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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934349/the-association-between-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-and-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
Daniela Weber, Katrin Frauenschläger, Sakhila Ghimire, Katrin Peter, Isabella Panzer, Andreas Hiergeist, Markus Weber, Daniel Kutny, Daniel Wolff, Matthias Grube, Elisabeth Huber, Peter Oefner, Andre Gessner, Thomas Hehlgans, Wolfgang Herr, Ernst Holler
Intestinal microbiota disruption is associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD) and poor outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Here, in a retrospective analysis of 200 patients undergoing ASCT at the Regensburg University Medical Center, we assessed the relative expression of Paneth cell antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), Human Defensins (HD) 5 and 6 and regenerating islet-derived 3α (Reg3α), in 292 human intestinal biopsies as well as Reg3α serum levels in relation to acute GI GvHD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934262/effects-of-eimeria-tenella-infection-on-chicken-caecal-microbiome-diversity-exploring-variation-associated-with-severity-of-pathology
#2
Sarah E Macdonald, Matthew J Nolan, Kimberley Harman, Kay Boulton, David A Hume, Fiona M Tomley, Richard A Stabler, Damer P Blake
Eimeria species cause the intestinal disease coccidiosis, most notably in poultry. While the direct impact of coccidiosis on animal health and welfare is clear, its influence on the enteric microbiota and by-stander effects on chicken health and production remains largely unknown, with the possible exception of Clostridium perfringens (necrotic enteritis). This study evaluated the composition and structure of the caecal microbiome in the presence or absence of a defined Eimeria tenella challenge infection in Cobb500 broiler chickens using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931859/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-vaginal-microbiota-and-vaginal-immune-mediators-in-women-from-sub-saharan-africa
#3
Vicky Jespers, Jordan Kyongo, Sarah Joseph, Liselotte Hardy, Piet Cools, Tania Crucitti, Mary Mwaura, Gilles Ndayisaba, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Jozefien Buyze, Guido Vanham, Janneke H H M van de Wijgert
In cross-sectional studies increased vaginal bacterial diversity has been associated with vaginal inflammation which can be detrimental for health. We describe longitudinal changes at 5 visits over 8 weeks in vaginal microbiota and immune mediators in African women. Women (N = 40) with a normal Nugent score at all visits had a stable lactobacilli dominated microbiota with prevailing Lactobacillus iners. Presence of prostate-specific antigen (proxy for recent sex) and being amenorrhoeic (due to progestin-injectable use), but not recent vaginal cleansing, were significantly associated with microbiota diversity and inflammation (controlled for menstrual cycle and other confounders)...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930570/gut-microbiota-architects-of-small-intestinal-capillaries
#4
Avinash Khandagale, Christoph Reinhardt
The commensal gut microbiota is an environmental factor that exerts manifold effects on host physiology. One obvious trait is the impact of this densely colonized ecosystem on small intestinal mucosal vascularization. At present, the microbiota-triggered signaling pathways influencing small intestinal renewal, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling are largely unexplored. While the interplay of gut microbial communities with pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, in intestinal homeostasis is increasingly understood, it is unresolved how commensal microbiota affect the signaling pathways responsible for the formation of capillary networks in the intestinal mucosa...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927250/gut-microbiota-and-the-liver
#5
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Giuseppe G Caprio, Vittorio M Ormando, Carmela Loguercio
Nowadays liver diseases represent one of major healthy problems in the world in terms of morbidity and mortality. The high prevalence of liver pathologies represents the key point to understand the necessity to identify the pathogenetic mechanisms that support these disorders in order to nurse them. Alterations of intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in induction and promotion of liver damage progression, in addition to direct injury resulting from different causal agents. Gut microbiota is considered both as a promoting factor and as a potential therapeutic target of a large number of liver pathologies due to the connection between intestine and liver: the gut-liver axis...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925102/continued-alcohol-misuse-in-human-cirrhosis-is-associated-with-an-impaired-gut-liver-axis
#6
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, Derrick Zhao, Hajime Takei, Andrew Fagan, Phillip Hylemon, Huiping Zhou, William M Pandak, Hiroshi Nittono, Oliver Fiehn, Nita Salzman, Mary Holtz, Pippa Simpson, Edith A Gavis, Douglas M Heuman, Runping Liu, Dae Joong Kang, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis and alcohol can independently affect the gut-liver axis with systemic inflammation. However their concurrent impact in humans is unclear. AIM: Determine the effect of continued alcohol misuse on the gut-liver axis in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Age and MELD-balanced cirrhotic patients who were currently drinking (Alc) or abstinent (NAlc), and healthy controls underwent serum and stool collection. A subset underwent upper endoscopy and colonoscopy for biopsies and duodenal fluid collection...
September 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924229/variations-in-oral-microbiota-associated-with-oral-cancer
#7
Hongsen Zhao, Min Chu, Zhengwei Huang, Xi Yang, Shujun Ran, Bin Hu, Chenping Zhang, Jingping Liang
Individual bacteria and shifts in microbiome composition are associated with human disease, including cancer. To unravel the connections underlying oral bacterial dysbiosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), cancer lesion samples and anatomically matched normal samples were obtained from the same patients. We then profiled the bacteria within OSCC lesion surface samples at the species level using next-generation sequencing to comprehensively investigate bacterial community composition and functional genes in these samples...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921469/microbial-factors-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancers
#8
Hong Sheng Ong, Howard Chi Ho Yim
The intestinal microbes form a symbiotic relationship with their human host to harvest energy for themselves and their host and to shape the immune system of their host. However, alteration of this relationship, which is named as a dysbiosis, has been associated with the development of different inflammatory diseases and cancers. It is found that metabolites, cellular components, and virulence factors derived from the gut microbiota interact with the host locally or systemically to modulate the dysbiosis and the development of these diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919861/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-an-overview-to-explore-the-rationale-of-its-use-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Giuseppe L Banna, Francesco Torino, Francesco Marletta, Maria Santagati, Rossella Salemi, Elisa Cannarozzo, Luca Falzone, Francesco Ferraù, Massimo Libra
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the western world. In the era of precision medicine, a significant number of cancer patients can be cured with several anti-cancer therapeutic regimens. However, therapy failure may be caused by treatment side effects, such as diarrhea, especially occurring in patients with gastrointestinal or pelvic malignancies. In particular, diarrhea is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal toxicity during cancer treatment and it can result from nearly bot chemo- and radio-therapeutic strategies currently used...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918634/engineered-probiotic-for-the-inhibition-of-salmonella-via-tetrathionate-induced-production-of-microcin-h47
#10
Jacob D Palmer, Emma Piattelli, Beth A McCormick, Mark W Silby, Christopher J Brigham, Vanni Bucci
Complications arising from antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming one of the key issues in modern medicine. Members of drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae spp. include opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Salmonella spp.) that are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Overgrowth of these bacteria is considered a hallmark of intestinal dysbiosis. Microcins (small antimicrobial peptides) produced by some gut commensals can potentially cure these conditions by inhibiting these pathogens and have been proposed as a viable alternative to antibiotic treatment...
September 20, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916525/role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-small-animal-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Alana Redfern, Jan Suchodolski, Albert Jergens
There is a large and emerging interest in the role of the gastrointestinal microbiota in health and disease. This paper serves to review the current knowledge and recommendations of the gastrointestinal microbiota in health and gastrointestinal disease. Further, this review evaluates the current literature and suggests guidelines for faecal microbial transplantation, a novel therapy for dysbiosis in veterinary medicine.
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915953/syntrophic-imbalance-and-the-etiology-of-bacterial-endoparasitism-diseases
#12
James F White
This article outlines the proposed 'syntrophic imbalance hypothesis' for etiology of bacterial endoparasitism diseases. This hypothesis involves microbes (archaea and bacteria) that exist in human body biofilms in syntrophic associations, where bacteria ferment nutrients to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are used by methanogenic archaeons to produce methane. Overgrowth of archaea on human tissues (e.g., in association with intestines, teeth or lungs) results in excessive removal of SCFAs from the biofilms and this triggers bacteria in the free-living biofilm state to convert to the endoparasitic state and become intracellular in host cells where they incite inflammation and disease...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914591/mucosa-associated-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-colitis-associated-cancer
#13
Mathias L Richard, Giuseppina Liguori, Bruno Lamas, Giovanni Brandi, Gregory da Costa, Thomas W Hoffmann, Massimo Pierluigi Di Simone, Carlo Calabrese, Gilberto Poggioli, Philippe Langella, Massimo Campieri, Harry Sokol
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota has also been recognized as potentially involved in aggravating or favoring the tumor development. However, very little is known on the structure and role of the microbiota in colitis associated cancer (CAC), an important complication of IBD in human. Here we analyzed the bacterial and fungal composition of the mucosa associated microbiota of patients suffering CAC, sporadic cancer (SC) and of healthy subjects (HS) by barcode sequences analysis on the following cohort: 7 CAC patients, 10 SC patients and 10 HS using 16S (MiSeq) and ITS2 (pyrosequencing) sequencing, for bacteria and fungi respectively...
September 15, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914372/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatic-diseases
#14
Danli Zhong, Chanyuan Wu, Xiaofeng Zeng, Qian Wang
Rheumatic diseases refer to many diseases with a loss of immune self-tolerance, leading to a chronic inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement in multiple organs or tissues. The cause of rheumatic diseases remains to be elucidated, though both environmental and genetic factors are required for the development of rheumatic diseases. Over the past decades, emerging studies suggested that alteration of intestinal microbiota, known as gut dysbiosis, contributed to the occurrence or development of a range of rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic sclerosis, and Sjogren's syndrome, through profoundly affecting the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914067/-drugs-and-dosage-forms-as-risk-factors-for-dental-caries
#15
Petra Bořilová Linhartová, Lydie Izakovičová Hollá
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease which, despite a series of preventive measures, remains the most common infectious disease worldwide. Susceptibility or resistance to caries may be a result of the presence of risk or protective factors, genetic predisposition, inappropriate lifestyle associated with education, behavioural and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this review is to highlight the risks associated with the use of some drugs and dosage forms in relation to the formation and development of dental caries...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912020/intestinal-dysbiosis-featuring-abundance-of-ruminococcus-gnavus-associates-with-allergic-diseases-in-infants
#16
Huey-Huey Chua, Hung-Chieh Chou, Ya-Ling Tung, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chien-Chia Liao, Hong-Hsing Liu, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. METHODS: We studied fecal specimens prospectively in a twin cohort (n=30) and age-matched singletons (n=14) born at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from April 2011 to March 2013...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910792/inflammation-a-key-contributor-to-the-genesis-and-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Qi Qian
It has become apparent that inflammation and inflammatory reactions can evoke renal injury and promote chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Under physiological condition, intrarenal vascular distribution is heterogeneous, and medulla is hypoxic. To avoid energy deprivation in the low pO2 regions of the kidney, an array of hormones, autocoids, and vasoactive substances, including medullipin, prostaglandins, endothelins, nitric oxide, angiotensin II, kinins, and adenosine, tonically regulates the microvasculature to ensure a perfect match of the microcirculation (O2 supply) and renal tubules (O2 demand)...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905671/microbiota-derived-uremic-retention-solutes-perpetrators-of-altered-nonrenal-drug-clearance-in-kidney-disease
#18
Alexander J Prokopienko, Thomas D Nolin
Scientific interest in the gut microbiota is increasing due to improved understanding of its implications in human health and disease. In patients with kidney disease, gut microbiota-derived uremic toxins directly contribute to altered nonrenal drug clearance. Microbial imbalances, known as dysbiosis, potentially increase formation of microbiota-derived toxins, and diminished renal clearance leads to toxin accumulation. High concentrations of microbiota-derived toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate perpetrate interactions with drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters, which provides a mechanistic link between increases in drug-related adverse events and dysbiosis in kidney disease...
September 14, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903182/molecular-estimation-of-alteration-in-intestinal-microbial-composition-in-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-patients
#19
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq, Imran Shair Mohammad, Hui Guo, Muhammad Shahzad, Yin Jian Hou, Chaofeng Ma, Zahid Naseem, Xiaokang Wu, Peijie Shi, Jiru Xu
The gut microbiota has a crucial effect on human health and physiology. Hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disorder manifested with environmental and genetic factors. However, it is hypothesized that intestinal microbes might play a vital role in the pathogenesis of HT. The aim of current was to investigate and characterize the gut microbial composition of HT patients both quantitatively and qualitatively. The fecal samples from 29 HT patients and 12 healthy individuals were collected...
September 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899857/high-fat-high-fructose-high-cholesterol-feeding-causes-severe-nash-and-cecal-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-juvenile-ossabaw-swine
#20
Matthew R Panasevich, Grace M Meers, Melissa A Linden, Frank W Booth, James W Perfield, Kevin L Fritsche, Umesh D Wankhade, Sree V Chintapalli, Kartik Shankar, J A Ibdah, R Scott Rector
Pediatric obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are on the rise in industrialized countries, yet our ability to mechanistically examine this relationship is limited by the lack of a suitable higher animal model. Here, we examined the effects of high fat, high fructose corn syrup, high cholesterol Western style diet (WD)-induced obesity on NASH and cecal microbiota dysbiosis in juvenile Ossabaw swine. Juvenile female Ossabaw swine (5 weeks old) were fed WD (43.0% fat; 17.8% high fructose corn syrup; 2% cholesterol) or low-fat diet (CON/lean; 10...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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