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Global ophthalmology

Snezhina S Kostianeva, Marieta I Konareva-Kostianeva, Marin A Atanassov
AIM: To assess relationships between functional changes in visual field and structural changes in advanced open-angle glaucoma (OAG) found using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Thirty-one eyes of 25 patients with OAG were included in this study. Besides the routine ophthalmological exam the patients underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) (Humphrey Field Analyzer) and SD-OCT (RTVue-100) performed within 6 months. The global perimetric indices in the study group were as follows: mean deviation (MD) 12...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Ankush Kawali, Ringhoo Theresa Jose, Aishwarya, Mathew Kurian, Kushal Kacha, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Rohit Shetty
BACKGROUND: Psycho-immunology is an emerging branch of science which studies the interaction between the brain and the immune system. The purpose of this study is to identify the types of personality factors in patients with non-infectious uveitis and to find its association with a particular uveitic entity if any. This is a prospective, observational, case-control study of 186 patients with non-infectious uveitis (group A) and controls from general ophthalmology outpatient department (group B)...
December 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Chandrima Paul, Subhrangshu Sengupta, Sumit Choudhury, Souvik Banerjee, Betsy L Sleath
CONTEXT: Glaucoma is the leading cause of global irreversible blindness. No recent study with adequate sample size has been carried out to estimate glaucoma prevalence in Eastern India. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the prevalence and types of glaucoma in a rural and urban East Indian population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The Hooghly River Glaucoma Study (HRGS) is a population-based cross-sectional study from West Bengal...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Lily Gutnik, Gavin Yamey, Robert Riviello, John G Meara, Anna J Dare, Mark G Shrime
BACKGROUND: The non-profit and volunteer sector has made notable contributions to delivering surgical services in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). As an estimated 55 % of surgical care delivered in some LMICs is via charitable organizations; the financial contributions of this sector provides valuable insight into understanding financing priorities in global surgery. METHODS: Databases of registered charitable organizations in five high-income nations (United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand) were searched to identify organizations committed exclusively to surgery in LMICs and their financial data...
2016: SpringerPlus
Krishna R Murthy, Manjunath Dammalli, Sneha M Pinto, Kalpana Babu Murthy, Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Anil K Madugundu, Gourav Dey, Yashwanth Subbannayya, Uttam Kumar Mishra, Bipin Nair, Harsha Gowda, T S Keshava Prasad
The annual economic burden of visual disorders in the United States was estimated at $139 billion. Ophthalmology is therefore one of the salient application fields of postgenomics biotechnologies such as proteomics in the pursuit of global precision medicine. Interestingly, the protein composition of the human iris tissue still remains largely unexplored. In this context, the uveal tract constitutes the vascular middle coat of the eye and is formed by the choroid, ciliary body, and iris. The iris forms the anterior most part of the uvea...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Susan H Day
This article reviews globalization of quality standards in medicine, with emphasis on accreditation and certification. In conjunction with the 100th anniversary of the American Board of Ophthalmology, the author explores globalization movements, standards of quality, expectations of others seeking certification, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) International, interrelationships with the ABMS, and considerations both pragmatic and philosophical in addressing globalization of standards.
September 2016: Ophthalmology
M Rodríguez-Calzadilla, M W Ruíz-Benítez, J L de-Francisco-Ramírez, A R Redondo-Campos, E Fernández-Repeto-Nuche, T Gárate, R Morchón
CLINICAL CASE: The case concerns a 33-year-old Ukrainian woman, who came to the Ophthalmology Emergency Service, stating that she had a «worm» under the skin of her upper left eyelid that wriggled at night and bit her. A complete examination revealed a subcutaneous foreign body, which showed a filarial appearance and seemed to crawl under the skin. It was surgically removed to discover a live parasite, PCR-identified as Dirofilaria repens. DISCUSSION: Humans are accidental hosts in the cycle of Dirofilaria...
August 17, 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
B A Sabel
Visual field defects are considered irreversible because the retina and optic nerve do not regenerate. Nevertheless, there is some potential for recovery of the visual fields. This can be accomplished by the brain, which analyses and interprets visual information and is able to amplify residual signals through neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to change its own functional architecture by modulating synaptic efficacy. This is actually the neurobiological basis of normal learning...
August 9, 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Jeeyun Ahn, Jee-Young Lee, Tae Wan Kim
To analyze retinal thickness changes in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and correlate changes with disease severity and subtypes of MSA. A total of 36 MSA (27 MSA-P and 9 MSA-C) patients and 71 healthy control subjects underwent general ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and perifoveal retinal thickness were analyzed separately. The generalized estimating equation model was used with age as a covariate to adjust for within-patient inter-eye correlations and the effect of age on retinal or RNFL thickness...
October 2016: Journal of Neurology
Meenakshi Swaminathan, Srikanth Ramasubramanian, Rachel Pilling, Junhong Li, Karl Golnik
Pediatric cataract surgical skill assessment is important to ensure the competency of the trainees, especially pediatric ophthalmology fellows. Using a rubric would ensure objectivity in this process. The ICO-OSCAR pediatric cataract surgery rubric has been developed with global variations in techniques of pediatric cataract surgery in mind.
August 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Natsuyo Yoshida-Hata, Naomichi Katai, Toshiyuki Oshitari
Purpose. To report the ocular findings in patients with hematopoietic malignancy with optic nerve involvement and abducens nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of all cases of hematopoietic cancer with ophthalmic involvements seen in the Department of Ophthalmology of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Results. Eight patients with hematopoietic cancer with optic nerve invasion or abducens nerve palsy were studied. The primary diseases were 3 cases of multiple myeloma, 1 case of acute lymphocytic leukemia, 1 case of follicular lymphoma, and 3 cases of AIDS-related lymphoma...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Karl Golnik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Daiva Stanislovaitienė, Dalia Žaliūnienė, Rasa Steponavičiūtė, Reda Žemaitienė, Olivija Gustienė, Remigijus Žaliūnas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: An association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) has long been postulated, but exact mechanisms remain unclear. The global prevalence of CAD and ARMD increases and early biomarkers for early diagnosis of these diseases are necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma level of oxidative stress biomarker CML in patients with and without angiographic findings of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries (CADath+ and CADath-, respectively) and to assess if there was an association of CAD with ARMD...
2016: Medicina
Anca Pantalon, Crenguţa Feraru, D Chiseliţa
AIM OF STUDY: Progression rate in patients with glaucoma and diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHOD: cohort prospective study in Ophthalmology Clinic "Sf. Spiridon" University Hospital Iasi. We recruited patients with positive history for diabetes and of open angle glaucoma (OAG). The control group included subjects with OAG (74 eyes from 74 patients) and the study group (44 eyes, from 44 patients) included subjects with OAG and diabetes. At enrollment all patients had a complete ophthalmologic evaluation along with full metabolic status assessment...
January 2016: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Ange-Line Bruel, Alice Masurel-Paulet, Jean-Baptiste Rivière, Yannis Duffourd, Daphné Lehalle, Candace Bensignor, Frédéric Huet, Joséphine Borgnon, Florence Roucher, Paul Kuentz, Jean-François Deleuze, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Laurence Faivre, Julien Thevenon
We report on a boy with a rare malformative association of scrotum agenesis, ophthalmological anomalies, cerebellar malformation, facial dysmorphism and global development delay. The reported patient was carrying a homozygous frameshift in MAB21L1 detected by whole-exome sequencing, considered as the most likely disease-causing variant. Mab21l1 knockout mice present a strikingly similar malformative association of ophthalmological malformations of the anterior chamber and preputial glands hypoplasia. We hypothesize that MAB21L1 haploinsufficiency cause a previously undescribed syndrome with scrotal agenesis, ophthalmological anomalies, facial dysmorphism and gross psychomotor delay as remarkable hallmarks...
April 22, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Pawel Liskowski, Krzysztof Krawiec
The condition of the vascular network of human eye is an important diagnostic factor in ophthalmology. Its segmentation in fundus imaging is a nontrivial task due to variable size of vessels, relatively low contrast, and potential presence of pathologies like microaneurysms and hemorrhages. Many algorithms, both unsupervised and supervised, have been proposed for this purpose in the past. We propose a supervised segmentation technique that uses a deep neural network trained on a large (up to 400; 000) sample of examples preprocessed with global contrast normalization, zero-phase whitening, and augmented using geometric transformations and gamma corrections...
March 24, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Abhishek K Sah, Preeti K Suresh
Eye is a vital organ of our body and any complication not only poses the risk of serious medical condition but also economic burden on the individual. Timolol maleate is one of the preferable therapeutic agents for the management of glaucoma. Globally, eye drops are among the most common and popular conventional formulations, but they are also associated with some limitations in terms of therapeutic response, bioavailability, dosing frequency and poor patient compliance. Present paper gives an overview of the drug delivery systems developed for management of glaucoma, advances and novel approaches with special emphasis on timolol drug delivery...
March 22, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
M V Budzinskaya, N K Mazurina, A E Egorov, A V Kuroedov, I A Loskutov, A A Plyukhova, S Razik, A A Ryabtseva, S V Simonova
Considering an upward global trend in cardiovascular disease rates, retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in particular, development of therapeutic guidelines is a pressing issue in ophthalmology. Risk factors for RVO include hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, blood disorders, inflammatory disorders, and prescription drug use. Three stages of RVO have been identified. By location, the entity can be divided into three big groups: central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), and hemicentral retinal vein occlusion (HCRVO), each being either ischemic or nonischemic...
November 2015: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Chia-Ling Tsai, Hung-Chuan Hsu, Xin-Chang Wu, Shih-Jen Chen, Wei-Yang Lin
In ophthalmology, aligning images in Indocyanine Green (ICG) and Fluorescein Angiograph (FA) sequences is important for the treatment of subretinal lesions. This paper introduces an algorithm which is tailored to align jointly in a common reference space all the images in an angiogram sequence containing both modalities. To overcome the issues of low image contrast and low signal-to-noise ratio for late-phase images, the structural similarity between two images is enhanced using Gabor Wavelet Transform. Image pairs are pairwise-registered and the transformations are simultaneously and globally adjusted for a mutually consistent joint alignment...
March 4, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Hugh R Taylor
The prevalence of blindness increases rapidly with increasing age. Globally, there are some 32 million people who are blind and 191 million with poor vision. The leading cause of blindness worldwide is cataract, whereas uncorrected refractive error causes most poor vision. The rates of blindness from diabetes and macular degeneration are rapidly increasing, and age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Three quarters of this blindness can be prevented or treated, and although the absolute number of blind people increased slightly between 1990 and 2010, very importantly, the prevalence of blindness has been halved as eye care programs and particularly cataract services have developed...
March 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
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