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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332196/bioelectronic-modulation-of-carotid-sinus-nerve-activity-in-the-rat-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-type-2-diabetes
#1
Joana F Sacramento, Daniel J Chew, Bernardete F Melo, Matteo Donegá, Wesley Dopson, Maria P Guarino, Alison Robinson, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Sonal Patel, Bradley J Holinski, Nishan Ramnarain, Victor Pikov, Kristoffer Famm, Silvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332017/insulin-resistance-and-lung-function-in-obese-asthmatic-pre-pubertal-children
#2
Paola Di Filippo, Alessandra Scaparrotta, Daniele Rapino, Tommaso de Giorgis, Marianna Immacolata Petrosino, Marina Attanasi, Sabrina Di Pillo, Francesco Chiarelli, Angelika Mohn
BACKGROUND: Recent findings have supposed that the underlying association between the increased prevalence of both asthma and obesity may be insulin resistance (IR). METHODS: Insulin and glucose serum levels were analyzed to calculate the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for IR in 98 pre-pubertal children. Lung function and allergy status evaluation were performed. The study population was divided into four groups: (1) obese asthmatic children (ObA); (2) normal-weight asthmatic children (NwA); (3) normal-weight non-asthmatic children (Nw) and (4) obese non-asthmatic children (Ob)...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332012/classical-adiponectin-leptin-resistin-and-new-chemerin-vaspin-omentin-adipocytokines-in-patients-with-prediabetes
#3
Antoaneta Gateva, Yavor Assyov, Adelina Tsakova, Zdravko Kamenov
Background In the last decade, there has been an increased interest toward fat tissue as an endocrine organ that secretes many cytokines and bioactive mediators that play a role in insulin sensitivity, inflammation, coagulation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate classical (adiponectin, leptin, resistin) and new (chemerin, vaspin, omentin) adipocytokine levels in subjects with prediabetes [impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)] and obese subjects with normoglycemia...
January 15, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331565/saroglitazar-reduces-obesity-and-associated-inflammatory-consequences-in-murine-adipose-tissue
#4
Durgesh Kumar, Umesh Kumar Goand, Sanchita Gupta, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Gupta, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Anurag Kumar Srivastava, Anil N Gaikwad
Prevailing knowledge links chronic low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue to obesity and its associated metabolic complications. In this study, we evaluated immunometabolic effects of a recently launched dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α & γ agonist 'Saroglitazar' in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Body composition analysis revealed that saroglitazar treatment promoted hepatic weight gain, while attenuated epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass in DIO. In the eWAT of saroglitazar treated mice, histological analysis showed reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and matrix deposition (picrosirius red staining)...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331535/estrogen-deprivation-aggravates-cardiometabolic-dysfunction-in-obese-insulin-resistant-rats-through-the-impairment-of-cardiac-mitochondrial-dynamics
#5
Wanitchaya Minta, Siripong Palee, Duangkamol Mantor, Wissuta Sutham, Thidarat Jaiwongkum, Sasiwan Kerdpoo, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Sirinart Kumfu, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
The incidence of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome increases after the onset of menopause, suggesting estrogen has a vital role in their prevention. Mitochondrial dynamics are known to play an important role in the maintenance of cardiac physiological function. However, the effects of estrogen deprivation on cardiometabolic status and cardiac mitochondrial dynamics under conditions of obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. We hypothesized that estrogen deprivation aggravates cardiac dysfunction through increased cardiac mitochondrial fission in obese-insulin resistant rats...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331506/hepatocyte-estrogen-receptor-alpha-mediates-estrogen-action-to-promote-reverse-cholesterol-transport-during-western-type-diet-feeding
#6
Lin Zhu, Jeanne Shi, Thao N Luu, Joshua C Neuman, Elijah Trefts, Sophia Yu, Brian T Palmisano, David H Wasserman, MacRae F Linton, John M Stafford
OBJECTIVE: Hepatocyte deletion of estrogen receptor alpha (LKO-ERα) worsens fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in high-fat diet fed female mice. However, whether or not hepatocyte ERα regulates reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in mice has not yet been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using LKO-ERα mice and wild-type (WT) littermates fed a Western-type diet, we found that deletion of hepatocyte ERα impaired in vivo RCT measured by the removal of 3H-cholesterol from macrophages to the liver, and subsequently to feces, in female mice but not in male mice...
December 29, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331050/exercise-counteracts-lipotoxicity-by-improving-lipid-turnover-and-lipid-droplet-quality
#7
Evelyn Zacharewicz, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen
The incidence of obesity and metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), are rising globally. Dietary lipid over-supply leads to lipid accumulation at ectopic sites, such as skeletal muscle. Ectopic lipid storage is highly correlated with insulin resistance and T2D, likely due to a loss of metabolic flexibility - the capacity to switch between fat and glucose oxidation upon insulin stimulation - and cellular dysfunction because of lipotoxicity. However, muscle lipid levels are also elevated in endurance trained athletes, presenting a paradoxical phenotype of increased intramuscular lipids along with high insulin sensitivity - the "athletes' paradox"...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330917/mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-remains-stable-despite-a-comprehensive-and-sustained-increase-in-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-patients-undergoing-gastric-bypass-surgery
#8
Michael T Lund, Steen Larsen, Merethe Hansen, Julie Courraud, Andrea K Floyd, Mikael Støckel, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela
AIM: It has been proposed, but not yet demonstrated by convincing evidence in published articles, that insulin resistance and mitochondrial respiratory function are causally-related physiological phenomena. Here, we tested the prediction that weight loss induced increase in insulin sensitivity will correlate with a corresponding change in mitochondrial respiratory capacity over the same time period. METHODS: Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycemic clamp technique and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity was evaluated by high-resolution respirometry in 26 patients with obesity...
January 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330868/insulin-resistance-and-the-increased-risk-for-smell-dysfunction-in-us-adults
#9
Jin-Young Min, Kyoung-Bok Min
OBJECTIVE: Over 24% of older American adults (approximately 14 million) are estimated to have reduced olfactory sensitivity. Previous studies have provided evidence that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or its complications are at increased risk of olfactory dysfunction. We therefore investigated whether smell dysfunction was associated with DM-related biomarkers, including fasting blood glucose, glycohemoglobin, serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), in older US adults...
January 13, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330465/insulin-resistance-is-associated-with-cognitive-decline-among-older-koreans-with-normal-baseline-cognitive-function-a-prospective-community-based-cohort-study
#10
Sung Hye Kong, Young Joo Park, Jun-Young Lee, Nam H Cho, Min Kyong Moon
We evaluated whether metabolic factors were associated with cognitive decline, compared to baseline cognitive function, among geriatric population. The present study evaluated data from an ongoing prospective community-based Korean cohort study. Among 1,387 participants who were >65 years old, 422 participants were evaluated using the Korean mini-mental status examination (K-MMSE) at the baseline and follow-up examinations. The mean age at the baseline was 69.3 ± 2.9 years, and 222 participants (52...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330446/effect-of-puerarin-in-promoting-fatty-acid-oxidation-by-increasing-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-and-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-in-diabetic-rats
#11
Xiu-Fang Chen, Lei Wang, Yong-Zheng Wu, Shi-Yu Song, Hai-Yan Min, Yan Yang, Xuan He, Qiao Liang, Long Yi, Yong Wang, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by dyslipidemia and the accumulation of lipids in non-adipose tissue, including skeletal muscle. Puerarin, which is a natural isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata, has been shown to have antidiabetic activity. However, the lipid-reducing effect of puerarin, in particular in skeletal muscle, has not yet been addressed. METHODS: We examined the effect of puerarin on mitochondrial function and the oxidation of fatty acids in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330372/non-estrogenic-xanthohumol-derivatives-mitigate-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-impairment-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#12
Cristobal L Miranda, Lance A Johnson, Oriane de Montgolfier, Valerie D Elias, Lea S Ullrich, Joshua J Hay, Ines L Paraiso, Jaewoo Choi, Ralph L Reed, Johana S Revel, Chrissa Kioussi, Gerd Bobe, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner, Benita S Katzenellenbogen, John A Katzenellenbogen, Paul R Blakemore, Adrian F Gombart, Claudia S Maier, Jacob Raber, Jan F Stevens
Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid from hops, improves dysfunctional glucose and lipid metabolism in animal models of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, its metabolic transformation into the estrogenic metabolite, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), poses a potential health concern for its use in humans. To address this concern, we evaluated two hydrogenated derivatives, α,β-dihydro-XN (DXN) and tetrahydro-XN (TXN), which showed negligible affinity for estrogen receptors α and β, and which cannot be metabolically converted into 8-PN...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330356/metabolic-and-molecular-changes-associated-with-the-increased-skeletal-muscle-insulin-action-24-48%C3%A2-h-after-exercise-in-young-and-old-humans
#13
REVIEW
Francis B Stephens, Kostas Tsintzas
The molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying the increase in insulin sensitivity (i.e. increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake, phosphorylation and storage as glycogen) observed from 12 to 48 h following a single bout of exercise in humans remain unresolved. Moreover, whether these mechanisms differ with age is unclear. It is well established that a single bout of exercise increases the translocation of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane. Previous research using unilateral limb muscle contraction models in combination with hyperinsulinaemia has demonstrated that the increase in insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis 24 h after exercise is also associated with an increase in hexokinase II (HKII) mRNA and protein content, suggesting an increase in the capacity of the muscle to phosphorylate glucose and divert it towards glycogen synthesis...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330255/high-intensity-cigarette-smoking-is-associated-with-incident-diabetes-mellitus-in-black-adults-the-jackson-heart-study
#14
Wendy B White, Loretta R Cain, Emelia J Benjamin, Andrew P DeFilippis, Michael J Blaha, Wei Wang, Victoria Okhomina, Rachel J Keith, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Sina Kianoush, Michael D Winniford, Rose M Robertson, Aruni Bhatnagar, Adolfo Correa, Michael E Hall
BACKGROUND: Previous reports on whether smoking is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus have yielded inconsistent findings. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoking and incident diabetes mellitus in the Jackson Heart Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Jackson Heart Study participants enrolled at baseline without prevalent diabetes mellitus (n=2991) were classified by self-report as current smokers, past smokers (smoked ≥400 cigarettes/life and no longer smoking), or never smokers...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#15
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329523/early-commitment-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-modulation-in-brazilian-patients-with-congenital-generalized-lipodystrophy
#16
Clarisse Mourão Melo Ponte, Virgínia Oliveira Fernandes, Maria Helane Costa Gurgel, Izabella Tamira Galdino Farias Vasconcelos, Lia Beatriz de Azevedo Souza Karbage, Christiane Bezerra Rocha Liberato, Carlos Antônio Negrato, Marília de Brito Gomes, Ana Paula Dias Rangel Montenegro, Renan Magalhães Montenegro Júnior
BACKGROUND: Metabolic abnormalities in congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) are associated with microvascular complications. However, the evaluation of different types of neuropathy in these patients, including the commitment of cardiovascular autonomic modulation, is scarce. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in patients with CGL compared with individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten patients with CGL, 20 patients with type 1 diabetes and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study...
January 12, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329254/low-carbohydrate-high-protein-high-fat-diets-rich-in-livestock-poultry-and-their-products-predict-impending-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-chinese-individuals-that-exceed-their-calculated-caloric-requirement
#17
Ruiqi Shan, Wei Duan, Lei Liu, Jiayue Qi, Jian Gao, Yunlong Zhang, Shanshan Du, Tianshu Han, Xiuyu Pang, Changhao Sun, Xiaoyan Wu
The evidence on the association between long-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is controversial. Until now, data is limited for Chinese populations, especially in considering the influence of extra energy intake. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the association of low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in populations consuming extra calories and those with normal caloric intake, We also determined whether the association is mediated by insulin resistance (IR) or β-cell dysfunction...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328913/an-integrated-view-of-immunometabolism
#18
REVIEW
Yun Sok Lee, Joshua Wollam, Jerrold M Olefsky
The worldwide obesity epidemic has emerged as a major cause of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Chronic tissue inflammation is a well-recognized feature of obesity, and the field of immunometabolism has witnessed many advances in recent years. Here, we review the major features of our current understanding with respect to chronic obesity-related inflammation in metabolic tissues and focus on how these inflammatory changes affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, food intake, and glucose homeostasis...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328029/-metabolic-secretion-in-reproductive-age-women-with-obesity
#19
A Malazonia, T Zerekidze, N Vekua, N Chkheidze, K Asatiani
For the last decade melatonin has attracted attention as a neuroregulator in pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The aim of our study is to evaluate the characteristics of metabolic secretion in obese women of reproductive age. The study was conducted on the total number of 120 women. Eighty women with obesity formed the case group, and forty healthy women - the control group. Carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile and serum levels of melatonin were evaluated in all study subjects. According to the results, 61...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328028/-skin-pathology-in-diabetes-mellitus-clinical-and-pathophysiological-correlations-review
#20
K Kochet, I Lytus, I Svistunov, O Sulaieva
Skin pathology is registered in vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Despite the abundance of publications on dermatological problems in DM, there is still a number of gaps to be discussed in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms. The goal of this review was to assess the mechanisms of development of different skin pathologies under DM. One of the key pathogenic mechanisms of skin lesions in diabetes is hyperglycemia and the effects of the advanced glycation end products, inducing oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation; that in its turn can accelerate the mechanisms of skin aging, the development of diabetic dermopathy and scleredema diabeticorum...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
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