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Wheat gluten

Giuseppe Losurdo, Mariabeatrice Principi, Andrea Iannone, Annacinzia Amoruso, Enzo Ierardi, Alfredo Di Leo, Michele Barone
Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by a cohort of symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in subjects who are not affected by celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy. The possibility of systemic manifestations in this condition has been suggested by some reports. In most cases they are characterized by vague symptoms such as 'foggy mind', headache, fatigue, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness even if more specific complaints have been described. NCGS has an immune-related background...
April 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Markus Lacorn, Thomas Weiss, Nicole Klass, Patrick Bird, M Joseph Benzinger, James Agin, David Goins
RIDA® QUICK Gliadin is an immuno-chromatographic test for the detection of gluten in foods, on surfaces, and in Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) waters. This test kit has been adopted as Final Action AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official Methods of Analysis SM 2015.16 for gluten in corn products. The assay is based on the monoclonal antibody R5, which recognizes gluten in wheat, barley, and rye. Four different surfaces were contaminated with a gliadin material and analyzed by a direct swabbing of the surface with the dip-stick...
April 4, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Saloni Sharma, Venkatesh Chunduri, Aman Kumar, Rohit Kumar, Pragyanshu Khare, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Mahendra Bishnoi, Monika Garg
Colored wheat, rich in anthocyanins, has created interest among the breeders and baking industry. This study was aimed at understanding the nutritional and product making potential of our advanced, high yielding and regionally adapted colored wheat lines. Our results indicated that our advanced colored wheat lines exhibited higher anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity than donor wheat lines and it varied in the order of white<purple<blue<black wheat. UPLC chromatogram revealed that anthocyanin composition and peak pattern is not only dependent on donor genotype but also background of recipient genotype...
2018: PloS One
Jose Bonilla, Valerie Ryan, Gamze Yazar, Jozef L Kokini, Arun K Bhunia
The importance of gluten proteins, gliadins and glutenins, is well known in the quality of wheat products. In order to gain more specific information about the role of glutenins in wheat dough the two major subunits of glutenin, high and low molecular weight (HMW and LMW) glutenins were extracted, isolated and identified by mass spectrometry. Antibodies for HMW and LMW glutenins were developed using the proteomic information of the characterized glutenin subunits. The antibodies were found to be specific to each subunit by western immunoblots and were then conjugated to Quantum Dots using site click conjugation a new method to keep antibodies integrity...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Justine M Turner
Celiac disease is a common autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, triggered by an immunological response to the gluten present in wheat, barley, and rye in individuals who are genetically at risk. A key to reducing the complications of this disease is early diagnosis, preferably in childhood, and consuming a lifelong gluten-free diet once diagnosis is confirmed. Yet, the diagnosis of celiac disease is often considerably delayed, exposing patients to needless suffering and morbidity. It is also difficult to confirm histologically if dietary gluten has been restricted prior to obtaining a diagnostic biopsy, a significant problem given the current growing popularity of gluten-free diets...
April 3, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Hongjin Wang, Hongjun Zhang, Bin Li, Zhihui Yu, Guangrong Li, Jie Zhang, Zujun Yang
As an important relative of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L), Dasypyrum breviaristatum contains novel high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) encoded by Glu-1Vb genes. We identified new wheat- D. breviaristatum chromosome introgression lines including chromosomes 1Vb and 1Vb L.5Vb L by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with molecular markers. We found that chromosome changes occurred in the wheat- D. breviaristatum introgression lines and particularly induced the deletion of 5BS terminal repeats and formation of a new type of 5B-7B reciprocal translocation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gabriel A Leiva-Valenzuela, Marcela Quilaqueo, Daniela Lagos, Danilo Estay, Franco Pedreschi
The aim of this research was to determine the effect of composition (dietary fiber = DF, fat = F, and gluten = G) and baking time on the target microstructural parameters that were observed using images of potato and wheat starch biscuits. Microstructures were studied Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Non-enzymatic browning (NEB) was assessed using color image analysis. Texture and moisture analysis was performed to have a better understanding of the baking process. Analysis of images revealed that the starch granules retained their native form at the end of baking, suggesting their in complete gelatinization...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Guang Liu, JingJing Wang, Yi Hou, Yan-Bo Huang, JiaJia Wang, Cunzhi Li, ShiJun Guo, Lin Li, Song-Qing Hu
This study investigated characteristics of recombinant wheat Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1 (wEro1) and its influence on Chinese steamed bread (CSB) qualities. The purified wEro1 monomer, which contained two conserved redox active motif sites, bound to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor with a molecular weight of ∼47 kDa. wEro1 catalyzed the reduction of both bound and free FAD, and its reduction activity of free FAD reached 7.8 U/mg. Moreover, wEro1 catalyzed the oxidation of dithiothreitol and wheat protein disulfide isomerase (wPDI)...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Acga Cheng
Genetic erosion of crops has been determined way back in the 1940s and accelerated some twenty years later by the inception of the Green Revolution. Claims that the revolution was a complete triumph remain specious, especially since the massive production boost in the global big three grain crops; wheat, maize, and rice that happened back then is unlikely to recur under current climate irregularities. Presently, one of the leading strategies for sustainable agriculture is by unlocking the genetic potential of underutilized crops...
April 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Victor F Zevallos, Verena K Raker, Joachim Maxeiner, Petra Scholtes, Kerstin Steinbrink, Detlef Schuppan
BACKGROUND: Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATI) are dietary non-gluten proteins that activate the toll-like receptor 4 on myeloid cells, promoting intestinal inflammation. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated the effects of dietary ATI on experimental allergic airway inflammation. METHODS: Mice on a gluten and ATI-free diet (GAFD), sensitized with PBS or ovalbumin (OVA) and challenged with OVA, were compared to mice on a commercial standard chow, a gluten diet naturally containing ~ 0...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
A Akyol, A Kabasakal Cetin, A Gulec, H Dasgin, A Ayaz, I Onbasilar
Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation is a critical factor in the development of the offspring. Both protein content and source in maternal diet affect neonatal health, but the long-term effects of maternal low-quality protein diet on the offspring are less clear. This study aimed to examine the effects of maternal low-quality protein diet on offspring's growth, development, circulating metabolites and hepatic expression of methyltransferases. Virgin Wistar rats were mated at 11 weeks of age. Dams were then maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein as the control group (C), or a low-quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten as the experimental group (WG) throughout gestation and lactation...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Tricia Thompson, Amy Keller, Trisha Bury Lyons
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
S Keppler, S Bakalis, C E Leadley, S S Sahi, P J Fryer
An accurate method to heat treat flour samples has been used to quantify the effects of heat treatment on flour functionality. A variety of analytical methods has been used such as oscillatory rheology, rheomixer, solvent retention capacity tests, and Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) in water and in aqueous solutions of sucrose, lactic acid, and sodium carbonate. This work supports the hypothesis that heat treatment facilitates the swelling of starch granules at elevated temperature. Results furthermore indicated improved swelling ability and increased interactions of flour polymers (in particular arabinoxylans) of heat treated flour at ambient conditions...
May 2018: Food Research International
Joana Pico, Beatriz Antolín, Laura Román, Manuel Gómez, José Bernal
The aroma of bread crust, as one of the first characteristics perceived, is essential for bread acceptance. However, gluten-free bread crusts exhibit weak aroma. A SPME-GC/QTOF methodology was optimised with PCA and RSM and validated for the quantification of 44 volatile compounds in bread crust, extracting 0.75 g of crust at 60 °C for 51 min. LODs ranged between 3.60 and 1760 μg Kg-1 , all the R2 were higher than 0.99 and %RSD for precision and %Er for accuracy were lower than 9% and 12%, respectively...
April 2018: Food Research International
Vera Rotondi Aufiero, Alessio Fasano, Giuseppe Mazzarella
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a clinical entity triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing grains leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that resolve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is eliminated from the diet and it is diagnosed when celiac disease (CD) and wheat allergy (WA) have been ruled out. The limited knowledge about the pathophysiology of NCGS and the lack of validated biomarkers are still major limitations for clinical studies, making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten-related disorders (GRD)...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Iris Bellinghausen, Benno Weigmann, Victor Zevallos, Joachim Maxeiner, Sonja Reißig, Ari Waisman, Detlef Schuppan, Joachim Saloga
BACKGROUND: Amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) in wheat and related cereals are potent activators of myeloid innate immune cells via engagement of TLR4. Furthermore, ATIs have been shown to serve as adjuvants in experimental intestinal inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze whether ATIs are also modifiers of allergic inflammation. METHODS: Therefore, CD4+ T cells from grass or birch pollen sensitized donors were stimulated with autologous allergen-pulsed dendritic cells in the presence or absence of ATIs or the control storage protein zein from corn...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yi Zhang, Da Li, Dingbo Zhang, Xiaoge Zhao, Xuemin Cao, Lingli Dong, Jinxing Liu, Kunling Chen, Huawei Zhang, Caixia Gao, Daowen Wang
GW2 is emerging as a key genetic determinant of grain weight in cereal crops, and has three homoeologs (TaGW2-A1, -B1 and -D1) in hexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, by analyzing the gene editing mutants lacking one (B1 or D1), two (B1 and D1) or all three (A1, B1 and D1) homoeologs of TaGW2, several insights are gained into the functions of TaGW2-B1 and -D1 in common wheat grain traits. First, both TaGW2-B1 and -D1 affect thousand grain weight (TGW) through influencing grain width and length, but the effect conferred by TaGW2-B1 is stronger than that by TaGW2-D1...
March 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Zhenzhen Wang, Lin Huang, Bihua Wu, Jiliang Hu, Zilong Jiang, Pengfei Qi, Youliang Zheng, Dengcai Liu
Glu-1Ay , one of six genes encoding a high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS), is frequently silenced in hexaploid common wheat. Here, an active allele of Glu-1Ay was integrated from wild emmer wheat ( Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides ) accession D97 into the common wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) cultivar Chuannong 16 via the repeated self-fertilization of the pentaploid interspecific hybrid, culminating in the selection of a line TaAy7-40 shown to express the wild emmer Glu-1Ay allele. The open reading frame of this allele was a 1830 bp long sequence, demonstrated by its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli to encode a 608-residue polypeptide...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Haili Li, Keren Byrne, Renata Galiamov, Omar Mendoza-Porras, Utpal Bose, Crispin A Howitt, Michelle L Colgrave
A strict, lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet is currently the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Vinegar and soy sauce are fermented condiments that often include wheat and/or barley. During fermentation cereal proteins are partially degraded by enzymes to yield peptide fragments and amino acids. Whether these fermented products contain intact or degraded gluten proteins and if they are safe for people with CD remains in question. LC-MS offers the benefit of being able to detect hydrolysed gluten that might be present in commercial vinegar and soy sauce products...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Aylin W Sahin, Claudia Axel, Emanuele Zannini, Elke K Arendt
Burger buns are a source of added sugar, containing 7-12%, in order to ensure their unique texture and taste. Hence, suitable sugar substitutes for burger buns are urgently needed. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of three different polyols on dough and product quality of burger buns. Xylitol, mannitol and maltitol were incorporated individually in a burger bun system, by replacing added sucrose by 30%, 50% and 100%. Wheat starch was used to compare the impact of polyols with another non-sweet bulking agent...
March 16, 2018: Food & Function
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