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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740610/microbial-legacies-alter-decomposition-in-response-to-simulated-global-change
#1
Jennifer Bh Martiny, Adam C Martiny, Claudia Weihe, Ying Lu, Renaud Berlemont, Eoin L Brodie, Michael L Goulden, Kathleen K Treseder, Steven D Allison
Terrestrial ecosystem models assume that microbial communities respond instantaneously, or are immediately resilient, to environmental change. Here we tested this assumption by quantifying the resilience of a leaf litter community to changes in precipitation or nitrogen availability. By manipulating composition within a global change experiment, we decoupled the legacies of abiotic parameters versus that of the microbial community itself. After one rainy season, more variation in fungal composition could be explained by the original microbial inoculum than the litterbag environment (18% versus 5...
October 14, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437050/evaluation-of-an-electronic-module-for-reconciling-medications-in-home-health-plans-of-care
#2
Heidi S Kramer, Bryan Gibson, Yarden Livnat, Iona Thraen, Abraham A Brody, Randall Rupper
OBJECTIVES: Transitions in patient care pose an increased risk to patient safety. One way to reduce this risk is to ensure accurate medication reconciliation during the transition. Here we present an evaluation of an electronic medication reconciliation module we developed to reduce the transition risk in patients referred for home healthcare. METHODS: Nineteen physicians with experience in managing home health referrals were recruited to participate in this within-subjects experiment...
2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222222/characterising-the-microbiome-of-corallina-officinalis-a-dominant-calcified-intertidal-red-alga
#3
Juliet Brodie, Christopher Williamson, Gary L Barker, Rachel H Walker, Andrew Briscoe, Marian Yallop
The living prokaryotic microbiome of the calcified geniculate (articulated) red alga, Corallina officinalis from the intertidal seashore is characterised for the first time based on the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA. Results revealed an extraordinary diversity of bacteria associated with the microbiome. Thirty-five prokaryotic phyla were recovered, of which Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi made up the core microbiome...
August 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164136/macronutrient-balance-and-dietary-glycemic-index-in-pregnancy-predict-neonatal-body-composition
#4
Nathalie V Kizirian, Tania P Markovic, Roslyn Muirhead, Shannon Brodie, Sarah P Garnett, Jimmy C Y Louie, Peter Petocz, Glynis P Ross, Jennie C Brand-Miller
The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI)...
2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148214/belowground-response-to-drought-in-a-tropical-forest-soil-i-changes-in-microbial-functional-potential-and-metabolism
#5
Nicholas J Bouskill, Tana E Wood, Richard Baran, Zaw Ye, Benjamin P Bowen, HsiaoChien Lim, Jizhong Zhou, Joy D Van Nostrand, Peter Nico, Trent R Northen, Whendee L Silver, Eoin L Brodie
Global climate models predict a future of increased severity of drought in many tropical forests. Soil microbes are central to the balance of these systems as sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon (C), yet how they respond metabolically to drought is not well-understood. We simulated drought in the typically aseasonal Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, by intercepting precipitation falling through the forest canopy. This approach reduced soil moisture by 13% and water potential by 0.14 MPa (from -0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014243/belowground-response-to-drought-in-a-tropical-forest-soil-ii-change-in-microbial-function-impacts-carbon-composition
#6
Nicholas J Bouskill, Tana E Wood, Richard Baran, Zhao Hao, Zaw Ye, Ben P Bowen, Hsiao Chien Lim, Peter S Nico, Hoi-Ying Holman, Benjamin Gilbert, Whendee L Silver, Trent R Northen, Eoin L Brodie
Climate model projections for tropical regions show clear perturbation of precipitation patterns leading to increased frequency and severity of drought in some regions. Previous work has shown declining soil moisture to be a strong driver of changes in microbial trait distribution, however, the feedback of any shift in functional potential on ecosystem properties related to carbon cycling are poorly understood. Here we show that drought-induced changes in microbial functional diversity and activity shape, and are in turn shaped by, the composition of dissolved and soil-associated carbon...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988645/diversity-of-bladed-bangiales-rhodophyta-in-western-mediterranean-recognition-of-the-genus-themis-and-descriptions-of-t-%C3%A2-ballesterosii-sp-nov-t-%C3%A2-iberica-sp-nov-and-pyropia-parva-sp-nov
#7
Noemí Sánchez, Alba Vergés, César Peteiro, Judith E Sutherland, Juliet Brodie
The diversity of the bladed species of the red algal order Bangiales from the Iberian Mediterranean shores has been reassessed after a detailed study of this region. Prior to this study, 11 bladed species of Bangiales had been reported from Mediterranean waters: Porphyra atropurpurea, P. cordata, P. coriacea, P. dioica, P. linearis, P. purpurea, P. umbilicalis, Pyropia leucosticta, Pyropia koreana (as P. olivii), Py. elongata (as P. rosengurttii) and Py. suborbiculata. A combined analysis of the nuclear nSSU and the plastid rbcL genes together with detailed morphological studies has confirmed the presence of species within the genera Porphyra and Pyropia and also revealed a third, undescribed genus, Themis gen...
October 2014: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940108/language-spoken-at-home-and-the-association-between-ethnicity-and-doctor-patient-communication-in-primary-care-analysis-of-survey-data-for-south-asian-and-white-british-patients
#8
Kara Brodie, Gary Abel, Jenni Burt
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if language spoken at home mediates the relationship between ethnicity and doctor-patient communication for South Asian and White British patients. METHODS: We conducted secondary analysis of patient experience survey data collected from 5870 patients across 25 English general practices. Mixed effect linear regression estimated the difference in composite general practitioner-patient communication scores between White British and South Asian patients, controlling for practice, patient demographics and patient language...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936333/effects-of-a-low-glycemic-index-diet-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-growth-body-composition-and-vascular-health-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Nathalie V Kizirian, Yang Kong, Roslyn Muirhead, Shannon Brodie, Sarah P Garnett, Peter Petocz, Kyra A Sim, David S Celermajer, Jimmy C Y Louie, Tania P Markovic, Glynis P Ross, Leigh C Ward, Jennie C Brand-Miller, Michael R Skilton
BACKGROUND: Elevated maternal blood glucose concentrations may contribute to macrosomia, adiposity, and poorer vascular health in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore the effect of a low-glycemic index (low-GI) diet during pregnancy on offspring growth, adiposity, and arterial wall thickness during infancy. DESIGN: This was a longitudinal follow-up study in a self-selected subgroup of mother-infant pairs (n= 59) participating in a larger randomized trial comparing the effects on perinatal outcomes of a low-GI diet and a conventional high-fiber (HF) diet during pregnancy...
April 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26923719/microspatial-variability-in-community-structure-and-photophysiology-of-calcified-macroalgal-microbiomes-revealed-by-coupling-of-hyperspectral-and-high-resolution-fluorescence-imaging
#10
R G Perkins, C J Williamson, J Brodie, L Barillé, P Launeau, J Lavaud, M L Yallop, B Jesus
Calcifying coralline macroalgae provide biogenic habitats colonised by epiphytic microalgae that contribute significantly to community productivity. Georeferenced hyperspectral and high-resolution fluorescence imaging were coupled to microspatially mapped community composition and relative biomass of macroalgal host and epiphyte microalgal groups, and their weighted contributions to productivity within host fronds of Corallina officinalis on upper and lower zones of a rocky shore were determined. Lower shore epiphytes were dominated by filamentous diatoms (Bacillariophyta), confined to the apex of the frond structure, which were low light acclimated but retained a high capacity for photoprotective down regulation and contributed up to 51% of total community productivity...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26865952/scale-dependence-of-sex-ratio-in-wild-plant-populations-implications-for-social-selection
#11
Brian J Sanderson, Malcolm E Augat, Douglas R Taylor, Edmund D Brodie
Social context refers to the composition of an individual's social interactants, including potential mates. In spatially structured populations, social context can vary among individuals within populations, generating the opportunity for social selection to drive differences in fitness functions among individuals at a fine spatial scale. In sexually polymorphic plants, the local sex ratio varies at a fine scale and thus has the potential to generate this opportunity. We measured the spatial distribution of two wild populations of the gynodioecious plant Silene vulgaris and show that there is fine-scale heterogeneity in the local distribution of the sexes within these populations...
March 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26718449/the-great-recession-and-health-risks-in-african-american-youth
#12
Edith Chen, Gregory E Miller, Tianyi Yu, Gene H Brody
In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship)...
March 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26717311/effects-of-floral-scent-color-and-pollen-on-foraging-decisions-and-oocyte-development-of-common-green-bottle-flies
#13
Bekka S Brodie, Maia A Smith, Jason Lawrence, Gerhard Gries
The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and other filth flies frequently visit pollen-rich composite flowers such as the Oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. In laboratory experiments with L. sericata, we investigated the effect of generic floral scent and color cues, and of Oxeye daisy-specific cues, on foraging decisions by recently eclosed flies. We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0-35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes. Our data indicate that (1) young flies in the presence of generic floral scent respond more strongly to a uniformly yellow cue than to any other uniform color cue (green, white, black, blue, red) except for ultraviolet (UV); (2) the floral scent of Oxeye daisies enhances the attractiveness of a yellow cue; and (3) moisture-rich pollen provides nutrients that facilitate ovary maturation of flies...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392107/exometabolite-niche-partitioning-among-sympatric-soil-bacteria
#14
Richard Baran, Eoin L Brodie, Jazmine Mayberry-Lewis, Eric Hummel, Ulisses Nunes Da Rocha, Romy Chakraborty, Benjamin P Bowen, Ulas Karaoz, Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz, Ferran Garcia-Pichel, Trent R Northen
Soils are arguably the most microbially diverse ecosystems. Physicochemical properties have been associated with the maintenance of this diversity. Yet, the role of microbial substrate specialization is largely unexplored since substrate utilization studies have focused on simple substrates, not the complex mixtures representative of the soil environment. Here we examine the exometabolite composition of desert biological soil crusts (biocrusts) and the substrate preferences of seven biocrust isolates. The biocrust's main primary producer releases a diverse array of metabolites, and isolates of physically associated taxa use unique subsets of the complex metabolite pool...
2015: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26354679/comparison-of-non-linear-models-to-describe-the-lactation-curves-for-milk-yield-and-composition-in-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
N Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh
In order to describe the lactation curves of milk yield (MY) and composition in buffaloes, seven non-linear mathematical equations (Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Brody, Dijkstra and Rook) were used. Data were 116,117 test-day records for MY, fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentages of milk from the first three lactations of buffaloes which were collected from 893 herds in the period from 1992 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly production records of dairy buffaloes using the NLIN and MODEL procedures in SAS and the parameters were estimated...
February 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26294790/association-of-growth-differentiation-factor-11-8-putative-anti-ageing-factor-with-cardiovascular-outcomes-and-overall-mortality-in-humans-analysis-of-the-heart-and-soul-and-hunt3-cohorts
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Kristoff A Olson, Alexis L Beatty, Bettina Heidecker, Mathilda C Regan, Edward N Brody, Trudi Foreman, Shintaro Kato, Robert E Mehler, Britta S Singer, Kristian Hveem, Havard Dalen, David G Sterling, Richard M Lawn, Nelson B Schiller, Stephen A Williams, Mary A Whooley, Peter Ganz
AIMS: Growth differentiation factor 11 and/or its homologue growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF11/8) reverses age-related cardiac hypertrophy and vascular ageing in mice. We investigated whether GDF11/8 associates with cardiovascular outcomes, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), or age in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured plasma GDF11/8 levels in 928 participants with stable ischaemic heart disease in the Heart and Soul study. We adjudicated heart failure hospitalization, stroke, myocardial infarction, death, and their composite endpoint...
December 21, 2015: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26230018/linking-environmental-filtering-and-disequilibrium-to-biogeography-with-a-community-climate-framework
#17
Benjamin Blonder, David Nogués-Bravo, Michael K Borregaard, John C Donoghue, Peter M Jørgensen, Nathan J B Kraft, Jean-Philippe Lessard, Naia Morueta-Holme, Brody Sandel, Jens-Christian Svenning, Cyrille Violle, Carsten Rahbek, Brian J Enquist
We present a framework to measure the strength of environmental filtering and disequilibrium of the species composition of a local community across time, relative to past, current, and future climates. We demonstrate the framework by measuring the impact of climate change on New World forests, integrating data for climate niches of more than 14000 species, community composition of 471 New World forest plots, and observed climate across the most recent glacial-interglacial interval. We show that a majority of communities have species compositions that are strongly filtered and are more in equilibrium with current climate than random samples from the regional pool...
April 2015: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074840/higher-levels-of-protective-parenting-are-associated-with-better-young-adult-health-exploration-of-mediation-through-epigenetic-influences-on-pro-inflammatory-processes
#18
Steven R H Beach, Man Kit Lei, Gene H Brody, Meeshanthini V Dogan, Robert A Philibert
The current investigation was designed to examine the association of parenting during late childhood and early adolescence, a time of rapid physical development, with biological propensity for inflammation. Based on life course theory, it was hypothesized that parenting during this period of rapid growth and development would be associated with biological outcomes and self-reported health assessed in young adulthood. It was expected that association of parenting with health would be mediated either by effects on methylation of a key inflammatory factor, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or else by association with a pro-inflammatory shift in the distribution of mononuclear blood cells...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25894311/insight-into-the-mechanism-of-the-thermal-reduction-of-graphite-oxide-deuterium-labeled-graphite-oxide-is-the-key
#19
Zdeněk Sofer, Ondřej Jankovský, Petr Šimek, David Sedmidubský, Jiří Šturala, Jiří Kosina, Romana Mikšová, Anna Macková, Martin Mikulics, Martin Pumera
For the past decade, researchers have been trying to understand the mechanism of the thermal reduction of graphite oxide. Because deuterium is widely used as a marker in various organic reactions, we wondered if deuterium-labeled graphite oxide could be the key to fully understand this mechanism. Graphite oxides were prepared by the Hofmann, Hummers, Staudenmaier, and Brodie methods, and a deuterium-labeled analogue was synthesized by the Hofmann method. All graphite oxides were analyzed not only using the traditional techniques but also by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) during exfoliation in hydrogen and nitrogen atmospheres...
May 26, 2015: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25505459/cellulolytic-potential-under-environmental-changes-in-microbial-communities-from-grassland-litter
#20
Renaud Berlemont, Steven D Allison, Claudia Weihe, Ying Lu, Eoin L Brodie, Jennifer B H Martiny, Adam C Martiny
In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition...
2014: Frontiers in Microbiology
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