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organophosphate poisoning

Nezihat Rana Disel, Ayca Acikalin, Zeynep Kekec, Ahmet Sebe
Organophosphate (OP) compounds are extremely toxic chemicals that may be absorbed via skin, conjunctiva, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Treatment of OP poisoning is a critical and aggressive process which includes decontamination, antidote administration (atropin and oximes), mechanical ventilation support and extracorporeal elimination procedures if needed. Here we present a young female patient who was unintentionally poisoned by an OP (trichlorfon) after using it to moisture her skin. The importance of this patient is the dermal disease that makes her unprotective to dermal exposure of chemicals and application of plasmapheresis to treat her poisoning...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Reed B Jacob, Kenan C Michaels, Cathy J Anderson, James M Fay, Nikolay V Dokholyan
Organophosphate poisoning can occur from exposure to agricultural pesticides or chemical weapons. This exposure inhibits acetylcholinesterase resulting in increased acetylcholine levels within the synaptic cleft causing loss of muscle control, seizures, and death. Mitigating the effects of organophosphates in our bodies is critical and yet an unsolved challenge. Here, we present a computational strategy that integrates structure mining and modeling approaches, using which we identify novel candidates capable of interacting with a serine hydrolase probe (with equilibrium binding constants ranging from 4 to 120 μM)...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
A R Satvik Iyengar, Abhay H Pande
Nerve agents (NAs) are extremely neurotoxic synthetic organophosphate (OP) compounds exploited as weapons of mass destruction in terrorist attacks and chemical warfare. Considering the current world scenario, there is a persistent threat of NA-exposure to military personals and civilians. Various prophylactic and post-exposure treatments (such as atropine and oximes) available currently for NA-poisoning are inadequate and unsatisfactory and suffer from severe limitations. Hence, developing safe and effective treatment(s) against NA-poisoning is a critical necessity...
December 2016: Protein Journal
C-S Chuang, H-L Su, C-L Lin, C-H Kao
AIMS: Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of PD in patients with organophosphate (OP) or carbamate (CM) poisoning by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study involving a cohort of 45 594 patients (9128 patients with a history of OP or CM poisoning and 36 466 control patients) who were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
October 26, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Bammigatti C, M Vinod Babu, T Kadhiravan, R P Swaminathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Suresh B N
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Farrukh Jamal, Quazi S Haque, Sangram Singh
BACKGROUND: Diverse group of agro-chemicals are indiscriminately sprayed by the farmers for pest control to enhance crop yield. About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase- like organophosphates (OPs). OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed pesticide sprayers of mango plantation in rural Malihabad, Lucknow, in terms of neuro-cognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and hematological factors...
2016: Open Biochemistry Journal
J Shashibhushan, Vishwanatha Huggi, N Sunil Kumar, Malappa Poojari, Rakesh Bobba
We are reporting a case of poisoning with a non-organophosphate pesticide (indoxacarb) resulting in methemoglobinemia and seizures, and successfully treated with ventilator care and intravenous ascorbic acid. Since there are limited data concerning the human toxicity of indoxacarb, physicians in emergency rooms should be aware of this rare poison and also its clinical presentations.
December 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Muddathir H Hamad, Ahmed Awad Adeel, Ali Abdu N Alhaboob, Ahmed M Ashri, Mustafa A Salih
This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft)...
2016: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
Faezeh Ghorbani Taherdehi, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh, Mehdi Jalali, Alireza Fazel
INTRODUCTION: Malathion is one of organophosphate poisons (OPPs) that inhibit cholinesterase activity and induce oxidative stress in target organs, such as the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Malathion on serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity in male rats and also to assess the protective effects of vitamin C in this regard. METHODS: This experimental study was performed in the Pharmacology Laboratory of the Pharmacy Faculty and in the Advanced Histology Techniques Laboratory of the Medical Faculty of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) in January 2014...
July 2016: Electronic Physician
Vesile Altinyazar, Fevziye Burcu Sirin, Recep Sutcu, Ibrahim Eren, Imran Kurt Omurlu
Long-term exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) without acute poisoning can lead to various OPs. Environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be associated with depression and suicide attempts in a population living in a rural agricultural area. Patients (n = 149) suffering from major depressive disorder (with and without attempted suicide) and a control group of healthy individuals (n = 64) who had been living in the same rural district for at least 1 year were selected. Red blood cell acetylcholine esterase (RBC-AChE) activity was examined as the basis of evaluating the degree of chronic environmental exposure to OPs residues...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Virginia Harrison, Sarah Mackenzie Ross
Previous research suggests that individuals with a prior history of pesticide poisoning are at increased risk of psychiatric disorder (Freire and Koifman, 2013), but findings regarding the impact of cumulative low-level exposure are inconsistent. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether sheep farmers with a history of low-level exposure to organophosphate pesticides (1) report a higher level of psychological distress on subjective symptom questionnaires, compared to unexposed controls (2) also meet internationally agreed diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder more often than unexposed controls...
August 26, 2016: Environmental Research
W Pouliot, S L Bealer, B Roach, F E Dudek
Exposure to organophosphates (OPs) often results in seizures and/or status epilepticus (SE) that produce neural damage within the central nervous system (CNS). Early control of SE is imperative for minimizing seizure-related CNS neuropathology. Although standard therapies exist, more effective agents are needed to reduce OP-induced SE and neuronal loss, particularly therapies with efficacy when administered 10's of minutes after the onset of SE. To evaluate novel antiseizure compounds, animal models should simulate the CNS effects of OP exposure observed in humans...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
Karin English, Paul Jagals, Robert S Ware, Carol Wylie, Peter D Sly
OBJECTIVE: Data from the Queensland Poisons Information Centre (QPIC) was assessed to determine mechanisms of acute insecticide poisoning in young children (<5 years) and whether age affects insecticide-poisoning patterns. METHODS: Records of all insecticide-related calls placed to QPIC in 2014 were obtained. A stratified analysis of call patterns by age was conducted. RESULTS: Of 743 insecticide-related calls received by QPIC 364 (49.0%) were for young children...
October 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
X Gao, B Y Zhu, W Z Wang, J Q He, D L Han, Y J Liu, H Meng, Q M Xiao, X T Liu, Y Y Han
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of serum presepsin concentration measurement in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with pesticide poisoning patients. METHODS: A total of 160 patients with pesticide poisoning were enrolled as study subjects and divided into moderate organophosphate pesticide poisoning group (40 patients) , severe organophosphate pesticide poisoning group (40 patients) , abamectin pesticide poisoning group (40 patients) , and paraquat poisoning group (40 patients)...
May 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Anshu Varma, Dinesh Neupane, Jens Peter Ellekilde Bonde, Erik Jørs
BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophosphate exposure among farmers. METHODS: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing...
2016: La Medicina del Lavoro
Erin Gallagher, Il Minn, Janice E Chambers, Peter C Searson
BACKGROUND: Current therapies for organophosphate poisoning involve administration of oximes, such as pralidoxime (2-PAM), that reactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Studies in animal models have shown a low concentration in the brain following systemic injection. METHODS: To assess 2-PAM transport, we studied transwell permeability in three Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cell lines and stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BC1-hBMECs)...
2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Andrey Kovalevsky, Donald K Blumenthal, Xiaolin Cheng, Palmer Taylor, Zoran Radić
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC, an essential enzyme of cholinergic neurotransmission in vertebrates, is a primary target in acute nerve agent and organophosphate (OP) pesticide intoxication. Catalytically inactive OP-AChE conjugates formed between the active-center serine and phosphorus of OPs can, in principle, be reactivated by nucleophilic oxime antidotes. Antidote efficacy is limited by the structural diversity of OP-AChE conjugates resulting from differences in the structure of the conjugated OP, the different active-center volumes they occupy when conjugated to the active-center serine of AChE, and the distinct chemical characteristics of both OPs and oximes documented in numerous X-ray structures of OP-conjugated AChEs...
August 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Young Hwan Lee, Young Taeck Oh, Won Woong Lee, Hee Cheol Ahn, You Dong Sohn, Ji Yun Ahn, Yong Hun Min, Hyun Kim, Seung Wook Lim, Kui Ja Lee, Dong Hyuk Shin, Sang O Park, Seung Min Park
Organophosphate (OP) intoxication remains a serious worldwide health concern, and many patients with acute OP intoxication have also consumed alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the association of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) with mortality among patients with OP intoxication. We retrospectively reviewed records from 135 patients who were admitted to an emergency department (ED) for OP intoxication between January 2000 and December 2012. Factors that were associated with patient survival were identified via receiver operating characteristic curve, multiple logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses...
June 13, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Naser Mozafari, Haleh Talaie, Simin Dokht Shoaei, Morteza Hashemian, Arezou Mahdavinejad
BACKGROUND: Body temperature is a critical criterion of health. Drugs and a variety of poisons can affect body temperature in poisoned patients, causing hyperthermia and hyperpyrexia. OBJECTIVES: Our previous study's findings in patients poisoned with organophosphate led us to the goal of this study: obtaining the initial tympanic temperature in patients poisoned by a variety of toxins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study reviewed the records of poisoned patients who were admitted to the toxicological intensive care unit (TICU) at Loghman Hakim hospital poison center (LHHPC) from February 2014 to February 2015...
April 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
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