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Adverse drug effect in heart failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787616/efficacy-and-safety-of-saxagliptin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Peng Men, Xiao-Tong Li, Hui-Lin Tang, Suo-di Zhai
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of saxagliptin for type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and two Chinese databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing saxagliptin with placebo or active comparators was performed up to July 2017. A complementary search was done to cover literature until March 2018. For continuous data, estimates were pooled using inverse variance methodology to calculate weighted mean differences (WMDs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773163/epicardial-adipose-tissue-may-mediate-deleterious-effects-of-obesity-and-inflammation-on-the-myocardium
#2
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Epicardial adipose tissue has unique properties that distinguish it from other depots of visceral fat. Rather than having distinct boundaries, the epicardium shares an unobstructed microcirculation with the underlying myocardium, and in healthy conditions, produces cytokines that nourish the heart. However, in chronic inflammatory disorders (especially those leading to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction), the epicardium becomes a site of deranged adipogenesis, leading to the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines that can cause atrial and ventricular fibrosis...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763816/design-of-a-phase-3-trial-of-intracoronary-administration-of-human-adenovirus-5-encoding-human-adenylyl-cyclase-type-6-rt-100-gene-transfer-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-the-flourish-clinical-trial
#3
William F Penny, Timothy D Henry, Matthew W Watkins, Amit N Patel, H Kirk Hammond
The prognosis of patients with HFrEF remains poor despite the use of current medical and device therapies. Preclinical studies of HFrEF using IC delivery of RT-100, a replication deficient, E1/E3-deleted human adenovirus 5 encoding human AC6 was associated with favorable effects on LV function and remodeling. A recent multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study demonstrated the safety of IC delivery of RT-100 in HFrEF patients and potential efficacy at the higher doses. This phase 2 dose finding study, which included doses not expected to be effective, identified a potential reduction in congestive heart failure admissions in the AC6-treated group one year after randomization...
April 6, 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757497/effectiveness-of-a-transition-plan-at-discharge-of-patients-hospitalized-with-heart-failure-a-before-and-after-study
#4
Antoine Garnier, Nathalie Rouiller, David Gachoud, Carole Nachar, Pierre Voirol, Anne-Claude Griesser, Marc Uhlmann, Gérard Waeber, Olivier Lamy
AIMS: We evaluated the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary transition plan to reduce early readmission among heart failure patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a before-and-after study in a tertiary internal medicine department, comparing 3 years of retrospective data (pre-intervention) and 13 months of prospective data (intervention period). Intervention was the introduction in 2013 of a transition plan performed by a multidisciplinary team. We included all consecutive patients hospitalized with symptomatic heart failure and discharged to home...
May 14, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753687/istaroxime-a-positive-inotropic-agent-devoid-of-proarrhythmic-properties-in-sensitive-chronic-atrioventricular-block-dogs
#5
Alexandre Bossu, Amée Kostense, Henriette D M Beekman, Marien J C Houtman, Marcel A G van der Heyden, Marc A Vos
Current inotropic agents in heart failure therapy associate with low benefit and significant adverse effects, including ventricular arrhythmias. Istaroxime, a novel Na+ /K+ -transporting ATPase inhibitor, also stimulates SERCA2a activity, which would confer improved inotropic and lusitropic properties with less proarrhythmic effects. We investigated hemodynamic, electrophysiological and potential proarrhythmic and antiarrhythmic effects of istaroxime in control and chronic atrioventricular block (CAVB) dogs sensitive to drug-induced Torsades de Pointes arrhythmias (TdP)...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739235/a-new-perspective-on-the-nitrate-phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibitor-interaction
#6
Robert A Kloner, Paul Goggin, Irwin Goldstein, Geoffrey Hackett, Michael G Kirby, Ian Osterloh, John D Parker, Richard Sadovsky
BACKGROUND: Nitrates and nitrate-containing compounds are vasodilators used for the treatment of angina and heart failure. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction are also vasodilators, and when taken together with nitrates, synergistic effects that enhance hypotensive effects may occur. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are therefore contraindicated in patients taking organic nitrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: A literature review was performed to provide a historical overview of different phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and nitrates and their interaction...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735306/renoprotective-effects-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors
#7
REVIEW
Hiddo J L Heerspink, Mikhail Kosiborod, Silvio E Inzucchi, David Z I Cherney
Over the past two years, our understanding of anti-hyperglycemic medications used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has fundamentally changed. Before the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, agents used to lower blood glucose were felt to prevent or delay the development of microvascular complications, but were not known to definitively reduce cardiovascular risk or mortality. Previous studies with then novel sodium-glucose cotransport-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors demonstrated improvements in several cardiovascular and renal risk factors, including HbA1c, blood pressure, weight, renal hyperfiltration, and albuminuria...
May 5, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722116/blood-glucose-reduction-by-diabetic-drugs-with-minimal-hypoglycemia-risk-for-cardiovascular-outcomes-evidence-from-meta-regression-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Chi-Jung Huang, Wei-Ting Wang, Shih-Hsien Sung, Chen-Huan Chen, Gregory Yh Lip, Hao-Min Cheng, Chern-En Chiang
AIM: To investigate the effects of blood glucose control with antihyperglycemic agents with minimal hypoglycemia risk on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the relative efficacy and safety of antidiabetic drugs with less hypoglycemia risk were comprehensively searched in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to January 27, 2018. Mixed-effects meta-regression analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reduction and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death, all-cause death, and hospitalization for heart failure...
May 2, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721849/sunitinib-does-not-acutely-alter-left-ventricular-systolic-function-but-induces-diastolic-dysfunction
#9
Takeshi Wada, Kentaro Ando, Atsuhiko T Naito, Yuji Nakamura, Ai Goto, Koki Chiba, Nur Jaharat Lubna, Xin Cao, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Yuji Nakazato, Atsushi Sugiyama
PURPOSE: Cancer chemotherapies have improved the prognosis of cancer patients in recent years; however, their side effects on the cardiovascular systems have emerged as a major concern in the field of both cardiology and oncology. In particular, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors are known to induce various types of cardiovascular adverse events including hypertension, QT-interval prolongation and heart failure, but their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To explore how to better predict such drug-induced cardiovascular adverse events, we assessed the electropharmacological effects of sunitinib using the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 5), while plasma concentrations of cardiac enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase and cardiac troponin I  were measured...
May 2, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707741/myocardial-energetics-and-heart-failure-a-review-of-recent-therapeutic-trials
#10
REVIEW
Kunal N Bhatt, Javed Butler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several novel therapeutics being tested in patients with heart failure are based on myocardial energetics. This review will provide a summary of the recent trials in this area, including therapeutic options targeting various aspects of cellular and mitochondrial metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Agents that improve the energetic balance in myocardial cells have the potential to improve clinical heart failure status. The most promising therapies currently under investigation in this arena include (1) elamipretide, a cardiolipin stabilizer; (2) repletion of iron deficiency with intravenous ferrous carboxymaltose; (3) coenzyme Q10; and (4) the partial adenosine receptor antagonists capadenoson and neladenosone...
April 30, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702551/kruppel-like-factor-15-is-critical-for-the-development-of-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#11
REVIEW
Sheila K Patel, Jay Ramchand, Vincenzo Crocitti, Louise M Burrell
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events and is often present in patients with hypertension. Treatment to reduce blood pressure and regress LVH is key to improving health outcomes, but currently available drugs have only modest cardioprotective effects. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of LVH may lead to new therapeutic targets in the future. There is now compelling evidence that the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is an important negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy in both experimental models and in man...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701167/amaze-a-double-blind-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-to-investigate-the-clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-adding-an-ablation-device-based-maze-procedure-as-an-adjunct-to-routine-cardiac-surgery-for-patients-with-pre-existing-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Linda Sharples, Colin Everett, Jeshika Singh, Christine Mills, Tom Spyt, Yasir Abu-Omar, Simon Fynn, Benjamin Thorpe, Victoria Stoneman, Hester Goddard, Julia Fox-Rushby, Samer Nashef
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) can be treated using a maze procedure during planned cardiac surgery, but the effect on clinical patient outcomes, and the cost-effectiveness compared with surgery alone, are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether or not the maze procedure is safe, improves clinical and patient outcomes and is cost-effective for the NHS in patients with AF. DESIGN: Multicentre, Phase III, pragmatic, double-blind, parallel-arm randomised controlled trial...
April 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698683/anticancer-drug-induced-cardiac-rhythm-disorders-current-knowledge-and-basic-underlying-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Joachim Alexandre, Javid Moslehi, Kevin R Bersell, Christian Funck-Brentano, Dan M Roden, Joe-Elie Salem
Significant advances in cancer treatment have resulted in decreased cancer related mortality for many malignancies with some cancer types now considered chronic diseases. Despite these improvements, there is increasing recognition that many cancer patients or cancer survivors can develop cardiovascular diseases, either due to the cancer itself or as a result of anticancer therapy. Much attention has focused on heart failure; however, other cardiotoxicities, notably cardiac rhythm disorders, can occur without underlying cardiomyopathy...
April 24, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695659/effects-and-safety-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-diabetes-patients-with-drug-refractory-advanced-heart-failure
#14
Yoshihiro Seo, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Tomoko Machino-Ohtsuka, Tomoko Ishizu, Kazutaka Aonuma
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect and safety of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-Is) in patients with drug-refractory heart failure (HF).Methods and Results:In 12 diabetic patients with advanced HF, SGLT2-Is were added to the treatment regimen. At 6 months after administration, improvements in New York Heart Association class and reduction in B-type natriuretic peptide levels were observed, in particular in patients with high right atrial pressure...
April 24, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682682/molecular-and-clinical-roles-of-incretin-based-drugs-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#15
REVIEW
Bassant Orabi, Rasha Kaddoura, Amr S Omar, Cornelia Carr, Abdulaziz Alkhulaifi
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors produce some beneficial and deleterious effects in diabetic patients not mediated by their glycemic lowering effects, and there is a need for better understanding of the molecular basis of these effects. They possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects with some direct vasodilatory action (animal and human trial data) that may indirectly influence heart failure (HF). Unlike GLP-1R agonists, signaling for HF adverse effects was observed with two DPP-4 inhibitors, saxagliptin and alogliptin...
April 23, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679303/do-the-sglt-2-inhibitors-offer-more-than-hypoglycemic-activity
#16
REVIEW
Eduardo Flores, Carlos G Santos-Gallego, Nely Diaz-Mejía, Juan Jose Badimon
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic health conditions in the USA; it affects approximately 10% of adults with up to one-quarter being undiagnosed. T2DM is associated with substantial cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. T2DM is a pathological condition characterized by elevated levels of glucose and associated with high CV risk. Traditional hypoglycemic drugs have demonstrated their capability for effective and maintained management of high glucose levels, but they have not significantly impacted on the incidence of CV events...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667438/the-tolerability-and-safety-profile-of-patiromer-a-novel-polymer-based-potassium-binder-for-the-treatment-of-hyperkalemia
#17
Bertram Pitt, Dahlia Garza
Hyperkalemia (HK) occurs often among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and heart failure (HF) and those treated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASI). Even small deviations from normal potassium levels carry increased risk of mortality. Patiromer is approved for treatment of HK and has been shown in clinical trials to reduce serum potassium among patients with HK and comorbid conditions. Areas covered: We review pooled data from two clinical trials of patiromer in patients with CKD and HK, safety of patiromer in special populations, drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies, and other studies in healthy volunteers...
April 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617004/impact-of-chronic-kidney-disease-on-cardiovascular-and-renal-events-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-with-everolimus-eluting-stent-risk-stratification-with-c-reactive-protein
#18
Kazuhiro Dan, Toru Miyoshi, Makoto Nakahama, Tomofumi Mizuno, Kenzo Kagawa, Yoichiro Naito, Satoshi Kawada, Hiroshi Ito
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and inflammation play critical roles in atherosclerosis. There is limited evidence regarding the relationship between CKD and patients receiving second-generation drug-eluting stents for coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of CKD on cardiovascular and renal events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with everolimus-eluting stents (EES). METHODS: We analyzed 504 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris and significant coronary artery stenosis treated with EES...
2018: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611165/invasive-reperfusion-after-12-hours-of-the-symptom-onset-remains-beneficial-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis-of-published-data
#19
Hai-Tao Yang, Wen-Juan Xiu, Ying-Ying Zheng, Fen Liu, Ying Gao, Xiang Ma, Yi-Ning Yang, Xiao-Mei Li, Yi-Tong Ma, Xiang Xie
BACKGROUND: Early myocardial reperfusion therapy ( < 12 h) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can significantly improve their prognosis. However, the effect of late reperfusion ( > 12 h) remains controversial. In this study, the effects of late reperfusion versus standard drug therapy on the outcomes of patients with AMI were evaluated by systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane, Wanfang, and CNKI databases were searched for eligible studies for the present study...
April 3, 2018: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604389/effects-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-on-cardiovascular-disease-death-and-safety-outcomes-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Karin Rådholm, Jason Hy Wu, Muh Geot Wong, Celine Foote, Gregory Fulcher, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Vlado Perkovic, Bruce Neal
AIM: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors appear to protect against increased risks of cardiovascular and kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes but also cause some harms. Whether effects are comparable across drug class or specific to individual compounds is unclear. This meta-analysis assessed the class and individual compound effects of SGLT2 inhibition versus control on cardiovascular events, death, kidney disease and safety outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes...
March 28, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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