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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930173/polyphenols-from-root-tubercles-and-grains-cropped-in-brazil-chemical-and-nutritional-characterization-and-their-effects-on-human-health-and-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Diego Dos Santos Baião, Cyntia Silva de Freitas, Laidson Paes Gomes, Davi da Silva, Anna Carolina N T F Correa, Patricia Ribeiro Pereira, Eduardo Mere Del Aguila, Vania Margaret Flosi Paschoalin
Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (poly)phenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that exert beneficial and protective actions on human health, playing roles such as enzymatic reaction inhibitors and cofactors, toxic chemicals scavengers and biochemical reaction substrates, increasing the absorption of essential nutrients and selectively inhibiting deleterious intestinal bacteria...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915840/evolution-and-bad-prognostic-value-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-after-acute-heart-failure-relation-with-body-composition
#2
Beatriz Paradela-Dobarro, Ángel Fernández-Trasancos, Diana Bou-Teen, Sonia Eiras, Rocío González-Ferreiro, Rosa M Agra, Alfonso Varela-Román, Ana I Castro-Pais, Marcos C Carreira, Felipe F Casanueva, Ezequiel Álvarez, José R González-Juanatey
AIM: The role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their soluble receptor (sRAGE) on the progression and prognosis of acute heart failure (HF) was analysed in relation with metabolic parameters as body composition and nutritional status. METHODS: A hundred and fifty consecutive patients were included in a prospective clinical study during hospitalization by acute HF. Detailed medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and vein peripheral blood were taken for all patients...
September 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914794/effects-of-probiotics-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-on-human-health
#3
REVIEW
Paulina Markowiak, Katarzyna Śliżewska
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902470/female-fecundity-and-offspring-survival-are-not-increased-through-sexual-cannibalism-in-the-spider-larinioides-sclopetarius
#4
S A Deventer, M E Herberstein, D Mayntz, J C O'Hanlon, J M Schneider
Many hypotheses explaining the evolution and maintenance of sexual cannibalism incorporate the nutritional aspect of the consumption of males. Most studies have focused on a fecundity advantage through consumption of a male, however recent studies have raised the intriguing possibility that consumption of a male may also affect offspring quality. In particular, recent studies suggest prolonged survival for offspring from sexually cannibalistic females. Here we measured the protein and lipid content of males compared to insect prey (crickets), quantified female nutrient intake of both prey types, and finally assessed how sexual cannibalism affects female fecundity and spiderling quality in the orb-web spider Larinioides sclopetarius...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892386/double-mutated-5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate-synthase-protein-expressed-in-mzhg0jg-corn-zea-mays-l-has-no-impact-on-toxicological-safety-and-nutritional-composition
#5
Bethany A Matthews, Karen L Launis, Patricia A Bauman, Nicole C Juba
MZHG0JG corn will offer growers the flexibility to alternate between herbicides with two different modes of action in their weed-management programs, helping to mitigate and manage the evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations. The proteins conferring herbicide tolerence in MZHG0JG corn, double-mutated 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein (mEPSPS) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), as well as the MZHG0JG corn event, have been assessed by regulatory authorities globally and have been determined to be safe for humans, animals, and the environment...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888685/predictive-factors-of-hospital-stay-mortality-and-functional-recovery-after-surgery-for-hip-fracture-in-elderly-patients
#6
T Pareja Sierra, I Bartolomé Martín, J Rodríguez Solís, L Bárcena Goitiandia, M Torralba González de Suso, M D Morales Sanz, M Hornillos Calvo
OBJECTIVES: Due to its high prevalence and serious consequences it is very important to be well aware of factors that might be related to medical complications, mortality, hospital stay and functional recovery in elderly patients with hip fracture. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study of a group of 130 patients aged over 75 years admitted for osteoporotic hip fracture. Their medical records, physical and cognitive status prior to the fall, fracture type and surgical treatment, medical complications and functional and social evolution after hospitalization were evaluated...
September 6, 2017: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874268/do-juveniles-help-or-hinder-influence-of-juvenile-offspring-on-maternal-behavior-and-reproductive-outcomes-in-wild-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#7
Margaret A Stanton, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Anne E Pusey, Carson M Murray
Compared to great apes, humans maintain a relatively rapid reproductive pace despite long periods of dependency. This seemingly contradictory set of traits is made possible by weaning offspring before nutritional independence and alloparents who help provide care. In traditional societies, this help may be provided to mothers in part by their juvenile offspring who carry, supervise, or provision younger siblings. In contrast to humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are nutritionally independent after weaning, yet juveniles continue to travel with their mother and younger sibling for an additional 4-5 years...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873640/evolution-of-oxidised-peptides-during-the-processing-of-9months-spanish-dry-cured-ham
#8
Marta Gallego, Leticia Mora, Fidel Toldrá
Sensory and nutritional properties of dry-cured ham can be negatively affected due to oxidative modifications of muscle proteins during its processing. In this study, a peptidomic approach has been used in order to study the evolution of oxidised peptides generated throughout the dry-curing process (0, 2, 3.5, 5, 6.5 and 9months), focusing on those derived from major myofibrillar proteins. A total of 67 peptides showing methionine, proline, and tryptophan oxidations were identified in common in all samples by nano liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for their relative quantification using a label-free methodology, showing the hydrolysis of some of the peptides during the process...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869731/-prokaryotic-expression-purification-and-characterization-of-arginine-kinase-of-bombyx-mori
#9
Huawei He, Yejing Wang, Minjian Zhao, Shuguang Wei, Peng Zhao, Wenchao Jiang, Li'na Liu, Ping Zhao
Arginine kinase (AK) is a key enzyme in energy metabolism of invertebrates and plays an important regulatory role in the life activities such as growth and development, nutrition utilization, immune resistance and stress response. Arginine kinase of Bombyx mori (BmAK) is related to the energy balance and anti-NPV process, but there is little research on its molecular structure and enzymatic properties. We cloned the ORF sequence of BmAK gene, and analyzed chromosomal localization, genomic structure, mRNA structure, secondary and tertiary structure...
July 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854926/single-molecule-sequencing-and-hi-c-based-proximity-guided-assembly-of-amaranth-amaranthus-hypochondriacus-chromosomes-provide-insights-into-genome-evolution
#10
D J Lightfoot, D E Jarvis, T Ramaraj, R Lee, E N Jellen, P J Maughan
BACKGROUND: Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was a food staple among the ancient civilizations of Central and South America that has recently received increased attention due to the high nutritional value of the seeds, with the potential to help alleviate malnutrition and food security concerns, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the developing world. Here, we present a reference-quality assembly of the amaranth genome which will assist the agronomic development of the species...
August 31, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841226/selection-on-an-extreme-weapon-in-the-frog-legged-leaf-beetle-sagra-femorata
#11
Devin M O'Brien, Masako Katsuki, Douglas J Emlen
Biologists have been fascinated with the extreme products of sexual selection for decades. However, relatively few studies have characterized patterns of selection acting on ornaments and weapons in the wild. Here, we measure selection on a wild population of weapon-bearing beetles (frog legged leaf beetles: Sagra femorata) for two consecutive breeding seasons. We consider variation in both weapon size (hindleg length), and in relative weapon size (deviations from the population average scaling relationship between hindleg length and body size), and provide evidence for directional selection on weapon size per se and stabilizing selection on a particular scaling relationship in this population...
August 25, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823016/de-novo-synthesis-of-linoleic-acid-in-multiple-collembola-species
#12
Miriama Malcicka, Joachim Ruther, Jacintha Ellers
Many ecological interactions in communities take place between consumers and the organisms they feed on. Continuous surplus of specific nutritional compounds in the diet may lead to evolutionary changes in the metabolic capacity of the consumer, leaving the biosynthesis of such compounds prone to genetic decay and render organisms auxotrophic. A nutrient that is essential to many organisms is the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), which is important in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity and as a precursor for signaling molecules...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822489/evolution-of-host-resistance-to-insect-pathogens
#13
REVIEW
Jenny S Cory
Insect pathogens are widely used as a tool for sustainable pest management. Their complex mode of action was thought to make them immune to the evolution of resistance; however, several examples of field-based resistance to the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and a granulovirus have been recorded. Here I review the scenarios where resistance has evolved and discuss the likelihood of it occurring in other entomopathogens. I highlight recent research on the factors which might influence the evolution of resistance to insect pathogens, including the role of pathogen diversity, host nutrition and transgenerational effects...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822064/evolution-of-29-anthropometric-nutritional-and-cardiometabolic-parameters-among-morbidly-obese-adolescents-2-years-post-sleeve-gastrectomy
#14
Wahiba Elhag, Walid El Ansari, Sama Abdulrazzaq, Ali Abdullah, Mohamed Elsherif, Israa Elgenaied
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a popular treatment for adolescent morbid obesity. Research on LSG outcomes among adolescents assessed a narrow range of anthropometric, nutritional, or cardiometabolic parameters, leading to an incomplete picture of these changes. We examined a wide variety of anthropometric, nutritional, and cardiometabolic parameters among adolescents before and after LSG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all obese adolescents who underwent LSG at Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar, between January 2011 and June 2015 (N = 102)...
August 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821570/juvenile-hormone-but-not-nutrition-or-social-cues-affects-reproductive-maturation-in-solitary-alkali-bees-nomia-melanderi
#15
Karen M Kapheim, Makenna M Johnson
Eusocial insect colonies are defined by extreme variation in reproductive activity among castes, but the ancestral conditions from which this variation arose are unknown. Investigating the factors that contribute to variation in reproductive physiology among solitary insects that are closely related to social species can help to fill this gap. We experimentally tested the role of nutrition, juvenile hormone, and social cues on reproductive maturation in solitary alkali bees (Halictidae: Nomia melanderi). We find that alkali bee females emerge from overwintering with small Dufour's glands and small ovaries, containing oocytes in the early stages of development...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820115/six-key-traits-of-fungi-their-evolutionary-origins-and-genetic-bases
#16
László G Nagy, Renáta Tóth, Enikő Kiss, Jason Slot, Attila Gácser, Gábor M Kovács
The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817497/self-care-in-people-with-motor-neuron-disease-an-integrative-review
#17
Barbara Bassola, Maura Lusignani
INTRODUCTION: Self-care is a crucial aspect in the management of chronic diseases. People with motor neuron disease (MND) live with a chronic degenerative condition in rapid evolution, which leads them to high dependencies. During their illness, they must apply several behaviors including adherence to ventilation and nutritional therapy. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to systematically explore the concept of self-care for people with MND. METHOD: An integrative review of the literature has been conducted...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812732/genome-of-the-pitcher-plant-cephalotus-reveals-genetic-changes-associated-with-carnivory
#18
Kenji Fukushima, Xiaodong Fang, David Alvarez-Ponce, Huimin Cai, Lorenzo Carretero-Paulet, Cui Chen, Tien-Hao Chang, Kimberly M Farr, Tomomichi Fujita, Yuji Hiwatashi, Yoshikazu Hoshi, Takamasa Imai, Masahiro Kasahara, Pablo Librado, Likai Mao, Hitoshi Mori, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Masafumi Nozawa, Gergő Pálfalvi, Stephen T Pollard, Julio Rozas, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, David Sankoff, Tomoko F Shibata, Shuji Shigenobu, Naomi Sumikawa, Taketoshi Uzawa, Meiying Xie, Chunfang Zheng, David D Pollock, Victor A Albert, Shuaicheng Li, Mitsuyasu Hasebe
Carnivorous plants exploit animals as a nutritional source and have inspired long-standing questions about the origin and evolution of carnivory-related traits. To investigate the molecular bases of carnivory, we sequenced the genome of the heterophyllous pitcher plant Cephalotus follicularis, in which we succeeded in regulating the developmental switch between carnivorous and non-carnivorous leaves. Transcriptome comparison of the two leaf types and gene repertoire analysis identified genetic changes associated with prey attraction, capture, digestion and nutrient absorption...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812268/oxytocin-and-human-evolution
#19
C Sue Carter
A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805640/nutritional-endocrine-and-social-influences-on-reproductive-physiology-at-the-origins-of-social-behavior
#20
REVIEW
Karen M Kapheim
Understanding the evolutionary origins of social behavior in insects requires understanding the physiological basis for reproductive plasticity. Solitary bees and wasps or those living in small, flexible societies will be key to understanding how conserved pathways have evolved to give rise to reproductive castes. Nutrient-sensing and endocrine pathways are decoupled from reproduction in some life stages of social insects. Heterochrony, particularly as it is related to diapause physiology, may be an important mechanism by which this decoupling occurs...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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