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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343716/expression-of-the-methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-lost-during-evolution-extends-drosophila-lifespan-in-a-methionine-dependent-manner
#1
Byung Cheon Lee, Hae Min Lee, Sorah Kim, Andrei S Avanesov, Aro Lee, Bok-Hwan Chun, Gerd Vorbruggen, Vadim N Gladyshev
Accumulation of oxidized amino acids, including methionine, has been implicated in aging. The ability to reduce one of the products of methionine oxidation, free methionine-R-sulfoxide (Met-R-SO), is widespread in microorganisms, but during evolution this function, conferred by the enzyme fRMsr, was lost in metazoa. We examined whether restoration of the fRMsr function in an animal can alleviate the consequences of methionine oxidation. Ectopic expression of yeast fRMsr supported the ability of Drosophila to catalyze free Met-R-SO reduction without affecting fecundity, food consumption, and response to starvation...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315591/suppression-of-a-single-bahd-gene-in-setaria-viridis-causes-large-stable-decreases-in-cell-wall-feruloylation-and-increases-biomass-digestibility
#2
Wagner R de Souza, Polyana K Martins, Jackie Freeman, Till K Pellny, Louise V Michaelson, Bruno L Sampaio, Felipe Vinecky, Ana P Ribeiro, Barbara A D B da Cunha, Adilson K Kobayashi, Patricia A de Oliveira, Raquel B Campanha, Thályta F Pacheco, Danielly C I Martarello, Rogério Marchiosi, Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho, Wanderley D Dos Santos, Robson Tramontina, Fabio M Squina, Danilo C Centeno, Marília Gaspar, Marcia R Braga, Marco A S Tiné, John Ralph, Rowan A C Mitchell, Hugo B C Molinari
Feruloylation of arabinoxylan (AX) in grass cell walls is a key determinant of recalcitrance to enzyme attack, making it a target for improvement of grass crops, and of interest in grass evolution. Definitive evidence on the genes responsible is lacking so we studied a candidate gene that we identified within the BAHD acyl-CoA transferase family. We used RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of orthologs in the model grasses Setaria viridis (SvBAHD01) and Brachypodium distachyon (BdBAHD01) and determined effects on AX feruloylation...
January 8, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310713/an-imd-like-pathway-mediates-both-endosymbiont-control-and-host-immunity-in-the-cereal-weevil-sitophilus-spp
#3
Justin Maire, Carole Vincent-Monégat, Florent Masson, Anna Zaidman-Rémy, Abdelaziz Heddi
Many insects developing on nutritionally unbalanced diets have evolved symbiotic associations with vertically transmitted intracellular bacteria (endosymbionts) that provide them with metabolic components, thereby improving the host's abilities to thrive on such poor ecological niches. While host-endosymbiont coevolutionary constraints are known to entail massive genomic changes in the microbial partner, host's genomic evolution remains elusive, particularly with regard to the immune system. In the cereal weevil Sitophilus spp...
January 8, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301052/species-ecology-determines-the-role-of-nitrogen-nutrition-in-the-frost-tolerance-of-pine-seedlings
#4
Andrei Toca, Juan A Oliet, Pedro Villar-Salvador, Judit Maroto, Douglass F Jacobs
Frost determines the evolution and distribution of plants in temperate and cold regions. Several environmental factors can influence frost acclimation of woody plants but the magnitude and direction of the effect of nitrogen (N) availability is controversial. We studied the effect of N availability on root and shoot frost tolerance in mid-fall and in winter in seedlings of four pines of contrasting ecology: Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, P. pinaster Ait., P. pinea L. and P. halepensis Mill.. Organ N and soluble sugar concentration, and timing of cessation of shoot elongation were measured to assess the physiological mechanisms underlying frost acclimation...
December 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300826/from-rhizoids-to-roots-experimental-evidence-of-mutualism-between-liverworts-and-ascomycete-fungi
#5
Jill Kowal, Silvia Pressel, Jeffrey G Duckett, Martin I Bidartondo, Katie J Field
Background and Aims: The rhizoids of leafy liverworts (Jungermanniales, Marchantiophyta) are commonly colonized by the ascomycete fungus Pezoloma ericae. These associations are hypothesized to be functionally analogous to the ericoid mycorrhizas (ErMs) formed by P. ericae with the roots of Ericaceae plants in terms of bi-directional phosphorus for carbon exchange; however, this remains unproven. Here, we test whether associations between the leafy liverwort Cephalozia bicuspidata and P...
January 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281758/impacts-of-domestication-on-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-of-27-crop-species
#6
Nieves Martín-Robles, Anika Lehmann, Erica Seco, Ricardo Aroca, Matthias C Rillig, Rubén Milla
The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is key to plant nutrition, and hence is potentially key in sustainable agriculture. Fertilization and other agricultural practices reduce soil AM fungi and root colonization. Such conditions might promote the evolution of low mycorrhizal responsive crops. Therefore, we ask if and how evolution under domestication has altered AM symbioses of crops. We measured the effect of domestication on mycorrhizal responsiveness across 27 crop species and their wild progenitors...
December 27, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273740/rna-sequencing-provides-insights-into-the-evolution-of-lettuce-and-the-regulation-of-flavonoid-biosynthesis
#7
Lei Zhang, Wenqing Su, Rong Tao, Weiyi Zhang, Jiongjiong Chen, Peiyao Wu, Chenghuan Yan, Yue Jia, Robert M Larkin, Dean Lavelle, Maria-Jose Truco, Sebastian Reyes Chin-Wo, Richard W Michelmore, Hanhui Kuang
Different horticultural types of lettuce exhibit tremendous morphological variation. However, the molecular basis for domestication and divergence among the different horticultural types of lettuce remains unknown. Here, we report the RNA sequencing of 240 lettuce accessions sampled from the major horticultural types and wild relatives, generating 1.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Demographic modeling indicates that there was a single domestication event for lettuce. We identify a list of regions as putative selective sweeps that occurred during domestication and divergence, respectively...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259927/gelatinous-transformation-of-bone-marrow-rare-or-underdiagnosed
#8
REVIEW
Khushdeep Kaur Shergill, Gagandeep Singh Shergill, Hari Janardanan Pillai
Gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow (GTBM) is a rare hematologic entity, which was first described by Paul Michael in 1930. GTBM is mostly associated with caloric intake/anorexia nervosa, although it also has been described accompanying other pathologic conditions, such as malignancy, systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV infections. Even though the diagnostic features of the hematopoietic tissue, such as hypoplasia, adipose cell atrophy, and deposition of a gelatinous substance in the bone marrow (which stains with Alcian blue at pH 2...
October 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230818/relationship-between-carbohydrate-composition-and-fungal-deterioration-of-functional-strawberry-juices-preserved-using-non-thermal-treatments
#9
Lucía Cassani, Gabriel Quintana, María R Moreira, Andrea Gómez-Zavaglia
BACKGROUND: The quantification of the main carbohydrates present in strawberry juices enriched with inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and preserved by non-thermal techniques (vanillin and ultrasound) were studied, as well as the evolution of these compounds and their relationship with fungal deterioration during 14 days of refrigerated storage. RESULTS: A simple and environmentally friendly analytical approach based on high performance liquid chromatography with reflection index detector was developed for simultaneous determination of inulin, FOS and mono and disaccharides present in the juices...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216399/evolution-of-acidic-mammalian-chitinase-genes-chia-is-related-to-body-mass-and-insectivory-in-primates
#10
Mareike C Janiak, Morgan E Chaney, Anthony J Tosi
Insects are an important food resource for many primates, but the chitinous exoskeletons of arthropods have long been considered to be indigestible by the digestive enzymes of most mammals. However, recently mice and insectivorous bats were found to produce the enzyme acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) to digest insect exoskeletons. Here, we report on the gene CHIA and its paralogs, which encode AMCase, in a comparative sample of nonhuman primates. Our results show that early primates likely had three CHIA genes, suggesting that insects were an important component of the ancestral primate diet...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213256/determinism-and-contingency-shape-metabolic-complementation-in-an-endosymbiotic-consortium
#11
Miguel Ponce-de-Leon, Daniel Tamarit, Jorge Calle-Espinosa, Matteo Mori, Amparo Latorre, Francisco Montero, Juli Pereto
Bacterial endosymbionts and their insect hosts establish an intimate metabolic relationship. Bacteria offer a variety of essential nutrients to their hosts, whereas insect cells provide the necessary sources of matter and energy to their tiny metabolic allies. These nutritional complementations sustain themselves on a diversity of metabolite exchanges between the cell host and the reduced yet highly specialized bacterial metabolism-which, for instance, overproduces a small set of essential amino acids and vitamins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196290/evolution-and-diversity-of-inherited-spiroplasma-in-myrmica-ants
#12
Matthew J Ballinger, Logan D Moore, Steve J Perlman
Microbial partners play an important role in the biology and ecology of animals. In insects, maternally-transmitted symbionts are especially common and can have host effects ranging from reproductive manipulation to nutrient provisioning and defense against natural enemies. In this study, we report a genus-wide association of Myrmica ants with the inherited bacterial symbiont, Spiroplasma We screen Myrmica ants collected from the wild, including the invasive European fire ant, Myrmica rubra, and find an extraordinarily high prevalence of this symbiont - 8 of 9 species, 42 of 43 colonies, and 250 of 276 individual workers were harboring Spiroplasma - only one host species was uninfected...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195991/molecular-identification-and-technological-characterization-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-fermented-kidney-beans-flours-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-and-p-coccineus-in-northwestern-argentina
#13
Gabriel D Sáez, Elvira M Hébert, Lucila Saavedra, Gabriela Zárate
Legumes are an important protein source in developing countries and their flours represent an attractive alternative for the manufacture of gluten free products. In the present study, 4 kidney bean varieties (Alubia, Pallar, Black and Red beans) commonly cultivated in northwestern Argentina, were milled and spontaneously fermented in order to isolate and select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with relevant technological and functional properties for usage as starter cultures. Twelve doughs were fermented with daily back-slopping at 37°C for 6days and evolution of total mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds populations were followed by plate counting...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183408/prevalence-and-temporal-trend-2005-2015-of-anaemia-among-children-in-northeast-brazil
#14
Regina Coeli da Silva Vieira, Aline Roberta Silva do Livramento, Monique Suiane Cavalcante Calheiros, Carla Mariana Xavier Ferreira, Tamara Rodrigues Dos Santos, Monica Lopes de Assunção, Haroldo da Silva Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: Anaemia is the main nutritional deficiency in Brazil, and a prevention and control programme (National Program for Iron Supplementation) has been developed since 2005. Studies on the temporal evolution of anaemia prevalence contribute to assessment of the effectiveness of the actions undertaken. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and temporal trend of anaemia in children. DESIGN: Study based on two cross-sectional household surveys carried out in 2005 and 2015...
November 29, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181017/alternate-modes-of-photosynthate-transport-in-the-alternating-generations-of-physcomitrella-patens
#15
Kamesh C Regmi, Lin Li, Roberto A Gaxiola
Physcomitrella patens has emerged as a model moss system to investigate the evolution of various plant characters in early land plant lineages. Yet, there is merely a disparate body of ultrastructural and physiological evidence from other mosses to draw inferences about the modes of photosynthate transport in the alternating generations of Physcomitrella. We performed a series of ultrastructural, fluorescent tracing, physiological, and immunohistochemical experiments to elucidate a coherent model of photosynthate transport in this moss...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169456/urinary-diversion-nutritional-evolution-and-surgical-revolution
#16
EDITORIAL
Michael S Cookson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167680/gene-editing-and-crop-improvement-using-crispr-cas9-system
#17
REVIEW
Leena Arora, Alka Narula
Advancements in Genome editing technologies have revolutionized the fields of functional genomics and crop improvement. CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 is a multipurpose technology for genetic engineering that relies on the complementarity of the guideRNA (gRNA) to a specific sequence and the Cas9 endonuclease activity. It has broadened the agricultural research area, bringing in new opportunities to develop novel plant varieties with deletion of detrimental traits or addition of significant characters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158565/convergent-evolution-of-plant-and-animal-embryo-defences-by-hyperstable-non-digestible-storage-proteins
#18
María Yanina Pasquevich, Marcos Sebastián Dreon, Jian-Wen Qiu, Huawei Mu, Horacio Heras
Plants have evolved sophisticated embryo defences by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that lower the nutritional value of seeds, a strategy that have not been reported in animals. To further understand antinutritive defences in animals, we analysed PmPV1, massively accumulated in the eggs of the gastropod Pomacea maculata, focusing on how its structure and structural stability features affected its capacity to withstand passage through predator guts. The native protein withstands >50 min boiling and resists the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), indicating an unusually high structural stability (i...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156927/-the-evolution-of-nutritional-information-and-communication-about-food-and-beverages-the-last-50-years
#19
Deyanira Quirós-Villegas, Isabel Estévez-Martínez, Aránzazu Perales-García, Rafael Urrialde
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional information directed to consumers has evolved in some key aspects such as nutritional parameters, qualitative characteristics of the product and the necessary requirements for their communication. OBJECTIVES: To provide a general overview of legislative developments in nutrition communication in the last 50 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature review of available literature and European and Spanish Regulations...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155030/transcriptome-analysis-and-discovery-of-genes-involved-in-immune-pathways-from-coelomocytes-of-onchidium-struma-after-bacterial-challenge
#20
Mingming Zhang, Guo Qiao, Qiang Li, De-Hai Xu, Zhitao Qi, Aiming Wang, Mengyao Xu, Jintian Huang
Onchidium struma widely distributes in subtidal and low-tidal zones, which is considered to be an economical species with rich nutrition, a valuable biomonitor for heavy metal pollution and a representative species for evolution from ocean to land. However, there is limited genetic information available for O. struma development. This study compared transcriptomic profiles of coelomocytes from normal and bacteria infected O. struma by Illumina-based paired-end sequencing to explore the molecular immune mechanism of O...
November 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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