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Yoga and Neuroscience

Cynthia M Stonnington, Betty Darby, Angela Santucci, Pamela Mulligan, Patricia Pathuis, Andrea Cuc, Joseph G Hentz, Nan Zhang, David Mulligan, Amit Sood
Solid organ and stem cell transplant patients and their caregivers report a substantial level of distress. Mindfulness-based stress reduction has been shown to alleviate distress associated with transplant, but there is limited experience in this population with other mindfulness-based interventions, or with combined transplant patient and caregiver interventions. We evaluated a novel, 6-week mindfulness-based resilience training (MBRT) class for transplant patients and their caregivers that incorporates mindfulness practice, yoga, and neuroscience of stress and resilience...
September 12, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Thomas Gregor Issac, Suresh Kumar Korada, Karru Venkata Ravi Teja, Mariamma Philip
INTRODUCTION: About 20-50% of relatively young onset dementia belongs to frontotemporal type. Most of these patients are diagnosed as psychiatric illness as their memory and instrumental activities of daily living remain unaltered till late and most of these patients do not qualify for dementia by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. In this study, we analyzed the behavioral symptoms in our patients with radiologically and neuropsychologically proven as probable behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Matcheri S Keshavan, Bangalore N Gangadhar
Schizophrenia patients experience a 'disconnect' at multiple levels-neuronal networks, mental processes, and interpersonal relationships. The resultant poor quality-of-life and functional disability are related to the persistent cognitive deficits and negative symptoms, which are rather resistant to conventional antipsychotic medications. Yoga has emerged as an important therapeutic intervention to improve quality-of-life in schizophrenia. Recent preliminary evidence suggests that effects of yoga on cognitive and negative symptoms may drive this benefit...
June 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Tim Gard, Jessica J Noggle, Crystal L Park, David R Vago, Angela Wilson
Research suggesting the beneficial effects of yoga on myriad aspects of psychological health has proliferated in recent years, yet there is currently no overarching framework by which to understand yoga's potential beneficial effects. Here we provide a theoretical framework and systems-based network model of yoga that focuses on integration of top-down and bottom-up forms of self-regulation. We begin by contextualizing yoga in historical and contemporary settings, and then detail how specific components of yoga practice may affect cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and autonomic output under stress through an emphasis on interoception and bottom-up input, resulting in physical and psychological health...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Laura Schmalzl, Mardi A Crane-Godreau, Peter Payne
Over the past decades, cognitive neuroscience has witnessed a shift from predominantly disembodied and computational views of the mind, to more embodied and situated views of the mind. These postulate that mental functions cannot be fully understood without reference to the physical body and the environment in which they are experienced. Within the field of contemplative science, the directing of attention to bodily sensations has so far mainly been studied in the context of seated meditation and mindfulness practices...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Claire Braboszcz, B Rael Cahn, Bhavani Balakrishnan, Raj K Maturi, Romain Grandchamp, Arnaud Delorme
Meditation has lately received considerable interest from cognitive neuroscience. Studies suggest that daily meditation leads to long lasting attentional and neuronal plasticity. We present changes related to the attentional systems before and after a 3 month intensive meditation retreat. We used three behavioral psychophysical tests - a Stroop task, an attentional blink task, and a global-local letter task-to assess the effect of Isha yoga meditation on attentional resource allocation. 82 Isha yoga practitioners were tested at the beginning and at the end of the retreat...
2013: Frontiers in Psychology
V R Hariprasad, S Varambally, P T Varambally, J Thirthalli, I V Basavaraddi, B N Gangadhar
CONTEXT: Ageing is an unavoidable facet of life. Yogic practices have been reported to promote healthy aging. Previous studies have used either yoga therapy interventions derived from a particular school of yoga or have tested specific yogic practices like meditation. AIMS: This study reports the development, validation and feasibility of a yoga-based intervention for elderly with or without mild cognitive impairment. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was conducted at the Advanced Centre for Yoga, National Institute for Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore...
July 2013: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Allison R Bond, Heather F Mason, Chelsey M Lemaster, Stephanie E Shaw, Caroline S Mullin, Emily A Holick, Robert B Saper
OBJECTIVE: An effective career in medicine requires empathy and compassion, yet the demands of a medical education increase stress and decrease students' ability to connect with patients. However, research suggests mind-body practices improve psychological well-being. This study aimed to evaluate the psychological effects on medical students of an 11-week elective course, Embodied Health or EH, which combines yoga and meditation with neuroscience didactics. METHODS: The effects on 27 first- and second-year medical students were evaluated via surveys in four areas: empathy, perceived stress, self-regulation, and self-compassion...
2013: Medical Education Online
Laura Douglass
Yoga has historically been viewed as a discipline that increases self-awareness through body based practices, meditation, self-study, and the reading of philosophical texts. In the 21st century the mindfulness techniques of yoga have been adapted as an adjunct to the treatment of individuals with eating disorders. In an effort to understand the conceptualization of yoga as therapy for individuals with eating disorders, this article juxtaposes how mindfulness based yoga is regarded in three disciplines: sociology, neuroscience, and the "spiritual texts" of yoga...
January 2011: Eating Disorders
Angela Sarro, Yoga Raja Rampersaud, Stephen Lewis
AIM: This study is a report of a study of patient satisfaction with non-surgical nurse practitioner management of pre-selected spinal referrals. BACKGROUND: Nurse practitioners are linked to particular patient populations or specific physicians in a medical setting. In a universal healthcare delivery system, patients are often faced with long and anxiety-provoking waiting times, particularly for sub-specialized consultations such as spinal surgery. METHOD: A nurse practitioner-led spine consultation ambulatory clinic was implemented at a Canadian neuroscience centre...
December 2010: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Stephen Kaplan
Contemporary neuropsychology reveals that the parietal lobe contains neurons that are specifically attuned to the act of grasping and this act may be fundamental to the establishment of the phenomenal boundaries between subject and object. Furthermore, alterations to this process, such as the hypoactivation of this region during meditation or the hyperactivation associated with schizophrenia, may eliminate or confuse, respectively, the phenomenal boundaries between subject and object. Traversing disciplines, the Advaita Vedānta school of Hinduism traces some of its key terms for subject and object to the verbal root grah, to grasp...
2009: Journal of the American Academy of Religion
Vinod D Deshmukh
Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state with realization of one's being in harmony with reality. It is unitive, undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics including brain-mind-reality, consciousness, attention, emotional intelligence, sense of self, meditative mind, and meditative brain...
2006: TheScientificWorldJournal
A Conti
In 1987 in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, N.H. Spector named a new discipline: Neuroimmunomodulation. R. Ader called this new discipline psychoneuroimmunomodulation when the major emphysis was on its behavioral aspects. Neuroimmunomodulation (NIM) is devoted to the study of the interactions at different morphologic and functional levels among the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems. In fact, this science is the modern manifestation of an old science: in the words of B.D. Jankovic (1987), "Neuroimmunomodulation is a modern reflection in neurosciences and immunosciences of the ideas and experience of philosophers and ingenious observers of ancient Egypt, Greece, China, India, and other civilizations that the mind is involved in the defense against diseases...
2000: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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