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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237561/evolution-of-endoscopic-treatment-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-leaks-from-partially-covered-to-long-fully-covered-stents
#1
Fabio Garofalo, Maxime Noreau-Nguyen, Ronald Denis, Henri Atlas, Pierre Garneau, Radu Pescarus
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become a widely accepted option in the treatment of morbid obesity. Gastric leaks after SG occur in .9%-2.2% of the patients, mostly at the gastroesophageal junction. The current treatment algorithm includes drainage, antibiotics, nutritional support, and endoluminal control. OBJECTIVES: Our hypothesis is that long, fully covered stents represent a safe, effective solution for SG leaks. SETTING: University hospital...
December 26, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231417/genetic-and-genomic-evidence-of-niche-partitioning-and-adaptive-radiation-in-mountain-pine-beetle-fungal-symbionts
#2
Dario I Ojeda Alayon, Clement K M Tsui, Nicolas Feau, Arnaud Capron, Braham Dhillon, Yiyuan Zhang, Sepideh Massoumi Alamouti, Celia K Boone, Allan L Carroll, Janice E K Cooke, Amanda D Roe, Felix A H Sperling, Richard C Hamelin
Bark beetles form multipartite symbiotic associations with blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota). These symbionts play an important role during the beetle's life cycle by providing nutritional supplementation, overcoming tree defenses and modifying host tissues to favor brood development. The maintenance of stable multipartite symbioses with seemingly less competitive symbionts in similar habitats is of fundamental interest to ecology and evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the coexistence of three fungal species associated with the mountain pine beetle is the result of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation using SNP genotyping coupled with genotype-environment association analysis and phenotypic characterization of growth rate under different temperatures...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231180/evolution-of-the-maillard-reaction-in-glutamine-or-arginine-dextrinomaltose-model-systems
#3
Silvia Pastoriza, José Ángel Rufián-Henares, Belén García-Villanova, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández
Enteral formulas are foods designed for medical uses to feed patients who are unable to eat normally. They are prepared by mixing proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and fats and submitted to sterilization. During thermal treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place through the reaction of animo acids with reducing sugars. Thus, although glutamine and arginine are usually added to improve the nutritional value of enteral formulas, their final concentration may vary. Thus, in the present paper the early, intermediate, and advanced states of the Maillard reaction were studied in model systems by measuring loss of free amino acids through the decrease of fluorescence intensity with o-phtaldialdehyde (OPA), 5-Hydroximethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, glucosylisomaltol, fluorescence, and absorbance at 420 nm...
December 7, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230293/influence-of-complex-childhood-diseases-on-variation-in-growth-and-skeletal-development
#4
REVIEW
Babette S Zemel
The study of human growth and skeletal development by human biologists is framed by the larger theoretical concerns regarding the underpinnings of population variation and human evolution. This unique perspective is directly relevant to the assessment of child health and well-being at the individual and group level, as well as the construction of growth charts. Environmental, behavioral (nutrition and physical activity), and disease-related factors can prevent attainment of full genetic potential for growth...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220606/lamarck-rises-from-his-grave-parental-environment-induced-epigenetic-inheritance-in-model-organisms-and-humans
#5
Yan Wang, Huijie Liu, Zhongsheng Sun
Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216663/the-importance-of-pollen-chemistry-in-evolutionary-host-shifts-of-bees
#6
Maryse Vanderplanck, Nicolas J Vereecken, Laurent Grumiau, Fabiana Esposito, Georges Lognay, Ruddy Wattiez, Denis Michez
Although bee-plant associations are generally maintained through speciation processes, host shifts have occurred during evolution. Understanding shifts between both phylogenetically and morphologically unrelated plants (i.e., host-saltation) is especially important since they could have been key processes in the origin and radiation of bees. Probably far from being a random process, such host-saltation might be driven by hidden constraints associated with plant traits. We selected two clades of oligolectic bees (i...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173637/specificity-of-fungal-associations-of-pyroleae-and-monotropa-hypopitys-during-germination-and-seedling-development
#7
V A Johansson, M Bahram, L Tedersoo, U Kõljalg, O Eriksson
Mycoheterotrophic plants obtain organic carbon from associated mycorrhizal fungi, fully or partially. Angiosperms with this form of nutrition possess exceptionally small 'dust seeds' which after germination develop 'seedlings' that remain subterranean for several years, fully dependent on fungi for supply of carbon. Mycoheterotrophs which as adults have photosynthesis thus develop from full to partial mycoheterotrophy, or autotrophy, during ontogeny. Mycoheterotrophic plants may represent a gradient of variation in a parasitism-mutualism continuum, both among and within species...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168721/yolk-sac-development-in-lizards-lacertilia-scincidae-new-perspectives-on-the-egg-of-amniotes
#8
James R Stewart, Michael B Thompson
Embryos of oviparous reptiles develop on the surface of a large mass of yolk, which they metabolize to become relatively large hatchlings. Access to the yolk is provided by tissues growing outward from the embryo to cover the surface of the yolk. A key feature of yolk sac development is a dedicated blood vascular system to communicate with the embryo. The best known model for yolk sac development and function of oviparous amniotes is based on numerous studies of birds, primarily domestic chickens. In this model, the vascular yolk sac forms the perimeter of the large yolk mass and is lined by a specialized epithelium, which takes up, processes and transports yolk nutrients to the yolk sac blood vessels...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167022/differences-in-nutritional-quality-between-wild-and-domesticated-forms-of-barley-and-emmer-wheat
#9
REVIEW
Kim Henrik Hebelstrup
Grasses such as wheat and barley constitute some of the main crops currently cultivated worldwide. Cultivation of wild cereals such as Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) and Triticum diccocoides (wild emmer) started in southwest Asia. Despite the many studies on the origins of agriculture and plant domestication, surprisingly few studies have discussed the importance of the nutritional quality of barley and emmer wheat in their evolution. A comparison of domesticated forms of these cereals with their wild progenitors suggests an evolution towards bigger grains with higher glycemic loads in the form of higher relative starch content with lower relative protein, fiber and mineral contents...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164123/novel-approach-to-classify-plants-based-on-metabolite-content-similarity
#10
Kang Liu, Azian Azamimi Abdullah, Ming Huang, Takaaki Nishioka, Md Altaf-Ul-Amin, Shigehiko Kanaya
Secondary metabolites are bioactive substances with diverse chemical structures. Depending on the ecological environment within which they are living, higher plants use different combinations of secondary metabolites for adaptation (e.g., defense against attacks by herbivores or pathogenic microbes). This suggests that the similarity in metabolite content is applicable to assess phylogenic similarity of higher plants. However, such a chemical taxonomic approach has limitations of incomplete metabolomics data...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159115/william-hunter-harridge-lecture-the-changing-face-of-short-gut-syndrome-management
#11
REVIEW
John J Fung
The evolution of managing short gut syndrome optimizes management and decision making of intestinal failure by way of a multidisciplinary team utilizing the latest advances in therapeutic options. Only the minority of patients referred for small bowel transplantation will actually need a transplant. Many of these patients can be rehabilitated without the need for transplant, by way of early referral, and thus the likelihood of medical therapy increases. On the other hand, in those patients with little likelihood of success with medical therapy, early referral decreases the morbidity and mortality associated with long-term total parenteral nutrition and associated complications and will improve their overall survival outcomes...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138347/propelling-the-paradigm-shift-from-reductionism-to-systems-nutrition
#12
EDITORIAL
Jim Kaput, Giuditta Perozzi, Marijana Radonjic, Fabio Virgili
The complex physiology of living organisms represents a challenge for mechanistic understanding of the action of dietary bioactives in the human body and of their possible role in health and disease. Animal, cell, and microbial models have been extensively used to address questions that could not be pursued experimentally in humans, posing an additional level of complexity in translation of the results to healthy and diseased metabolism. The past few decades have witnessed a surge in development of increasingly sensitive molecular techniques and bioinformatic tools for storing, managing, and analyzing increasingly large datasets...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118482/competitor-phenology-as-a-social-cue-in-breeding-site-selection
#13
Jelmer M Samplonius, Christiaan Both
Predicting habitat quality is a major challenge for animals selecting a breeding patch, because it affects reproductive success. Breeding site selection may be based on previous experience, or on social information from the density and success of competitors with an earlier phenology. Variation in animal breeding phenology is often correlated with variation in habitat quality. Generally, animals breed earlier in high quality habitats that allow them to reach a nutritional threshold required for breeding earlier or avoid nest predation...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117004/lipoprotein-a-evolution-possible-benefits-and-harm-genetic-and-non-genetic-factors-influencing-its-plasma-levels
#14
Peggy M Kostakou, George Hatzigeorgiou, Vana Kolovou, Sophie Mavrogeni, Genovefa D Kolovou
The limited distribution of lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) to humans, Old World primates and to the European hedgehog, has raised considerable interest and speculation regarding its possible physiological role. Lp(a) has variable circulating concentrations (<0.1 - >100 mg/ml) which are highly genetically determined in humans. These characteristics gave rise to several theories concerning the origins and evolution of Lp(a). Lp(a) has a protective role after injury since Lp(a) particles bind to macrophages and platelets membrane receptors, leading to fibrin activation and injury healing...
January 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105723/current-views-on-hunter-gatherer-nutrition-and-the-evolution-of-the-human-diet
#15
Alyssa N Crittenden, Stephanie L Schnorr
Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104924/the-adaptive-nature-of-culture-a-cross-cultural-analysis-of-the-returns-of-local-environmental-knowledge-in-three-indigenous-societies
#16
Victoria Reyes-García, Maximilien Guèze, Isabel Díaz-Reviriego, Romain Duda, Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares, Sandrine Gallois, Lucentezza Napitupulu, Martí Orta-Martínez, Aili Pyhälä
Researchers have argued that the behavioral adaptations that explain the success of our species are partially cultural, i.e., cumulative and socially transmitted. Thus, understanding the adaptive nature of culture is crucial to understand human evolution. We use a cross-cultural framework and empirical data purposely collected to test whether culturally transmitted and individually appropriated knowledge provides individual returns in terms of hunting yields and health and, by extension, to nutritional status, a proxy for individual adaptive success...
December 2016: Current Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098228/unique-bacteria-community-composition-and-co-occurrence-in-the-milk-of-different-ruminants
#17
Zhipeng Li, André-Denis G Wright, Yifeng Yang, Huazhe Si, Guangyu Li
Lactation provides the singular source of nourishment to the offspring of mammals. This nutrition source also contains a diverse microbiota affecting the development and health of the newborn. Here, we examined the milk microbiota in water deer (Hydropotes inermis, the most primitive member of the family Cervidae), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, the oldest semi-domesticated cervid), and the dairy goat (Capra aegagrus, member of the family Bovidae), to determine if common milk microbiota species were present across all three ruminant species...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096140/setting-the-lipid-component-of-the-diet-a-work-in-process
#18
REVIEW
Fabiola M Del Razo Olvera, Marco A Melgarejo Hernández, Roopa Mehta, Carlos A Aguilar Salinas
Some of the most relevant yet controversial issues in nutrition are those surrounding the guidelines on quality and quantity of dietary fat in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and coronary heart diseases. Conflicting evidence questions the credibility of the previous dietary guidelines, particularly the quality of the evidence on which these recommendations were based. It is therefore important to explore the changes that have occurred in these guidelines and their influence on the adoption of different dietary patterns over time...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095328/an-integrated-proteomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-perivitelline-fluid-proteins-in-a-freshwater-gastropod-laying-aerial-eggs
#19
Huawei Mu, Jin Sun, Horacio Heras, Ka Hou Chu, Jian-Wen Qiu
: Proteins of the egg perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds the embryo are critical for embryonic development in many animals, but little is known about their identities. Using an integrated proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we identified 64 proteins from the PVF of Pomacea maculata, a freshwater snail adopting aerial oviposition. Proteins were classified into eight functional groups: major multifunctional perivitellin subunits, immune response, energy metabolism, protein degradation, oxidation-reduction, signaling and binding, transcription and translation, and others...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051947/early-life-effects-on-adult-physical-activity-concepts-relevance-and-experimental-approaches
#20
Theodore Garland, Marcell D Cadney, Robert A Waterland
Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment)...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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