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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790775/dental-periodontal-and-salivary-conditions-in-diabetic-children-associated-with-metabolic-control-variables-and-nutritional-plan-adherence
#1
C Y Díaz Rosas, E Cárdenas Vargas, J E Castañeda-Delgado, L A Aguilera-Galaviz, M C Aceves Medina
AIM: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that has manifestations other than alterations in endocrine regulation or in metabolic pathways. Several diseases of the oral cavity have been associated with diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 in young people according to their evolution. Scarce information exists regarding the role of diabetes and its association with the oral health status in paediatric diabetic patients. The aims of the study were to assess the quality of saliva, saliva acidogenicity, dental caries experience, fluorosis and periodontal status in diabetic patients and to evaluate their relationship with metabolic control variables and nutritional plan adherence...
June 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789322/a-missing-piece-the-spiny-mouse-and-the-puzzle-of-menstruating-species
#2
REVIEW
Nadia Bellofiore, Fiona Cousins, Peter Temple-Smith, Hayley Dickinson, Jemma Evans
We recently discovered the first known menstruating rodent. With the exception of four bats and the elephant shrew, the common spiny mouse ( Acomys cahirinus ) is the only species outside the primate order to exhibit menses. There are few widely accepted theories on why menstruation developed as the preferred reproductive strategy of these select mammals, all of which reference the evolution of spontaneous decidualisation prior to menstrual shedding. Though menstruating species share several reproductive traits, there has been no identifiable feature unique to menstruating species...
July 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782991/beneficial-and-paradoxical-roles-of-selenium-at-nutritional-levels-of-intake-in-healthspan-and-longevity
#3
REVIEW
Li Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Wen-Hsing Cheng
Accumulation of genome and macromolecule damage is a hallmark of aging, age-associated degeneration, and genome instability syndromes. Although processes of aging are irreversible, they can be modulated by genome maintenance pathways and environmental factors such as diet. Selenium (Se) confers its physiological functions mainly through selenoproteins, but Se compounds and other proteins that incorporate Se nonspecifically also impact optimal health. Bruce Ames proposed that the aging process could be mitigated by a subset of low-hierarchy selenoproteins whose levels are preferentially reduced in response to Se deficiency...
May 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781921/exercise-periodization-over-the-year-improves-metabolic-syndrome-and-medication-use
#4
Felix Morales-Palomo, Miguel Ramirez-Jimenez, Juan Fernando Ortega, Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine if yearly repeated exercise training reduces metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the use of medicines to control MetS components. METHODS: Fifty five MetS individuals were randomized into a TRAIN group that underwent two yearly programs of 16-week of high intensity interval training (HIIT) or a non-exercising CONT group. We measured the evolution of all five MetS components, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF; assessed by VO2PEAK) and medicine use, at baseline (0 months), mid (12 months) and end-point (24 months)...
May 2, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778510/assessment-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-according-to-different-diagnostic-criteria
#5
Anna Simona Sasdelli, Federica Agostini, Caterina Pazzeschi, Mariacristina Guidetti, Simon Lal, Loris Pironi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD) has been defined using numerous criteria; however the clinical relevance of these criteria has never been compared. We therefore aimed to evaluate the prevalence, incidence, evolution of IFALD diagnosed by different criteria and to assess any clinical features that may be associated with its occurrence. METHODS: A cross sectional (CS) and retrospective study were carried out on adults on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) for chronic intestinal failure (CIF) managed at a single center...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768547/clinical-outcomes-and-risk-factors-for-death-from-disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-patients-with-aids-who-visited-a-high-complexity-hospital-in-campo-grande-ms-brazil
#6
Barbara Cristina Scarcelli Boigues, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Gláucia Moreira Espíndola Lima, Maina de Oliveira Nunes, Silvia Naomi de Oliveira Uehara
INTRODUCTION: Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) is a systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum) and is characterized by progressive and fatal evolution in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, it is considered an AIDS-defining disease. METHODS: We performed an observational, analytical, retrospective study to identify the clinical outcomes and risk factors for death from DH in patients with AIDS at an infectious diseases service facility in Brazil between September 2011 and July 2016...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767102/methodological-aspects-of-determining-phosphorus-digestibility-in-swine-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Yue She, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
The role of phosphorus (P) in swine nutrition has been taken on new significance in recent years. Methods to determine the available phosphorus (AP) content of swine feeds include relative bioavailability (RBV), apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), standardized total tract digestibility (STTD), and true total tract digestibility (TTTD). The RBV of P is determined by measuring bone ash or bone P, whereas the ATTD of P is determined by calculating the difference between P intake and P excretion in feces...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757394/a-barley-powdery-mildew-fungus-non-autonomous-retrotransposon-encodes-a-peptide-that-supports-penetration-success-on-barley
#8
Mathias Nottensteiner, Bernd Zechmann, Christopher McCollum, Ralph Hückelhoven
Pathogens overcome plant immunity by the means of secreted effectors. Host effector targets often act in pathogen defense but might also support fungal accommodation or nutrition. The barley ROP GTPase HvRACB is involved in accommodation of fungal haustoria of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh) in barley epidermal cells. We found that HvRACB interacts with the ROP-interactive peptide 1 (ROPIP1) that is encoded on the active non-long terminal repeat retroelement Eg-R1 of Bgh. Over-expression of ROPIP1 in barley epidermal cells and host-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (HIGS) of ROPIP1 suggested that ROPIP1 is involved in virulence of Bgh...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753631/non-mycorrhizal-plants-the-exceptions-that-prove-the-rule
#9
REVIEW
Marco Cosme, Ivan Fernández, Marcel G A Van der Heijden, Corné M J Pieterse
The widespread symbiotic interaction between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi relies on a complex molecular dialog with reciprocal benefits in terms of nutrition, growth, and protection. Approximately 29% of all vascular plant species do not host AM symbiosis, including major crops. Under certain conditions, however, presumed non-host plants can become colonized by AM fungi and develop rudimentary AM (RAM) phenotypes. Here we zoom in on the mustard family (Brassicaceae), which harbors AM hosts, non-hosts, and presumed non-host species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, for which conditional RAM colonization has been described...
May 9, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746749/-evolution-of-social-food-assistance-programs-in-mexico-through-ensanut-mc-2016-data
#10
M Del Carmen Morales-Ruán, Teresa Shamah-Levy, Verónica Mundo-Rosas, Lucía Cuevas-Nasu, Ana Lilia Lozada-Tequeanes, Martín Romero-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: To describe the coverage and targeting of Social Food Assistance Programs (SFAP) in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from 9 137 households of the Halfway National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016 (Ensanut MC 2016) who receive SFAP. The distribution of the SFAP by place of residence, index of socioeconomic status and SFAP relevance were analyzed. RESULTS: 44% of households receive some SFAP, with a higher concentration in indigenous households (70%), a very low socioeconomic level (70%), and moderate and severe food insecurity...
May 2018: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746748/-evolution-of-food-insecurity-in-mexican-households-2012-2016
#11
Verónica Mundo-Rosas, Norma Isela Vizuet-Vega, Jesús Martínez-Domínguez, M Del Carmen Morales-Ruán, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Teresa Shamah-Levy
OBJECTIVE: To describe three relevant aspects of household food insecurity (FI) in Mexico: its magnitude, its distribution by social and nutritional vulnerability characteristics; its evolution between 2012 and 2016 and the effect of food assistance programs on FI in Mexican households. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 9 019 households were drawn from the 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut 2016 for its Spanish initials) and were compared with data from the 2012 Ensanut...
May 2018: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746092/metabolic-recruitment-and-directed-evolution-of-nucleoside-triphosphate-uptake-in-escherichia-coli
#12
Valerie Pezo, Camille Hassan, Dominique Louis, Bruno Sargueil, Piet Herdewijn, Philippe Marliere
We report the design and elaboration of a selection protocol for importing a canonical substrate of DNA polymerase, thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) in Escherichia coli. Bacterial strains whose growth depend on dTTP uptake, through the action of an algal plastid transporter expressed from a synthetic gene inserted in the chromosome, were constructed and shown to withstand the simultaneous loss of thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase. Such thyA tdk dual deletant strains provide an experimental model of tight nutritional containment for preventing dissemination of microbial GMOs...
May 10, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731304/absence-of-complex-i-is-associated-with-diminished-respiratory-chain-function-in-european-mistletoe
#13
Andrew E Maclean, Alexander P Hertle, Joanna Ligas, Ralph Bock, Janneke Balk, Etienne H Meyer
Parasitism is a life history strategy found across all domains of life whereby nutrition is obtained from a host. It is often associated with reductive evolution of the genome, including loss of genes from the organellar genomes [1, 2]. In some unicellular parasites, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) has been lost entirely, with far-reaching consequences for the physiology of the organism [3, 4]. Recently, mitogenome sequences of several species of the hemiparasitic plant mistletoe (Viscum sp.) have been reported [5, 6], revealing a striking loss of genes not seen in any other multicellular eukaryotes...
April 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727610/in-defense-of-sugar-a-critique-of-diet-centrism
#14
REVIEW
Edward Archer
Sugars are foundational to biological life and played essential roles in human evolution and dietary patterns for most of recorded history. The simple sugar glucose is so central to human health that it is one of the World Health Organization's Essential Medicines. Given these facts, it defies both logic and a large body of scientific evidence to claim that sugars and other nutrients that played fundamental roles in the substantial improvements in life- and health-spans over the past century are now suddenly responsible for increments in the prevalence of obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases...
May 1, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727465/biphasic-zinc-compartmentalisation-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#15
Aaron C Crawford, Laura E Lehtovirta-Morley, Omran Alamir, Maria J Niemiec, Bader Alawfi, Mohammad Alsarraf, Volha Skrahina, Anna C B P Costa, Andrew Anderson, Sujan Yellagunda, Elizabeth R Ballou, Bernhard Hube, Constantin F Urban, Duncan Wilson
Nutritional immunity describes the host-driven manipulation of essential micronutrients, including iron, zinc and manganese. To withstand nutritional immunity and proliferate within their hosts, pathogenic microbes must express efficient micronutrient uptake and homeostatic systems. Here we have elucidated the pathway of cellular zinc assimilation in the major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Bioinformatics analysis identified nine putative zinc transporters: four cytoplasmic-import Zip proteins (Zrt1, Zrt2, Zrt3 and orf19...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725011/gut-microbiomes-of-wild-great-apes-fluctuate-seasonally-in-response-to-diet
#16
Allison L Hicks, Kerry Jo Lee, Mara Couto-Rodriguez, Juber Patel, Rohini Sinha, Cheng Guo, Sarah H Olson, Anton Seimon, Tracie A Seimon, Alain U Ondzie, William B Karesh, Patricia Reed, Kenneth N Cameron, W Ian Lipkin, Brent L Williams
The microbiome is essential for extraction of energy and nutrition from plant-based diets and may have facilitated primate adaptation to new dietary niches in response to rapid environmental shifts. Here we use 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of wild western lowland gorillas and sympatric central chimpanzees and demonstrate compositional divergence between the microbiotas of gorillas, chimpanzees, Old World monkeys, and modern humans. We show that gorilla and chimpanzee microbiomes fluctuate with seasonal rainfall patterns and frugivory...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718444/photobiology-of-vitamins
#17
Mark Lucock, Patrice Jones, Charlotte Martin, Zoe Yates, Martin Veysey, John Furst, Emma Beckett
This review explores contemporary ideas about the relationship between light exposure and vitamin biology. Nutritional biochemistry has long recognized the relationship between vitamins A and D and light exposure, but in recent years other vitamins have also been implicated in photoresponsive biological mechanisms that influence health, well-being, and even evolutionary processes. Interactions between light and vitamins can modify genotype-phenotype relationships across the life cycle, providing a basis for interesting new explanations relevant to wide aspects of human biology...
April 28, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712844/-escherichia-coli-cultures-maintain-stable-subpopulation-structure-during-long-term-evolution
#18
Megan G Behringer, Brian I Choi, Samuel F Miller, Thomas G Doak, Jonathan A Karty, Wanfeng Guo, Michael Lynch
How genetic variation is generated and maintained remains a central question in evolutionary biology. When presented with a complex environment, microbes can take advantage of genetic variation to exploit new niches. Here we present a massively parallel experiment where WT and repair-deficient ( ∆mutL ) Escherichia coli populations have evolved over 3 y in a spatially heterogeneous and nutritionally complex environment. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that these initially isogenic populations evolved and maintained stable subpopulation structure in just 10 mL of medium for up to 10,000 generations, consisting of up to five major haplotypes with many minor haplotypes...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705028/food-microbiome-and-colorectal-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Lukas Niederreiter, Timon E Adolph, Herbert Tilg
You are what you eat. This adage has been confirmed by many studies demonstrating the high impact of nutrition on risk of cardiovascular diseases, many malignancies and other diseases. Dietary factors are of major relevance in the evolution of colorectal carcinoma. Various aspects are involved in colorectal carcinoma pathogenesis including genetics, lifestyle, age, chronic inflammation and others. It has only recently been recognized that the gut microbiota might reflect an important missing link in the interaction between diet and subsequent colorectal carcinoma development...
April 3, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704090/association-between-bovine-digital-dermatitis-and-annual-periods-of-lower-pluviometric-precipitation-in-central-brazil
#20
D C Silva, P J B Queiroz, D B S Caetano, B M Assis, R E Rabelo, L A F Silva
We aimed to follow the epidemiologic evolution of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) and other podal diseases grouped in a dairy farm in Central Brazil between the years 2010 and 2016. This study was carried out in a farm in Jataí, Goiás, Central Brazil, where the prevalence data of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) and other podal diseases, as well as the composition, history, and management of the herd, was collected. We analyzed the collected data into the two annual pluviometric precipitation values in Central Brazil: rainy season and dry season...
April 27, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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