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Small cell prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920687/a-case-of-primary-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-bladder
#1
Ashita Ono, Yosuke Hirasawa, Mitsumasa Yamashina, Naoto Kaburagi, Takashi Mima, Toru Sugihara, Riu Hamada, Tatsuo Gondo, Makoto Ohori, Toshitaka Nagao, Yoshio Ohno
Primary small-cell carcinoma arising from the bladder (SmCCB) is uncommon. It differs from urothelial carcinoma (UC), the most common type of bladder cancer, with respect to its cell of origin, biology, and prognosis. Biologically, prostatic SmCCB is much more aggressive than UC, and the prognosis for cases with distant metastasis is especially poor. We report here a case of primary SmCCB (cT3bN1M0) treated with radical cystectomy.
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911860/id4-regulates-transcriptional-activity-of-wild-type-and-mutant-p53-via-k373-acetylation
#2
Derrick J Morton, Divya Patel, Jugal Joshi, Aisha Hunt, Ashley E Knowell, Jaideep Chaudhary
Given that mutated p53 (50% of all human cancers) is over-expressed in many cancers, restoration of mutant p53 to its wild type biological function has been sought after as cancer therapy. The conformational flexibility has allowed to restore the normal biological function of mutant p53 by short peptides and small molecule compounds. Recently, studies have focused on physiological mechanisms such as acetylation of lysine residues to rescue the wild type activity of mutant p53. Using p53 null prostate cancer cell line we show that ID4 dependent acetylation promotes mutant p53 DNA-binding capabilities to its wild type consensus sequence, thus regulating p53-dependent target genes leading to subsequent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900636/cardamonin-represses-proliferation-invasion-and-causes-apoptosis-through-the-modulation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3-pathway-in-prostate-cancer
#3
Jingwen Zhang, Sakshi Sikka, Kodappully S Siveen, Jong Hyun Lee, Jae-Young Um, Alan Prem Kumar, Arunachalam Chinnathambi, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Basappa, Kanchugarakoppal S Rangappa, Gautam Sethi, Kwang Seok Ahn
The pleiotropic transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is often aberrantly activated in a wide variety of cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation, promotion and progression. Targeting deregulated STAT3 activation by small molecule inhibitors is generally considered as an important therapeutic strategy. Hence, in the present study, we evaluated the potential of cardamonin (CD), a 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone, to modulate STAT3 activation in prostate cancer (PC) cells and found that this chalcone can indeed exhibit significant anticancer effects through negatively regulating STAT3 activation by diverse molecular mechanism(s)...
November 29, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897153/isoflurane-promotes-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-malignancy-by-activating-the-akt-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-signaling-pathway
#4
Wenhua Zhang, Xueqian Shao
BACKGROUND Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortalities worldwide, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for the majority of all lung cancer cases. Surgery remains one of the front-line treatment options for NSCLC, but events within the perioperative period were found to affect cancer prognosis, such as anesthesia procedures. Isoflurane, a commonly used volatile anesthetic, enhances the malignant potential of renal, prostate, and ovarian cancer cells, but its effects on NSCLC development have not been previously reported...
November 29, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895781/9-aaa-inhibits-growth-and-induces-apoptosis-in-human-melanoma-a375-and-rat-prostate-adenocarcinoma-at-2-and-mat-lylu-cell-lines-but-does-not-affect-the-growth-and-viability-of-normal-fibroblasts
#5
Włodzimierz Korohoda, Anna Hapek, Monika Pietrzak, Damian Ryszawy, Zbigniew Madeja
The present study found that, similarly to 5-fluorouracil, low concentrations (1-10 µM) of 9-aminoacridine (9-AAA) inhibited the growth of the two rat prostate cancer AT-2 and Mat-LyLu cell lines and the human melanoma A375 cell line. However, at the same concentrations, 9-AAA had no effect on the growth and apoptosis of normal human skin fibroblasts (HSFs). The differences between the cellular responses of the AT-2 and Mat-LyLu cell lines, which differ in malignancy, were found to be relatively small compared with the differences between normal HSFs and the cancer cell lines...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893988/endothelin-signaling-in-bone
#6
REVIEW
Jasmin Kristianto, Michael G Johnson, Rafia Afzal, Robert D Blank
The endothelin (ET) system includes 3 small peptide hormones and a pair of G protein-coupled receptors. All 3 ETs are secreted as biologically inert precursors that must be activated by proteolytic cleavage after secretion. This reaction can be catalyzed by a pair of specific, membrane-bound extracellular ET converting enzymes or by nonspecific tissue proteases. The ET1/EDNRA axis is essential in development, with knockout mice for either displaying a similar phenotype featuring multiple defects of the craniofacial skeleton and cardiac outflow tract...
November 11, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888799/new-bipyridine-gold-iii-dithiocarbamate-containing-complexes-exerted-a-potent-anticancer-activity-against-cisplatin-resistant-cancer-cells-independent-of-p53-status
#7
Muhammad Altaf, Muhammad Monim-Ul-Mehboob, Abdel-Nasser Kawde, Giuseppe Corona, Roberto Larcher, Marcia Ogasawara, Naike Casagrande, Marta Celegato, Cinzia Borghese, Zahid H Siddik, Donatella Aldinucci, Anvarhusein A Isab
We synthesized, characterized and tested in a panel of cancer cell lines, nine new bipyridine gold(III) dithiocarbamate-containing complexes. In vitro studies demonstrated that compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 were the most cytotoxic in prostate, breast, ovarian cancer cell lines and in Hodgkin lymphoma cells with IC50 values lower than the reference drug cisplatin. The most active compound 1 was more active than cisplatin in ovarian (A2780cis and 2780CP-16) and breast cancer cisplatin-resistant cells. Compound 1 determined an alteration of the cellular redox homeostasis leading to increased ROS levels, a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome-c release from the mitochondria and activation of caspases 9 and 3...
November 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873211/screening-mammalian-cells-on-a-hydrogel-functionalized-small-molecule-microarray
#8
Biwei Zhu, Bo Jiang, Zhenkun Na, Shao Q Yao
Mammalian cell-based microarray technology has gained wide attention, for its plethora of promising applications. The platform is able to provide simultaneous information on multiple parameters for a given target, or even multiple target proteins, in a complex biological system. Here we describe the preparation of mammalian cell-based microarrays using selectively captured of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3). This platform was then used in controlled drug release and measuring the associated drug effects on these cancer cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872140/primary-cilia-are-increased-in-number-and-demonstrate-structural-abnormalities-in-human-cancer
#9
Binnaz Yasar, Kim Linton, Christian Slater, Richard Byers
AIMS: Primary cilia play an important role in the regulation of cell signalling pathways and are thought to have a role in cancer but have seldom been studied in human cancer samples. METHODS: Primary cilia were visualised by dual immunofluorescence for anti-CROCC (ciliary rootlet coiled-coil) and anti-tubulin in a range of human cancers (including carcinomas of stomach, pancreas, prostate, lung and colon, lobular and ductal breast cancers and follicular lymphoma) and in matched normal tissue (stomach, pancreas, lung, large and small intestines, breast and reactive lymph nodes) samples using a tissue microarray; their frequency, association with proliferation, was measured by Ki-67 staining and their structure was analysed...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859253/the-many-faces-of-srpk1
#10
Nicholas Bullock, Sebastian Oltean
Serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1) phosphorylates proteins involved in the regulation of several mRNA processing pathways including alternative splicing. SRPK1 has been recently reported to be over-expressed in multiple cancers including prostate, breast, lung and glioma. Several studies have shown that inhibition of SRPK1 has anti-tumoural effects and consequently SRPK1 has become a new candidate for targeted therapies. Interestingly, in terms of molecular mechanism, SRPK1 seems to act heterogeneously and has been reported to affect several processes in different cancers, for example angiogenesis in prostate and colon cancer, apoptosis in breast and colon cancer and migration in breast cancer...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856758/tissue-scale-personalized-modeling-and-simulation-of-prostate-cancer-growth
#11
Guillermo Lorenzo, Michael A Scott, Kevin Tew, Thomas J R Hughes, Yongjie Jessica Zhang, Lei Liu, Guillermo Vilanova, Hector Gomez
Recently, mathematical modeling and simulation of diseases and their treatments have enabled the prediction of clinical outcomes and the design of optimal therapies on a personalized (i.e., patient-specific) basis. This new trend in medical research has been termed "predictive medicine." Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major health problem and an ideal candidate to explore tissue-scale, personalized modeling of cancer growth for two main reasons: First, it is a small organ, and, second, tumor growth can be estimated by measuring serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA, a PCa biomarker in blood), which may enable in vivo validation...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856181/down-regulation-of-protein-kinase-dna-activated-catalytic-polypeptide-attenuates-tumor-progression-and-is-an-independent-prognostic-predictor-of-survival-in-prostate-cancer
#12
Xiang Zhang, Yanlin Wang, Yuan Ning
OBJECTIVE: Protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide (PRKDC) is a critical component of DNA repair machinery and its dysregulated expression has been observed in various cancer types or premalignant cells. However, its role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and its prognostic significance in PCa is unknown. METHODS: The mRNA and protein levels of PRKDC were analyzed in 15 pairs of PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues as well as PCa cell lines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively...
November 14, 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853735/two-stage-nanoparticle-delivery-of-piperlongumine-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-related-apoptosis-inducing-ligand-trail-anti-cancer-therapy
#13
Charles C Sharkey, Jiahe Li, Sweta Roy, Qianhui Wu, Michael R King
This study outlines a drug delivery mechanism that utilizes two independent vehicles, allowing for delivery of chemically and physically distinct agents. The mechanism was utilized to deliver a new anti-cancer combination therapy consisting of piperlongumine (PL) and TRAIL to treat PC3 prostate cancer and HCT116 colon cancer cells. PL, a small-molecule hydrophobic drug, was encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. TRAIL was chemically conjugated to the surface of liposomes. PL was first administered to sensitize cancer cells to the effects of TRAIL...
March 2016: Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819678/tet2-binds-the-androgen-receptor-and-loss-is-associated-with-prostate-cancer
#14
M L Nickerson, S Das, K M Im, S Turan, S I Berndt, H Li, H Lou, S A Brodie, J N Billaud, T Zhang, A J Bouk, D Butcher, Z Wang, L Sun, K Misner, W Tan, A Esnakula, D Esposito, W Y Huang, R N Hoover, M A Tucker, J R Keller, J Boland, K Brown, S K Anderson, L E Moore, W B Isaacs, S J Chanock, M Yeager, M Dean, T Andresson
Genetic alterations associated with prostate cancer (PCa) may be identified by sequencing metastatic tumour genomes to identify molecular markers at this lethal stage of disease. Previously, we characterized somatic alterations in metastatic tumours in the methylcytosine dioxygenase ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2), which is altered in 5-15% of myeloid, kidney, colon and PCas. Genome-wide association studies previously identified non-coding risk variants associated with PCa and melanoma. We perform fine-mapping of PCa risk across TET2 using genotypes from the PEGASUS case-control cohort and identify six new risk variants in introns 1 and 2...
November 7, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815070/direct-detection-of-serca-calcium-transport-and-small-molecule-inhibition-in-giant-unilamellar-vesicles
#15
Tengfei Bian, Joseph M Autry, Denise Casemore, Ji Li, David D Thomas, Gaohong He, Chengguo Xing
We have developed a charge-mediated fusion method to reconstitute the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV). Intracellular Ca(2+) transport by SERCA controls key processes in human cells such as proliferation, signaling, and contraction. Small-molecule effectors of SERCA are urgently needed as therapeutics for Ca(2+) dysregulation in human diseases including cancer, diabetes, and heart failure. Here we report the development of a method for efficiently reconstituting SERCA in GUV, and we describe a streamlined protocol based on optimized parameters (e...
December 9, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810244/novel-synthetic-chalcones-induce-apoptosis-in-the-a549-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-harboring-a-kras-mutation
#16
Yiqiang Wang, Andreas Hedblom, Steffi K Koerner, Mailin Li, Finith E Jernigan, Barbara Wegiel, Lijun Sun
A series of novel chalcones were synthesized by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction of tetralones and 5-/6-indolecarboxaldehydes. Treatment of human lung cancer cell line harboring KRAS mutation (A549) with the chalcones induced dose-dependent apoptosis. Cell cycle analyses and Western blotting suggested the critical role of the chalcones in interrupting G2/M transition of cell cycle. SAR study demonstrated that substituent on the indole N atom significantly affects the anticancer activity of the chalcones, with methyl and ethyl providing the more active compounds (EC50: 110-200nM), Compound 1g was found to be >4-fold more active in the A549 cells (EC50: 110nM) than in prostate (PC3) or pancreatic cancer (CLR2119, PAN02) cells...
December 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800642/p110%C3%AE-inhibition-reduces-histone-h3k4-di-methylation-in-prostate-cancer
#17
Jun Pang, Yue-Wu Yang, Yiling Huang, Jun Yang, Hao Zhang, Ruibao Chen, Liang Dong, Yan Huang, Dongying Wang, Jihong Liu, Benyi Li
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Epigenetic alteration plays a major role in the development and progression of human cancers, including prostate cancer. Histones are the key factors in modulating gene accessibility to transcription factors and post-translational modification of the histone N-terminal tail including methylation is associated with either transcriptional activation (H3K4me2) or repression (H3K9me3). Furthermore, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3 K) signaling and the androgen receptor (AR) are the key determinants in prostate cancer development and progression...
November 1, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792302/six-transmembrane-epithelial-antigen-of-prostate-1-steap1-has-a-single-b-heme-and-is-capable-of-reducing-metal-ion-complexes-and-oxygen
#18
Kwangsoo Kim, Sharmistha Mitra, Gang Wu, Vladimir Berka, Jinmei Song, Ye Yu, Sebastien F Poget, Da-Neng Wang, Ah-Lim Tsai, Ming Zhou
STEAP1, Six Transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of Prostate member 1, is highly expressed in several types of cancer cells, particularly in prostate cancer, and inhibition of its expression reduces tumor cell proliferation. However, the physiological function of STEAP1 remains unknown. Here for the first time we purified a mammalian (rabbit) STEAP1 at milligram level, enabling its high-quality biochemical and biophysical characterizations. We found that STEAP1 likely assembles as a homotrimer and forms a heterotrimer when co-expressed with STEAP2...
October 28, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789722/preclinical-evaluation-of-18f-psma-1007-a-new-psma-ligand-for-prostate-cancer-imaging
#19
Jens Cardinale, Martin Schäfer, Martina Benešová, Ulrike Bauder-Wüst, Karin Leotta, Matthias Eder, Oliver C Neels, Uwe Haberkorn, Frederik L Giesel, Klaus Kopka
INTRODUCTION: In recent years several radiotracers targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been introduced. Few of those had a high clinical impact for the treatment of patients suffering from prostate cancer. However, the number of fluorine-18 labeled tracers addressing PSMA is still limited. Therefore, we aimed at the development of a radiofluorinated molecule with emphasis on resembling the structure of the therapeutic PSMA-617. METHODS: The non-radioactive reference compound PSMA-1007 and the labeling precursor were built up by solid phase chemistry...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779720/pace4-regulates-apoptosis-in-human-pancreatic-cancer-panc%C3%A2-1-cells-via-the-mitochondrial-signaling-pathway
#20
Xiao-Feng Tian, Guo-Min Huang, Hong-Liang Zang, Hong Cao
Previous studies have demonstrated the overexpression of paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4) mRNA in prostate cancer tissues. This overexpression is correlated with higher circulating protein levels in certain patients, however, the role of PACE4 in apoptosis and the potential molecular mechanisms of pancreatic cancer remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and potential molecular mechanisms of PACE4 on apoptosis in the Panc‑1 pancreatic cancer cell line...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
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