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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453937/trajectory-classes-of-cannabis-use-and-heavy-drinking-among-rural-african-american-adolescents-multilevel-predictors-of-class-membership
#1
Allen W Barton, Gene H Brody, Tamika C B Zapolski, Trenette C Goings, Steven M Kogan, Michael Windle, Tianyi Yu
AIMS: To inform research on the etiology and prevention of substance use among rural African American youth by (a) identifying developmental trajectory classes of cannabis use and heavy drinking across adolescence and young adulthood, and (b) examining associations between trajectory class membership and multi-level assessments of risk factors. DESIGN: A prospective study spanning nine years with assessments of cannabis use and heavy drinking, the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, perceived stress, and psychosocial risk factors...
February 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194972/a-composite-noninvasive-index-correlates-with-liver-fibrosis-scores-in-post-fontan-patients-preliminary-findings
#2
William N Evans, Ruben J Acherman, Michael L Ciccolo, Sergio A Carrillo, Alvaro Galindo, Abraham Rothman, Gary A Mayman, Elizabeth A Adams, Leigh C Reardon, Brody J Winn, Noel S Yumiaco, Lesley Shimuizu, Yoko Inanaga, Rowena J Deleon, Humberto Restrepo
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that clinic-based, hepatic-ultrasound, elastography measurements, either alone or in combination with other noninvasive variables, might correlate with liver-biopsy fibrosis scores in patients post-Fontan. METHODS: Between March 2012 and February 2017, we identified patients post-Fontan that underwent elective cardiac catheterization and simultaneous transvenous hepatic biopsy. From this group, we selected patients that met inclusion criteria for liver-ultrasound, shear-wave elastography...
December 1, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171667/exposure-to-parental-depression-in-adolescence-and-risk-for-metabolic-syndrome-in-adulthood
#3
Katherine B Ehrlich, Edith Chen, Tianyi Yu, Gregory E Miller, Gene H Brody
The psychosocial consequences of living with a depressed parent have been well characterized. Less well known, however, is how this exposure is predictive of later physical health problems. The present study evaluated how parental depression across youths' adolescence (ages 11-18) was associated with youth metabolic syndrome at age 25 (n = 391). Youth self-regulation and health behaviors were considered as possible moderators of the link between parental depression and youth metabolic syndrome. Analyses revealed that parental depression in adolescence was associated with a composite score reflecting metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood...
November 24, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138307/microdiversity-of-an-abundant-terrestrial-bacterium-encompasses-extensive-variation-in-ecologically-relevant-traits
#4
Alexander B Chase, Ulas Karaoz, Eoin L Brodie, Zulema Gomez-Lunar, Adam C Martiny, Jennifer B H Martiny
Much genetic diversity within a bacterial community is likely obscured by microdiversity within operational taxonomic units (OTUs) defined by 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, it is unclear how variation within this microdiversity influences ecologically relevant traits. Here, we employ a multifaceted approach to investigate microdiversity within the dominant leaf litter bacterium, Curtobacterium, which comprises 7.8% of the bacterial community at a grassland site undergoing global change manipulations. We use cultured bacterial isolates to interpret metagenomic data, collected in situ over 2 years, together with lab-based physiological assays to determine the extent of trait variation within this abundant OTU...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069998/composite-small-lymphocytic-lymphoma-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-follicular-lymphoma-a-clinicopathological-study-of-six-cases
#5
Fatima Zahra Jelloul, Qiang Hua Chen, Tianyu Yang, Nina Haghi, Judith Brody, Xinmin Zhang, Silvat Sheikh-Fayyaz
BACKGROUND: Composite small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (SLL/CLL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) is extremely rare, and only 13 cases have been reported previously. METHODS: We identified 6 cases of composite SLL/CLL and FL in our database and studied their clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic features. A literature review of the existing cases was also conducted. RESULTS: The patients included 4 males and 2 females, with a median age of 72 years...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660670/defaunation-and-habitat-disturbance-interact-synergistically-to-alter-seedling-recruitment
#6
Alys Granados, Jedediah F Brodie, Henry Bernard, Michael J O'Brien
Vertebrate granivores destroy plant seeds, but whether animal-induced seed mortality alters plant recruitment varies with habitat context, seed traits, and among granivore species. An incomplete understanding of seed predation makes it difficult to predict how widespread extirpations of vertebrate granivores in tropical forests might affect tree communities, especially in the face of habitat disturbance. Many tropical forests are simultaneously affected by animal loss as well as habitat disturbance, but the consequences of each for forest regeneration are often studied separately or additively, and usually on a single plant demographic stage...
October 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625783/probabilistic-invasion-underlies-natural-gut-microbiome-stability
#7
Benjamin Obadia, Z T Güvener, Vivian Zhang, Javier A Ceja-Navarro, Eoin L Brodie, William W Ja, William B Ludington
Species compositions of gut microbiomes impact host health [1-3], but the processes determining these compositions are largely unknown. An unexplained observation is that gut species composition varies widely between individuals but is largely stable over time within individuals [4, 5]. Stochastic factors during establishment may drive these alternative stable states (colonized versus non-colonized) [6, 7], which can influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Here we sought to quantify and model the dose response, dynamics, and stability of bacterial colonization in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) gut...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422817/incidence-and-implications-of-left-ventricular-distention-during-venoarterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support
#8
Lauren K Truby, Koji Takeda, Christine Mauro, Melana Yuzefpolskaya, Arthur R Garan, Ajay J Kirtane, Veli K Topkara, Darryl Abrams, Daniel Brodie, Paolo C Colombo, Yoshifumi Naka, Hiroo Takayama
Left ventricular distention (LVD) during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support is increasingly recognized but seldom reported in the literature. The current study defined LVD as not present (LVD-); subclinical (LVD+, evidence of pulmonary edema on chest radiograph AND pulmonary artery diastolic blood pressure greater than 25 mm Hg within the first 2 hours of intensive care unit admission); or clinical (LVD++, need for decompression of the left ventricle immediately following VA-ECMO initiation)...
May 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356893/alzheimer-s-toxic-amyloid-beta-oligomers-unwelcome-visitors-to-the-na-k-atpase-alpha3-docking-station
#9
Thomas DiChiara, Nadia DiNunno, Jeffrey Clark, Riana Lo Bu, Erika N Cline, Madeline G Rollins, Yuesong Gong, David L Brody, Stephen G Sligar, Pauline T Velasco, Kirsten L Viola, William L Klein
Toxic amyloid beta oligomers (AβOs) are known to accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in animal models of AD. Their structure is heterogeneous, and they are found in both intracellular and extracellular milieu. When given to CNS cultures or injected ICV into non-human primates and other non-transgenic animals, AβOs have been found to cause impaired synaptic plasticity, loss of memory function, tau hyperphosphorylation and tangle formation, synapse elimination, oxidative and ER stress, inflammatory microglial activation, and selective nerve cell death...
March 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284129/biochar-produced-from-biosolids-using-a-single-mode-microwave-characterisation-and-its-potential-for-phosphorus-removal
#10
Elsa Antunes, James Schumann, Graham Brodie, Mohan V Jacob, Philip A Schneider
The amount of biosolids increases every year, and social and environmental concerns are also rising due to heavy metals and pathogen contamination. Even though biosolids are considered as a waste material, they could be used as a precursor in several applications, especially in agriculture due to the presence of essential nutrients. Microwave assisted pyrolysis (MWAP) is a promising technology to safely manage biosolids, while producing value-added products, such as biochar, that can be used to improve soil fertility...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240675/impact-of-chronic-statin-therapy-on-clinical-presentation-and-underlying-lesion-morphology-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-intervention-an-adapt-des-ivus-substudy
#11
Tadayuki Kadohira, Gary S Mintz, Cristiano F Souza, Bernhard Witzenbichler, D Christopher Metzger, Michael J Rinaldi, Ernest L Mazzaferri, Peter L Duffy, Giora Weisz, Thomas D Stuckey, Bruce R Brodie, Aaron Crowley, Ajay J Kirtane, Gregg W Stone, Akiko Maehara
OBJECTIVE: Previous intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) studies have not established a relationship between chronic statin use and plaque morphology and composition in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to use pre-PCI grayscale and virtual histology (VH)-IVUS to assess plaque morphology and composition in patients treated with chronic statin therapy compared with patients who were not taking statins before admission and PCI. METHODS: In a prespecified substudy of the Assessment of Dual AntiPlatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents study, pre-PCI grayscale and VH-IVUS were performed in 780 patients with 916 culprit and 765 nonculprit lesions...
May 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235580/parotoid-radial-and-tibial-macroglands-of-the-frog-odontophrynus-cultripes-differences-and-similarities-with-toads
#12
Pedro L Mailho-Fontana, Marta Maria Antoniazzi, Isabela Rodrigues, Juliana M Sciani, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta, Edmund D Brodie, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Carlos Jared
Anuran integument is characterized by the presence of glands, some of which are responsible for toxin production. In some species these glands accumulate in parts of the body strategically located against predators, forming structures known as macroglands. This is the case for parotoid macroglands, on the dorsum of the head, tibial macroglands, on the rear limbs, and radial macroglands, on the forelimbs of toads and some other anurans. The toad Rhinella jimi, for example, simultaneously displays all three types of macroglands, which is unusual even among bufonids...
April 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145038/predictability-in-community-dynamics
#13
Benjamin Blonder, Derek E Moulton, Jessica Blois, Brian J Enquist, Bente J Graae, Marc Macias-Fauria, Brian McGill, Sandra Nogué, Alejandro Ordonez, Brody Sandel, Jens-Christian Svenning
The coupling between community composition and climate change spans a gradient from no lags to strong lags. The no-lag hypothesis is the foundation of many ecophysiological models, correlative species distribution modelling and climate reconstruction approaches. Simple lag hypotheses have become prominent in disequilibrium ecology, proposing that communities track climate change following a fixed function or with a time delay. However, more complex dynamics are possible and may lead to memory effects and alternate unstable states...
March 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100818/lowland-biotic-attrition-revisited-body-size-and-variation-among-climate-change-winners-and-losers
#14
Jedediah F Brodie, Matthew Strimas-Mackey, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Anthony J Giordano, Olga E Helmy
The responses of lowland tropical communities to climate change will critically influence global biodiversity but remain poorly understood. If species in these systems are unable to tolerate warming, the communities-currently the most diverse on Earth-may become depauperate ('biotic attrition'). In response to temperature changes, animals can adjust their distribution in space or their activity in time, but these two components of the niche are seldom considered together. We assessed the spatio-temporal niches of rainforest mammal species in Borneo across gradients in elevation and temperature...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987072/the-value-of-electrophysiologic-study-in-decision-making-regarding-the-need-for-pacemaker-implantation-after-tavi
#15
Oholi Tovia-Brodie, Yael Ben-Haim, Erel Joffe, Ariel Finkelstein, Aharon Glick, Raphael Rosso, Bernard Belhassen, Yoav Michowitz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate electrophysiologic study (EPS) in risk stratification of relative indications for pacemaker implantation (PMI) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: We reviewed files of all patients who had a left bundle branch block (LBBB) and underwent EPS after TAVI between 3/2009 and 5/2015. The indications for EPS were new-onset LBBB and the presence of an old or a new-onset LBBB associated with either PR prolongation after TAVI (∆PR >20 ms) or with "slow" atrial fibrillation (<100/min)...
March 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740610/microbial-legacies-alter-decomposition-in-response-to-simulated-global-change
#16
Jennifer Bh Martiny, Adam C Martiny, Claudia Weihe, Ying Lu, Renaud Berlemont, Eoin L Brodie, Michael L Goulden, Kathleen K Treseder, Steven D Allison
Terrestrial ecosystem models assume that microbial communities respond instantaneously, or are immediately resilient, to environmental change. Here we tested this assumption by quantifying the resilience of a leaf litter community to changes in precipitation or nitrogen availability. By manipulating composition within a global change experiment, we decoupled the legacies of abiotic parameters versus that of the microbial community itself. After one rainy season, more variation in fungal composition could be explained by the original microbial inoculum than the litterbag environment (18% versus 5...
February 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437050/evaluation-of-an-electronic-module-for-reconciling-medications-in-home-health-plans-of-care
#17
Heidi S Kramer, Bryan Gibson, Yarden Livnat, Iona Thraen, Abraham A Brody, Randall Rupper
OBJECTIVES: Transitions in patient care pose an increased risk to patient safety. One way to reduce this risk is to ensure accurate medication reconciliation during the transition. Here we present an evaluation of an electronic medication reconciliation module we developed to reduce the transition risk in patients referred for home healthcare. METHODS: Nineteen physicians with experience in managing home health referrals were recruited to participate in this within-subjects experiment...
2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222222/characterising-the-microbiome-of-corallina-officinalis-a-dominant-calcified-intertidal-red-alga
#18
Juliet Brodie, Christopher Williamson, Gary L Barker, Rachel H Walker, Andrew Briscoe, Marian Yallop
The living prokaryotic microbiome of the calcified geniculate (articulated) red alga, Corallina officinalis from the intertidal seashore is characterised for the first time based on the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA. Results revealed an extraordinary diversity of bacteria associated with the microbiome. Thirty-five prokaryotic phyla were recovered, of which Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi made up the core microbiome...
August 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164136/macronutrient-balance-and-dietary-glycemic-index-in-pregnancy-predict-neonatal-body-composition
#19
Nathalie V Kizirian, Tania P Markovic, Roslyn Muirhead, Shannon Brodie, Sarah P Garnett, Jimmy C Y Louie, Peter Petocz, Glynis P Ross, Jennie C Brand-Miller
The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI)...
May 6, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148214/belowground-response-to-drought-in-a-tropical-forest-soil-i-changes-in-microbial-functional-potential-and-metabolism
#20
Nicholas J Bouskill, Tana E Wood, Richard Baran, Zaw Ye, Benjamin P Bowen, HsiaoChien Lim, Jizhong Zhou, Joy D Van Nostrand, Peter Nico, Trent R Northen, Whendee L Silver, Eoin L Brodie
Global climate models predict a future of increased severity of drought in many tropical forests. Soil microbes are central to the balance of these systems as sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon (C), yet how they respond metabolically to drought is not well-understood. We simulated drought in the typically aseasonal Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, by intercepting precipitation falling through the forest canopy. This approach reduced soil moisture by 13% and water potential by 0.14 MPa (from -0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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