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Evolution nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158565/convergent-evolution-of-plant-and-animal-embryo-defences-by-hyperstable-non-digestible-storage-proteins
#1
María Yanina Pasquevich, Marcos Sebastián Dreon, Jian-Wen Qiu, Huawei Mu, Horacio Heras
Plants have evolved sophisticated embryo defences by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that lower the nutritional value of seeds, a strategy that have not been reported in animals. To further understand antinutritive defences in animals, we analysed PmPV1, massively accumulated in the eggs of the gastropod Pomacea maculata, focusing on how its structure and structural stability features affected its capacity to withstand passage through predator guts. The native protein withstands >50 min boiling and resists the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), indicating an unusually high structural stability (i...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156927/-the-evolution-of-nutritional-information-and-communication-about-food-and-beverages-the-last-50-years
#2
Deyanira Quirós-Villegas, Isabel Estévez-Martínez, Aránzazu Perales-García, Rafael Urrialde
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional information directed to consumers has evolved in some key aspects such as nutritional parameters, qualitative characteristics of the product and the necessary requirements for their communication. OBJECTIVES: To provide a general overview of legislative developments in nutrition communication in the last 50 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature review of available literature and European and Spanish Regulations...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155030/transcriptome-analysis-and-discovery-of-genes-involved-in-immune-pathways-from-coelomocytes-of-onchidium-struma-after-bacterial-challenge
#3
Mingming Zhang, Guo Qiao, Qiang Li, De-Hai Xu, Zhitao Qi, Aiming Wang, Mengyao Xu, Jintian Huang
Onchidium struma widely distributes in subtidal and low-tidal zones, which is considered to be an economical species with rich nutrition, a valuable biomonitor for heavy metal pollution and a representative species for evolution from ocean to land. However, there is limited genetic information available for O. struma development. This study compared transcriptomic profiles of coelomocytes from normal and bacteria infected O. struma by Illumina-based paired-end sequencing to explore the molecular immune mechanism of O...
November 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153399/fungal-gene-cluster-diversity-and-evolution
#4
Jason C Slot
Metabolic gene clusters (MGCs) have provided some of the earliest glimpses at the biochemical machinery of yeast and filamentous fungi. MGCs encode diverse genetic mechanisms for nutrient acquisition and the synthesis/degradation of essential and adaptive metabolites. Beyond encoding the enzymes performing these discrete anabolic or catabolic processes, MGCs may encode a range of mechanisms that enable their persistence as genetic consortia; these include enzymatic mechanisms to protect their host fungi from their inherent toxicities, and integrated regulatory machinery...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153165/a-100-year-review-historical-development-of-female-reproductive-physiology-in-dairy-cattle
#5
William W Thatcher
The objective of this historical review in female reproductive physiology is to encapsulate major advancements since the founding of the American Dairy Science Association in 1906. The emphasis is on landmark publications in the Journal of Dairy Science since its first volume in 1917. A historical perspective and inferences are made in forecasting evolution of female reproduction and links between physiology of reproduction and the mammary gland. Subsequent sections are focused into main physiological categories and the temporal advancements within these physiological windows...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150094/-geriatric-assessment-and-prognostic-scores-in-older-cancer-patient-additional-support-to-the-therapeutic-decision
#6
REVIEW
Frédéric Pamoukdjian, Evelyne Liuu, Philippe Caillet, Mathilde Gisselbrecht, Stéphane Herbaud, Pascaline Boudou-Rouquette, Laurent Zelek, Elena Paillaud
Cancer is a disease of the elderly as demonstrated by the epidemiological evolution of Western countries. Indeed, two third of cancers newly diagnosed occur over 65 years. However, older cancer patients have been often excluded from clinical trials in oncology and the extrapolation of cancer treatments in this population remains difficult in practice. Scientific societies recommend that a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) be performed in patients aged 70 and over and selected using screening tools for frailty such as the G8 index...
November 14, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148112/big-data-and-data-science-in-healthcare-what-nurses-and-midwives-need-to-know
#7
EDITORIAL
Siobhan O'Connor
The evolution of technology in contemporary society has been accelerating in recent decades, with smaller, more interconnected hardware devices and software applications becoming the norm. As desktop computing paved the way for mobile platforms, which are now transitioning to wearable devices and other sensors, it is inevitable these electronic tools will advance into the realm of nanotechnology and biotechnology in the years to come. As the proliferation of information and communication technology continues it has led to a tsunami of digital data (Bates et al, 2014), which is being collected on many aspects of life...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145757/nutrition-and-lower-extremity-ulcers-causality-and-or-treatment
#8
Lauren Haughey, Adrian Barbul
The association between malnutrition, impaired wound healing, and the presence of chronic wounds has been recognized for a long time. It is widely believed that the lack of adequate nutrition increases the risk of developing wounds which have a great likelihood of progressing to chronicity due to lack of appropriate healing responses. This risk is particularly high in the aging population. For the individual patient, as well as patient populations, the diagnosis of malnutrition has been in dispute; further, there is lack of agreement of when and how to intervene nutritionally in those with wounds or healing deficits...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132934/the-evolution-of-pathogen-virulence-effects-of-transitions-between-host-types
#9
Paul David Williams, Stephanie Jill Kamel
Much of evolutionary epidemiology theory is derived from a perspective in which all hosts, and all parasites, are epidemiologically equivalent. This stands in contrast to the well-documented existence of the numerous processes generating heterogeneity among hosts and parasites that can profoundly influence evolutionary/epidemiological dynamics. Age-related immunological changes, inequities in nutritional status, and interactions between parasites via coinfection are just a few of the many factors that generate heterogeneity among hosts in the ways they express susceptibility to, and respond to infection by, a focal pathogen...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132740/effects-of-using-symbiotics-in-the-clinical-nutritional-evolution-of-patients-with-chronic-pancreatitis-study-prospective-randomized-controlled-double-blind
#10
Patricia Quadros Dos Santos, Jorge C Guedes, Rosangela P de Jesus, Raquel Rocha Dos Santos, Rosemeiri L Fiaconne
Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) present malabsorption and changes in nutritional status. In this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded, intervention study, developed at the Clinic of Pancreas, we aimed to assess whether the use of symbiotics changes the nutritional status, the biochemical data and the intestinal rate of these patients. The intervention consisted of administering 12 g/day of symbiotics composed of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and fructooligosaccharides to the intervention group and 12 g/day of medium absorption complex carbohydrate to the control group...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130725/-eighth-jes%C3%A3%C2%BAs-culebras-lecture-critical-care-nutrition-and-hyperglycemia-a-close-relationship
#11
Alfonso Mesejo
Critically ill patients show a metabolic response to injury that affects carbohydrate metabolism, causing hyperglycemia and an increase in glycemic variability that makes the critically ill patient susceptible to infection, resulting in morbidity and mortality increase. Also, severe hypoglycemia was detected as a consequence of intensive insulin treatment that provokes deleterious effects in their clinical evolution, so a correct monitoring of plasma glucose would contribute to reduce morbidity and mortality...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130698/preoperative-metabolic-status-is-associated-with-different-evolution-of-resting-energy-expenditure-after-liver-transplant-in-adults
#12
Ana Brito-Costa, Luís Pereira-da-Silva, Ana Luisa Papoila, Marta Alves, Élia Mateus, Fernando Nolasco, Eduardo Barroso
INTRODUCTION: The resting energy expenditure (REE) evolution after liver transplantation is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinally the REE evolution in adults undergoing liver transplantation, in association with other nutritional measurements that characterize the metabolic profile. METHODS: A single-center cohort of consecutive end-stage liver disease patients with indication for liver transplantation was recruited. REE, subjective global assessment (SGA), handgrip strength and body composition measurements were assessed before transplantation (T0) and at median nine (T1) and 36 (T2) days after transplantation...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113618/milk-products-in-the-dietary-management-of-childhood-undernutrition-a-historical-review
#13
Veronika Scherbaum, M Leila Srour
The present narrative review outlines the use of milk products in infant and young child feeding from early history until today and illustrates how research findings and technical innovations contributed to the evolution of milk-based strategies to combat undernutrition in children below the age of 5 years. From the onset of social welfare initiatives, dairy products were provided by maternal and child health services to improve nutrition. During the last century, a number of aetiological theories on oedematous forms of undernutrition were developed and until the 1970s the dogma of protein deficiency was dominant...
November 8, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112753/genome-nutrition-divergence-evolving-understanding-of-the-malnutrition-spectrum
#14
Jacob C Eaton, Lora L Iannotti
Humans adapted over a period of 2.3 million years to a diet high in quality and diversity. Genome-nutrition divergence describes the misalignment between modern global diets and the genome formed through evolution. A survey of hominin diets over time shows that humans have thrived on a broad range of foods. Earlier diets were highly diverse and nutrient dense, in contrast to modern food systems in which monotonous diets of staple cereals and ultraprocessed foods play a more prominent role. Applying the lens of genome-nutrition divergence to malnutrition reveals shared risk factors for undernutrition and overnutrition at nutrient, food, and environmental levels...
November 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095347/randomised-trial-of-a-yogurt-type-amino-acid-based-formula-in-infants-and-children-with-severe-cow-s-milk-allergy
#15
François Payot, Alain Lachaux, Florent Lalanne, Nicolas Kalach
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of a spoon-fed amino acid-based formula (AAF) with a yogurt-type texture compared to the reference oral liquid formula (Neocate). METHODS: Phase III/IV, prospective, randomized (1:1), open-label, multicenter study in infants/young children (6-36 months) with severe cow's milk protein allergy (CMA) who had consumed AAF for ≥1 month before the study. Patients received reference+test formula (Neocate with a yogurt-type texture for spoon-feeding: Group 1) or reference formula (Group 2) for 28 days...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095027/the-two-sides-of-superior-mesenteric-artery-syndrome-treatment-conservative-or-surgical-management
#16
Elvia Johanna Osegueda de Rodríguez, Antonio Carlos Hernández-Villegas, Aurora Elizabeth Serralde-Zúñiga, Ana Luz Del Carmen Reyes-Ramírez
INTRODUCTION: Superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) is a rare condition characterized by vascular compression of the duodenum. There is controversy regarding the optimal treatment. CASE REPORT: In case 1, we describe the case of a 21-year-old woman (body mass index -BMI- 16.9 kg/m2) with high-level obstructive symptoms three months prior, with computed tomography scan (TC) showing a superior mesenteric artery aorta angle (SMAA) of 13º and compression of the third portion of the duodenum (D3), for this reason a nasojejunal tube was placed for enteral feeding...
July 28, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091335/outcome-of-restorative-proctocolectomy-with-ileo-anal-pouch-for-ulcerative-colitis-effect-of-changes-in-clinical-practice
#17
Adeline Germain, Anthony de Buck van Overstraeten, Albert Wolthuis, Marc Ferrante, Séverine Vermeire, Gert Van Assche, Andre D'Hoore
BACKGROUND: Surgery for ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has evolved over time, especially since the introduction of laparoscopy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study was to report the impact of surgical evolution on outcome over a period of 25 years. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: All patients with IPAA surgery for ulcerative colitis from 1990 to 2015 at the University Hospitals of Leuven were included. Patients were divided into 3 period arms (Period A:1990 - 1999; Period B: 2000 - 2009; Period C: 2010 - 2015)...
November 1, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068398/precision-nutrition-and-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-a-case-for-personalized-supplementation-approaches-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-human-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Floyd H Chilton, Rahul Dutta, Lindsay M Reynolds, Susan Sergeant, Rasika A Mathias, Michael C Seeds
BACKGROUND: Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20)-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes...
October 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066546/adaptation-to-chronic-nutritional-stress-leads-to-reduced-dependence-on-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Berra Erkosar, Sylvain Kolly, Jan R van der Meer, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Numerous studies have shown that animal nutrition is tightly linked to gut microbiota, especially under nutritional stress. In Drosophila melanogaster, microbiota are known to promote juvenile growth, development, and survival on poor diets, mainly through enhanced digestion leading to changes in hormonal signaling. Here, we show that this reliance on microbiota is greatly reduced in replicated Drosophila populations that became genetically adapted to a poor larval diet in the course of over 170 generations of experimental evolution...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064459/mlcaf-multi-level-cross-domain-semantic-context-fusioning-for-behavior-identification
#20
Muhammad Asif Razzaq, Claudia Villalonga, Sungyoung Lee, Usman Akhtar, Maqbool Ali, Eun-Soo Kim, Asad Masood Khattak, Hyonwoo Seung, Taeho Hur, Jaehun Bang, Dohyeong Kim, Wajahat Ali Khan
The emerging research on automatic identification of user's contexts from the cross-domain environment in ubiquitous and pervasive computing systems has proved to be successful. Monitoring the diversified user's contexts and behaviors can help in controlling lifestyle associated to chronic diseases using context-aware applications. However, availability of cross-domain heterogeneous contexts provides a challenging opportunity for their fusion to obtain abstract information for further analysis. This work demonstrates extension of our previous work from a single domain (i...
October 24, 2017: Sensors
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