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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823135/the-meat-quality-muscle-fiber-characteristics-and-fatty-acid-profile-in-jinjiang-and-f1-simmental%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-jinjiang-yellow-cattle
#1
Yue Zheng, Shizhi Wang, Peishi Yan
Objective: This study compared the meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, and fatty acids between Jinjiang yellow cattle (JJ) and F1 Simmental × Jinjiang yellow cattle (SJ) which were offered the same diet. Methods: Six JJ and six SJ individuals were reared and fattened from 10 to 26 months of age. After feeding, the highrib (HR), ribeye (RB) and tenderloin (TL) samples were taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. Results: The results showed that growth performance of SJ was higher than that of JJ (higher live weight and average daily gain), and the hot carcass weight of SJ was higher than that of JJ (P < 0...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822988/the-components-of-shear-stress-affecting-insect-cells-used-with-the-baculovirus-expression-vector-system
#2
Tobias Weidner, Damir Druzinec, Martina Mühlmann, Rainer Buchholz, Peter Czermak
Insect-based expression platforms such as the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) are widely used for the laboratory- and industrial-scale production of recombinant proteins. Thereby, major drawbacks to gain high-quality proteins are the lytic infection cycle and the shear sensitivity of infected insect cells due to turbulence and aeration. Smaller bubbles were formerly assumed to be more harmful than larger ones, but we found that cell damage is also dependent on the concentration of protective agents such as Pluronic®...
August 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821728/dynamic-weight-bearing-analysis-is-effective-for-evaluation-of-tendinopathy-using-a-customized-corridor-with-multi-directional-force-sensors-in-a-rat-model
#3
Po-Ting Wu, Chieh-Hsiang Hsu, Fong-Chin Su, I-Ming Jou, Shih-Yao Chen, Chao-Liang Wu, Wei-Ren Su, Li-Chieh Kuo
Few studies discuss kinetic changes in tendinopathy models. We propose a customized corridor to evaluate dynamic weight bearing (DWB) and shearing forces. Sixty rats were randomly given ultrasound-assisted collagenase injections (Collagenase rats) or needle punctures (Control rats) in their left Achilles tendons, and then evaluated 1, 4, and 8 weeks later. The Collagenase rats always had significantly (p < 0.001) higher histopathological and ultrasound feature scores than did the Controls, significantly lower DWB values in the injured than in the right hindlimbs, and compensatorily higher (p < 0...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820314/flow-pattern-dependent-endothelial-cell-responses-through-transcriptional-regulation
#4
Hiroyuki Nakajima, Naoki Mochizuki
Blood flow provides endothelial cells (ECs) lining the inside of blood vessels with mechanical stimuli as well as humoral stimuli. Fluid shear stress, the frictional force between flowing blood and ECs, is recognized as an essential mechanical cue for vascular growth, remodeling, and homeostasis. ECs differentially respond to distinct flow patterns. High laminar shear flow leads to inhibition of cell cycle progression and stabilizes vessels, whereas low shear flow or disturbed flow leads to increased turnover of ECs and inflammatory responses of ECs prone to atherogenic...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819203/differential-diagnostic-performance-of-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-imaging-in-small-%C3%A2-20%C3%A2-mm-breast-cancers-is-it-valuable
#5
Si-Da Wang, Lei Wang, Zhi-Xian Li, Kang-Lai Wei, Xin-Hong Liao, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Xue Huang
To evaluate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) inthe differential diagnosis of small (≤20 mm) solid breast lesions and identify the most efficient ARFI parameters. Conventional ultrasonography and ARFIwere performed in 120 patients with 121 small solid breast lesions. The area ratios (ARs) of the lesion on virtual touch tissue compared to B-mode were calculated. The shear wave velocity of the inner (SWVi) and boundary (SWVb) of the lesions and surrounding fatty tissue (SWVf) was measured. The ratio of SWVi to SWVf (SWVrat) was calculated...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818689/sol-gel-derived-hydroxyapatite-films-over-porous-calcium-polyphosphate-substrates-for-improved-tissue-engineering-of-osteochondral-like-constructs
#6
Whitaik David Lee, Rahul Gawri, Robert M Pilliar, William L Stanford, Rita A Kandel
Integration of in vitro-formed cartilage on a suitable substrate to form tissue-engineered implants for osteochondral defect repair is a considerable challenge. In healthy cartilage, a zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) act as an intermediary for mechanical force transfer from soft to hard tissue, as well as an effective interlocking structure to better resist interfacial shear forces. We have developed biphasic constructs that consist of scaffold-free cartilage tissue grown in vitro on, and interdigitated with, porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) substrates...
August 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817934/mannose-surfaces-exhibit-self-latching-water-structuring-and-resilience-to-chaotropes-implications-for-pathogen-virulence
#7
Hashanthi K Abeyratne-Perera, Preethi L Chandran
Several viral and fungal pathogens, including HIV, SARS, Dengue, Ebola and Cryptococcus neoformans, display a preponderance of mannose residues on their surface, particularly during the infection cycle or in harsh environments. The innate immune system, on the other hand, abounds in mannose receptors which recognize mannose residues on pathogens and trigger their phagocytosis. We pose the question if there is a surface advantage for pathogens to display mannose on their surface, despite these residues being recognized by the immune system...
August 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817244/key-developments-that-impacted-the-field-of-mechanobiology-and-mechanotransduction
#8
Michelle Wall, David Butler, Alicia El Haj, Josephine C Bodle, Elizabeth G Loboa, Albert J Banes
Advances in mechanobiology have evolved through insights from multiple disciplines including structural engineering, biomechanics, vascular biology, and orthopaedics. In this paper, we reviewed the impact of key reports related to the study of applied loads on tissues and cells and the resulting signal transduction pathways. We addressed how technology has helped advance the burgeoning field of mechanobiology (over 33,600 publications from 1970-2016). We analyzed the impact of critical ideas and then determined how these concepts influenced the mechanobiology field by looking at the citation frequency of these reports as well as tracking how the overall number of citations within the field changed over time...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815378/effect-of-aging-on-mechanical-stresses-deformations-and-hemodynamics-in-human-femoropopliteal-artery-due-to-limb-flexion
#9
Anastasia Desyatova, Jason MacTaggart, Rodrigo Romarowski, William Poulson, Michele Conti, Alexey Kamenskiy
Femoropopliteal artery (FPA) reconstructions are notorious for poor clinical outcomes. Mechanical and flow conditions that occur in the FPA with limb flexion are thought to play a significant role, but are poorly characterized. FPA deformations due to acute limb flexion were quantified using a human cadaver model and used to build a finite element model that simulated surrounding tissue forces associated with limb flexion-induced deformations. Strains and intramural principal mechanical stresses were determined for seven age groups...
August 16, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812113/-pathophysiology-of-intracranial-injuries
#10
REVIEW
D Lahner, G Fritsch
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous condition that affects the most complex organ of the human body. It is commonly classified by its location as focal injury (e.g. epidural hematoma) and diffuse injury (e.g. diffuse axonal shearing injury) as well as by primary and secondary tissue injury. Accordingly, direct mechanical force causes the primary insult. The tissue damage occurring afterwards is subsumed under the term secondary brain damage. Some of these processes are overlapping and include in the early phase local cerebral ischemia resulting in excitotoxicity, which together with the triggered neuroinflammatory cascade causes the formation of cerebral edema and ultimately increased intracranial pressure once the intracranial compliance is exhausted...
August 15, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811364/mechanosensing-drives-acuity-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-recognition
#11
Yinnian Feng, Kristine N Brazin, Eiji Kobayashi, Robert J Mallis, Ellis L Reinherz, Matthew J Lang
T lymphocytes use surface [Formula: see text] T-cell receptors (TCRs) to recognize peptides bound to MHC molecules (pMHCs) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). How the exquisite specificity of high-avidity T cells is achieved is unknown but essential, given the paucity of foreign pMHC ligands relative to the ubiquitous self-pMHC array on an APC. Using optical traps, we determine physicochemical triggering thresholds based on load and force direction. Strikingly, chemical thresholds in the absence of external load require orders of magnitude higher pMHC numbers than observed physiologically...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811064/evaluation-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-imaging-elastography-in-rat-models
#12
Yanrong Guo, Changfeng Dong, Haoming Lin, Xinyu Zhang, Huiying Wen, Yuanyuan Shen, Tianfu Wang, Siping Chen, Yingxia Liu, Xin Chen
The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for assessing hepatic fibrosis stage and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity, as well as the relationship among hepatic histologic changes using shear wave velocity (SWV). Animal models with various degrees of NAFLD were established in 110 rats. The right liver lobe was processed and embedded in a fabricated gelatin solution (porcine skin). Liver mechanics were measured using SWV induced by acoustic radiation force...
August 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810796/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-fluid-cyclopropane-with-mp2-cbs-fitted-intermolecular-interaction-potentials
#13
Yen-Ching Ho, Yi-Siang Wang, Sheng D Chao
Modeling fluid cycloalkanes with molecular dynamics simulations has proven to be a very challenging task partly because of lacking a reliable force field based on quantum chemistry calculations. In this paper, we construct an ab initio force field for fluid cyclopropane using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. We consider 15 conformers of the cyclopropane dimer for the orientation sampling. Single-point energies at important geometries are calibrated by the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitation method...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808455/effect-of-nickel-chromium-and-non-precious-gold-color-alloy-cast-posts-on-fracture-resistance-of-endodontically-treated-teeth
#14
Fatemeh Gholami, Parisa Kohani, Shima Aalaei
INTRODUCTION: Root canal-treated teeth are weaker than vital teeth and are more susceptible to fractures. Therefore, special precautions should be adhered to, such as the use of various types of cast or prefabricated posts. Regarding the effect of post material on fracture resistance of teeth, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of non-precious gold color alloy (NPG) and nickel-chrome (Ni-Cr) cast posts on resistance of endodontically treated teeth. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study, 30 freshly extracted single-rooted premolar teeth were randomly divided into two groups...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805895/genetic-parameters-of-carcass-and-meat-quality-traits-in-different-muscles-longissimus-dorsi-and-semimembranosus-of-hanwoo-korean-cattle
#15
M S A Bhuiyan, H J Kim, D H Lee, S H Lee, S H Cho, B S Yang, S D Kim, S H Lee
We estimated heritability () and genetic and phenotypic correlations for carcass and meat quality traits of longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles in 30-mo-old Hanwoo steers. Variance and covariance components were estimated using REML procedures under univariate and bivariate models. The mean carcass weight (CWT), eye muscle area (EMA), back fat thickness (BFT), and marbling score (MS) were 428.20 ± 46.30 kg, 87.38 ± 8.54 cm2, 13.00 ± 5.14 mm, and 5.21 ± 1.56, respectively. The mean CIE reflectance of meat lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) were 40...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805877/a-dna-bipedal-nanowalker-with-a-piston-like-expulsion-stroke
#16
Q Y Yeo, I Y Loh, S R Tee, Y H Chiang, J Cheng, M H Liu, Z S Wang
Artificial molecular walkers beyond burn-bridge designs are important for nanotechnology, but their systematic development remains difficult. Herein, we have reported a new rationally designed DNA walker-track system and experimentally verified a previously proposed general expulsion regime for implementing non-burn-bridge nanowalkers. The DNA walker has an optically powered engine motif that reversibly extends and contracts the walker via a quadruplex-duplex conformational change. The walker's extension is an energy-absorbing and force-generating process, which drives the walker's leg dissociation off-track in a piston-like expulsion stroke...
August 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805077/relevance-of-age-at-slaughter-on-meat-quality-of-turkeys-stunned-with-co2
#17
S Mauri, Á Guijarro, F Peña, V Domenech, C Avilés
1. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of slaughter age and stunning method on the quality of turkey meat from poultry processing plants. 2. One hundred B.U.T. Premium turkeys were divided into 4 groups of 25 animals according to slaughter age (15 or 17 weeks) and CO2 stunning procedure (G1 stepwise: step1: 30% CO2, 15 s; step 2: 55% CO2, 40 s; step 3: 70% CO2, 45 s; G2: progressive increase of the CO2 concentration at a rate of 0.8% per s for 100 s). The quality of the breast meat was determined in fillets taken at different post-mortem times...
August 14, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803215/structural-tribological-and-mechanical-properties-of-the-hind-leg-joint-of-a-jumping-insect-using-katydids-to-inform-bioinspired-lubrication-systems
#18
Jun Kyun Oh, Spencer T Behmer, Richelle Marquess, Cengiz Yegin, Ethan A Scholar, Mustafa Akbulut
This study investigates the structural properties of the hind leg femur-tibia joint in adult katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), including its tribological and mechanical properties. It is of particular interest because the orthopteran (e.g., grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids) hind leg is highly specialized for jumping. We show that the katydid hind leg femur-tibia joint had unique surfaces and textures, with a friction coefficient (μ) at its coupling surface of 0.053 ± 0.001. Importantly, the sheared surfaces at this joint showed no sign of wear or damage, even though it had undergone thousands of external shearing cycles...
August 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803065/flow-induced-adherens-junction-remodeling-driven-by-cytoskeletal-forces
#19
Deepika Verma, Vivek Bajpai, Nannan Ye, Mohammad M Maneshi, Deekshitha Jetta, Stelios T Andreadis, Frederick Sachs, Susan Z Hua
Adherens junctions (AJs) are a key structural component for tissue organization and function. Under fluid shear stress, AJs exhibit dynamic assembly/disassembly, but how shear stress couples to AJs is unclear. In MDCK cells we measured simultaneously the forces in cytoskeletal α-actinin and the density and length of AJs using a genetically coded optical force sensor, actinin-sstFRET, and fluorescently labeled E-cadherin (E-cad). We found that shear stress of 0.74dyn/cm(2) for 3hours significantly enhanced E-cad expression at cell-cell contacts and this phenomenon has two phases...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802434/evaluation-of-postural-sway-and-impact-forces-during-ingress-and-egress-of-scissor-lifts-at-elevations
#20
Christopher S Pan, Sharon S Chiou, Tsui-Ying Kau, Bryan M Wimer, Xiaopeng Ning, Paul Keane
Workers are at risk when entering (ingress) or exiting (egress) elevated scissor lifts. In this study, we recorded ground impact forces and postural sway from 22 construction workers while they performed ingress and egress between a scissor lift and an adjacent work surface with varying conditions: lift opening designs, horizontal and vertical gaps, and sloped work surfaces. We observed higher peak ground shear forces when using a bar-and-chain opening, with larger horizontal gap, with the lift surface more than 0...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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