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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053843/effects-of-season-and-distance-during-transport-on-broiler-chicken-meat
#1
V M Dos Santos, B S L Dallago, A M C Racanicci, Â P Santana, F E M Bernal
This research aims to evaluate the microclimate of commercial loads of broiler chickens at different distances in the summer (rainy) and winter (dry) seasons and their effects on meat quality. Twelve broiler loads were monitored with a total of 24 crates per load. Data loggers were used to record temperature and relative humidity. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with 48 treatments in a factorial scheme (2 seasons: rainy and dry) x 2 (distances: short and long) x 12 (positions), with 3 replicates per experimental group...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053841/meat-quality-traits-and-proteome-profile-of-woody-broiler-breast-pectoralis-major-meat
#2
K Cai, W Shao, X Chen, Y L Campbell, M N Nair, S P Suman, C M Beach, M C Guyton, M W Schilling
Woody breast meat has recently become prevalent in the broiler industry in both the United States and European Union. Recent publications have described the meat quality characteristics of woody breast meat as having hardened areas and pale ridge-like bulges at both the caudal and cranial regions of the breast. The present study investigated the meat quality (pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force) and protein quality characteristics (protein and salt-soluble protein content) in woody breast meat as compared to normal breast meat...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053690/3d-microtissues-for-injectable-regenerative-therapy-and-high-throughput-drug-screening
#3
Yaqian Li, Xiaojun Yan, Wei Liu, Lyu Zhou, Zhifeng You, Yanan Du
To upgrade traditional 2D cell culture to 3D cell culture, we have integrated microfabrication with cryogelation technology to produce macroporous microscale cryogels (microcryogels), which can be loaded with a variety of cell types to form 3D microtissues. Herein, we present the protocol to fabricate versatile 3D microtissues and their applications in regenerative therapy and drug screening. Size and shape-controllable microcryogels can be fabricated on an array chip, which can be harvested off-chip as individual cell-loaded carriers for injectable regenerative therapy or be further assembled on-chip into 3D microtissue arrays for high-throughput drug screening...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051953/effects-of-multifunctional-cross-linkers-on-rheology-and-adhesion-of-soft-nanostructured-materials
#4
X Callies, C Véchambre, C Fonteneau, F Herbst, J-M Chenal, S Pensec, L Chazeau, W H Binder, L Bouteiller, C Creton
We investigate the nanostructure, the rheology and the adhesion of soft supramolecular materials elaborated by blending monofunctional and multifunctional poly(isobutene) (PIB) chains. Monofunctional PIB chains (PIBUT) are linear and unentangled polymer chains (Mn ≈ 3 kg mol(-1)) functionalized in the middle by a bis-urea interacting moiety, able to self-associate by four hydrogen bonds. Covalent coupling of monofunctional PIB allows us to synthesize longer chains bearing two or three interacting moieties...
October 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051640/atta-whole-wheat-flour-with-multi-wholegrains-flour-characterization-nutritional-profiling-and-evaluation-of-chapati-making-quality
#5
Sayali Pande, S D Sakhare, M G Bhosale, D J Haware, A A Inamdar
Non-wheat grains, complementing the nutritional profile of wheat were utilized for the development of atta with multi-whole grains. Based on the dimensions, selected grains were segregated and the grinding techniques were applied for the production of multi whole grains flour. Multi whole grains flour was replaced with whole wheat flour to obtain five different formulations and further compared with control atta. With the increase in incorporation of the multi whole grain flours reduction in brightness (L*) from 79...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051120/the-influence-of-high-shear-mixing-on-ternary-dry-powder-inhaler-formulations
#6
Mats Hertel, Eugen Schwarz, Mirjam Kobler, Sabine Hauptstein, Hartwig Steckel, Regina Scherließ
The blending process is a key step in the production of dry powder inhaler formulations, but only little is known about the influence of process parameters. This is especially true for high shear blending of ternary formulations. For this reason, this study aims to investigate the influence of high shear mixing process parameters (mixing time and rotation speed) on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of ternary mixtures when using budesonide as model drug, two different carrier materials and two different mixing orders...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049969/the-role-of-hydrodynamics-in-shaping-the-composition-and-architecture-of-epilithic-biofilms-in-fluvial-ecosystems
#7
Ute Risse-Buhl, Christine Anlanger, Katalin Kalla, Thomas R Neu, Christian Noss, Andreas Lorke, Markus Weitere
Previous laboratory and on-site experiments have highlighted the importance of hydrodynamics in shaping biofilm composition and architecture. In how far responses to hydrodynamics can be found in natural flows under the complex interplay of environmental factors is still unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of near streambed turbulence in terms of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) on the composition and architecture of biofilms matured in two mountainous streams differing in dissolved nutrient concentrations...
September 28, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049327/characteristics-of-pulsatile-flows-in-curved-stenosed-channels
#8
Hyeonji Hong, Eunseop Yeom, Ho Seong Ji, Hyun Dong Kim, Kyung Chun Kim
Spatial and temporal variations of the hemodynamic features occur under pulsatile conditions in complex vessel geometry. Wall shear stress affected by the disturbed flow can result in endothelial cell dysfunction, which leads to atherogenesis and thrombosis. Therefore, detailed understanding of the hemodynamic characteristics in a curved stenosed channel is highly important when examining the pathological effects of hemodynamic phenomena on the progression of atherosclerosis. The present study measures the velocity fields of pulsatile flows with three different Reynolds numbers in 3D curved vessel models with stenosis using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046852/a-comparative-study-of-the-nanoscale-and-macroscale-tribological-attributes-of-alumina-and-stainless-steel-surfaces-immersed-in-aqueous-suspensions-of-positively-or-negatively-charged-nanodiamonds
#9
Colin K Curtis, Antonin Marek, Alex I Smirnov, Jacqueline Krim
This article reports a comparative study of the nanoscale and macroscale tribological attributes of alumina and stainless steel surfaces immersed in aqueous suspensions of positively (hydroxylated) or negatively (carboxylated) charged nanodiamonds (ND). Immersion in -ND suspensions resulted in a decrease in the macroscopic friction coefficients to values in the range 0.05-0.1 for both stainless steel and alumina, while +ND suspensions yielded an increase in friction for stainless steel contacts but little to no increase for alumina contacts...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046174/gravitational-and-somatosensory-influences-on-control-and-perception-of-roll-balance
#10
Alexander Sacha Panic, Heather Panic, Paul DiZio, James R Lackner
INTRODUCTION: Blindfolded subjects used a joystick to orient themselves to the direction of balance in a device programmed to exhibit inverted pendulum behavior in the roll plane; they indicated with a trigger press when they were at that location. Our goal was to determine how otolith and somatosensory information about the gravitational vertical influenced the ability to locate the direction of balance. METHODS: The subjects (N = 12) were tested in each of three orientations of the body roll plane: vertical (Upright), 45° back (45_Degree), and 90° back (Supine), which provided progressively less salient otolith and somatosensory information about roll orientation with regard to the direction of gravity...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044509/comprehensive-transcriptome-analysis-of-fluid-shear-stress-altered-gene-expression-in-renal-epithelial-cells
#11
Steven J Kunnen, Tareq B Malas, Cornelis M Semeins, Astrid D Bakker, Dorien J M Peters
Renal epithelial cells are exposed to mechanical forces due to flow-induced shear stress within the nephrons. Shear stress is altered in renal diseases caused by tubular dilation, obstruction and hyperfiltration, which occur to compensate for lost nephrons. Fundamental in regulation of shear stress are primary cilia and other mechano-sensors, and defects in cilia formation and function have profound effects on development and physiology of kidneys and other organs. We applied RNA sequencing to get a comprehensive overview of fluid-shear regulated genes and pathways in renal epithelial cells...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042724/evaluation-of-bond-strength-between-grooved-titanium-alloy-implant-abutments-and-provisional-veneering-materials-after-surface-treatment-of-the-abutments-an-in-vitro-study
#12
Gowtham Venkat, Murugesan Krishnan, Suganya Srinivasan, Muthukumar Balasubramanian
INTRODUCTION: Titanium has become the material of choice with greater applications in dental implants. The success of the dental implant does not only depend on the integration of the implant to the bone but also on the function and longevity of the superstructure. The clinical condition that demands long-term interim prosthesis is challenging owing to the decreased bond between the abutment and the veneering material. Hence, various surface treatments are done on the abutments to increase the bond strength...
July 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042549/mechanoresponsive-lipid-protein-nanoglobules-facilitate-reversible-fibre-formation-in-velvet-worm-slime
#13
Alexander Baer, Stephan Schmidt, Sebastian Haensch, Michaela Eder, Georg Mayer, Matthew J Harrington
Velvet worms eject a fluid capture slime that can be mechanically drawn into stiff biopolymeric fibres. Remarkably, these fibres can be dissolved by extended exposure to water, and new regenerated fibres can be drawn from the dissolved fibre solution-indicating a fully recyclable process. Here, we perform a multiscale structural and compositional investigation of this reversible fabrication process with the velvet worm Euperipatoides rowelli, revealing that biopolymeric fibre assembly is facilitated via mono-disperse lipid-protein nanoglobules...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038802/viscous-forces-and-bulk-viscoelasticity-near-jamming
#14
Karsten Baumgarten, Brian P Tighe
When weakly jammed packings of soft, viscous, non-Brownian spheres are probed mechanically, they respond with a complex admixture of elastic and viscous effects. While many of these effects are understood for specific, approximate models of the particles' interactions, there are a number of proposed force laws in the literature, especially for viscous interactions. We numerically measure the complex shear modulus G* of jammed packings for various viscous force laws that damp relative velocities between pairs of contacting particles or between a particle and the continuous fluid phase...
October 17, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037037/superlow-friction-of-graphite-induced-by-self-assembly-of-sds-molecular-layers
#15
Jinjin Li, Jianbin Luo
Two-dimensional layered materials usually exhibit superlow friction properties when the shear occurs between incommensurate interface lattices. In this work, we propose a new method, which is different from the traditional structure superlubricity, to achieve superlow friction of graphite. This method involves attaching a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecular layers on the friction surfaces by self-assembly and sliding across aqueous medium. The friction coefficient between graphite and silica can be reduced to approximately 0...
October 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035769/transport-and-long-term-release-behavior-of-polymer-coated-silver-nanoparticles-in-saturated-quartz-sand-the-impacts-of-input-concentration-grain-size-and-flow-rate
#16
Jun Hou, Mingzhi Zhang, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Lingzhan Miao, Yi Xu, Guoxiang You, Bowen Lv, Yangyang Yang, Zhilin Liu
This study investigated the transport and long-term release of stabilized poly vinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) in a quartz sand column with various sand grain sizes (0.3-0.5 μm, 0.5-1.0 μm, 1.0-2.0 μm), input concentrations of PVP-AgNP solution (1, 5, 15, 25 mg/L), and flow rates corresponding to a filter velocities (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mL/min-0.14, 0.21, 0.28, 0.35 cm/min) by determining breakthrough curves, retention profiles, and long-term release curves. Breakthrough curves and retention profiles were simulated by a mathematical model based on the advection dispersion equation coupled with second-order kinetics...
October 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035765/a-force-based-mechanistic-model-for-describing-activated-sludge-settling-process
#17
Guihua Xu, Fengjun Yin, Yuanjian Xu, Han-Qing Yu
Sludge settling as the last step in the biological wastewater treatment process substantially affects the system performance, and thus the design and control optimization of the sludge settling process has been frequently investigated with mathematical modeling tools. So far, these models are developed on the basis of the solid flux theory with numerous parameters and complicated boundary conditions, and their prediction results are often unsatisfactory. In this work, a new force-based mechanical model with five parameters was developed, in which five forces were adopted and Newton's law, rather than the flux theory, was used to describe the sludge settling process...
October 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035726/nonionic-surfactants-enhanced-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-cellulose-by-reducing-cellulase-deactivation-caused-by-shear-force-and-air-liquid-interface
#18
Hongming Lou, Meijun Zeng, Qiaoyan Hu, Cheng Cai, Xuliang Lin, Xueqing Qiu, Dongjie Yang, Yuxia Pang
Effects of nonionic surfactants on enzymatic hydrolysis of Avicel at different agitation rates and solid loadings and the mechanism were studied. Nonionic surfactants couldn't improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency at 0 and 100rpm but could enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis significantly at high agitation rate (200 and 250rpm). Cellulase was easily deactivated at high agitation rate and the addition of nonionic surfactants can protect against the shear-induced deactivation, especially when the cellulase concentration was low...
July 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035278/hdac3-regulates-lymphovenous-and-lymphatic-valve-formation
#19
Harish P Janardhan, Zachary J Milstone, Masahiro Shin, Nathan D Lawson, John F Keaney, Chinmay M Trivedi
Lymphedema, the most common lymphatic anomaly, involves defective lymphatic valve development; yet the epigenetic modifiers underlying lymphatic valve morphogenesis remain elusive. Here, we showed that during mouse development, the histone-modifying enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) regulates the formation of both lymphovenous valves, which maintain the separation of the blood and lymphatic vascular systems, and the lymphatic valves. Endothelium-specific ablation of Hdac3 in mice led to blood-filled lymphatic vessels, edema, defective lymphovenous valve morphogenesis, improper lymphatic drainage, defective lymphatic valve maturation, and complete lethality...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034984/sensory-quality-and-fatty-acid-content-of-springbok-antidorcas-marsupialis-meat-influence-of-farm-location-and-gender
#20
Jeannine Neethling, Magdalena Muller, Marieta van der Rijst, Louwrens C Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Springbok are harvested for meat production irrespective of farm location or gender from which the meat is derived. This study investigated the influence of farm location (three farms containing different vegetation types) and gender on the sensory quality of springbok longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. The sensory profile (aroma, flavour and texture) was determined by descriptive sensory analysis, in addition to determining the physical meat quality, proximate and fatty acid composition...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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