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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051947/early-life-effects-on-adult-physical-activity-concepts-relevance-and-experimental-approaches
#1
Theodore Garland, Marcell D Cadney, Robert A Waterland
Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment)...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026884/making-a-queen-an-epigenetic-analysis-of-the-robustness-of-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-queen-developmental-pathway
#2
Xu Jiang He, Lin Bin Zhou, Qi Zhong Pan, Andrew B Barron, Wei Yu Yan, Zhi Jiang Zeng
Specialised castes are considered a key reason for the evolutionary and ecological success of the social insect lifestyle. The most essential caste distinction is between the fertile queen and the sterile workers. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers and queens are not genetically distinct, rather these different phenotypes are the result of epigenetically regulated divergent developmental pathways. This is an important phenomenon in understanding the evolution of social insect societies. Here we studied the genomic regulation of the worker and queen developmental pathways, and the robustness of the pathways by transplanting eggs or young larvae to queen cells...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005986/a-systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-studies-reporting-cost-per-daly-averted
#3
Peter J Neumann, Teja Thorat, Yue Zhong, Jordan Anderson, Megan Farquhar, Mark Salem, Eileen Sandberg, Cayla J Saret, Colby Wilkinson, Joshua T Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005948/the-jujube-genome-provides-insights-into-genome-evolution-and-the-domestication-of-sweetness-acidity-taste-in-fruit-trees
#4
Jian Huang, Chunmei Zhang, Xing Zhao, Zhangjun Fei, KangKang Wan, Zhong Zhang, Xiaoming Pang, Xiao Yin, Yang Bai, Xiaoqing Sun, Lizhi Gao, Ruiqiang Li, Jinbo Zhang, Xingang Li
Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) belongs to the Rhamnaceae family and is a popular fruit tree species with immense economic and nutritional value. Here, we report a draft genome of the dry jujube cultivar 'Junzao' and the genome resequencing of 31 geographically diverse accessions of cultivated and wild jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa). Comparative analysis revealed that the genome of 'Dongzao', a fresh jujube, was ~86.5 Mb larger than that of the 'Junzao', partially due to the recent insertions of transposable elements in the 'Dongzao' genome...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000453/prognostic-value-of-severity-by-various-visceral-proteins-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sirs-during-7-days-of-stay
#5
Hicham Bouharras-El Idrissi, Jorge Molina-López, Lourdes Herrera-Quintana, Álvaro Domínguez-García, Gabriela Lobo-Támer, Irene Pérez-Moreno, Antonio Pérez-de la Cruz, Elena Planells-Del Pozo
INTRODUCTION: Critically ill patients typically develop a catabolic stress state as a result of a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) that alters clinical-nutritional biomarkers, increasing energy demands and nutritional requirements. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the status of albumin, prealbumin and transferrin in critically ill patients and the association between these clinical-nutritional parameters with the severity during a seven day stay in intensive care unit (ICU)...
November 29, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996203/sialotranscriptome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-anopheles-sinensis-and-comparison-with-psorophora-albipes-sialotranscriptome-diptera-culicidae
#6
Ya-Jie Fang, Zhen-Tian Yan, Bin Chen
Most of adult female mosquitoes secrete saliva to facilitate blood sucking, digestion and nutrition, and mosquito-borne disease prevention. The knowledge of classification and characteristics of sialotranscriptome genes are still quite limited. Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in China and Southeast countries. In the study, the An. sinensis sialotranscriptome was sequenced using Illumina sequencing technique with a total of 10 907 unigenes to be obtained and annotated in biological function and pathway, and 10 470 unigenes were mapped to An...
December 20, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974596/improving-diet-sustainability-through-evolution-of-food-choices-review-of-epidemiological-studies-on-the-environmental-impact-of-diets
#7
Marlène Perignon, Florent Vieux, Louis-Georges Soler, Gabriel Masset, Nicole Darmon
The Food and Agriculture Organization defines sustainable diets as nutritionally adequate, safe, healthy, culturally acceptable, economically affordable diets that have little environmental impact. This review summarizes the studies assessing, at the individual level, both the environmental impact and the nutritional quality or healthiness of self-selected diets. Reductions in meat consumption and energy intake were identified as primary factors for reducing diet-related greenhouse gas emissions. The choice of foods to replace meat, however, was crucial, with some isocaloric substitutions possibly increasing total diet greenhouse gas emissions...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965220/the-use-of-rats-and-mice-as-animal-models-in-ex-vivo-bone-growth-and-development-studies
#8
A A Abubakar, M M Noordin, T I Azmi, U Kaka, M Y Loqman
In vivo animal experimentation has been one of the cornerstones of biological and biomedical research, particularly in the field of clinical medicine and pharmaceuticals. The conventional in vivo model system is invariably associated with high production costs and strict ethical considerations. These limitations led to the evolution of an ex vivo model system which partially or completely surmounted some of the constraints faced in an in vivo model system. The ex vivo rodent bone culture system has been used to elucidate the understanding of skeletal physiology and pathophysiology for more than 90 years...
December 2016: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951558/evolution-of-technology-for-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-forty-years-of-improvements
#9
Claudio Ronco
Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH) was proposed in 1977 as an alternative treatment for acute renal failure in patients in whom peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis was clinically or technically precluded. In the mid-1980s, this technique was extended to infants and children. CAVH presented important advantages in the areas of hemodynamic stability, control of circulating volume, and nutritional support. However, there were serious shortcomings such as the need for arterial cannulation and limited solute clearance...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939720/effects-of-mediterranean-diet-in-patients-with-recurring-colds-and-frequent-complications
#10
F M Calatayud, B Calatayud, J G Gallego, C González-Martín, L F Alguacile
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, traditional diets enriched with fresh plant-based foods have been gradually abandoned, increasing the consumption of animal foods and highly processed food. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a nutritional intervention with a Traditional Mediterranean Diet in patients with recurring colds (RC) and frequent inflammatory complications (IC). METHODS: Prospective before-after comparison study of 63 girls and 65 boys aged 1-5 years were included over a year in the nutritional programme "Learning to eat from the Mediterranean"...
December 7, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900427/the-impact-of-excess-body-fat-on-bone-remodeling-in-adolescents
#11
L N Mosca, T B L Goldberg, V N da Silva, C S Kurokawa, A C B Rizzo, C C da Silva, A Dos Santos Teixeira, J E Corrente
: The impact of excess body fat on bone remodeling was evaluated in overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents. In adolescents with excess weight, it was observed that the higher the bone mineral content and bone mineral density values, the lower the levels of the biomarkers. Nutritional imbalances by excess had a negative effect on bone formation in this stage of life. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of excess body fat on bone remodeling in adolescents...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899728/evolution-of-sex-differences-in-trait-and-age-specific-vulnerabilities
#12
David C Geary
Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice generally have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. They have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and nutritional and social stressors, and they are compromised by exposure to man-made toxins. Although these traits can differ from one species or sex to the next, an understanding of the dynamics of competition and choice can in theory be used to generate a priori predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878212/obesity-paradox-obesity-orthodox-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-approach-to-unity
#13
Jesse Roth, Navneet Sahota, Priya Patel, Syed Faizan Mehdi, Mohammad Masum Wiese, Hafiz B Mahboob, Michelle Bravo, Daniel J Eden, Muhammad A Bashir, Amrat Kumar, Farah Alsaati, Irwin J Kurland, Wunnie Brima, Ann Danoff, Alessandra L Szulc, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey, Huan Yang
Obesity and the accompanying metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with heightened morbidity and mortality in older adults. In our review of more than 20 epidemiologic studies of major infectious diseases, including leaders such as tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, and sepsis, obesity was associated with better outcomes. A cause-and-effect relationship between over-nutrition and survival with infection is suggested by results of two preliminary studies of infections in mice, where high fat feeding for 8-10 weeks provided much better outcomes...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876807/assessment-of-human-energy-exchange-historical-overview
#14
REVIEW
S B Heymsfield, B Bourgeois, D M Thomas
Energy exchange is fundamental to life and is a cornerstone in the study of human physiology, metabolism and nutrition. A global effort is underway to further our understanding of human energy exchange and its components as a means of establishing the mechanistic underpinnings of the evolving obesity and chronic disease epidemics. The current report establishes a conceptual historical framework for examining the evolution of energy exchange concepts and measurement methods. We review developments taking place over more than 2000 years during which humans endeavored to establish the source of body heat, the 'fire of life'...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875289/home-parenteral-nutrition-in-adult-patients-with-chronic-intestinal-failure-catheter-related-complications-over-4-decades-at-the-main-danish-tertiary-referral-center
#15
Christopher Filtenborg Brandt, Siri Tribler, Mark Hvistendahl, Rahim M Naimi, Per Brøbech, Michael Staun, Palle Bekker Jeppesen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Catheter-related complications (CRCs) cause mortality and morbidity in patients dependent on parenteral support at home (HPN) due to intestinal failure (IF). This study describes the incidences of CRCs in an adult IF cohort over 40 years. It illustrates the evolution and consequences of CRCs, their association to demographic characteristics, and potential risk factors in an effort to provide the rationale for preventive precautions to the relevant patients with IF at risk...
November 15, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862974/phenotypic-variation-in-food-utilization-in-an-outbreak-insect-herbivore
#16
Roberto Quezada-García, Álvaro Fuentealba, Éric Bauce
The effects of nutrition may have subtantial impact on insect evolution by shaping different components of phenotypes. The key to undestanding this evolutionary process is to know how nutritional condition affects additive and non-additive components of the phenotype. However, this is poorly understood in outbreaking insects. We investigated the additive and non-additive variation present in food utilization traits in spruce budworm individuals subjected to chronic nutritional stress. 160 full-sib families of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem...
November 8, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859384/new-views-on-the-selection-acting-on-genetic-polymorphism-in-central-metabolic-genes
#17
Walter F Eanes
Studies of the polymorphism of central metabolic genes as a source of fitness variation in natural populations date back to the discovery of allozymes in the 1960s. The unique features of these genes and their enzymes and our knowledge base greatly facilitates the systems-level study of this group. The expectation that pathway flux control is central to understanding the molecular evolution of genes is discussed, as well as studies that attempt to place gene-specific molecular evolution and polymorphism into a context of pathway and network architecture...
November 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857647/nutrition-chez-le-br%C3%A3-l%C3%A3
#18
G Perro
Nutrition is a challenge for burn patients. Emphasized points are early enteral amounts by means of a naso-gastric tube, semi-recumbent position > 30°, gastro-intestinal survey improved by kinetics, weight evolution, nutritional amounts assessment to prevent proteino-energetic deficiency. Feeding is difficult with children, as with seniors often associating a preexisting starvation. Nutritional supplements are useful in medium severity patients. For overweight patients, hypo caloric and hyperprotidic diet is the better choice...
March 31, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847868/photosymbiosis-and-the-expansion-of-shallow-water-corals
#19
Katarzyna Frankowiak, Xingchen T Wang, Daniel M Sigman, Anne M Gothmann, Marcelo V Kitahara, Maciej Mazur, Anders Meibom, Jarosław Stolarski
Roughly 240 million years ago (Ma), scleractinian corals rapidly expanded and diversified across shallow marine environments. The main driver behind this evolution is uncertain, but the ecological success of modern reef-building corals is attributed to their nutritional symbiosis with photosynthesizing dinoflagellate algae. We show that a suite of exceptionally preserved Late Triassic (ca. 212 Ma) coral skeletons from Antalya (Turkey) have microstructures, carbonate (13)C/(12)C and (18)O/(16)O, and intracrystalline skeletal organic matter (15)N/(14)N all indicating symbiosis...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829652/pediatric-gastroenterology-in-cuba-evolution-and-challenges
#20
Carlos Castañeda-Guillot
INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba...
October 2016: MEDICC Review
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