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Mohamed H Noureldein, Assaad A Eid
The gut microbiota plays a substantial role in regulating the host metabolic and immune functions. Dysbiosis, resulting from disruption of gut microbiota, predisposes many morbid pathologies like obesity and its associated comorbidities, diabetes and inflammatory conditions including some types of cancer. There are numerous proposed signaling pathways through which alterations in gut microbiota and its metabolites can disturb the host's normal physiological functions. Interestingly, many of these processes happen to be controlled by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Piera Valenti, Luigi Rosa, Daniela Capobianco, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Elisa Schiavi, Antimo Cutone, Rosalba Paesano, Paola Mastromarino
The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Christopher John Kiely, Paul Pavli, Claire Louise O'Brien
Studies of the human intestinal microbiome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consistently show that there are differences (an abnormal or unbalanced microbiome, "dysbiosis") when compared to healthy subjects. We sought to describe changes in the microbiome in individual patients over time, and determine the clinical factors that are associated with significant alteration. Forty-two mucosal biopsies were collected from 20 patients that were spaced an average of 2.4 years apart. These were analysed using bacterial 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing methods...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Efrat L Amitay, Agne Krilaviciute, Hermann Brenner
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may be associated with CRC. This systematic review focuses on differences in gut microbial community between people diagnosed with CRC or adenoma and healthy individuals using fecal samples, emphasizing non-invasive fecal microbiome models for CRC early diagnosis. Nineteen studies were identified in a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect. Several bacteria were reported to differ in abundance between CRC and adenoma cases and healthy controls, with Fusobacterium the most common...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Elizabeth Copeland, Katherine Leonard, Richard Carney, Justin Kong, Martin Forer, Yuresh Naidoo, Brian G G Oliver, Justin R Seymour, Stephen Woodcock, Catherine M Burke, Nicholas W Stow
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory condition that affects up to 12% of the human population in developed countries. Previous studies examining the potential role of the sinus bacterial microbiota within CRS infections have found inconsistent results, possibly because of inconsistencies in sampling strategies. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sinus microbiome is altered in CRS and additionally if the middle meatus is a suitable representative site for sampling the sinus microbiome...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Phoebe Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestinal commensal microbiota are important in shaping immune cell repertoire and are influenced by host genetics. Because of this intricate interaction, an intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with multiple immune-mediated polygenic diseases. This review summarizes the literature on how alterations in the intestinal microbiota contribute to immune-mediated ocular disease, and how to potentially target the gut microbiome for therapeutic benefit. RECENT FINDINGS: Several groups have demonstrated the importance of the intestinal microbiome in uveitis pathogenesis...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Lazaros I Sakkas, Dimitrios P Bogdanos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the most recent data obtained in this field and provides clues toward the better understanding of the close interplay between microbiota and host, leading to autoimmune diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: A well-described model of microbiota/host interaction of relevance to autoimmunity is that linking anti-citrullinated peptide antibody positive rheumatoid arthritis and alterations of microbiota largely concentrating on Porphyromonas gingivalis and more recently of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella copri...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Rene Y Choi, Mark Asquith, James T Rosenbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestinal microbiome is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are many shared clinical manifestations between IBD and spondyloarthritis (SpA), of which the most common are peripheral arthritis and uveitis. Clinical overlap along with similar genetics between these diseases suggests a possible shared pathogenetic mechanism, which might center on the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we discuss the available evidence that SpA is a microbiome-driven disease and indicate how SpA-associated uveitis could be tied to gut dysbiosis...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Jairo Perez-Sanz, Kyle K Payne, Nikolaos Svoronos, Michael J Allegrezza, Ricardo A Chaurio, Carmen Anadon, Joseph Calmette, Subir Biswas, Jessica A Mine, Tara Lee Costich, Logan Nickels, Jayamanna Wickramasinghe, Melanie R Rutkowski, Jose R Conejo-Garcia
Due to their cytotoxic activities, many anticancer drugs cause extensive damage to the intestinal mucosa and have antibiotic activities. Here, we show that cisplatin induces significant changes in the repertoire of intestinal commensal bacteria that exacerbate mucosal damage. Restoration of the microbiota through fecal-pellet gavage drives healing of cisplatin-induced intestinal damage. Bacterial translocation to the blood stream is correspondingly abrogated, resulting in a significant reduction in systemic inflammation, as evidenced by decreased serum IL-6 and reduced mobilization of granulocytes...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
There is bidirectional communication between the immune system and the gut microbiome, however the precise mechanisms regulating this crosstalk are not well understood. Microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) within the gut, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that produces a quick and robust activation of the immune system, may be one way by which these interactions occur. Endogenous levels of LPS in the gut are low enough that they do not usually cause disease, although, in times of increased LPS loads, they may be capable of increasing vulnerability of the gut to pathogenic bacteria...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Rebekah C Kennedy, Russell R Fling, Michael S Robeson, Arnold M Saxton, Liesel G Schneider, John L Darcy, David A Bemis, Ling Zhao, Jiangang Chen
Widely used as an antimicrobial in antibacterial bar soaps, triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is effective against Gram-positive bacteria but shows little efficacy against Gram-negative strains, potentially altering the composition of indigenous microflora within and on the human body. To date, the consequence of continuous or previous nonprescription antimicrobial exposure from compounds in personal care products on commensal microflora is still elusive. Previous research has shown that TCC exposure during gestation and lactation induced dysbiosis of gut microbial communities among exposed dams and neonates...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Santosh K Ghosh, Zhimin Feng, Hisashi Fujioka, Renate Lux, Thomas S McCormick, Aaron Weinberg
Human beta defensins (hBDs) are small cationic peptides, expressed in mucosal epithelia and important agents of innate immunity, act as antimicrobial and chemotactic agents at mucosal barriers. In this perspective, we present evidence supporting a novel strategy by which the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum induces hBDs and other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in normal human oral epithelial cells (HOECs) and thereby protects them from other microbial pathogens. The findings stress (1) the physiological importance of hBDs, (2) that this strategy may be a mechanism that contributes to homeostasis and health in body sites constantly challenged with bacteria and (3) that novel properties identified in commensal bacteria could, one day, be harnessed as new probiotic strategies to combat colonization of opportunistic pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yi Lyu, Lei Wu, Fang Wang, Xinchun Shen, Dingbo Lin
Dysbiosis, a broad spectrum of imbalance of the gut microbiota, may progress to microbiota dysfunction. Dysbiosis is linked to some human diseases, such as inflammation-related disorders and metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of dysbiosis remain elusive. Recent findings suggest that the microbiome and gut immune responses, like immunoglobulin A production, play critical roles in the gut homeostasis and function, and the progression of dysbiosis. In the past two decades, much progress has been made in better understanding of production of immunoglobulin A and its association with commensal microbiota...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Widian K Jubair, Jason D Hendrickson, Erin L Severs, Hanna M Schulz, Sumitra Adhikari, Diana Ir, Jose Pagan, Robert Anthony, Charles E Robertson, Daniel N Frank, Nirmal K Banda, Kristine A Kuhn
OBJECTIVE: Observations of microbial dysbiosis in patients with RA have raised interest in studying microbial-mucosal interactions as a potential trigger of RA. Using the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, we hypothesized that microbiota modulate immune responses leading to autoimmune arthritis. METHODS: CIA was induced by immunization of mice with type II collagen (CII) in adjuvant on days 0 and 21, with arthritis appearing at days 23-24. Intestinal microbiota were profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing every 7 days during the course of CIA, and intestinal mucosal changes evaluated on days 14 and 35...
March 13, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Shoji Tsuji, Chikushi Suruda, Masaki Hashiyada, Takahisa Kimata, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Tetsuya Kitao, Jiro Kino, Atsushi Akane, Kazunari Kaneko
BACKGROUND: While the etiology of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (idiopathic nephrotic syndrome [INS]; characterized by repeated relapses and comorbid allergic conditions) remains unknown, recent evidence suggests that dysfunction in regulatory T cells (Tregs) plays an important role in the development of INS as well as allergic diseases. We hypothesized that dysbiosis involving decreased butyric acid-producing gut microbiota leads to defective induction and differentiation of peripherally induced Tregs, resulting in INS relapse...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Janice Crespo-Salgado, Tyrus Stewart, Diego H Aviles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Marjorie M Walker, Michael Potter, Nicholas J Talley
Under normal physiological conditions, eosinophils are present throughout the gastrointestinal tract distal to the squamous oesophagus. Increases in their numbers signify primary and secondary eosinophilic conditions. The rare primary eosinophilic diseases eosinophilic gastroenteritis and eosinophilic colitis affect fewer than ten in 100 000 people, and are characterised by numerous mucosal eosinophils, distributed in sheets and sometimes extending from the mucosa into the submucosa. Pathogenesis of these diseases is poorly understood, but food allergies and intestinal dysbiosis have been implicated...
April 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mayada R Farag, Swati Sachan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Kuldeep Dhama
Antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry have been used for long time for improving feed efficiency and performance. Due to their various side-effects such as antibiotic resistance, destruction of beneficial bacteria in the gut, and dysbiosis, it is required to think about some alternatives. Probiotics are one of the options in this regard for improving poultry production. Probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host." They are available in various forms for use as feed additives...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Peng Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
Esther Solomon Mshelia, Lawan Adamu, Yakaka Wakil, Usman Aliyu Turaki, Isa Adamu Gulani, Jasini Musa
The equine gut harbours complex microbial populations which influence physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune functions, while disruption to the gut microbiota has been linked with conditions such as lameness, diabetes and obesity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the association between microbial dysbiosis, sex, age and body condition scores (BCS) of horses (Equus equus caballus) in Maiduguri and its environs. Forty horses were assessed by convenient sampling, while faecal samples were collected and analyzed to determine the microbiomes in the various age groups with variable BSC in stallions and mares...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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