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organophosphate poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208980/contributing-factors-for-morbidity-and-mortality-in-patients-with-organophosphate-poisoning-on-mechanical-ventilation-a-retrospective-study-in-a-teaching-hospital
#1
Gurulingappa Patil, Navya Murthy, M Nikhil
INTRODUCTION: One of the most common causes of poisoning in agricultural based developing countries like India is due to Organophosphorus (OP) compound. Its widespread use and easy availability has increased the likelihood of poisoning with these compounds. AIM: To study the morbidity and mortality in patients with acute OP poisoning requiring mechanical ventilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study constituting patients of all age groups admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with diagnosis of OP poisoning between January 2015 to December 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206686/nte-pnpla6-is-expressed-in-mature-schwann-cells-and-is-required-for-glial-ensheathment-of-remak-fibers
#2
Janis McFerrin, Bruce L Patton, Elizabeth R Sunderhaus, Doris Kretzschmar
Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) or patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 6 (PNPLA6) was first linked with a neuropathy occurring after organophosphate poisoning and was later also found to cause complex syndromes when mutated, which can include mental retardation, spastic paraplegia, ataxia, and blindness. NTE/PNPLA6 is widely expressed in neurons but experiments with its Drosophila orthologue Swiss-cheese (SWS) suggested that it may also have glial functions. Investigating whether NTE/PNPLA6 is expressed in glia, we found that NTE/PNPLA6 is expressed by Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve of adult mice with the most prominent expression in nonmyelinating Schwann cells...
February 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166935/toxicoses-of-the-ruminant-nervous-system
#3
REVIEW
Gene A Niles
This article discusses the etiology, mechanism of action, clinical signs, and diagnostic tests used to identify toxic agents that affect the nervous system of ruminants. The article is not intended to be an exhaustive review of each agent, but a reference for establishing a differential diagnosis when toxic agents are suspected as the cause of central nervous system disease in ruminants. The initial focus of the article is on agents that cause brain lesions consistent with polioencephalomalacia. Other neurotoxic disease agents include bovine bonkers, urea, organophosphate, organochlorine, cyanobacteria, zinc, aluminum, phosphide, metaldehyde, strychnine, botulism, tetanus, clostridium perfringens, and poisonous plants...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161867/towards-understanding-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-human-paraoxonase-1-experimental-and-in-silico-mutagenesis-studies
#4
Rajan K Tripathy, Geetika Aggarwal, Priyanka Bajaj, Deepika Kathuria, Prasad V Bharatam, Abhay H Pande
Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) is a ~45-kDa serum enzyme that can hydrolyze a variety of substrates, including organophosphate (OP) compounds. It is a potential candidate for the development of antidote against OP poisoning in humans. However, insufficient OP-hydrolyzing activity of native enzyme affirms the urgent need to develop improved variant(s) having enhanced OP-hydrolyzing activity. The crystal structure of h-PON1 remains unsolved, and the molecular details of how the enzyme catalyses hydrolysis of different types of substrates are also not clear...
February 4, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139533/amitraz-an-underrecognized-poison-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Sahajal Dhooria, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. METHODS: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January 2014) for case reports, case series and original articles using the following search terms: 'amitraz', 'poisoning', 'toxicity', 'intoxication' and 'overdose'...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070599/organophosphate-neurotoxicity-to-the-voluntary-motor-system-on-the-trail-of-environment-caused-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-the-known-the-misknown-and-the-unknown
#6
Samantha J Merwin, Teresa Obis, Yanelli Nunez, Diane B Re
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset paralytic disorder. It is characterized by progressive degeneration of the motor neurons controlling voluntary movement. The underlying mechanisms remain elusive, a fact that has precluded development of effective treatments. ALS presents as a sporadic condition 90-95% of the time, i.e., without familial history or obvious genetic mutation. This suggests that ALS has a strong environmental component. Organophosphates (OPs) are prime candidate neurotoxicants in the etiology of ALS, as exposure to OPs was linked to higher ALS incidence among farmers, soccer players, and Gulf War veterans...
January 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050396/pharmacokinetic-potentiation-of-mixed-organophosphate-and-pyrethroid-poison-leading-to-prolonged-delayed-neuropathy
#7
Meenakshi Srinivasan, Ruhul Amin, Girish Thunga, Shivashankar Kaniyoor Nagiri, Chandrashekar Udyavara Kudru
Organophosphate (OP) and mixed pesticide poisoning remains an important cause of hospital admission. Therefore, physician must be aware of atypical presentations of delayed neurological complications of poisoning by taking proper patient history. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who presented with high stepping gait and muscle wasting in hands. Patient history revealed consumption of approximately 4ml of mixed pesticide, consisting of 50% chlorpyrifos with synthetic pyrethroid, 5% cypermethrin. The prolonged and severe nature of delayed peripheral neuropathy, persisting at two years of follow-up, suggests that even small quantities of OP taken in combination with a pyrethroid can result in significant morbidity and is irreversible...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043418/the-effectiveness-of-patient-tailored-treatment-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning
#8
Chih-Chuan Lin, Dong-Zong Hung, Hsien-Yi Chen, Kuang-Hung Hsu
BACKGROUND: To determine a new pralidoxime (PAM) treatment guideline based on the severity of acute organophosphate intoxication patients, APACHE II score, and dynamic changes in serum butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity. METHODS: This is a randomization trial. All patients received supportive care measurements and atropinization. Each enrolled patient was treated with 2 gm PAM intravenously as the loading dose. The control group was treated according to the WHO's recommended PAM regimen, and the experimental group was treated according to their APACHE II scores and dynamic changes in BuChE activity...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043415/pralidoxime-and-pesticide-poisoning-a-question-of-severity
#9
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we highlight new data supporting the use of pralidoxime in the treatment of cases of organophosphate poisoning, which also suggest that WHO treatment guidelines should be updated. We also learn about a modified surgical technique to repair severe spinal injuries, as well as new insight into the structure of human adenovirus that could inform vaccine development.
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002976/exposure-to-organophosphate-op-pesticides-and-health-conditions-in-agricultural-and-non-agricultural-workers-from-maule-chile
#10
María Teresa Muñoz-Quezada, Boris Lucero, Verónica Iglesias, Karen Levy, María Pía Muñoz, Eduardo Achú, Claudia Cornejo, Carlos Concha, Ana María Brito, Marcos Villalobos
The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of exposure to OP pesticides and health status in Chilean farm workers from the Maule Region. An occupational health questionnaire was administered in 207 agricultural and non-agricultural workers. For the group of agricultural workers, we asked about specific occupational exposure history and symptoms of OP pesticide poisoning. The main health problem of the exposed group was previous OP pesticide poisoning (p < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of agricultural workers reported symptoms consistent with acute OP pesticide poisoning...
February 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964728/the-use-of-self-reported-symptoms-as-a-proxy-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-after-exposure-to-chlorpyrifos-50-plus-cypermethrin-5-among-nepali-farmers-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#11
Dea Haagensen Kofod, Erik Jørs, Anshu Varma, Shankuk Bhatta, Jane Frølund Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies stating a high prevalence of occupational acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries have mainly relied on measurements of the rather non-specific self-reported acute pesticide poisoning symptoms. Only a few studies have measured the biomarker plasma cholinesterase (PchE) activity, in addition to the symptoms, when assessing occupational acute pesticide poisoning. This study evaluated self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning among Nepali farmers by examining self-reported acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity in response to occupational acute organophosphate exposure...
December 13, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959689/tongue-fasciculations-in-organophosphate-poisoning
#12
Bharath A Chhabria, Ashish Bhalla
A 15-year-old boy who lived with his family on a farm presented to the emergency department with a 1-day history of vomiting, diarrhea, and altered sensorium. On initial assessment, he was drowsy and had tachypnea and hypotension. Auscultation of the lungs revealed diffuse crepitations. His pupils..
December 8, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942347/pattern-of-acute-poisoning-in-jimma-university-specialized-hospital-south-west-ethiopia
#13
Eyosias Teklemariam, Shibiru Tesema, Awol Jemal
BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People can be exposed to poisons either intentionally or accidentally. Designing appropriate treatment or prevention approaches depends on understanding of the nature and pattern of poisoning in a specific place. Information on the patterns of acute poisoning in Ethiopian hospitals is limited. This study was, therefore, conducted to evaluate the patterns of acute poisoning in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), South West Ethiopia...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942054/effect-of-melatonin-on-duration-of-delirium-in-organophosphorus-compound-poisoning-patients-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
H N Vijayakumar, K Ramya, Devika Rani Duggappa, Km Veeranna Gowda, K Sudheesh, S S Nethra, R S Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Organophosphate compound poisoning (OPCP) is associated with high incidence of delirium. Melatonin has been tried in the treatment of delirium and has shown a beneficial effect in OPCP. This study was conducted to know the effect of melatonin on duration of delirium and recovery profile in OPCP patients. METHODS: Double-blind randomised placebo control trial in which 56 patients of OPCP confirmed by history and syndrome of OPCP with low plasma pseudocholinesterase, aged >18 years and weighing between 50 and 100 kg, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of <20 were studied...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896325/utilization-of-plasmapheresis-for-organophosphate-intoxication-a-case-report
#15
Nezihat Rana Disel, Ayca Acikalin, Zeynep Kekec, Ahmet Sebe
Organophosphate (OP) compounds are extremely toxic chemicals that may be absorbed via skin, conjunctiva, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Treatment of OP poisoning is a critical and aggressive process which includes decontamination, antidote administration (atropin and oximes), mechanical ventilation support and extracorporeal elimination procedures if needed. Here we present a young female patient who was unintentionally poisoned by an OP (trichlorfon) after using it to moisture her skin. The importance of this patient is the dermal disease that makes her unprotective to dermal exposure of chemicals and application of plasmapheresis to treat her poisoning...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845442/harnessing-nature-s-diversity-discovering-organophosphate-bioscavenger-characteristics-among-low-molecular-weight-proteins
#16
Reed B Jacob, Kenan C Michaels, Cathy J Anderson, James M Fay, Nikolay V Dokholyan
Organophosphate poisoning can occur from exposure to agricultural pesticides or chemical weapons. This exposure inhibits acetylcholinesterase resulting in increased acetylcholine levels within the synaptic cleft causing loss of muscle control, seizures, and death. Mitigating the effects of organophosphates in our bodies is critical and yet an unsolved challenge. Here, we present a computational strategy that integrates structure mining and modeling approaches, using which we identify novel candidates capable of interacting with a serine hydrolase probe (with equilibrium binding constants ranging from 4 to 120 μM)...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830420/organophosphate-hydrolyzing-enzymes-as-first-line-of-defence-against-nerve-agent-poisoning-perspectives-and-the-road-ahead
#17
REVIEW
A R Satvik Iyengar, Abhay H Pande
Nerve agents (NAs) are extremely neurotoxic synthetic organophosphate (OP) compounds exploited as weapons of mass destruction in terrorist attacks and chemical warfare. Considering the current world scenario, there is a persistent threat of NA-exposure to military personals and civilians. Various prophylactic and post-exposure treatments (such as atropine and oximes) available currently for NA-poisoning are inadequate and unsatisfactory and suffer from severe limitations. Hence, developing safe and effective treatment(s) against NA-poisoning is a critical necessity...
December 2016: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781262/risk-of-parkinson-disease-after-organophosphate-or-carbamate-poisoning
#18
C-S Chuang, H-L Su, C-L Lin, C-H Kao
AIMS: Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of PD in patients with organophosphate (OP) or carbamate (CM) poisoning by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study involving a cohort of 45 594 patients (9128 patients with a history of OP or CM poisoning and 36 466 control patients) who were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
October 26, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728587/pralidoxime-in-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-randomized-trial
#19
Bammigatti C, M Vinod Babu, T Kadhiravan, R P Swaminathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727872/organophosphate-poisoning-predicting-the-need-for-ventilatory-support
#20
Suresh B N
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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