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Wheat gluten

Kathrin Schalk, Peter Koehler, Katharina Anne Scherf
Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder of the upper small intestine caused by the ingestion of storage proteins (prolamins and glutelins) from wheat, barley, rye, and, in rare cases, oats. CD patients need to follow a gluten-free diet by consuming gluten-free products with gluten contents of less than 20 mg/kg. Currently, the recommended method for the quantitative determination of gluten is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the R5 monoclonal antibody. Because the R5 ELISA mostly detects the prolamin fraction of gluten, a new independent method is required to detect prolamins as well as glutelins...
2018: PloS One
Scott P White, C Daniel Frisbie, Kevin D Dorfman
We report a chemically tunable electronic sensor for quantitation of gluten based on a floating-gate transistor (FGT) architecture. The FGTs are fabricated in parallel and each one is functionalized with a different chemical moiety designed to preferentially bind a specific grain source of gluten. The resulting set of FGT sensors can detect both wheat and barley gluten below the gluten-free limit of 20 ppm (w/w) while providing a source-dependent signature for improved accuracy. This label-free transduction method does not require any secondary binding events, resulting in a ca...
February 7, 2018: ACS Sensors
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Chisato Nabeuchi, Misaki Kurogaki, Monika Garg, Mika Saito, Goro Ishikawa, Toshiki Nakamura, Hisashi Tsujimoto
Wheat flours are used to produce bread, pasta, breakfast cereals, and biscuits; the various properties of these end-products are attributed to the gluten content, produced as seed storage proteins in the wheat endosperm. Thus, genes encoding gluten protein are major targets of wheat breeders aiming to improve the various properties of wheat flour. Here, we describe a novel compensating wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum Robertsonian translocation (T1AS.1EL) line involving the short arm of wheat chromosome 1A (1AS) and the long arm of Th...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Reza Amiri, Shahryar Sasani, Saeid Jalali-Honarmand, Ali Rasaei, Behnaz Seifolahpour, Sohbat Bahraminejad
Genetic variation among 78 irrigated bread wheat genotypes was studied for their nutritional value and baking quality traits as well as some agronomic traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replicates under normal and terminal drought stress conditions in Kermanshah, Iran during 2012-2013 cropping season. The results of combined ANOVA indicated highly significant genotypic differences for all traits. All studied traits except grain yield, hectoliter weight and grain fiber content were significantly affected by genotype × environment interaction...
February 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Kathrin Schalk, Peter Koehler, Katharina Anne Scherf
Celiac disease is triggered by the ingestion of gluten from wheat, barley, rye, and possibly oats. Gluten is quantitated by DNA-based methods or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). ELISAs mostly detect the prolamin fraction and potentially over- or underestimate gluten contents. Therefore, a new independent method is required to comprehensively detect gluten. A targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to quantitate seven barley, seven rye and three oat marker peptides derived from each gluten protein fraction (prolamin, glutelin) and type (barley: B-, C-, D-, and γ-hordeins, rye: γ-75k-, γ-40k-, ω-, and HMW-secalins)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Gangcheng Wu, John Ashton, Azra Simic, Zhongxiang Fang, Stuart K Johnson
Mineral availability from sorghum grain in some varieties may be low because of the presence of phytates and tannins. However, heat processing of sorghum may lower tannin and phytate levels and thus improve mineral availability. Sorghum has potential in the manufacture of gluten free breakfast cereals, therefore flaked breakfast cereals were manufactured from whole grains of three contrasting sorghum varieties and compared to that manufactured from whole grain wheat. The content of tannin, phytate, minerals (Ca, Fe and Zn), in vitro mineral availability and phytate: mineral molar ratios were determined in the raw whole grain flours and the cooked flaked breakfast cereal...
January 2018: Food Research International
Duqin Zhang, Taihua Mu, Hongnan Sun
Wheat, corn, tapioca, sweet potato and potato starches were independently mixed into starch-gluten model doughs containing 15% (w/w) vital gluten. Rheological properties, including linear viscoelasticity region, frequency dependence and recovery capacity, were studied by strain sweep, frequency sweep, and creep and recovery measurements. Structural properties were also investigated by measuring the disulfide bonds (-SS-) content, SDS-PAGE and low-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. Wheat starch (WS)-gluten dough had the greatest linear viscoelasticity region (0...
January 2018: Food Research International
Byung Bo Lee, Tae Sung Yang, Doyun Goo, Franco Martinez Pitargue, Hyunjung Jung, Dong Yong Kil, Hyeon Seok Choi
Objective: This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary β-mannanase on the additivity of true metabolizable energy (TME) and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) for broiler diets. Methods: A total of 144 21-day-old broilers were randomly allotted to 12 dietary treatments with 6 replicates. Five treatments consisted of 5 ingredients of corn, wheat, soybean meal, corn distillers dried grains with solubles, or corn gluten meal...
January 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
R Francavilla, F Cristofori, L Verzillo, A Gentile, S Castellaneta, C Polloni, V Giorgio, E Verduci, E D'Angelo, S Dellatte, F Indrio
OBJECTIVES: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms that are related to the ingestion of gluten in subjects who are not affected by either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). In this multicenter study, we aim for the first time to evaluate the prevalence of NCGS in pediatric subjects with chronic functional gastrointestinal symptoms associated with gluten ingestion using a double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) gluten challenge with crossover...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Anne Stine Kvehaugen, Dag Tveiten, Per G Farup
BACKGROUND: Serum IgG and IgA food antibodies have been used for dietary advice to subjects with gastrointestinal symptoms and perceived food intolerance, but the role of these antibodies in mediating intolerance is controversial. The present study investigated associations between perceived gastrointestinal intolerance to milk-or wheat and the corresponding s-IgG and s-IgA food antibodies in subjects with morbid obesity. METHODS: Subjects with morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 or ≥35 kg/m2 with obesity-related complications) were included...
January 30, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Paresh Deshpande, Ashwin Dapkekar, Manoj Oak, Kishore Paknikar, Jyutika Rajwade
BACKGROUND: Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence...
2018: PloS One
Katherine L Fiedler, Rakhi Panda, Timothy R Croley
Most gluten-reduced beers are produced using an enzyme called proline endopeptidase (PEP), which proteolyzes the gluten by cleaving at proline residues. However, the gluten content of beers brewed in the presence of PEP cannot be verified since current analytical methods are not able to accurately quantitate gluten in fermented foods. In this work, mass spectrometry was used to qualitatively characterize the gluten in a wheat gluten incurred sorghum model beer brewed with and without the addition of PEP. Hydrolyzed gluten peptides and chymotryptic gluten peptides produced from intact gluten proteins were detected in beer brewed in the presence of up to six times the manufacturer's recommended dosage of PEP...
January 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
R B Liao, H J Yan, G H Liu, S Zhang, W H Chang, W Liu, C H Lin, X Y Huang, H Y Cai
This study was to investigate the effect of oxidized wheat gluten (OG) on growth performance, gut morphology and its oxidative states of broilers. One hundred and eighty-day-old male broilers (10 chicks/pen) were randomly allocated into three dietary treatments: control diet (CON), diet with 8% wheat gluten (WG) and diet with 8% OG with six pens/treatment. Body weight (BW) (21 and 35 days) and average daily gain (ADG) (1-21 days and 22-35 days) decreased (p < .05) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1-21 days and 22-35 days) increased (p < ...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Karla A Bascuñán, Leda Roncoroni, Federica Branchi, Luisa Doneda, Alice Scricciolo, Francesca Ferretti, Magdalena Araya, Luca Elli
Gluten-related disorders (GRDs) are gradually emerging as epidemiologically relevant diseases, with a global prevalence estimated to be approximately 5% in the population. Conditions related to gluten ingestion include celiac disease (CD), wheat allergy (WA), and nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Although mediated by different pathogenic pathways, these 3 conditions share similar clinical manifestations and can present a difficult differential diagnosis. The gluten challenge (GC) is an important diagnostic tool for GRDs, but there is great variability in regards to deciding which patients should be challenged, what amount of gluten should be used, what the GC duration should be, when and where the GC should occur, and, sometimes, why to conduct a GC...
January 9, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Chun-Xin Li, Wei-Gang Xu, Rui Guo, Jian-Zhou Zhang, Xue-Li Qi, Lin Hu, Ming-Zhong Zhao
Zhengmai 7698 is an elite winter wheat variety widely cultivated in the Southern regions of the Yellow-Huai River Valley of China. Here, we report the molecular markers used for breeding Zhengmai 7698 and the genome composition of this cultivar revealed using genome-wide SNPs. A total of 26 DNA markers derived from the genes controlling gluten protein quality, grain hardness, flour color, disease resistance, or pre-harvesting sprouting resistance were used during breeding. Consequently, Zhengmai 7698 had strong gluten, high grain hardness index, white flour color, and high levels of resistance to powdery mildew, stripe rust infections, and pre-harvesting sprouting...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yolanda Reig-Otero, Jordi Mañes, Lara Manyes
Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a gluten-related gastrointestinal disorder distinct from celiac disease (CD) and gluten allergy that is not easy to diagnose due to the lack of biomarkers. It is characterized by intestinal symptoms and extraintestinal manifestations with the consumption of gluten-containing foods. In contrast to CD, NCGS patients do not present a genetic predisposition or intestinal villi atrophy. Recent studies question the proinflammatory triggering activity of α-gliadin fraction contained in wheat, since it has been demonstrated that the amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) exert a strong activating effect on the innate immune response...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Francesco Tovoli, Alessandro Granito, Giulia Negrini, Elena Guidetti, Chiara Faggiano, Luigi Bolondi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Information about the clinical outcome of patients with non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) treated with gluten-free diet (GFD) derive from studies assessing the symptom response in the first few weeks of treatment. We aimed to evaluate the clinical response to the GFD and the quality of life (QoL) of NCWS patients in the long term. METHODS: Forty-four NCWS (diagnosed according to the Salerno criteria) participated in the study. Participants rated their symptoms according to a 0-10 scale patients and filled in a QoL questionnaire (CDQ) before the beginning of the GFD and during a follow-up evaluation performed after at least one year...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Guojun Lan, Yan Wang, Yiyang Qiu, Xiaolong Wang, Ji Liang, Wenfeng Han, Haodong Tang, Huazhang Liu, Jian Liu, Ying Li
N-Doped mesoporous carbon extrudate with a major quaternary N species has been successfully prepared through direct carbonization of wheat flour/gluten with silica, which is a cheap and convenient method for scale-up production approach. The obtained carbon extrudate metal-free catalyst enables highly efficient production of vinyl chloride monomer through acetylene hydrochlorination, with a superior catalytic performance and excellent stability (>85% conversion and vinyl chloride selectivity over 99% at 220 °C)...
January 4, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Ankita V Shah, Abu T M Serajuddin, Robert A Mangione
Gluten is found in food containing wheat, rye, and barley, and it may be introduced into medicines through the use of starch or any modified form of starch derived from these grains. The ingestion of gluten poses serious health hazards to people with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and they must avoid the oral ingestion of gluten. In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration solicited information and public comments on 'gluten in drug products'. However, the 'final rule' that the Agency issued in 2013 involved only the voluntary 'gluten-free' labeling of food, and it did not include drug products...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Xingfeng Guo, Xiaohong Sun, Yingying Zhang, Ruihong Wang, Xin Yan
Soy protein hydrolyzate has been used as supplements in wheat flour to enhance the nutritional value of its products, but it may negatively affect the gluten properties simultaneously. In order to explore the mechanism of this effect, protein characteristics including disulfide bond, protein composition, intermolecular force of dough proteins, and atomic force microscope images of gluten were obtained. Results showed that disulfide bonds in dough increased when soy protein hydrolyzate was added, but glutenin macropolymer decreased...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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