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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625783/probabilistic-invasion-underlies-natural-gut-microbiome-stability
#1
Benjamin Obadia, Z T Güvener, Vivian Zhang, Javier A Ceja-Navarro, Eoin L Brodie, William W Ja, William B Ludington
Species compositions of gut microbiomes impact host health [1-3], but the processes determining these compositions are largely unknown. An unexplained observation is that gut species composition varies widely between individuals but is largely stable over time within individuals [4, 5]. Stochastic factors during establishment may drive these alternative stable states (colonized versus non-colonized) [6, 7], which can influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Here we sought to quantify and model the dose response, dynamics, and stability of bacterial colonization in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) gut...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422817/incidence-and-implications-of-left-ventricular-distention-during-venoarterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support
#2
Lauren K Truby, Koji Takeda, Christine Mauro, Melana Yuzefpolskaya, Arthur R Garan, Ajay J Kirtane, Veli K Topkara, Darryl Abrams, Daniel Brodie, Paolo C Colombo, Yoshifumi Naka, Hiroo Takayama
Left ventricular distention (LVD) during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support is increasingly recognized but seldom reported in the literature. The current study defined LVD as not present (LVD-); subclinical (LVD+, evidence of pulmonary edema on chest radiograph AND pulmonary artery diastolic blood pressure greater than 25 mm Hg within the first 2 hours of intensive care unit admission); or clinical (LVD++, need for decompression of the left ventricle immediately following VA-ECMO initiation)...
May 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356893/alzheimer-s-toxic-amyloid-beta-oligomers-unwelcome-visitors-to-the-na-k-atpase-alpha3-docking-station
#3
Thomas DiChiara, Nadia DiNunno, Jeffrey Clark, Riana Lo Bu, Erika N Cline, Madeline G Rollins, Yuesong Gong, David L Brody, Stephen G Sligar, Pauline T Velasco, Kirsten L Viola, William L Klein
Toxic amyloid beta oligomers (AβOs) are known to accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in animal models of AD. Their structure is heterogeneous, and they are found in both intracellular and extracellular milieu. When given to CNS cultures or injected ICV into non-human primates and other non-transgenic animals, AβOs have been found to cause impaired synaptic plasticity, loss of memory function, tau hyperphosphorylation and tangle formation, synapse elimination, oxidative and ER stress, inflammatory microglial activation, and selective nerve cell death...
March 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284129/biochar-produced-from-biosolids-using-a-single-mode-microwave-characterisation-and-its-potential-for-phosphorus-removal
#4
Elsa Antunes, James Schumann, Graham Brodie, Mohan V Jacob, Philip A Schneider
The amount of biosolids increases every year, and social and environmental concerns are also rising due to heavy metals and pathogen contamination. Even though biosolids are considered as a waste material, they could be used as a precursor in several applications, especially in agriculture due to the presence of essential nutrients. Microwave assisted pyrolysis (MWAP) is a promising technology to safely manage biosolids, while producing value-added products, such as biochar, that can be used to improve soil fertility...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240675/impact-of-chronic-statin-therapy-on-clinical-presentation-and-underlying-lesion-morphology-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-intervention-an-adapt-des-ivus-substudy
#5
Tadayuki Kadohira, Gary S Mintz, Cristiano F Souza, Bernhard Witzenbichler, D Christopher Metzger, Michael J Rinaldi, Ernest L Mazzaferri, Peter L Duffy, Giora Weisz, Thomas D Stuckey, Bruce R Brodie, Aaron Crowley, Ajay J Kirtane, Gregg W Stone, Akiko Maehara
OBJECTIVE: Previous intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) studies have not established a relationship between chronic statin use and plaque morphology and composition in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to use pre-PCI grayscale and virtual histology (VH)-IVUS to assess plaque morphology and composition in patients treated with chronic statin therapy compared with patients who were not taking statins before admission and PCI. METHODS: In a prespecified substudy of the Assessment of Dual AntiPlatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents study, pre-PCI grayscale and VH-IVUS were performed in 780 patients with 916 culprit and 765 nonculprit lesions...
May 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235580/parotoid-radial-and-tibial-macroglands-of-the-frog-odontophrynus-cultripes-differences-and-similarities-with-toads
#6
Pedro L Mailho-Fontana, Marta Maria Antoniazzi, Isabela Rodrigues, Juliana M Sciani, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta, Edmund D Brodie, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Carlos Jared
Anuran integument is characterized by the presence of glands, some of which are responsible for toxin production. In some species these glands accumulate in parts of the body strategically located against predators, forming structures known as macroglands. This is the case for parotoid macroglands, on the dorsum of the head, tibial macroglands, on the rear limbs, and radial macroglands, on the forelimbs of toads and some other anurans. The toad Rhinella jimi, for example, simultaneously displays all three types of macroglands, which is unusual even among bufonids...
February 21, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145038/predictability-in-community-dynamics
#7
Benjamin Blonder, Derek E Moulton, Jessica Blois, Brian J Enquist, Bente J Graae, Marc Macias-Fauria, Brian McGill, Sandra Nogué, Alejandro Ordonez, Brody Sandel, Jens-Christian Svenning
The coupling between community composition and climate change spans a gradient from no lags to strong lags. The no-lag hypothesis is the foundation of many ecophysiological models, correlative species distribution modelling and climate reconstruction approaches. Simple lag hypotheses have become prominent in disequilibrium ecology, proposing that communities track climate change following a fixed function or with a time delay. However, more complex dynamics are possible and may lead to memory effects and alternate unstable states...
March 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100818/lowland-biotic-attrition-revisited-body-size-and-variation-among-climate-change-winners-and-losers
#8
Jedediah F Brodie, Matthew Strimas-Mackey, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Anthony J Giordano, Olga E Helmy
The responses of lowland tropical communities to climate change will critically influence global biodiversity but remain poorly understood. If species in these systems are unable to tolerate warming, the communities-currently the most diverse on Earth-may become depauperate ('biotic attrition'). In response to temperature changes, animals can adjust their distribution in space or their activity in time, but these two components of the niche are seldom considered together. We assessed the spatio-temporal niches of rainforest mammal species in Borneo across gradients in elevation and temperature...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987072/the-value-of-electrophysiologic-study-in-decision-making-regarding-the-need-for-pacemaker-implantation-after-tavi
#9
Oholi Tovia-Brodie, Yael Ben-Haim, Erel Joffe, Ariel Finkelstein, Aharon Glick, Raphael Rosso, Bernard Belhassen, Yoav Michowitz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate electrophysiologic study (EPS) in risk stratification of relative indications for pacemaker implantation (PMI) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: We reviewed files of all patients who had a left bundle branch block (LBBB) and underwent EPS after TAVI between 3/2009 and 5/2015. The indications for EPS were new-onset LBBB and the presence of an old or a new-onset LBBB associated with either PR prolongation after TAVI (∆PR >20 ms) or with "slow" atrial fibrillation (<100/min)...
March 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740610/microbial-legacies-alter-decomposition-in-response-to-simulated-global-change
#10
Jennifer Bh Martiny, Adam C Martiny, Claudia Weihe, Ying Lu, Renaud Berlemont, Eoin L Brodie, Michael L Goulden, Kathleen K Treseder, Steven D Allison
Terrestrial ecosystem models assume that microbial communities respond instantaneously, or are immediately resilient, to environmental change. Here we tested this assumption by quantifying the resilience of a leaf litter community to changes in precipitation or nitrogen availability. By manipulating composition within a global change experiment, we decoupled the legacies of abiotic parameters versus that of the microbial community itself. After one rainy season, more variation in fungal composition could be explained by the original microbial inoculum than the litterbag environment (18% versus 5...
February 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437050/evaluation-of-an-electronic-module-for-reconciling-medications-in-home-health-plans-of-care
#11
Heidi S Kramer, Bryan Gibson, Yarden Livnat, Iona Thraen, Abraham A Brody, Randall Rupper
OBJECTIVES: Transitions in patient care pose an increased risk to patient safety. One way to reduce this risk is to ensure accurate medication reconciliation during the transition. Here we present an evaluation of an electronic medication reconciliation module we developed to reduce the transition risk in patients referred for home healthcare. METHODS: Nineteen physicians with experience in managing home health referrals were recruited to participate in this within-subjects experiment...
2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222222/characterising-the-microbiome-of-corallina-officinalis-a-dominant-calcified-intertidal-red-alga
#12
Juliet Brodie, Christopher Williamson, Gary L Barker, Rachel H Walker, Andrew Briscoe, Marian Yallop
The living prokaryotic microbiome of the calcified geniculate (articulated) red alga, Corallina officinalis from the intertidal seashore is characterised for the first time based on the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA. Results revealed an extraordinary diversity of bacteria associated with the microbiome. Thirty-five prokaryotic phyla were recovered, of which Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi made up the core microbiome...
August 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164136/macronutrient-balance-and-dietary-glycemic-index-in-pregnancy-predict-neonatal-body-composition
#13
Nathalie V Kizirian, Tania P Markovic, Roslyn Muirhead, Shannon Brodie, Sarah P Garnett, Jimmy C Y Louie, Peter Petocz, Glynis P Ross, Jennie C Brand-Miller
The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI)...
May 6, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148214/belowground-response-to-drought-in-a-tropical-forest-soil-i-changes-in-microbial-functional-potential-and-metabolism
#14
Nicholas J Bouskill, Tana E Wood, Richard Baran, Zaw Ye, Benjamin P Bowen, HsiaoChien Lim, Jizhong Zhou, Joy D Van Nostrand, Peter Nico, Trent R Northen, Whendee L Silver, Eoin L Brodie
Global climate models predict a future of increased severity of drought in many tropical forests. Soil microbes are central to the balance of these systems as sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon (C), yet how they respond metabolically to drought is not well-understood. We simulated drought in the typically aseasonal Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, by intercepting precipitation falling through the forest canopy. This approach reduced soil moisture by 13% and water potential by 0.14 MPa (from -0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014243/belowground-response-to-drought-in-a-tropical-forest-soil-ii-change-in-microbial-function-impacts-carbon-composition
#15
Nicholas J Bouskill, Tana E Wood, Richard Baran, Zhao Hao, Zaw Ye, Ben P Bowen, Hsiao Chien Lim, Peter S Nico, Hoi-Ying Holman, Benjamin Gilbert, Whendee L Silver, Trent R Northen, Eoin L Brodie
Climate model projections for tropical regions show clear perturbation of precipitation patterns leading to increased frequency and severity of drought in some regions. Previous work has shown declining soil moisture to be a strong driver of changes in microbial trait distribution, however, the feedback of any shift in functional potential on ecosystem properties related to carbon cycling are poorly understood. Here we show that drought-induced changes in microbial functional diversity and activity shape, and are in turn shaped by, the composition of dissolved and soil-associated carbon...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988645/diversity-of-bladed-bangiales-rhodophyta-in-western-mediterranean-recognition-of-the-genus-themis-and-descriptions-of-t-%C3%A2-ballesterosii-sp-nov-t-%C3%A2-iberica-sp-nov-and-pyropia-parva-sp-nov
#16
Noemí Sánchez, Alba Vergés, César Peteiro, Judith E Sutherland, Juliet Brodie
The diversity of the bladed species of the red algal order Bangiales from the Iberian Mediterranean shores has been reassessed after a detailed study of this region. Prior to this study, 11 bladed species of Bangiales had been reported from Mediterranean waters: Porphyra atropurpurea, P. cordata, P. coriacea, P. dioica, P. linearis, P. purpurea, P. umbilicalis, Pyropia leucosticta, Pyropia koreana (as P. olivii), Py. elongata (as P. rosengurttii) and Py. suborbiculata. A combined analysis of the nuclear nSSU and the plastid rbcL genes together with detailed morphological studies has confirmed the presence of species within the genera Porphyra and Pyropia and also revealed a third, undescribed genus, Themis gen...
October 2014: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940108/language-spoken-at-home-and-the-association-between-ethnicity-and-doctor-patient-communication-in-primary-care-analysis-of-survey-data-for-south-asian-and-white-british-patients
#17
Kara Brodie, Gary Abel, Jenni Burt
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if language spoken at home mediates the relationship between ethnicity and doctor-patient communication for South Asian and White British patients. METHODS: We conducted secondary analysis of patient experience survey data collected from 5870 patients across 25 English general practices. Mixed effect linear regression estimated the difference in composite general practitioner-patient communication scores between White British and South Asian patients, controlling for practice, patient demographics and patient language...
March 3, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936333/effects-of-a-low-glycemic-index-diet-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-growth-body-composition-and-vascular-health-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Nathalie V Kizirian, Yang Kong, Roslyn Muirhead, Shannon Brodie, Sarah P Garnett, Peter Petocz, Kyra A Sim, David S Celermajer, Jimmy C Y Louie, Tania P Markovic, Glynis P Ross, Leigh C Ward, Jennie C Brand-Miller, Michael R Skilton
BACKGROUND: Elevated maternal blood glucose concentrations may contribute to macrosomia, adiposity, and poorer vascular health in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore the effect of a low-glycemic index (low-GI) diet during pregnancy on offspring growth, adiposity, and arterial wall thickness during infancy. DESIGN: This was a longitudinal follow-up study in a self-selected subgroup of mother-infant pairs (n= 59) participating in a larger randomized trial comparing the effects on perinatal outcomes of a low-GI diet and a conventional high-fiber (HF) diet during pregnancy...
April 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26923719/microspatial-variability-in-community-structure-and-photophysiology-of-calcified-macroalgal-microbiomes-revealed-by-coupling-of-hyperspectral-and-high-resolution-fluorescence-imaging
#19
R G Perkins, C J Williamson, J Brodie, L Barillé, P Launeau, J Lavaud, M L Yallop, B Jesus
Calcifying coralline macroalgae provide biogenic habitats colonised by epiphytic microalgae that contribute significantly to community productivity. Georeferenced hyperspectral and high-resolution fluorescence imaging were coupled to microspatially mapped community composition and relative biomass of macroalgal host and epiphyte microalgal groups, and their weighted contributions to productivity within host fronds of Corallina officinalis on upper and lower zones of a rocky shore were determined. Lower shore epiphytes were dominated by filamentous diatoms (Bacillariophyta), confined to the apex of the frond structure, which were low light acclimated but retained a high capacity for photoprotective down regulation and contributed up to 51% of total community productivity...
February 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26865952/scale-dependence-of-sex-ratio-in-wild-plant-populations-implications-for-social-selection
#20
Brian J Sanderson, Malcolm E Augat, Douglas R Taylor, Edmund D Brodie
Social context refers to the composition of an individual's social interactants, including potential mates. In spatially structured populations, social context can vary among individuals within populations, generating the opportunity for social selection to drive differences in fitness functions among individuals at a fine spatial scale. In sexually polymorphic plants, the local sex ratio varies at a fine scale and thus has the potential to generate this opportunity. We measured the spatial distribution of two wild populations of the gynodioecious plant Silene vulgaris and show that there is fine-scale heterogeneity in the local distribution of the sexes within these populations...
March 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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