and associated androgen therapy resistance. Here, we summarize recently published key observations on this topic and hypothesize a possible mechanism by which concurrent loss of TSPs could potentially regulate the PCa disease phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Qiang Wang, Chun-Sheng Yang, Zu-Xin Ma, Jia-Cun Chen, Jun-Nian Zheng, Xiao-Qing Sun, Jun-Qi Wang
Prostate cancer is a common visceral cancer of men worldwide. It is important to develop a more effective treatment for prostate cancer to overcome the treatment resistance that occurs with recurrence. RNA interference has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for gene knockdown and has potential as a cancer treatment. It has been previously demonstrated that staining of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) was stronger in prostatic carcinoma with metastasis compared with prostatic carcinoma without metastasis...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Avital Lev, Amriti R Lulla, Brian C Ross, Marie D Ralff, Petr B Makhov, David T Dicker, Wafik S El-Deiry
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a key role in prostate cancer progression, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a mainstay clinical treatment regimen for patients with advanced disease. Unfortunately, most prostate cancers eventually become androgen-independent and resistant to ADT with patients progressing to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Constitutively activated AR variants (AR-V) have emerged as mediators of resistance to AR-targeted therapy and the progression of mCRPC, and they represent an important therapeutic target...
March 27, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Tae Hoon Kong, Sung Min Han, Young Joon Seo
Docetaxel, derived from the yew tree, belongs to the taxane family of medications. It works by disrupting the normal function of microtubules, thereby stopping cell division. Docetaxel is used in the treatment of ovarian, breast, esophageal, gastric, prostate, lung, and head and neck cancers. Common side effects include hair loss, low blood cell counts, peripheral neuropathy, vomiting, and muscle pain. Auricular chondritis with ear deformity has not been reported previously as a side effect of docetaxel. In this paper, we present the case of a 64-year-old male patient with chondritis accompanied by ear deformity that developed due to docetaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Archana Sehrawat, Lina Gao, Yuliang Wang, Armand Bankhead, Shannon K McWeeney, Carly J King, Jacob Schwartzman, Joshua Urrutia, William H Bisson, Daniel J Coleman, Sunil K Joshi, Dae-Hwan Kim, David A Sampson, Sheila Weinmann, Bhaskar V S Kallakury, Deborah L Berry, Reina Haque, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Sunil Sharma, Jared Bearss, Tomasz M Beer, George V Thomas, Laura M Heiser, Joshi J Alumkal
Medical castration that interferes with androgen receptor (AR) function is the principal treatment for advanced prostate cancer. However, clinical progression is universal, and tumors with AR-independent resistance mechanisms appear to be increasing in frequency. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new treatments targeting molecular pathways enriched in lethal prostate cancer. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a histone demethylase and an important regulator of gene expression. Here, we show that LSD1 promotes the survival of prostate cancer cells, including those that are castration-resistant, independently of its demethylase function and of the AR...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lijo Cherian Ozhathil, Clémence Delalande, Beatrice Bianchi, Gabor Nemeth, Sven Kappel, Urs Thomet, Daniela Ross-Kaschitza, Céline Simonin, Matthias Rubin, Jürg Gertsch, Martin Lochner, Christine Peinelt, Jean-Louis Reymond, Hugues Abriel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: TRPM4 is a calcium-activated nonselective cation channel expressed in many tissues and implicated in several diseases, and has not yet been validated as a therapeutic target due to the lack of potent and selective inhibitors. We sought to discover a novel series of small-molecule inhibitor by combining in silico methods and cell based screening assay, with sub-micromolar potency and improved selectivity from previously reported TRPM4 inhibitors. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Here, we developed a HTS compatible assay to record TRPM4-mediated Na+ influx in cells using a Na+ -sensitive dye and used this assay to screen a small set of compounds selected by ligand-based virtual screening using previously known weakly active and non-selective TRPM4 inhibitors as seed molecules...
March 26, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Xiaojuan Ye, Da Sun, Cen Lou
Objective: The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of strontium-89 chloride (89 SrCl2 ) in treating bone metastasis-associated pain in patients with lung, breast, or prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The 126 patients with lung cancer included 88, 16, 15, 4, and 3 patients with adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, nonsmall cell carcinoma, mixed carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma, respectively, and the control group consisted of patients with breast (71 patients) or prostate cancer (49 patients) who underwent89 SrCl2 treatment during the same period...
2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Theodore Gourdin, Guru Sonpavde
Prostate cancer is characterized by bone metastases and difficulty of objectively measuring disease burden. In this context, cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumor cell (CTC) quantitation and genomic profiling afford the ability to noninvasively and serially monitor the tumor. Recent data suggest that ctDNA and CTC quantitation are prognostic for survival. Indeed, CTC enumeration using the CellSearch® platform is validated as a prognostic factor and warrants consideration as a stratification factor in randomized trials...
March 20, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Michael C Haffner, Gunes Guner, Diana Taheri, George J Netto, Doreen N Palsgrove, Qizhi Zheng, Liana Benevides Guedes, Kunhwa Kim, Harrison Tsai, David M Esopi, Tamara Lotan, Rajni Sharma, Alan K Meeker, Arul M Chinnaiyan, William G Nelson, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Jun Luo, Rohit Mehra, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Charles G Drake, Angelo M De Marzo
Antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction have shown clinical activity in multiple cancer types. PD-L1 protein expression is a clinically validated predictive biomarker of response for such therapies. Prior studies evaluating the expression of PD-L1 in primary prostate cancers have reported highly variable rates of PD-L1 positivity. In addition, limited data exist on PD-L1 expression in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here we determined PD-L1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry using a validated PD-L1 specific antibody (SP263) in a large and representative cohort of primary prostate cancers and prostate cancer metastases...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Xia Sun, Min Liu, Luyao Gao, Ying Mao, Diming Zhao, Jianfeng Zhuang, Lei Liu
Lung cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for more than 80% of lung cancer cases. Current therapies for NSCLC have only limited effect and treatment resistance develops rapidly. In a previous study, we have shown that C1 -phenylethynyl tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) analogue 4 has anti-proliferative activity against PC3 human prostate cancer cells. However, this anticancer effect was achieved with relatively high IC50 in A549 lung cancer cells...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jiang Qian, Sheliang Shen, Wei Chen, Nianping Chen
Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), driven by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1 α ), is involved in cancer progression and metastasis. The present study was designed to explore the role of propofol in hypoxia-induced resistance of prostate cancer cells to docetaxel. We used the Cell Counting Kit-8 and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay to measure cell viability and cell proliferation, respectively, in prostate cancer cell lines...
2018: BioMed Research International
Benedito A Carneiro, Sahithi Pamarthy, Ami N Shah, Vinay Sagar, Kenji Unno, HuiYing Han, Ximing J Yang, Rubens B Costa, Rebecca J Nagy, Richard B Lanman, Timothy M Kuzel, Jeffrey S Ross, Laurie Gay, Julia A Elvin, Siraj M Ali, Massimo Cristofanilli, Young Kwang Chae, Francis J Giles, Sarki A Abdulkadir
PURPOSE: Small cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is an aggressive disease that can arise de novo or by transdifferentiation from prostate adenocarcinoma. Alterations in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene are involved in neuroblastoma, lung cancer, and other malignancies but its role in SCCP has not been documented. We describe a patient with refractory de novo SCCP with ALK F1174C activating mutation who obtained clinical benefit from treatment with ALK inhibitor. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to analyze primary and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA)...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Ping Wang, Xiao-Min Liu, Lei Ding, Xin-Ju Zhang, Zhong-Liang Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of single-stranded RNAs, 18-23 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Dysregulation of miRNAs has been closely associated with the development of cancer. In the process of tumorigenesis, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays important roles, and the mTOR signaling pathway is aberrant in various types of human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), breast cancer, prostate cancer, as well as others. However, the relationship between miRNAs and the mTOR signaling pathway is indistinct...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Ding Qian-Shan, Zhang Li, Wang Bi-Cheng, Zeng Zhi, Zou Xian-Qiong, Cao Peng-Bo, M S Zhou Guang-Ming, Tang Meng, Wu Lu, B S Wu Lian-Lian, Yu Hong-Gang, Guo Yong, Zhou Fu-Xiang
Microrchidia 2 (MORC2) plays important roles in DNA damage repair and lipogenesis, but the clinical and functional role of MORC2 in cancer remains largely unexplored. In this study, we showed that MORC2 was widely expressed in human tissues while significantly up-regulated in most cancer types employing immunohistochemical staining and analysis of mRNA expression profile of more than 2000 human tissue samples from 15 different organs (lung, prostate, liver, breast, brain, stomach, colon/rectum, pancreas, ovary, endometrium, skin, nasopharynx, kidney, oesophagus and bladder)...
March 16, 2018: Human Pathology
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