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Dysbiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770393/consumption-of-pomegranate-decreases-plasma-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-levels-a-marker-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-colorectal-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#1
A González-Sarrías, M A Núñez-Sánchez, M A Ávila-Gálvez, T Monedero-Saiz, F J Rodríguez-Gil, Francisco Martínez-Díaz, M V Selma, J C Espín
Gut microbiota dysbiosis alters the intestinal barrier function, increases plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, which promotes endotoxemia, and contributes to the onset and development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We report here for the first time the reduction of plasma LPS-binding protein (LBP) levels, a marker of endotoxemia, after pomegranate consumption in newly diagnosed CRC patients.
May 17, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769762/polymicrobial-synergy-and-dysbiosis-an-overview
#2
REVIEW
Hawaabi Faqeer Mohd Shaikh, Suvarna Hanmantgouda Patil, Tanvi Shyamsundar Pangam, Khushboo Vijaysinh Rathod
The oral fissure is immensely inhabited with a number of polymicrobial colonies similar to the intestinal system. Periodontitis is a dysbiotic disease resulting from deviation in subgingival Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacteria shift from Gram-positive bacteria. The development of periodontal dysbiosis occurs over a broadened timeframe, which slowly turns the symbiotic association of host and microbe to pathogenic. This review highlights a recent paradigm of periodontitis progression has been postulated which challenges the traditional concept of periodontitis being induced by few particular periopathogens such as belonging to red complex, but by a more comprehensive dysbiotic-synergistic community...
March 2018: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769268/pbdes-altered-gut-microbiome-and-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Cindy Yanfei Li, Joseph L Dempsey, Dongfang Wang, SooWan Lee, Kris M Weigel, Qiang Fei, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Daniel Raftery, Haiwei Gu, Julia Yue Cui
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental contaminants with well-characterized toxicities in host organs. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of xenobiotic biotransformation; however, little is known about its interactions with PBDEs. Primary bile acids (BAs) are metabolized by the gut microbiome into more lipophilic secondary BAs that may be absorbed and interact with certain host receptors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that PBDEs cause dysbiosis and aberrant regulation of BA homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767340/speculation-as-to-why-the-frequency-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-is-increasing
#4
REVIEW
Stuart Jon Spechler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The frequency of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an immune/antigen-mediated disorder first described in 1993, has been increasing rapidly. The purpose of this review is to consider hypotheses proposed to explain this increase and to speculate on their validity. RECENT FINDINGS: The hygiene hypothesis attributes the rise of EoE to modern hygienic conditions resulting in fewer childhood infections with microbes that might have protected against allergy development...
May 16, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766049/interleukin-1%C3%AE-deficient-mice-have-an-altered-gut-microbiota-leading-to-protection-from-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#5
Moran Nunberg, Nir Werbner, Hadar Neuman, Marina Bersudsky, Alex Braiman, Moshe Ben-Shoshan, Meirav Ben Izhak, Yoram Louzoun, Ron N Apte, Elena Voronov, Omry Koren
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine, with as-yet-unclear etiologies, affecting over a million people in the United States alone. With the emergence of microbiome research, numerous studies have shown a connection between shifts in the gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) and patterns of IBD development. In a previous study, we showed that interleukin 1α (IL-1α) deficiency in IL-1α knockout (KO) mice results in moderate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis compared to that of wild-type (WT) mice, characterized by reduced inflammation and complete healing, as shown by parameters of weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) score, histology, and cytokine expression...
May 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765460/the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-nafld-starting-points-for-intervention
#6
Umberto Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Paolo Gallo, Antonio Picardi
In recent years, close links between intestinal microbiota and host metabolism have been recognized. Intestinal bacteria can participate in the extraction of calories from food, and circulation of bacterial products, in particular lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is responsible for the "metabolic endotoxemia", which contributes to insulin resistance and its complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Indeed, qualitative and quantitative intestinal dysbiotic changes have been clearly documented in NAFLD patients, and several mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota can directly promote liver fat deposition, inflammation and fibrosis have also been described...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762899/metagenomics-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-a-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mouse-model-fed-with-epigallocatechin-3-o-3-o-methyl-gallate-egcg3-me
#7
Xin Zhang, Yuhui Chen, Jieyu Zhu, Man Zhang, Chi-Tang Ho, Qingrong Huang, Jinxuan Cao
SCOPE: (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3''Me) has been shown to have a modulatory effect on human intestinal microbiota, and the relationship between intestinal flora and obesity has attracted more and more attention recently. Here, we investigated the potential link between EGCG3''Me and gut microbiota composition, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the anti-obesity activity of EGCG3''Me. METHODS AND RESULTS: EGCG3''Me was prepared from oolong tea by column chromatography, and the influence of EGCG3''Me on intestinal microbiota was analysed using a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model by metagenomics...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762384/microbial-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gut-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#8
Anne Hall, James Versalovic
Human intestinal microbes participate actively at the interface of diet, nutrition, and overall health status. These biodiverse communities of microorganisms have a broader metabolic repertoire compared with their host, and they are able to synthesize and degrade substrates that would be otherwise unavailable. In recent years, we have recognized that healthy microbial communities are important for energy harvest and the regulation of body systems outside the digestive tract. Microbial dysbiosis, however, has been implicated in a number of human disorders, including obesity and inflammation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761927/on-the-potential-role-of-intestinal-microbial-community-in-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#9
REVIEW
Ashraf Mohamadkhani
The chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most potent risk factor for the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The association of intestinal microbiota alteration with progressive liver disease has been investigated in recent studies. Overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria of gram-negative species and, in particular, a significant increase in the fecal count of Escherichia coli (E. coli) are characterized in the presence of HCC. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of the intestinal microbiota related to the presence of HCC in HBV-carrier patients...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760448/the-gut-microbiota-and-the-brain-gut-kidney-axis-in-hypertension-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Elaine M Richards, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
Crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the host has attracted considerable attention owing to its involvement in diverse diseases. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly associated with hypertension and is characterized by immune dysregulation, metabolic disorder and sympathetic activation, which are all linked to gut dysbiosis and altered host-microbiota crosstalk. In this Review, we discuss the complex interplay between the brain, the gut, the microbiota and the kidney in CKD and hypertension and explain our brain-gut-kidney axis hypothesis for the pathogenesis of these diseases...
May 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760169/dysbiosis-of-maternal-and-neonatal-microbiota-associated-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Jinfeng Wang, Jiayong Zheng, Wenyu Shi, Nan Du, Xiaomin Xu, Yanming Zhang, Peifeng Ji, Fengyi Zhang, Zhen Jia, Yeping Wang, Zhi Zheng, Hongping Zhang, Fangqing Zhao
OBJECTIVE: The initial colonisation of the human microbiota and the impact of maternal health on neonatal microbiota at birth remain largely unknown. The aim of our study is to investigate the possible dysbiosis of maternal and neonatal microbiota associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to estimate the potential risks of the microbial shift to neonates. DESIGN: Pregnant women and neonates suffering from GDM were enrolled and 581 maternal (oral, intestinal and vaginal) and 248 neonatal (oral, pharyngeal, meconium and amniotic fluid) samples were collected...
May 14, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759553/the-role-of-heme-iron-molecules-derived-from-red-and-processed-meat-in-the-pathogenesis-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#12
REVIEW
S M K Gamage, Lakal Dissabandara, Alfred King-Yin Lam, Vinod Gopalan
Emerging evidence that heme iron in red meat is a risk factor for colorectal carcinogenesis is a topic that has received recent scrutiny. This review aims to summarise the mechanism of colorectal carcinogenesis by heme contained in red and processed meat. Heme iron can induce cytotoxicity by 'cytotoxic heme factor' and promote surface epithelial cell apoptosis and compensatory epithelial hyperplasia. Heme, induces peroxidation of lipids, leading to free radical formation and generation of DNA adducts in colorectal epithelial cells...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756665/metabolomics-as-a-clinical-testing-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-vaginal-dysbiosis
#13
Emiley Watson, Gregor Reid
Microbes play an important role in vaginal health, with lactobacilli a particularly abundant species. When dysbiosis occurs, the tools to determine whether it is a condition such as bacterial vaginosis, and whether it warrants antibiotic treatment, are currently suboptimal. We propose that standardization and implementation of an affordable metabolomics-based diagnostic technique could reduce instances of false positives, stress associated with misdiagnosis, and potentially save time and money. Basing diagnosis on the detection of pH elevated above 4...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756631/patients-with-acne-vulgaris-have-a-distinct-gut-microbiota-in-comparison-with-healthy-controls
#14
Yongqiong Deng, Hong Wang, Jiyuan Zhou, Yunzhou Mou, Guiqiang Wang, Xia Xiong
Acne vulgaris has been postulated to have a gastrointestinal mechanism; however, little is known about gut microbiota dysfunction in this condition. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether the gut microbiota is altered in acne. Faecal bacterial diversity was analysed in 43 patients with acne and 43 controls, using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene. Distinct differences were found in microbial diversity between patients with acne and controls (Shannon diversity index (p = 0...
May 14, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755893/policing-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-innate-immune-functions-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#15
Madeleine D Hu, Luo Jia, Karen L Edelblum
Purpose of review: This review will explore the contribution of IELs to mucosal innate immunity and highlight the similarities in IEL functional responses to bacteria, viruses and protozoan parasite invasion. Recent findings: IELs rapidly respond to microbial invasion by activating host defense responses, including the production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides to prevent microbes from reaching the epithelial surface. During active infection, IELs promote epithelial cytolysis, cytokine and chemokine production to limit pathogen invasion, replication and dissemination...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750384/effects-of-moderate-voluntary-ethanol-consumption-on-the-rat-and-human-gut-microbiome
#16
Kassi L Kosnicki, Jerrold C Penprase, Patricia Cintora, Pedro J Torres, Greg L Harris, Susan M Brasser, Scott T Kelley
Many alcohol-induced health complications are directly attributable to the toxicity of alcohol or its metabolites, but another potential health impact of alcohol may be on the microbial communities of the human gut. Clear distinctions between healthy and diseased-state gut microbiota have been observed in subjects with metabolic diseases, and recent studies suggest that chronic alcoholism is linked to gut microbiome dysbiosis. Here, we investigated the effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption on the gut microbiome in both rats and humans...
May 11, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749635/microbial-and-metabolic-multi-omic-correlations-in-systemic-sclerosis-patients
#17
Chiara Bellocchi, Álvaro Fernández-Ochoa, Gaia Montanelli, Barbara Vigone, Alessandro Santaniello, Christian Milani, Rosa Quirantes-Piné, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Marco Ventura, Antonio Segura-Carrettero, Marta Eugenia Alarcón-Riquelme, Lorenzo Beretta
Intestinal microbiota has been associated with systemic autoimmune diseases, yet the functional consequences of these associations are elusive. We characterized the fecal microbiota (16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing) and the plasma metabolome (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) in 59 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and 28 healthy controls (HCs). Microbial and metabolic data were cross-correlated to find meaningful associations after extensive data mining analysis and internal validation...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746836/early-life-antibiotic-driven-dysbiosis-leads-to-dysregulated-vaccine-immune-responses-in-mice
#18
Miriam Anne Lynn, Damon John Tumes, Jocelyn Mei Choo, Anastasia Sribnaia, Stephen James Blake, Lex Ee Xiang Leong, Graeme Paul Young, Helen Siobhan Marshall, Steve Lodewijk Wesselingh, Geraint Berian Rogers, David John Lynn
Antibody-mediated responses play a critical role in vaccine-mediated immunity. However, for reasons that are poorly understood, these responses are highly variable between individuals. Using a mouse model, we report that antibiotic-driven intestinal dysbiosis, specifically in early life, leads to significantly impaired antibody responses to five different adjuvanted and live vaccines. Restoration of the commensal microbiota following antibiotic exposure rescues these impaired responses. In contrast, antibiotic-treated adult mice do not exhibit impaired antibody responses to vaccination...
May 9, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743938/dysbiotic-drift-and-biopsychosocial-medicine-how-the-microbiome-links-personal-public-and-planetary-health
#19
Susan L Prescott, Ganesa Wegienka, Alan C Logan, David L Katz
The emerging concept of planetary health emphasizes that the health of human civilization is intricately connected to the health of natural systems within the Earth's biosphere; here, we focus on the rapidly progressing microbiome science - the microbiota-mental health research in particular - as a way to illustrate the pathways by which exposure to biodiversity supports health. Microbiome science is illuminating the ways in which stress, socioeconomic disadvantage and social polices interact with lifestyle and behaviour to influence the micro and macro-level biodiversity that otherwise mediates health...
2018: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743833/why-is-it-so-difficult-to-evaluate-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-as-a-treatment-for-ulcerative-colitis
#20
REVIEW
Natalie Grace Fairhurst, Simon P L Travis
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has recently re-emerged as a viable therapeutic option for colonic disorders. Its efficacy has been proved in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection which has encouraged research into the use of FMT for other disorders involving gut dysbiosis, such as ulcerative colitis (UC), a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by relapsing and remitting colonic inflammation. Although the FMT protocol for C. difficile treatment is well established, there are numerous additional factors to consider when applying FMT to treat inflammatory diseases...
April 2018: Intestinal Research
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