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Shear force

Macc Rigdon, Yen-Con Hung, Alexander M Stelzleni
Sixty-four pork loins were randomly assigned to one of four treatments to evaluate the use of alkaline electrolyzed reduced water as a replacement for traditional enhancement solutions. Treatments included: alkaline electrolyzed reduced water (EOH; pH≈11.5), EOH plus 2.5% potassium-lactate (EOK), industry standard (IS; 0.35% sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.14% sodium chloride, 2.5% potassium-lactate), and no enhancement (CON). After enhancement (targeting 110%) and rest period, chops were cut (2.54-cm) to test treatment effects on water holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory attributes...
October 14, 2016: Meat Science
Pan Dan, Émilie Velot, Grégory Francius, Patrick Menu, Véronique Decot
: One of the outstanding goals in tissue engineering is to develop a natural coating surface which is easy to manipulate, effective for cell adhesion and fully biocompatible. The ideal surface would be derived from human tissue, perfectly controllable, and pathogen-free, thereby satisfying all of the standards of the health authorities. This paper reports an innovative approach to coating surfaces using a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) extracted from the Wharton's jelly (WJ) of the umbilical cord (referred to as WJ-ECM)...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Kelly Muijlwijk, Wenqian Huang, Jan-Eise Vuist, Claire Berton-Carabin, Karin Schroën
Surfactant adsorption during emulsification can be quantified by measuring the acting interfacial tension using a Y-junction microfluidic device. To obtain insight into the surfactant transport mechanism to the interface, the effect of shear force on the acting interfacial tension was assessed by systematically varying the continuous phase viscosity and velocity. Varying the continuous phase viscosity did not affect the acting interfacial tension, indicating that surfactant adsorption during Y-junction emulsification is not diffusion-limited...
October 21, 2016: Soft Matter
Christian Schulz, Radovan Vukićević, Anne Krüger-Genge, Axel T Neffe, Andreas Lendlein, Friedrich Jung
The formation of a functionally-confluent and shear-resistant endothelial cell monolayer on cardiovascular implants is a promising strategy to prevent thrombogenic processes after implantation. On the basis of existing studies with arterial endothelial cells adhering after two hours on gelatin-based hydrogels in marked higher numbers compared to tissue culture plates, we hypothesize that also venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) should be able to adhere and form an endothelial monolayer on these hydrogels after days...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Mafalda Magalhães, Pedro Belo-Oliveira, João Casalta-Lopes, Yessica Costa, Manuela Gonçalo, Paula Gomes, Filipe Caseiro-Alves
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to correlate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging velocities with the pathology results and to evaluate the ability of ARFI in distinguishing benign from malignant breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: B-mode ultrasonography (US) and ARFI were performed in patients with previously diagnosed and selected breast lesions for biopsy. Shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured inside lesions and in the surrounding parenchyma (m/s)...
October 17, 2016: Academic Radiology
Jiang Zhu, Li Qi, Yusi Miao, Teng Ma, Cuixia Dai, Yueqiao Qu, Youmin He, Yiwei Gao, Qifa Zhou, Zhongping Chen
Elastography provides a powerful tool for histopathological identification and clinical diagnosis based on information from tissue stiffness. Benefiting from high resolution, three-dimensional (3D), and noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical micro-elastography has the ability to determine elastic properties with a resolution of ~10 μm in a 3D specimen. The shear wave velocity measurement can be used to quantify the elastic modulus. However, in current methods, shear waves are measured near the surface with an interference of surface waves...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Qingqi Yan, Yumei Wang, Wawat Rodiahwati, Antje Spiess, Michael Modigell
Screw press processing of biomass can be considered as a suitable mechanically based pretreatment for biofuel production since it disrupts the structure of lignocellulosic biomass with high shear and pressure forces. The combination with chemical treatment has been suggested to increase the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars. Within the study, the synergetic effect of alkaline (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) soaking and screw press pretreatment on wheat straw was evaluated based on, e.g., sugar recovery and energy efficiency...
October 19, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Adam Carl Philipoff, William Lumsdaine, Dieter G Weber
Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt thoracoabdominal trauma is rare; gall bladder rupture is seen in <1% of blunt abdominal trauma. This case report describes a significant mechanism of blunt force injury resulting in an isolated gallbladder rupture. Risk factors for traumatic gallbladder rupture are reviewed and the authors propose that a stiff, cirrhotic liver may exacerbate shear forces in the gallbladder fossa and represents an important risk factor for blunt gallbladder injury. Cholecystectomy remains the definitive management for gallbladder trauma...
October 18, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Hongshi Huang, Noël Keijsers, Herwin Horemans, Qinwei Guo, Yuanyuan Yu, Henk Stam, Stephan Praet, Yingfang Ao
OBJECTIVES: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) deficiency may result in abnormal lower limb loading with increased foot pronation. This study evaluated spatiotemporal parameters and plantar pressure distribution during walking in participants with and without an ACL rupture. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Plantar pressure was measured in 42 unilateral ACL deficient (ACLD) participants and 32 healthy controls while walking barefoot. Spatiotemporal parameters, pressure distribution and center of pressure (CoP) during foot roll off were determined...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Haiying Jin, Qi Zhang, Peiquan Zhao
BACKGROUND: To introduce a modified surgical technique, the "parafoveal multiple curvelinear internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling", to preserve epi-foveal ILM in myopic foveoschisis surgery. METHODS: Consecutive patients with myopic foveoschisis were enrolled in the present prospective interventional case series. The surgeries were performed using transconjunctival 23-gauge system. The macular area was divided into quadrants. ILM was peeled off in a curvilinear manner centered around the site that was away from the central fovea in each quadrant...
October 18, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
DeMetris D Reed, Lee-Anne J Walter, Angela N Schmitz, Daniel E Guadián-García, Ty E Lawrence
Palatability attributes of beef striploin steaks mechanically enhanced with pork fat were evaluated. Striploins were collected from USDA Standard steer carcasses, longitudinally cut into halves (lateral or medial) and assigned randomly to pork fat injection (PFI) or non-injected control (CON). Loin halves assigned to PFI were enhanced with pork fat using a multi-needle injector. Steaks were analyzed via Warner-Bratzler shear force, trained and consumer sensory panels, and proximate analysis (cooked and uncooked)...
October 5, 2016: Meat Science
Yongsan Li, Yingwei Zhang, Feng Shi, Lei Tao, Yen Wei, Xing Wang
Cell therapy has attracted wide attention among researchers in biomaterial and medical areas. As a carrier, hydrogels that could keep high viability of the embedded cells have been developed. However, few researches were conducted on 3D cell proliferation, a key factor for cell therapy, especially after injection. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time the proliferation regulation of the 3D-embedded L929 cells in a modulus-tunable and injectable self-healing hydrogel before and after injection without adding specific growth factor...
October 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Luiz H P Silva, Pedro V R Paulino, Gutierrez J F Assis, Debora E F Assis, Mauricio M Estrada, Matheus C Silva, Jaqueline C Silva, Taiane S Martins, Sebastião C Valadares Filho, Mário F Paulino, Mario L Chizzotti
This study evaluated the effects of growth rate during post-weaning growing phase on carcass traits and beef quality. Thirty-four Nellore young bulls were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: LOW, MEDIUM or HIGH growth rate during post-weaning growing phase followed by high growth rate in the finishing phase. The growth rate affected (P<0.05) all carcass traits evaluated at the end of post-weaning growing phase, except ultimate pH. Carcass dressing was greatest (P<0.05) for the HIGH growth rate group in both phases...
October 12, 2016: Meat Science
Laura E Edsberg, Joyce M Black, Margaret Goldberg, Laurie McNichol, Lynn Moore, Mary Sieggreen
Our understanding of pressure injury etiology and development has grown in recent years through research, clinical expertise, and global interdisciplinary expert collaboration. Therefore, the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) has revised the definition and stages of pressure injury. The revision was undertaken to incorporate the current understanding of the etiology of pressure injuries, as well as to clarify the anatomical features present or absent in each stage of injury. An NPUAP-appointed Task Force reviewed the literature and created drafts of definitions, which were then reviewed by stakeholders and the public, including clinicians, educators, and researchers around the world...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Jimmy Tat, Aaron M Kociolek, Peter J Keir
The most common finding in carpal tunnel syndrome is fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT). While the SSCT mediates tendon gliding in the carpal tunnel, this histopathology suggests excessive shear forces are involved in injury development. Ultrasound is often used to quantify relative motion between the finger flexor tendons and SSCT as an indirect measure of "shear-strain"; however, the underlying mechanical implications of using ultrasound are not well understood. The middle flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon of 8 cadavers was moved in a combination of 2 wrist postures (neutral, flexed), 3 velocities (5, 10, 15cm/s), and 3 forces (10, 20, 30N) to assess ultrasound-based FDS-SSCT relative displacement while simultaneously quantifying tendon frictional work in the carpal tunnel...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
J Travis Hunsucker, Kelli Z Hunsucker, Harrison Gardner, Geoffrey Swain
The role of hydrodynamic wall shear stresses on the development of the fouling community structure and resulting frictional drag were examined using a commercially available fouling release coating. Immersed test panels were exposed to three different hydrodynamic treatments, one static and two dynamic (corresponding to an estimated wall shear stress of 7.0  and 25.5 Pa). The drag of the panels was measured in a hydrodynamic test chamber at discrete time intervals over 35 days. The fouling community composition on the static panels was significantly different from the organisms observed on the dynamic panels...
November 2016: Biofouling
W Chumngoen, C F Chen, H Y Chen, F J Tan
1. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of broiler (BR) and Taiwan native (TNC) chicken pectoralis muscle heated at temperatures of 50-95°C. 2. With increasing temperature, cooking loss, collagen solubility, shear force value and hardness of samples increased in both chicken breeds. Rapid decreases in protein solubility were observed when the meat was heated to 50°C and gradually decreased thereafter. 3. Meat from broilers and native chickens performed differently upon heating in certain characteristics...
October 17, 2016: British Poultry Science
Maria A Oliveira, Susana P Alves, José Santos-Silva, Rui J B Bessa
Forty lambs were fed one of four diets supplemented with a linseed and sunflower oil blend but differing in starch level (mid, ≈35 vs. high, ≈50%) and starch rumen degradability (mid, ≈70 vs. high, ≈80%). The effects of diet on growth, carcass traits and meat fatty acid (FA) composition, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates were evaluated. Lambs stayed on trial for 5weeks until slaughter. Treatment had no effect on animal performance and carcass traits. High-degradability diets decreased (P=0...
October 5, 2016: Meat Science
Katarzyna A Rejniak
Solid tumor dissemination from the primary site to the sites of metastasis involves tumor cell transport through the blood or lymph circulation systems. Once the tumor cells enter the bloodstream, they encounter a new hostile microenvironment. The cells must withstand hemodynamic forces and overcome the effects of fluid shear. The cells are exposed to immunological signaling insults from leukocytes, to collisions with erythrocytes, and to interactions with platelets or macrophages. Finally, the cells need to attach to the blood vessel walls and extravasate to the surrounding stroma to form tumor metastases...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
L L Xiao, Y Liu, S Chen, B M Fu
Adhesion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to the microvessel wall largely depends on the blood hydrodynamic conditions, one of which is the blood viscosity. Since blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, whose viscosity increases with hematocrit, in the microvessels at low shear rate. In this study, the effects of hematocrit, vessel size, flow rate and red blood cell (RBC) aggregation on adhesion of a CTC in the microvessels were numerically investigated using dissipative particle dynamics. The membrane of cells was represented by a spring-based network connected by elastic springs to characterize its deformation...
October 13, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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