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organophosphate poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614332/new-therapeutic-approaches-and-novel-alternatives-for-organophosphate-toxicity
#1
Francine S Katz, Stevan Pecic, Laura Schneider, Zhengxiang Zhu, Ashley Hastings, Michal Luzac, Joanne Macdonald, Donald W Landry, Milan N Stojanovic
Organophosphate compounds (OPCs) are commonly used as pesticides and were developed as nerve agents for chemical warfare. Exposure to OPCs results in toxicity due to their covalent binding and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Treatment for toxicity due to OPC exposure has been largely focused on the reactivation of AChE by oxime-based compounds via direct nucleophilic attack on the phosphorous center. However, due to the disadvantages to existing oxime-based reactivators for treatment of OPC poisoning, we considered non-oxime mechanisms of reactivation...
March 31, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601635/fatal-poisoning-with-both-dichlorvos-and-phenthoate
#2
Akina Nara, Chiho Yamada, Takanori Kodama, Kanju Saka, Tetsuya Takagi
Organophosphates are widely used as pesticides. However, organophosphates are occasionally orally ingested to commit suicide. In this case, a man in his late 80s committed suicide by ingesting both dichlorvos and phenthoate. Autopsy findings revealed a characteristic volatile odor from his mouth, stomach, lungs, liver, and kidneys. The esophageal mucosa was denatured and had lost elasticity. Serum cholinesterase activity was 9 IU/L. Toxicological analyses performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed that dichlorvos concentrations in the left and right cardiac blood samples were 11...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557685/magnesium-sulfate-and-calcium-channel-blocking-drugs-as-antidotes-for-acute-organophosphorus-insecticide-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Miran Brvar, Ming Yin Chan, Andrew H Dawson, Richard R Ribchester, Michael Eddleston
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of acute organophosphorus or carbamate insecticide self-poisoning is often ineffective, with tens of thousands of deaths occurring every year. Researchers have recommended the addition of magnesium sulfate or calcium channel blocking drugs to standard care to reduce acetylcholine release at cholinergic synapses. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to review systematically the evidence from preclinical studies in animals exposed to organophosphorus or carbamate insecticides concerning the efficacy of magnesium sulfate and calcium channel blocking drugs as therapy compared with placebo in reducing mortality or clinical features of poisoning...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516527/oxidative-stress-in-organophosphate-poisoning-role-of-standard-antidotal-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Nela Vanova, Jaroslav Pejchal, David Herman, Alzbeta Dlabkova, Daniel Jun
Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP) toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways. Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of OP poisoning and the influence of commonly used medical interventions on its levels are discussed...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434782/effects-of-il-10-on-ox62-mhc-ii-and-cd86-in-bone-marrow-dcs-in-rats-with-organophosphate-poisoning
#5
Ning Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Ronggang Jiang
This study investigated the effect of interleukin (IL)-10 on the expression of OX62, MHC-II and CD86 in bone marrow dendritic cells (DCs) in rats with organophosphorus poisoning. Sixty adult SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (group A) (20 rats), 20 rats with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (group B), 20 rats with organophosphorus poisoning, and IL-10 treated (group C). Group A was not treated with special treatment. Group B was treated with 4% omethoate by gavage to establish the model of organophosphate poisoning...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403130/suicidal-nonorganophosphate-poisoning-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-south-india-nature-prevalence-risk-factors
#6
Rohit Ninan Benjamin, Thambu David, Ramya Iyadurai, K S Jacob
Background: People who deliberately ingest poisons commonly present to emergency departments of hospitals in India. However, there is a dearth of information on poisoning using nonorganophosphorus pesticides. Methods: This prospective, hospital-based study attempted to examine the nonorganophosphorus poisons used to attempt suicide. Data on sociodemographic characteristics of patients, site and source of poisons, co-ingested substances, premeditation, and reason for poisoning were collected...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362639/management-diagnostic-and-prognostic-significance-of-acetylcholinesterase-as-a-biomarker-of-the-toxic-effects-of-pesticides-in-people-occupationally-exposed
#7
Mitar Lutovac, Olga V Popova, Zoran Jovanovic, Hatidza Berisa, Radoman Kristina, Sonja Ketin, Marko Bojic
AIM: The paper presents research on the most common causes of exposure that leads to disorders of cholinesterase activity, as well as an overview of the results of cholinesterase activity with the poisoned people. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a group of 35 acute poisoned patients by organophosphate compounds has led to inhibition of AchE. A total number of examined workers are 175 in the chemical industry and agricultural production in the area of Rasina District-Serbia...
December 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332674/sleep-apnea-and-pesticide-exposure-in-a-study-of-us-farmers
#8
Brittney O Baumert, Megan Ulmer Carnes, Jane A Hoppin, Chandra L Jackson, Dale P Sandler, Laura Beane Freeman, Paul K Henneberger, David M Umbach, Srishti Shrestha, Stuart Long, Stephanie J London
INTRODUCTION: Carbamate and organophosphate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase, and poisoning leads to respiratory depression. Thus, involvement in sleep apnea is plausible, but no data exist at lower levels of exposure. Other pesticides could impact sleep apnea by different mechanisms but have not been studied. Our study examines the associations between pesticide exposure and sleep apnea among pesticide applicators from a US farming population. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 1569 male pesticide applicators, mostly farmers, from an asthma case-control study nested within the prospective Agricultural Health Study...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317766/clinical-characteristics-of-stress-cardiomyopathy-in-patients-with-acute-poisoning
#9
Ung Jeon, Samel Park, SangHo Park, Eun-Young Lee, Hyo-Wook Gil
Patients who attempt intentional suicide suffer from physical or emotional stress. This situation might be an important factor that causes takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We retrospectively investigated the clinical features of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients with acute poisoning. This study included patients who were admitted from January 2010 to December 2015 because of intentional poisoning by ingestion. Among these patients, we selectively collected data of patients who underwent an echocardiogram. We divided the patients into three groups according to the echocardiogram; the non-cardiomyopathy group, the global hypokinesia group, and the takotsubo cardiomyopathy group...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299760/correction-to-utility-of-2-pyridine-aldoxime-methyl-chloride-2-pam-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Adam Blumenberg, Roshank Benabbas, Ian de Souza, Alyssa Conigliaro, Lorenzo Paladino, Elliot Warman, Richard Sinert, Sage W Wiener
The names of coauthors Roshanak Benabbas and and Ian S. deSouza were given incorrectly (as "Roshnak Benabbas" and "Ian de Souza", respectively) in this article as originally published.
March 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279642/imidacloprid-poisoning-an-emerging-cause-of-potentially-fatal-poisoning
#11
Sanjay A Mundhe, Siddheshwar V Birajdar, Sheshrao S Chavan, Nikhil R Pawar
There are a variety of pesticides that are used to control the pests in agricultural lands and other places. Newer pesticides, developed as an alternative to highly toxic organophosphates such as imidacloprid including other neonicotinoid compounds, are being increasingly used considering their less harmful effects in case of human exposures. Though it is considered relatively safer to human beings, it can lead to potentially life-threatening complications and acute poisoning with these compounds may be fatal in large ingestion...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233034/base-deficit-is-a-predictor-of-mortality-in-organophosphate-insecticide-poisoning
#12
S B Lee, C Kang, D H Kim, T Kim, S H Lee, J H Jeong, S C Kim, D Y Rhee, D Lim
OBJECTIVE: Organophosphate insecticide (OPI) self-poisoning is a major medical problem in many countries. Several studies have demonstrated that the base deficit (BD) is a prognostic tool that is correlated with the severity of injury and predicted mortality, particularly in trauma patients. Here, we aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of BD in OPI poisoning. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted between January 1, 2006, and January 31, 2015, at a single emergency department (ED)...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230717/utility-of-2-pyridine-aldoxime-methyl-chloride-2-pam-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Adam Blumenberg, Roshanak Benabbas, Ian S deSouza, Alyssa Conigliaro, Lorenzo Paladino, Elliot Warman, Richard Sinert, Sage W Wiener
Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established for patients with acute OP poisoning. The benefit of adding 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), however, is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare 2-PAM plus atropine in comparison to atropine alone for acute OP poisoning...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228398/organophosphorus-compounds-at-80-some-old-and-new-issues
#14
Lucio G Costa
One of the major classes of pesticides is that of the organophosphates (OPs). Initial developments date back almost 2 centuries but it was only in the mid-1940s that OPs reached a prominent status as insecticides, a status that, albeit declining, is still ongoing. OPs are highly toxic to nontarget species including humans, the primary effects being an acute cholinergic toxicity (responsible for thousands of poisoning each year) and a delayed polyneuropathy. Several issues of current debate and investigation on the toxicology of OPs are discussed in this brief review...
March 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217407/can-we-predict-intermediate-syndrome-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Chanika Alahakoon, Tharaka Lagath Dassanayake, Indika Bandara Gawarammana, Vajira Senaka Weerasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) is a common method of deliberate self harm in the developing world. Deaths mainly follow as a result of the respiratory failure associated with both cholinergic crisis and the intermediate syndrome. Even though death can be prevented by early mechanical ventilation of these patients, limited studies are available regarding the prediction of intermediate syndrome and subsequent respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review articles that are published with regard to possible prediction of intermediate syndrome using clinical, biochemical and electrophysiological parameters...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169297/massive-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-after-organophosphate-poisoning-a-case-report
#16
Sourabh Gupta, Ruchika Kumar, Archana Agrawal, Bindu Aggarwal, Sanjay Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166784/performance-of-the-simplified-acute-physiology-score-iii-in-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-retrospective-observational-study
#17
D H Lee, B K Lee
The performances of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II have previously been evaluated in acute organophosphate poisoning. We aimed to compare the performance of the SAPS III with those of the APACHE II and SAPS II, as well as to identify the best tool for predicting case fatality using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) in acute organophosphate poisoning. A retrospective analysis of organophosphate poisoning was conducted. The APACHE II, SAPS II, and SAPS III were calculated within 24 h of admission...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154801/human-small-bowel-as-a-useful-tool-to-investigate-smooth-muscle-effects-of-potential-therapeutics-in-organophosphate-poisoning
#18
Katharina Marquart, Olga Prokopchuk, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Marc E Martignoni, Timo Wille
Isolated organs proofed to be a robust tool to study effects of (potential) therapeutics in organophosphate poisoning. Small bowel samples have been successfully used to reveal smooth muscle relaxing effects. In the present study, the effects of obidoxime, TMB-4, HI-6 and MB 327 were investigated on human small bowel tissue and compared with rat data. Hereby, the substances were tested in at least seven different concentrations in the jejunum or ileum both pre-contracted with carbamoylcholine. Additionally, the cholinesterase activity of native tissue was determined...
November 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143438/protective-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-nanoparticles-on-dichlorvos-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-mitochondrial-lysosomal-injury
#19
Aziz Eftekhari, Elham Ahmadian, Aida Azami, Mohammad Johari-Ahar, Mohammad Ali Eghbal
Development of biocompatible antioxidant nanoparticles for xenobiotic-induced liver disease treatment by oral or parenteral administration is of great interest in medicine. In the current study, we demonstrate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 nanoparticles (CoQ10-NPs) on hepatotoxicity induced by dichlorvos (DDVP) as an organophosphate. Although CoQ10 is an efficient antioxidant, its poor bioavailability has limited the applications of this useful agent. First, CoQ10-NPs were prepared then characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
February 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143350/dna-variants-and-organophosphate-neurotoxicity-among-emerging-farmers-in-the-western-cape-of-south-africa
#20
Tracy Glass, Mohamed A Dalvie, Zelda Holtman, Anna A Vorster, Rajkumar S Ramesar, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies investigating modification of organophosphate (OP) neurotoxicity by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) polymorphisms have produced inconsistent results. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 301 emerging farmers was conducted. Neurotoxicity testing included forward and backward recall, digit span, and vibration sensitivity testing. Questionnaire data included demography, potential confounders, and work history of pesticide exposures...
January 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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