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Milton Packer
Although dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors have been reported to have a neutral effect on thromboembolic vaso-occlusive events in large-scale trials, they act to potentiate several endogenous peptides that can exert deleterious cardiovascular effects. Experimentally, DPP-4 inhibitors may augment the ability of glucagon-like peptide-1 to stimulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate in cardiomyocytes, and potentiation of the effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1 by DPP-4 inhibitors may aggravate cardiac fibrosis...
March 1, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
Bárbara Socas-Rodríguez, Javier González-Sálamo, Antonio V Herrera-Herrera, Álvaro Santana-Mayor, Javier Hernández-Borges
In this work, a new method has been developed for the determination of 14 phthalic acid esters (i.e., benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate (DBEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), bis-2-ethoxyethyl phthalate (DEEP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), bis-isopentyl phthalate (DIPP), bis (2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), bis-n-pentyl phthalate (DNPP), dipropyl phthalate (DPP)) and one adipate (bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA)) in different baby foods...
March 9, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Scott A Nabity, José E Hagan, Guilherme Araújo, Alcinéia O Damião, Jaqueline S Cruz, Nivison Nery, Elsio A Wunder, Mitermayer G Reis, Albert I Ko, Guilherme S Ribeiro
Early detection of leptospirosis with field-ready diagnostics may improve clinical management and mitigate outbreaks. We previously validated the point-of-care Dual Path Platform (DPP) for leptospirosis with sera in the laboratory. This prospective study compares the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of the DPP using finger stick blood (FSB) against the serum DPP, venous whole blood (VWB) DPP, IgM-ELISA, and clinical impression. We sequentially enrolled 98 patients hospitalized for acute febrile illnesses, of which we confirmed 32 by leptospirosis reference tests...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
B R Díaz, C S Galina, I Rubio, M Corro, J L Pablos, A Orihuela
With the objective of testing the hypothesis if animals with a stable layer of body fat (FAT) during the peripartum have a better chance of becoming pregnant after calving, fifty-nine multiparous Brahman cows in their last trimester of pregnancy were used. Animals averaged four parturitions and were stocked at a rate of 1.25 animal units per hectare and divided into two groups depending on the time postpartum (dpp) that the intravaginal releasing device CIDR was inserted; Group 1 (<30 dpp; n = 30) received the implant at 25...
January 21, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
E A Ivanova, N N Zolotov, I G Kapitsa, V F Pozdnev, E A Valdman, T A Voronina
Rats with experimental Parkinson's syndrome induced by seven-day intraperitoneal administration of rotenone at a dose of 2.75 mg/kg have an increased activity of prolylendopeptidase (EC, PREP) in blood serum and a decreased activity of adenosine deaminase (EC, ADA) in serum and in the prefrontal cortex. PREP and ADA activity in other brain structures (in the striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus) did not change; dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity (EC, DPP-4, CD26) also remained constant in serum and in all the brain structures investigated...
November 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Masanori Hirose, Hiroyuki Takano, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Hiroyuki Tadokoro, Naoko Hashimoto, Genzo Takemura, Yoshio Kobayashi
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are hypoglycemic agents. DPP-4 inhibitor has cardioprotective effects after transverse aortic constriction (TAC), but role of DPP-4 on cardiac fibrosis after TAC is not well known. Our aim was to determine the effects of DPP-4 on cardiac fibrosis in murine TAC model. Wild-type mice and DPP-4 knockout mice were subjected to TAC. Wild-type mice were then treated with vehicle or DPP-4 inhibitor. DPP-4 activities in serum and heart tissue were significantly increased at 2 weeks after TAC, but they were significantly decreased by DPP-4 inhibitor treatment...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Thinzar Min, Gareth I Davies, Sam Rice, James Chess, Jeffrey W Stephens
AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in type 2 diabetes and limits the treatment choices for glycaemic control. Our aim was to examine real-world prescribing for managing hyperglycaemia in the presence of CKD. METHODS: The SAIL (Secure Anonymised Information Linkage) databank was used to examine prescribing during the period from the 1st of January to 30th December 2014. CKD was defined as:- none or mild CKD, eGFR ≥60mL/min/1.73m2; moderate CKD eGFR <60mL/min/1...
November 23, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Roberto Negro, Eupremio Luigi Greco, Giacomo Greco
Background: It is postulated that the ability of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4-i) to increase circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may be at least partly mediated by active stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) (a pivotal mediator of stem cell mobilization from the bone marrow). As other DPP-4-i were demonstrated to increase EPC concentrations, in this study, we sought to investigate the ability of the DPP-4-i alogliptin in modifying EPCs and SDF-1α, in patients with good and poor diabetes control...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Endocrinology and Diabetes
Stephen Bleakley, Maria Hayes, Nora O' Shea, Eimear Gallagher, Tomas Lafarga
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in regulating hypertension by controlling vasoconstriction and intravascular fluid volume. RAAS itself is largely regulated by the actions of renin (EC and the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I; EC The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV; EC also plays a role in the development of type-2 diabetes. The inhibition of the renin, ACE-I, and DPP-IV enzymes has therefore become a key therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes...
December 4, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Elisabetta Patorno, Chandrasekar Gopalakrishnan, Jessica M Franklin, Kimberly G Brodovicz, Elvira Masso-Gonzalez, Dorothee B Bartels, Jun Liu, Sebastian Schneeweiss
AIM: To evaluate the extent to which balance in unmeasured characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) was achieved in claims data, by comparing against more detailed information from linked electronic health records (EHR) data. METHODS: Within a large US commercial insurance database and using a cohort design, we identified patients with T2DM initiating linagliptin or a comparator agent within class (ie, another dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor) or outside class (ie, pioglitazone or a sulphonylurea) between May 2011 and December 2012...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Javier González-Sálamo, Bárbara Socas-Rodríguez, Javier Hernández-Borges, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Delgado
In this work, the first application of core-shell poly(dopamine) magnetic nanoparticles as sorbent for the extraction of a group of eleven phthalic acid esters of interest (i.e. diethyl phthalate (DEP), dipropyl phthalate (DPP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis-isopentyl phthalate (DIPP), bis-n-pentyl phthalate (DNPP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP)) and one adipate (bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate, DEHA) from different water samples (Milli-Q, mineral, tap, pond and waste water) is proposed...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Gian Paolo Fadini, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Mayur Sarangdhar, Mauro Rigato, Angelo Avogaro
Genito-urinary tract infections (GUTI) are the most common adverse event (AE) during therapy with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i). We evaluated whether dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4i) moderate the risk of GUTI during therapy with SGLT2i, using two approaches. First, we screened the literature for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) directly comparing the frequency of GUTI in patients receiving a DPP4i/SGLT2i combination therapy versus those receiving a SGLT2i only. In the 5 trials we retrieved, the pooled RR for genital tract infections (GTI) in patients on a DPP4i/SGLT2i combination therapy versus those on SGLT2i alone was 0...
October 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
L Dumont, F Chalmel, A Oblette, B Berby, A Rives, V Duchesne, C Rondanino, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Do freezing and in vitro culture procedures enhance the expression of proteins involved in apoptotic or autophagic pathways in murine pre-pubertal testicular tissue? SUMMARY ANSWER: IVM strongly modified apoptosis- and autophagy-related relative protein levels in mice testicular tissue whereas the impact of cryopreservation procedures was minimal at the end of the culture. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro spermatogenesis remains a challenging technical issue as it imposes to find a very close balance between survival and death of germ cell natural precursors (i...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
Scott M Brown, Cassandra E Smith, Alex I Meuth, Maloree Khan, Annayya R Aroor, Hannah M Cleeton, Gerald A Meininger, James R Sowers, Vincent G DeMarco, Bysani Chandrasekar, Ravi Nistala, Shawn B Bender
Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is common in hypertension and obesity and contributes to cardiac diastolic dysfunction, a condition for which no treatment currently exists. In light of recent reports that antihyperglycemia incretin enhancing dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors exert cardioprotective effects, we examined the hypothesis that DPP-4 inhibition with saxagliptin (Saxa) attenuates angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac diastolic dysfunction. Male C57BL/6J mice were infused with either Ang II (500 ng/kg/min) or vehicle for 3 weeks receiving either Saxa (10 mg/kg/d) or placebo during the final 2 weeks...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
Soojin Kim, Jaewon Jeong, Hye-Seon Jung, Bokyung Kim, Ye-Eun Kim, Da-Sol Lim, So-Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which block inactivation of GLP-1, are currently in clinical use for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, GLP-1 has also been reported to have neuroprotective effects in cases of cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, exendin-4 (ex-4), after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced in rats by intracerebroventricular (i...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Amy L Wilson, Magdalena Plebanski, Andrew N Stephens
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and current research has focused on the discovery of novel approaches to effectively treat this disease. Recently, a considerable number of clinical trials have demonstrated the success of immunomodulatory therapies for the treatment of cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can target components of the immune system to either i) agonise co-stimulatory molecules, such as CD137, OX40 and CD40; or ii) inhibit immune checkpoints, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its corresponding ligand PD-L1...
August 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Antoine Pariente, Yohann Mansiaux, Ana Jarné, Francesco Salvo, Cécile Pageot, Julien Bezin, Andy Smith, Bernard Bégaud
PURPOSE: In 2011, pioglitazone was withdrawn from the French market owing to a potential risk of bladder cancer. This study aimed at assessing the impact of this pioglitazone withdrawal (PW) considering (i) trends in antidiabetic uses and (ii) changes in hospitalization/death rates in diabetic patients following PW. METHODS: We first considered the general population of the Echantillon Généraliste des Bénéficiaires (EGB), a 1/97th representative sample of the French healthcare insurance system beneficiaries, for the 2010-2014 period...
December 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Frederik Persson, Thomas Nyström, Marit E Jørgensen, Bendix Carstensen, Hanne L Gulseth, Marcus Thuresson, Peter Fenici, David Nathanson, Jan W Eriksson, Anna Norhammar, Johan Bodegard, Kåre I Birkeland
AIMS: To compare the sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor dapagliflozin with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors with regard to risk associations with major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE; non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular mortality), hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), atrial fibrillation and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a real-world setting. METHODS: All patients with T2D prescribed glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) during 2012 to 2015 were identified in nationwide registries in Denmark, Norway and Sweden...
February 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Anja Böhm, Robert Wagner, Fausto Machicao, Jens Juul Holst, Baptist Gallwitz, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Harald Staiger
OBJECTIVE: Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) cleaves and inactivates the insulinotropic hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide, collectively termed incretins. DPP-4 inhibitors entered clinical practice as approved therapeutics for type-2 diabetes in 2006. However, inter-individual variance in the responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors was reported. Thus, we asked whether genetic variation in the DPP4 gene affects incretin levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in participants of the TÜbingen Family study for type-2 diabetes (TÜF)...
2017: PloS One
Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Toshihiko Shiraiwa, Naoto Katakami, Taka-Aki Matsuoka, Iichiro Shimomura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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