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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751237/current-anti-diabetic-agents-and-their-molecular-targets-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Nagaraju Kerru, Ashona Singh-Pillay, Paul Awolade, Parvesh Singh
Diabetes mellitus is a medical condition characterized by the body's loss of control over blood sugar. The frequency of diagnosed cases and consequential increases in medical costs makes it a rapidly growing chronic disease that threatens human health worldwide. In addition, its unnerving statistical projections are perilous to both the economy of the nation and man's life expectancy. Type-I and type-II diabetes are the two clinical forms of diabetes mellitus. Type-II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is illustrated by the abnormality of glucose homeostasis in the body, resulting in hyperglycemia...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733651/organocatalytic-ring-opening-copolymerization-of-trimethylene-carbonate-and-dithiolane-trimethylene-carbonate-impact-of-organocatalysts-on-copolymerization-kinetics-and-copolymer-microstructures
#2
Jingjing Wei, Hao Meng, Beibei Guo, Zhiyuan Zhong, Fenghua Meng
The ring opening copolymerization of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and dithiolane trimethylene carbonate (DTC) using acidic and basic organocatalysts, i.e. diphenyl phosphate (DPP) and triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD), was systemically investigated. Interestingly, DPP and TBD gave rise to completely different polymerization kinetics and copolymer sequences. The copolymerization of TMC and DTC using methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG-OH) as an initiator and DPP as a catalyst proceeded in a first-order manner and to near completion in 72 h for both monomers, yielding well-controlled copolymers with random sequences, predictable molar mass and low dispersity (Mw/Mn = 1...
May 7, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667232/the-pleiotropic-cardiovascular-effects-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors
#3
REVIEW
Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
Patients with Type 2 Diabetes have an excess risk for cardiovascular disease. One of the several approaches, included in the Guidelines for the management of Type 2 Diabetes, is based on dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4; also termed CD26) inhibitors (DPP-4-I), also called gliptins. Gliptins inhibit the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1RA: this effect is associated with increased circulating insulin-to-glucagon ratio, and a consequent reduction of HbA1c. Beside incretin hormones, there are several proteins that may be affected by DPP-4 and its inhibition: among these some are relevant for the cardiovascular system homeostasis such as SDF-1α and its receptor CXCR4, brain natriuretic peptides, neuropeptide Y, and peptide YY...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655978/sitagliptin-prevents-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-infarction-in-rats-by-modulating-nitric-oxide-synthase-enzymes
#4
Mohamed Abdellah Ibrahim, Ayman Geddawy, Soha Abdel-Wahab
Ischemic heart disease is a common cause of mortality worldwide. Sitagliptin is a new anti-diabetic drug acting as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor. The study investigated the ability of sitagliptin to prevent pathological changes of isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial injury in rats. The role of nitric oxide (NO) was also reported. Rats were assorted into six groups (n = 7) and treated for 12 days. Group 1: normal control, received normal saline. Group 2, sitagliptin control, received sitagliptin (10mg/kg, orally)...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605417/linagliptin-attenuates-chronic-post-ischemia-pain-possible-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidant-mechanisms
#5
Wafaa A Hewedy
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating neurologic disorder with an interlinked and yet incompletely defined pathogenesis. Treatment options remain a therapeutic challenge. Linagliptin is one of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors which are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Apart from the improvement of glycemic control, accumulating evidence points to the beneficial effects of DPP-4 inhibitors in a wide array of conditions. Herein, the present study was outlined to investigate the antinociceptive effect of linagliptin in acute pain conditions, and in an animal model of CRPS...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569809/commentary-on-changing-prevalence-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-bullous-pemphigoid-it-is-the-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors
#6
L Fania, G Di Zenzo, C Mazzanti, D Abeni
In their article entitled "Changing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bullous pemphigoid: It is the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors" Gravani and colleagues1 confirmed the increasing incidence of bullous pemphigoid (BP) in the last decade, and highlighted its association with diabetes mellitus (DM), and specifically with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4-i). As the Authors noted, these data expand the results of our study2 , in which we underscored, collecting administrative data from our Institute during the years 2001-2016 and studying the prevalence of diabetes in patients with pemphigus and BP, the higher frequency of DM in BP patients during the last decade...
March 23, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569760/changing-prevalence-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-bullous-pemphigoid-it-is-the-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors
#7
A Gravani, G Gaitanis, T Tsironi, S Tigas, I D Bassukas
We read with interest the letter by Fania et al1 on the increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) among patients diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid (BP) after 2007. Employing a retrospective study design the authors demonstrate an abrupt raise in the prevalence of DM2 among BP patients in relation to those with pemphigus. They conclude that this trend might stem from an increase in DM2 comorbidity among BP patients. Furthermore, the recorded accumulation of BP cases is attributed to the intake of dipeptydil peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4, gliptins)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561149/lanthanum-complexes-with-a-diimine-ligand-in-three-different-redox-states
#8
Igor L Fedushkin, Anton N Lukoyanov, Evgeny V Baranov
The reduction of 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene (dpp-Bian) with an excess of La metal in the presence of iodine (dpp-Bian/I2 = 2/1) in tetrahydrofuran (thf) or dimethoxyethane (dme) affords lanthanum(III) complexes of dpp-Bian dianion: deep blue [(dpp-Bian)2- LaI(thf)2 ]2 (1, 84%) was isolated by crystallization of the product from hexane, while deep green [(dpp-Bian)LaI(dme)2 ] (2, 93%) precipitated from the reaction mixture in the course of its synthesis. A treatment of complex 1 with 0...
March 21, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525332/worsening-heart-failure-during-the-use-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-pathophysiological-mechanisms-clinical-risks-and-potential-influence-of-concomitant-antidiabetic-medications
#9
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Although dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors have been reported to have a neutral effect on thromboembolic vaso-occlusive events in large-scale trials, they act to potentiate several endogenous peptides that can exert deleterious cardiovascular effects. Experimentally, DPP-4 inhibitors may augment the ability of glucagon-like peptide-1 to stimulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate in cardiomyocytes, and potentiation of the effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1 by DPP-4 inhibitors may aggravate cardiac fibrosis...
March 1, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523939/determination-of-phthalic-acid-esters-in-different-baby-food-samples-by-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#10
Bárbara Socas-Rodríguez, Javier González-Sálamo, Antonio V Herrera-Herrera, Álvaro Santana-Mayor, Javier Hernández-Borges
In this work, a new method has been developed for the determination of 14 phthalic acid esters (i.e., benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate (DBEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), bis-2-ethoxyethyl phthalate (DEEP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), bis-isopentyl phthalate (DIPP), bis (2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), bis-n-pentyl phthalate (DNPP), dipropyl phthalate (DPP)) and one adipate (bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA)) in different baby foods...
March 9, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462146/prospective-evaluation-of-accuracy-and-clinical-utility-of-the-dual-path-platform-dpp-assay-for-the-point-of-care-diagnosis-of-leptospirosis-in-hospitalized-patients
#11
Scott A Nabity, José E Hagan, Guilherme Araújo, Alcinéia O Damião, Jaqueline S Cruz, Nivison Nery, Elsio A Wunder, Mitermayer G Reis, Albert I Ko, Guilherme S Ribeiro
Early detection of leptospirosis with field-ready diagnostics may improve clinical management and mitigate outbreaks. We previously validated the point-of-care Dual Path Platform (DPP) for leptospirosis with sera in the laboratory. This prospective study compares the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of the DPP using finger stick blood (FSB) against the serum DPP, venous whole blood (VWB) DPP, IgM-ELISA, and clinical impression. We sequentially enrolled 98 patients hospitalized for acute febrile illnesses, of which we confirmed 32 by leptospirosis reference tests...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356122/monitoring-changes-in-back-fat-thickness-and-its-effect-on-the-restoration-of-ovarian-activity-and-fertility-in-bos-indicus-cows
#12
B R Díaz, C S Galina, I Rubio, M Corro, J L Pablos, A Orihuela
With the objective of testing the hypothesis if animals with a stable layer of body fat (FAT) during the peripartum have a better chance of becoming pregnant after calving, fifty-nine multiparous Brahman cows in their last trimester of pregnancy were used. Animals averaged four parturitions and were stocked at a rate of 1.25 animal units per hectare and divided into two groups depending on the time postpartum (dpp) that the intravaginal releasing device CIDR was inserted; Group 1 (<30 dpp; n = 30) received the implant at 25...
April 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251620/-effect-of-afobazole-and-levodopa-on-the-activity-of-proline-specific-proteinases-and-adenosine-deaminase-in-blood-serum-and-brain-structures-of-rats-with-experimental-parkinson-s-syndrome-induced-by-systemic-administration-of-rotenone
#13
E A Ivanova, N N Zolotov, I G Kapitsa, V F Pozdnev, E A Valdman, T A Voronina
Rats with experimental Parkinson's syndrome induced by seven-day intraperitoneal administration of rotenone at a dose of 2.75 mg/kg have an increased activity of prolylendopeptidase (EC 3.4.21.26, PREP) in blood serum and a decreased activity of adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4, ADA) in serum and in the prefrontal cortex. PREP and ADA activity in other brain structures (in the striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus) did not change; dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity (EC 3.4.14.5, DPP-4, CD26) also remained constant in serum and in all the brain structures investigated...
November 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249634/the-effects-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-on-cardiac-fibrosis-in-pressure-overload-induced-heart-failure
#14
Masanori Hirose, Hiroyuki Takano, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Hiroyuki Tadokoro, Naoko Hashimoto, Genzo Takemura, Yoshio Kobayashi
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are hypoglycemic agents. DPP-4 inhibitor has cardioprotective effects after transverse aortic constriction (TAC), but role of DPP-4 on cardiac fibrosis after TAC is not well known. Our aim was to determine the effects of DPP-4 on cardiac fibrosis in murine TAC model. Wild-type mice and DPP-4 knockout mice were subjected to TAC. Wild-type mice were then treated with vehicle or DPP-4 inhibitor. DPP-4 activities in serum and heart tissue were significantly increased at 2 weeks after TAC, but they were significantly decreased by DPP-4 inhibitor treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239764/treatment-choices-for-the-glycaemic-management-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-analysis-of-the-sail-patient-linked-dataset
#15
Thinzar Min, Gareth I Davies, Sam Rice, James Chess, Jeffrey W Stephens
AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in type 2 diabetes and limits the treatment choices for glycaemic control. Our aim was to examine real-world prescribing for managing hyperglycaemia in the presence of CKD. METHODS: The SAIL (Secure Anonymised Information Linkage) databank was used to examine prescribing during the period from the 1st of January to 30th December 2014. CKD was defined as:- none or mild CKD, eGFR ≥60mL/min/1.73m2 ; moderate CKD eGFR <60mL/min/1...
April 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225483/active-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1%C3%AE-and-endothelial-progenitor-cells-are-equally-increased-by-alogliptin-in-good-and-poor-diabetes-control
#16
Roberto Negro, Eupremio Luigi Greco, Giacomo Greco
Background: It is postulated that the ability of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4-i) to increase circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may be at least partly mediated by active stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) (a pivotal mediator of stem cell mobilization from the bone marrow). As other DPP-4-i were demonstrated to increase EPC concentrations, in this study, we sought to investigate the ability of the DPP-4-i alogliptin in modifying EPCs and SDF-1α, in patients with good and poor diabetes control...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Endocrinology and Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207547/predicted-release-and-analysis-of-novel-ace-i-renin-and-dpp-iv-inhibitory-peptides-from-common-oat-avena-sativa-protein-hydrolysates-using-in-silico-analysis
#17
Stephen Bleakley, Maria Hayes, Nora O' Shea, Eimear Gallagher, Tomas Lafarga
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in regulating hypertension by controlling vasoconstriction and intravascular fluid volume. RAAS itself is largely regulated by the actions of renin (EC 3.4.23.15) and the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I; EC 3.4.15.1). The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV; EC 3.4.14.5) also plays a role in the development of type-2 diabetes. The inhibition of the renin, ACE-I, and DPP-IV enzymes has therefore become a key therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes...
December 4, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206336/claims-based-studies-of-oral-glucose-lowering-medications-can-achieve-balance-in-critical-clinical-variables-only-observed-in-electronic-health-records
#18
Elisabetta Patorno, Chandrasekar Gopalakrishnan, Jessica M Franklin, Kimberly G Brodovicz, Elvira Masso-Gonzalez, Dorothee B Bartels, Jun Liu, Sebastian Schneeweiss
AIM: To evaluate the extent to which balance in unmeasured characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) was achieved in claims data, by comparing against more detailed information from linked electronic health records (EHR) data. METHODS: Within a large US commercial insurance database and using a cohort design, we identified patients with T2DM initiating linagliptin or a comparator agent within class (ie, another dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor) or outside class (ie, pioglitazone or a sulphonylurea) between May 2011 and December 2012...
April 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146426/determination-of-phthalic-acid-esters-in-water-samples-using-core-shell-poly-dopamine-magnetic-nanoparticles-and-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#19
Javier González-Sálamo, Bárbara Socas-Rodríguez, Javier Hernández-Borges, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Delgado
In this work, the first application of core-shell poly(dopamine) magnetic nanoparticles as sorbent for the extraction of a group of eleven phthalic acid esters of interest (i.e. diethyl phthalate (DEP), dipropyl phthalate (DPP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis-isopentyl phthalate (DIPP), bis-n-pentyl phthalate (DNPP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP)) and one adipate (bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate, DEHA) from different water samples (Milli-Q, mineral, tap, pond and waste water) is proposed...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053207/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-moderate-the-risk-of-genitourinary-tract-infections-associated-with-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors
#20
Gian Paolo Fadini, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Sarangdhar Mayur, Mauro Rigato, Angelo Avogaro
Genitourinary tract infections (GUTIs) are the most common adverse event (AE) occurring during therapy with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. We evaluated whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors moderate the risk of GUTI during SGLT2 inhibitor therapy, using two approaches. First, we screened the literature for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) directly comparing the frequency of GUTIs in patients receiving DPP-4 inhibitor/SGLT2 inhibitor combination therapy vs those receiving an SGLT2 inhibitor only...
March 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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