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Dysbiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727071/feed-efficiency-phenotypes-in-lambs-involve-changes-in-ruminal-colonic-and-small-intestine-located-microbiota
#1
K Perea, K Perz, S K Olivo, A Williams, M Lachman, S L Ishaq, J Thomson, C J Yeoman
Several studies have revealed differences in rumen-located microbes between greatly efficient and inefficient animals; however, how the microbiota vary in the hind gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has only been sparsely explored and how they vary in the small intestine remains to be determined. We therefore sampled the microbiota of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and colorectally-obtained feces, in addition to the rumen of 12 lambs that, in a residual feed intake trial, were found to be at either extreme of feed efficiency phenotypes...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723981/intestinal-microbiota-in-digestive-diseases
#2
Maria do Carmo Friche Passos, Joaquim Prado Moraes-Filho
BACKGROUND: In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis) can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state...
July 6, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720399/prenatal-and-postnatal-administration-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics
#3
REVIEW
Kristin Sohn, Mark A Underwood
Colonization of the neonatal gut by beneficial bacteria is important for the establishment and maintenance of the mucosal barrier, thus protecting the neonate from enteric pathogens and local and systemic inflammation. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by infant diet, environment, and the maternal microbiome. Dysbiosis in pregnancy increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, diabetes, infection, preterm labor, and later childhood atopy. Dysbiosis of the neonatal gut plays an important role in colic in the term infant, in the disease processes which plague preterm infants, including necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, and in the long-term outcomes of neonates...
July 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719764/surgical-anatomy-does-not-affect-the-progression-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-neonatal-piglets
#4
Celeste M Lavallee, Pamela R Wizzard, Marihan Lansing, Donna F Vine, Patrick N Nation, Jason Y Yap, Benjamin P Willing, Paul W Wales, Justine M Turner
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) causes significant morbidity in neonates with short bowel syndrome (SBS) dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN). Resected ileum, with loss of the ileocecal valve (ICV), is the most common anatomy in SBS, yet its impact on IFALD has not been adequately studied. METHODS: Neonatal piglets were randomized to 75% intestinal resection with jejunocolic anastomosis (JC, n = 12), 75% resection with jejunoileal anastomosis and intact ICV (JI, n = 13), PN-fed sham (sham, n = 14), or sow-fed control (SF, n = 8)...
July 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718724/black-raspberries-and-their-anthocyanin-and-fiber-fractions-alter-the-composition-and-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-f-344-rats
#5
Pan Pan, Vy Lam, Nita Salzman, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Li-Shu Wang
Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716079/the-human-jejunum-has-an-endogenous-microbiota-that-differs-from-those-in-the-oral-cavity-and-colon
#6
Olof H Sundin, Antonio Mendoza-Ladd, Mingtao Zeng, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Elisa Morales, B Matthew Fagan, Javier Ordoñez, Philip Velez, Nishaal Antony, Richard W McCallum
BACKGROUND: The upper half of the human small intestine, known as the jejunum, is the primary site for absorption of nutrient-derived carbohydrates, amino acids, small peptides, and vitamins. In contrast to the colon, which contains 10(11)-10(12) colony forming units of bacteria per ml (CFU/ml), the normal jejunum generally ranges from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU per ml. Because invasive procedures are required to access the jejunum, much less is known about its bacterial microbiota. Bacteria inhabiting the jejunal lumen have been investigated by classical culture techniques, but not by culture-independent metagenomics...
July 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714894/carbonic-anhydrase-from-porphyromonas-gingivalis-as-a-drug-target
#7
REVIEW
Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
Periodontitis originates from a microbial synergy causing the development of a mouth microbial imbalance (dysbiosis), consisting of a microbial community composed of anaerobic bacteria. Most studies concerning the treatment of periodontitis have primarily take into account the Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, because it is a prominent component of the oral microbiome and a successful colonizer of the oral epithelium. Here, we focus our attention on the study of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4...
July 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713349/the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-chilean-subjects-reveals-a-high-abundance-of-the-phylum-verrucomicrobia
#8
Sayaka Fujio-Vejar, Yessenia Vasquez, Pamela Morales, Fabien Magne, Patricia Vera-Wolf, Juan A Ugalde, Paola Navarrete, Martin Gotteland
The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711627/vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-and-mast-cells-regulate-increased-passage-of-colonic-bacteria-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#9
Olga Bednarska, Susanna A Walter, Maite Casado-Bedmar, Magnus Ström, Eloísa Salvo-Romero, Maria Vicario, Emeran A Mayer, Åsa V Keita
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and symptoms of IBS develop following gastroenteritis. We aimed to study passage of live bacteria through the colonic epithelium, and determine the role of mast cells and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in barrier regulation in IBS and healthy individuals. METHODS: Colon biopsies from 32 women with IBS and 15 age-matched healthy women (controls) were mounted in Ussing chambers; we measured numbers of fluorescently labeled Escherichia coli HS and Salmonella typhimurium that passed through from the mucosal side to the serosal side of the tissue...
July 12, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711154/western-diet-induced-dysbiosis-in-farnesoid-x-receptor-knockout-mice-causes-persistent-hepatic-inflammation-after-antibiotic-treatment
#10
Prasant K Jena, Lili Sheng, Hui-Xin Liu, Karen M Kalanetra, Annie Mirsoian, William J Murphy, Samuel W French, Viswanathan V Krishnan, David A Mills, Yu-Jui Yvonne Wan
Patients who have liver cirrhosis and liver cancer also have reduced farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The current study analyzes the effect of diet through microbiota that affect hepatic inflammation in FXR knockout (KO) mice. Wild-type and FXR KO mice were on a control (CD) or Western diet (WD) for 10 months. In addition, both CD- and WD-fed FXR KO male mice, which had hepatic lymphocyte and neutrophil infiltration, were treated by vancomycin, polymyxin B, and Abx (ampicillin, neomycin, metronidazole, and vancomycin)...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709450/-dis-trust-your-gut-the-gut-microbiome-in-age-related-inflammation-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Thomas W Buford
Chronic inflammation represents one of the most consistent biologic features of aging. However, the precise etiology of persistent low-grade increases in inflammation remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiome may play a key role in age-related inflammation. Indeed, several studies have indicated that older adults display an altered composition of the gut microbiota, and early evidence indicates that this dysbiosis is associated with the presence of several key circulating inflammatory analytes...
July 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706919/microbiome-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
REVIEW
Eduard Monsó
The introduction of culture-independent techniques for the microbiological analysis of respiratory samples has confirmed that the respiratory system hosts a large number of microorganisms, which include a wide range of bacteria. The regular exposure to tobacco smoke changes the microbiome in healthy smokers, first in the oropharynx, increasing the presence of a restricted number of genera which attain high relative abundance, a pattern that may be considered as dysbiosis. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), microbiome analyses of sputum samples have demonstrated an important decline in bacterial diversity, with a change to a restricted flora with an overrepresentation of the Proteobacteria phylum, which include most of the bacteria commonly considered as potentially pathogenic microorganisms, paralleled by a decline in the relative abundance of microorganisms part of the Firmicutes phylum...
June 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704649/indoleacrylic-acid-produced-by-commensal-peptostreptococcus-species-suppresses-inflammation
#13
Marta Wlodarska, Chengwei Luo, Raivo Kolde, Eva d'Hennezel, John W Annand, Cortney E Heim, Philipp Krastel, Esther K Schmitt, Abdifatah S Omar, Elizabeth A Creasey, Ashley L Garner, Sina Mohammadi, Daniel J O'Connell, Sahar Abubucker, Timothy D Arthur, Eric A Franzosa, Curtis Huttenhower, Leon O Murphy, Henry J Haiser, Hera Vlamakis, Jeffrey A Porter, Ramnik J Xavier
Host factors in the intestine help select for bacteria that promote health. Certain commensals can utilize mucins as an energy source, thus promoting their colonization. However, health conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are associated with a reduced mucus layer, potentially leading to dysbiosis associated with this disease. We characterize the capability of commensal species to cleave and transport mucin-associated monosaccharides and identify several Clostridiales members that utilize intestinal mucins...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704646/skin-dysbiosis-goes-off-leish
#14
Tiffany C Scharschmidt
There is increasing interest in the contribution of microbes to skin disease. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Gimblet et al. (2017) demonstrate that cutaneous leishmaniasis alters the human skin microbiota. In mice, this dysbiosis is transferable to naive animals, where it augments skin inflammation and disease severity.
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701769/perfluorooctane-sulfonate-affects-intestinal-immunity-against-bacterial-infection
#15
Caixia Suo, Zhiqin Fan, Liang Zhou, Ju Qiu
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental contaminant that has been manufactured to be used as surfactants and repellents in industry. Due to long half-life for clearance and degradation, PFOS is accumulative in human body and has potential threat to human health. Previous studies have shown the development and function of immune cells can be affected by PFOS. Although PFOS has a high chance of being absorbed through the oral route, whether and how PFOS affects immune cells in the gut is unknown...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701081/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-older-adults
#16
K Lippert, L Kedenko, L Antonielli, I Kedenko, C Gemeier, M Leitner, A Kautzky-Willer, B Paulweber, E Hackl
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have become highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and the human gut microbiota, due to its influence on host energy metabolism, has been attributed an important role therein. This pilot study explores host-microbiota relationships in men and women affected by various types of glucose metabolism disorder. Among 20 individuals aged 58 to 71 years with either normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus the gut bacterial communities were compared based on barcoded 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from stool samples...
July 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700948/peripartum-antibiotics-promote-gut-dysbiosis-loss-of-immune-tolerance-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-genetically-prone-offspring
#17
Jun Miyoshi, Alexandria M Bobe, Sawako Miyoshi, Yong Huang, Nathaniel Hubert, Tom O Delmont, A Murat Eren, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
Factors affecting the developing neonatal gut microbiome and immune networks may increase the risk of developing complex immune disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In particular, peripartum antibiotics have been suggested as risk factors for human IBD, although direct evidence is lacking. Therefore, we examined the temporal impact of the commonly used antibiotic cefoperazone on both maternal and offspring microbiota when administered to dams during the peripartum period in the IL-10-deficient murine colitis model...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697806/control-of-lupus-nephritis-by-changes-of-gut-microbiota
#18
Qinghui Mu, Husen Zhang, Xiaofeng Liao, Kaisen Lin, Hualan Liu, Michael R Edwards, S Ansar Ahmed, Ruoxi Yuan, Liwu Li, Thomas E Cecere, David B Branson, Jay L Kirby, Poorna Goswami, Caroline M Leeth, Kaitlin A Read, Kenneth J Oestreich, Miranda D Vieson, Christopher M Reilly, Xin M Luo
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus, characterized by persistent inflammation, is a complex autoimmune disorder with no known cure. Immunosuppressants used in treatment put patients at a higher risk of infections. New knowledge of disease modulators, such as symbiotic bacteria, can enable fine-tuning of parts of the immune system, rather than suppressing it altogether. RESULTS: Dysbiosis of gut microbiota promotes autoimmune disorders that damage extraintestinal organs...
July 11, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696379/obesity-and-asthma-a-missing-link
#19
REVIEW
Mª Amelia Gomez-Llorente, Raquel Romero, Natalia Chueca, Ana Martinez-Cañavate, Carolina Gomez-Llorente
Obesity and asthma are two chronic conditions that affect millions of people. Genetic and lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity, and early exposure to micro-organisms are important factors that may contribute to the escalating prevalence of both conditions. The prevalence of asthma is higher in obese individuals. Recently, two major phenotypes of asthma with obesity have been described: one phenotype of early-onset asthma that is aggravated by obesity, and a second phenotype of later-onset asthma that predominantly affects women...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696139/gut-microbiome-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-players-involved-and-the-roles-they-play
#20
Shailesh K Shahi, Samantha N Freedman, Ashutosh K Mangalam
The human gut contains trillions of bacteria (microbiome) that play a major role in maintaining a healthy state for the host. Perturbation of this healthy gut microbiome might be an important environmental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Others and we have recently reported that MS patients have gut microbial dysbiosis (altered microbiota) with the depletion of some and enrichment of other bacteria. However, the significance of gut bacteria that show lower or higher abundance in MS is unclear...
July 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
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