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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643979/-acute-pancreatitis-new-aspects-for-the-management
#1
Olivier Windisch, Toni Raffoul, Catrina Hansen, Jean-Louis Frossard, Philippe Morel, Léo Bühler
Acute pancreatitis is a frequent disease, with a simple course in 80 % of the cases but a high morbidity and mortality in its severe form. Biliary origin and alcohol represent 80 % of the etiologies. Except endoscopic removal of gallstone for biliary origin, treatment remains symptomatic and focuses on fluid resuscitation, effective antalgia and adapted management of nutrition. This article focuses on the novelties introduced by the revision of the Classification of Atlanta in 2012 and details current guidelines for the management of the disease...
June 14, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640886/epigenomic-diversification-within-the-genus-lupinus
#2
Karolina Susek, Agnieszka Braszewska-Zalewska, Adam J Bewick, Robert Hasterok, Robert J Schmitz, Barbara Naganowska
Deciphering the various chemical modifications of both DNA and the histone compound of chromatin not only leads to a better understanding of the genome-wide organisation of epigenetic landmarks and their impact on gene expression but may also provide some insights into the evolutionary processes. Although both histone modifications and DNA methylation have been widely investigated in various plant genomes, here we present the first study for the genus Lupinus. Lupins, which are members of grain legumes (pulses), are beneficial for food security, nutrition, health and the environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640400/little-evidence-for-intralocus-sexual-conflict-over-the-optimal-intake-of-nutrients-for-lifespan-and-reproduction-in-the-black-field-cricket-teleogryllus-commodus
#3
James Rapkin, Ruth C Archer, Charles E Grant, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M House, Alastair J Wilson, John Hunt
There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on lifespan and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex-specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for lifespan and reproduction to constrain the evolution of sex-specific nutrient regulation in the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus...
June 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637856/how-to-get-the-most-bang-for-your-buck-the-evolution-and-physiology-of-nutrition-dependent-resource-allocation-strategies
#4
REVIEW
Enoch Ng'oma, Anna M Perinchery, Elizabeth G King
All organisms use resources to grow, survive and reproduce. The supply of these resources varies widely across landscapes and time, imposing ultimate constraints on the maximal trait values for allocation-related traits. In this review, we address three key questions fundamental to our understanding of the evolution of allocation strategies and their underlying mechanisms. First, we ask: how diverse are flexible resource allocation strategies among different organisms? We find there are many, varied, examples of flexible strategies that depend on nutrition...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636615/family-living-sets-the-stage-for-cooperative-breeding-and-ecological-resilience-in-birds
#5
Michael Griesser, Szymon M Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A Botero
Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent-offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627198/triceps-skinfold-compressibility-in-hospitalized-patients
#6
Ana Sofia Sousa, Fernando Pichel, Teresa F Amaral
OBJECTIVE: To explore triceps skinfold (TSF) compressibility and its associated factors among hospitalized patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among hospitalized adult patients. Evolution of tissue compressibility during two seconds was registered and 120 TSF values were obtained using a digital calliper. Compressibility was determined according to the difference between the initial value and the final value (TSF difference) and according to time (τ)...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624393/endosymbiosis-the-feeling-is-not-mutual
#7
Patrick J Keeling, John P McCutcheon
Endosymbiosis is an idea that provided a remarkable amount of explanatory power about the origins of eukaryotic organelles. But it also promoted a number of assumptions that have also been influential, but are less well-examined. Here we look at two of these to see whether or not they fit current evidence. The assumption we first address is that endosymbiotic relationships such as nutritional symbioses and eukaryotic organelles are mutualisms. We argue instead that they are more one-sided associations that can be regarded as context-dependent power struggles like any other ecological interaction...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620582/physicochemical-and-nutritional-requirements-for-axenic-replication-suggest-physiological-basis-for-coxiella-burnetii-niche-restriction
#8
Eduardo Vallejo Esquerra, Hong Yang, Savannah E Sanchez, Anders Omsland
Bacterial obligate intracellular parasites are clinically significant animal and human pathogens. Central to the biology of these organisms is their level of adaptation to intracellular replication niches associated with physicochemical and nutritional constraints. While most bacterial pathogens can adapt to a wide range of environments, severe niche restriction-an inability to thrive in diverse environments-is a hallmark of bacterial obligate intracellular parasites. Herein the physicochemical and nutritional factors underlying the physiological basis for niche restriction in the zoonotic bacterial obligate intracellular parasite and Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii are characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606351/ultrastructural-characterization-of-the-host-parasite-interface-between-allomyces-anomalus-blastocladiomycota-and-rozella-allomycis-cryptomycota
#9
Martha J Powell, Peter M Letcher, Timothy Y James
Rozella allomycis is an obligate endoparasite of the water mold Allomyces and a member of a clade (= Opisthosporidia) sister to the traditional Fungi. Gaining insights into Rozella's development as a phylogenetically pivotal endoparasite can aid our understanding of structural adaptations and evolution of the Opisthosporidia clade, especially within the context of genomic information. The purpose of this study is to characterize the interface between R. allomycis and Allomyces anomalus. Electron microscopy of developing plasmodia of R...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597822/fungi-that-infect-humans
#10
Julia R Köhler, Bernhard Hube, Rosana Puccia, Arturo Casadevall, John R Perfect
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595671/from-the-sain-lim-system-to-the-sens-algorithm-a-review-of-a-french-approach-of-nutrient-profiling
#11
Marion Tharrey, Matthieu Maillot, Véronique Azaïs-Braesco, Nicole Darmon
Nutrient profiling aims to classify or rank foods according to their nutritional composition to assist policies aimed at improving the nutritional quality of foods and diets. The present paper reviews a French approach of nutrient profiling by describing the SAIN,LIM system and its evolution from its early draft to the simplified nutrition labelling system (SENS) algorithm. Considered in 2010 by WHO as the 'French model' of nutrient profiling, SAIN,LIM classifies foods into four classes based on two scores: a nutrient density score (NDS) called SAIN and a score of nutrients to limit called LIM, and one threshold on each score...
June 9, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587661/symbionts-in-waiting-the-dynamics-of-incipient-endosymbiont-complementation-and-replacement-in-minimal-bacterial-communities-of-psyllids
#12
Jennifer L Morrow, Aidan A G Hall, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Obligate bacterial primary (P-) endosymbionts that are maternally inherited and codiverge with hosts are widespread across insect lineages with nutritionally restricted diets. Secondary (S-) endosymbionts are mostly facultative, but in some hosts, they complement P-endosymbiont function and therefore become obligate. Phylogenetic evidence exists for host switching and replacement of S-endosymbionts. The community dynamics that precede endosymbiont replacement and complementation have been little studied across host species, yet they are fundamental to the evolution of endosymbiosis...
June 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586679/the-deep-sea-under-global-change
#13
Roberto Danovaro, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Paul V R Snelgrove
The deep ocean encompasses 95% of the oceans' volume and is the largest and least explored biome of Earth's Biosphere. New life forms are continuously being discovered. The physiological mechanisms allowing organisms to adapt to extreme conditions of the deep ocean (high pressures, from very low to very high temperatures, food shortage, lack of solar light) are still largely unknown. Some deep-sea species have very long life-spans, whereas others can tolerate toxic compounds at high concentrations; these characteristics offer an opportunity to explore the specialized biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with these responses...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575199/mixotrophy-in-pyroleae-ericaceae-from-estonian-boreal-forests-does-not-vary-with-light-or-tissue-age
#14
Félix Lallemand, Ülle Puttsepp, Mait Lang, Aarne Luud, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Cécile Palancade, Marc-André Selosse
Background and Aims: In temperate forests, some green plants, namely pyroloids (Pyroleae, Ericaceae) and some orchids, independently evolved a mode of nutrition mixing photosynthates and carbon gained from their mycorrhizal fungi (mixotrophy). Fungal carbon is more enriched in 13 C than photosynthates, allowing estimation of the proportion of carbon acquired heterotrophically from fungi in plant biomass. Based on 13 C enrichment, mixotrophic orchids have previously been shown to increase shoot autotrophy level over the growth season and with environmental light availability...
May 31, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562106/enteral-nutrition-in-pediatric-intestinal-failure-does-initial-feeding-impact-on-intestinal-adaptation
#15
Teresa Capriati, Valerio Nobili, Laura Stronati, Salvatore Cucchiara, Francesca Laureti, Alessandra Liguori, Elaine Tyndall, Antonella Diamanti
Primary IF can be due to impaired gut length or impaired gut function; short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the leading cause of IF. In IF patients complete enteral starvation should be avoided whenever possible and enteral/oral nutrition (EN/ON) should be employed at the maximum tolerated amount in each phase of the clinical evolution of IF. Intraluminal nutrients have stimulatory effects on epithelial cells and on trophism that enhance intestinal adaptation. Areas covered: Evidence for nutritional interventions in pediatric IF is limited and of poor quality...
June 8, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559355/assessing-human-weaning-practices-with-calcium-isotopes-in-tooth-enamel
#16
Théo Tacail, Béatrice Thivichon-Prince, Jeremy E Martin, Cyril Charles, Laurent Viriot, Vincent Balter
Weaning practices differ among great apes and likely diverged during the course of human evolution, but behavioral inference from the fossil record is hampered by a lack of unambiguous biomarkers. Here, we show that early-life dietary transitions are recorded in human deciduous tooth enamel as marked variations in Ca isotope ratios (δ(44/42)Ca). Using a sequential microsampling method along the enamel growth axis, we collected more than 150 enamel microsamples from 51 deciduous teeth of 12 different modern human individuals of known dietary histories, as well as nine enamel samples from permanent third molars...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554642/chemical-rules-on-the-assessment-of-antioxidant-potential-in-food-and-food-additives-aimed-at-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-neurodegeneration
#17
REVIEW
Rafael Franco, Eva Martínez-Pinilla
Antioxidants (aOXs) enlarge the useful life of products consumed by humans. Life requires oxidation of glucose/fatty acids and, therefore, "antioxidant" becomes an oxymoron when trying to define benefits in organisms living in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. According to basic physico-chemical principles, the in vivo aOX potential of food supplements is negligible when compared with the main aOX molecules in the animal Kingdom: glucose and fatty acids. Thus, the aOX assumption to improve life-quality is misleading as oxidative stress and exacerbation occur when oxidant foods (e...
November 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553263/spatial-structure-of-the-mormon-cricket-gut-microbiome-and-its-predicted-contribution-to-nutrition-and-immune-function
#18
Chad C Smith, Robert B Srygley, Frank Healy, Karthikeyan Swaminath, Ulrich G Mueller
The gut microbiome of insects plays an important role in their ecology and evolution, participating in nutrient acquisition, immunity, and behavior. Microbial community structure within the gut is heavily influenced by differences among gut regions in morphology and physiology, which determine the niches available for microbes to colonize. We present a high-resolution analysis of the structure of the gut microbiome in the Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex, an insect known for its periodic outbreaks in the western United States and nutrition-dependent mating system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547657/compartmentalized-expression-patterns-of-pancreatic-and-gastric-related-genes-in-the-alimentary-canal-of-the-ascidian-ciona-intestinalis-evolutionary-insights-into-the-functional-regionality-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-olfactores
#19
Satoshi Nakayama, Michio Ogasawara
Many heterotrophic animals have a one-way alimentary canal that is essential for their nutrition and sequential steps of the digestive system, namely ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination, are widely shared among bilaterians. Morphological, functional and molecular knowledge of the alimentary canal has been obtained in particular from mammalian research but the shared features and evolution of these aspects of the highly diverged alimentary canal in the animal kingdom are still unclear. We therefore investigate spatial gene expression patterns of pancreatic- and gastric-related molecules of ascidians (a sister group of vertebrates) with special reference to the functional regionality of the gastrointestinal tract...
May 25, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544664/to-reproduce-or-work-insect-castes-emerge-from-socially-induced-changes-in-nutrition-related-genes
#20
Amy L Toth
In social species, there is a fundamental trade-off between 'me' and 'we'; that is, should I reproduce, or should I work to help others to reproduce? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Okada et al. () delve into the evolution and genetic mechanisms of this core question, focusing on social caste formation in insects. The authors take advantage of a unique ant in the genus Diacamma, which has secondarily lost the classic, highly different queens and workers found in many other ants, bees and wasps. Instead, Diacamma ant castes are decided via aggressive dominance interactions among adult females, similar to dominance hierarchies seen in primitively social insects and many social vertebrates...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
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