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organophosphate poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233034/base-deficit-is-a-predictor-of-mortality-in-organophosphate-insecticide-poisoning
#1
S B Lee, C Kang, D H Kim, T Kim, S H Lee, J H Jeong, S C Kim, D Y Rhee, D Lim
OBJECTIVE: Organophosphate insecticide (OPI) self-poisoning is a major medical problem in many countries. Several studies have demonstrated that the base deficit (BD) is a prognostic tool that is correlated with the severity of injury and predicted mortality, particularly in trauma patients. Here, we aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of BD in OPI poisoning. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted between January 1, 2006, and January 31, 2015, at a single emergency department (ED)...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230717/utility-of-2-pyridine-aldoxime-methyl-chloride-2-pam-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Adam Blumenberg, Roshank Benabbas, Ian de Souza, Alyssa Conigliaro, Lorenzo Paladino, Elliot Warman, Richard Sinert, Sage W Wiener
Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established for patients with acute OP poisoning. The benefit of adding 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), however, is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare 2-PAM plus atropine in comparison to atropine alone for acute OP poisoning...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228398/organophosphorus-compounds-at-80-some-old-and-new-issues
#3
Lucio G Costa
One of the major classes of pesticides is that of the organophosphates (OPs). Initial developments date back almost two centuries but it was only in the mid-1940s that OPs reached a prominent status as insecticides, a status that, albeit declining, is still ongoing. OPs are highly toxic to non-target species including humans, the primary effects being an acute cholinergic toxicity (responsible for thousands of poisoning each year) and a delayed polyneuropathy. Several issues of current debate and investigation on the toxicology of OPs are discussed in this brief review...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217407/can-we-predict-intermediate-syndrome-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Chanika Alahakoon, Tharaka Lagath Dassanayake, Indika Bandara Gawarammana, Vajira Senaka Weerasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) is a common method of deliberate self harm in the developing world. Deaths mainly follow as a result of the respiratory failure associated with both cholinergic crisis and the intermediate syndrome. Even though death can be prevented by early mechanical ventilation of these patients, limited studies are available regarding the prediction of intermediate syndrome and subsequent respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review articles that are published with regard to possible prediction of intermediate syndrome using clinical, biochemical and electrophysiological parameters...
December 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169297/massive-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-after-organophosphate-poisoning-a-case-report
#5
Sourabh Gupta, Ruchika Kumar, Archana Agrawal, Bindu Aggarwal, Sanjay Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166784/performance-of-the-simplified-acute-physiology-score-iii-in-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-retrospective-observational-study
#6
D H Lee, B K Lee
The performances of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II have previously been evaluated in acute organophosphate poisoning. We aimed to compare the performance of the SAPS III with those of the APACHE II and SAPS II, as well as to identify the best tool for predicting case fatality using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) in acute organophosphate poisoning. A retrospective analysis of organophosphate poisoning was conducted. The APACHE II, SAPS II, and SAPS III were calculated within 24 h of admission...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154801/human-small-bowel-as-a-useful-tool-to-investigate-smooth-muscle-effects-of-potential-therapeutics-in-organophosphate-poisoning
#7
Katharina Marquart, Olga Prokopchuk, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Marc E Martignoni, Timo Wille
Isolated organs proofed to be a robust tool to study effects of (potential) therapeutics in organophosphate poisoning. Small bowel samples have been successfully used to reveal smooth muscle relaxing effects. In the present study, the effects of obidoxime, TMB-4, HI-6 and MB 327 were investigated on human small bowel tissue and compared with rat data. Hereby, the substances were tested in at least seven different concentrations in the jejunum or ileum both pre-contracted with carbamoylcholine. Additionally, the cholinesterase activity of native tissue was determined...
November 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143438/protective-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-nanoparticles-on-dichlorvos-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-mitochondrial-lysosomal-injury
#8
Aziz Eftekhari, Elham Ahmadian, Aida Azami, Mohammad Johari-Ahar, Mohammad Ali Eghbal
Development of biocompatible antioxidant nanoparticles for xenobiotic-induced liver disease treatment by oral or parenteral administration is of great interest in medicine. In the current study, we demonstrate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 nanoparticles (CoQ10-NPs) on hepatotoxicity induced by dichlorvos (DDVP) as an organophosphate. Although CoQ10 is an efficient antioxidant, its poor bioavailability has limited the applications of this useful agent. First, CoQ10-NPs were prepared then characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143350/dna-variants-and-organophosphate-neurotoxicity-among-emerging-farmers-in-the-western-cape-of-south-africa
#9
Tracy Glass, Mohamed A Dalvie, Zelda Holtman, Anna A Vorster, Rajkumar S Ramesar, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies investigating modification of organophosphate (OP) neurotoxicity by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) polymorphisms have produced inconsistent results. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 301 emerging farmers was conducted. Neurotoxicity testing included forward and backward recall, digit span, and vibration sensitivity testing. Questionnaire data included demography, potential confounders, and work history of pesticide exposures...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142799/respiratory-failure-following-organophosphate-poisoning-a-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Pirthvi Raj Giyanwani, Ujala Zubair, Osama Salam, Zarafshan Zubair
Organophosphates (OPs) account for a large portion of suicides globally. OP manifests as cholinergic crises, which underlie respiratory failure. There are many pathways by which respiration is inhibited secondary to organophosphate poisoning. These include central as well as peripheral mechanisms, with central mechanisms predominating. We conducted a literature review in June 2017. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched for studies that reported acute organophosphate poisoning in humans. In our review, data were collected from studies published during the years 2001 to 2016...
September 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141517/protective-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-organophosphate-poisoning
#11
Bahattin Avci, S Sirri Bilge, Gokhan Arslan, Omer Alici, Ozge Darakci, Turkhan Baratzada, Engin Ciftcioglu, Turker Yardan, Ayhan Bozkurt
In this study, we aimed to study the possible preventive effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a dietary omega-3 fatty acid, on toxicity caused by chlorpyrifos (CPF). Six groups of Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g) consisting of equal numbers of males and females (n = 8) were assigned to study. The rats were orally given for 5 days. The control group was administered pure olive oil, which was the vehicle for CPF. The CPF challenge groups were administered oral physiological saline, pure olive oil, or DHA (50, 100 and 400 mg/kg dosages) for 5 days...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129799/post-exposure-treatment-with-the-oxime-rs194b-rapidly-reactivates-and-reverses-advanced-symptoms-of-lethal-inhaled-paraoxon-in-macaques
#12
Yvonne J Rosenberg, Jerry Wang, Tara Ooms, Narayanan Rajendran, Lingjun Mao, Xiaoming Jiang, Jonathan Lees, Lori Urban, Jeremiah Romper, Yadire Sepulveda, Yan-Jye Shyong, Palmer Taylor
Fatalities from organophosphate (OP) insecticide result from both occupational and deliberate exposure; significantly impacting human health. Like nerve agents, insecticides are neurotoxins which target and inhibit acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in central and peripheral synapses in the cholinergic nervous system. Post-exposure therapeutic countermeasures generally include administration of atropine with a pyridinium aldoximes e.g. pralidoxime, to reactivate the OP-inhibited AChE. However, commonly used oximes inefficiently cross the blood brain barrier and are rapidly cleared and their benefit is debated...
November 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115090/urine-methyl-hippuric-acid-levels-in-acute-pesticide-poisoning-estimation-of-ingested-xylene-volume-and-association-with-clinical-outcome-parameters
#13
Chi Young Choi, NamJun Cho, Su Yeon Park, Samel Park, Hyo Wook Gil, Sae Yong Hong
To determine the relationship between the oral ingestion volume of xylene and methyl hippuric acid (MHA) in urine, we measured MHA in 11 patients whose ingested xylene volume was identified. The best-fit equation between urine MHA and ingested amount of xylene was as follows: y (ingested amount of xylene, mL/kg) = -0.052x² + 0.756x (x = MHA in urine in g/g creatinine). From this equation, we estimated the ingested xylene volume in 194 patients who had ingested pesticide of which the formulation was not available...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097283/biomolecular-engineering-of-biocatalysts-hydrolyzing-neurotoxic-organophosphates
#14
Ilya V Lyagin, Elena N Efremenko
Novel methods of molecular modeling help solving urgent problems in drug design, directed evolution of biocatalysts and biosensors, and a lot of other research fields. Implementation of such methods to organophosphorus hydrolase being perfect research object that hydrolyzes dangerous neurotoxic organophosphates could intensify development of antidote and protective preparations to treat poisoning. Structures of enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes (EPCs) based on hexahistidine-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH) with different biopolymers (various modifications of polyglutamic and polyaspartic acid, as well as hydroxyethyl starch and succinylated gelatin) were simulated at different pH using molecular docking...
October 30, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097222/searching-for-putative-binding-sites-of-the-bispyridinium-compound-mb327-in-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#15
Thomas Wein, Georg Höfner, Sebastian Rappenglück, Sonja Sichler, Karin V Niessen, Thomas Seeger, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Klaus T Wanner
Irreversible inhibition of the acetylcholine esterase upon intoxication with organophosphorus compounds leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and a subsequent desensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which may ultimately result in respiratory failure. The bispyridinium compound MB327 has been found to restore functional activity of nAChR thus representing a promising starting point for the development of new drugs for the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. In order to optimize the resensitizing effect of MB327 on nAChR, it would be very helpful to know the MB327 specific binding site to apply structure based molecular modeling...
October 30, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062551/in-vitro-cysteine-reactivates-organophosphate-insecticide-dichlorvos-inhibited-human-cholinesterases
#16
Hamidreza Mohammadi, Jafar Jalilian, Mohammad Y Karimi, Seyed V Shetab-Boushehri
OBJECTIVES: Organophosphate (OP) pesticides inhibit both red blood cell (RBC) and plasma cholinesterases (ChEs). Oximes, especially pralidoxime (2-PAM), are widely used as antidotes to treat OP poisoning. In addition, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is sometimes used as an adjuvant antidote. The current study aimed to assess the feasibility of using NAC as a single therapeutic agent for OP poisoning in comparison to in vitro 2-PAM. METHODS: This study was carried out at the Razi Drug Research Center of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between April and September 2014...
August 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027213/protective-effect-of-metoclopramide-against-organophosphate-induced-apoptosis-in-the-murine-skin-fibroblast-l929
#17
Basem M Jaber, Georg A Petroianu, Syed A Rizvi, Anwar Borai, Nada A Saleh, Sharif M Hala, Ayman M Saleh
This study was performed to evaluate the protective efficacy of metoclopramide (MCP) against the organophosphates paraoxon (POX)- and malathion (MLT)-induced apoptosis in the murine L929 skin fibroblasts. L929 cells were exposed to either POX (10 nm) or 1.0 μm MLT in the absence and presence of increased concentrations of MCP. The protective effect of MCP on these organophosphate-stimulated apoptotic events was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis after staining with annexin-V/propidium iodide, processing and activation of the executioner caspase-3, cleavage of the poly-ADP ribose polymerase, fragmentation of the nucleosomal DNA and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016517/pediatric-poisonings-in-a-rural-ugandan-emergency-department
#18
Katherine L Boyle, Usha Periyanayagam, Kavita M Babu, Brian T Rice, Mark Bisanzo
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe pediatric poisonings presenting to a rural Ugandan emergency department (ED), identifying demographic factors and causative agents. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in the ED of a rural hospital in the Rukungiri District of Uganda. A prospectively collected quality assurance database of ED visits was queried for poisonings in patients under the age of 5 who were admitted to the hospital. Cases were included if the chief complaint or final diagnosis included anything referable to poisoning, ingestion, or intoxication, or if a toxicologic antidote was administered...
October 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977266/potential-clinical-application-of-surface-electromyography-as-indicator-of-neuromuscular-recovery-during-weaning-tests-after-organophosphate-poisoning
#19
Maria Bernarda Salazar Sánchez, Alher Mauricio Hernández Valdivieso, Miguel Ángel Mañanas Villanueva, Andrés Felipe Zuluaga Salazar
This study aimed to explore the usefulness of measuring respiratory muscle activity in mechanically ventilated patients suffering from acute organophosphate poisoning, with a view towards providing complementary information to determine the best time to suspend ventilatory support. Surface electromyography in respiratory muscles (diaphragm, external intercostal and sternocleidomastoid muscles) was recorded in a young man affected by self-poisoning with an unknown amount of parathion to determine the muscle activity level during several weaning attempts from mechanical ventilation...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959515/acute-renal-failure-due-to-organophosphate-poisoning-a-case-report
#20
Rizwan Zafar, Kamran Munawar, Adeel Nasrullah, Shujaul Haq, Haider Ghazanfar, Abu Baker Sheikh, Ali Y Khan
Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a commonly seen condition in many countries. OP poisoning classically presents with symptoms of cholinergic excess. It can rarely affect other organ systems but when it does, it can worsen a patient's overall prognosis. We present a case of a 23-year-old man with an extremely rare case of acute kidney injury due to OP, who was successfully treated with a combination of hemodialysis, atropine and pralidoxime days after OP poisoning with reservations on the aging process.
July 27, 2017: Curēus
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