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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148825/on-the-growth-and-detectability-of-land-plants-on-habitable-planets-around-m-dwarfs
#1
Duo Cui, Feng Tian, Yuwei Wang, Changshen Li, Chaoqing Yu, Le Yu
One signature of life on Earth is the vegetation red edge (VRE) feature of land plants, a dramatic change of reflectivity at wavelength near 0.7 μm. Potentially habitable planets around M dwarfs are tidally locked, which can limit the distribution of land plants. In this study, we used a biogeochemical model to investigate the distribution of land plants on potentially habitable planets around M dwarfs driven by climate data produced in a general circulation model (GCM). When considering the effects of clouds, the observation time needed for VRE detection on nearby p = 1 exoplanets around nearby M dwarfs is on the order of days using a 25 m(2) telescope if a large continent faces Earth during observations...
November 17, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144223/no-touch-disinfection-methods-to-decrease-multidrug-resistant-organism-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Alexandre R Marra, Marin L Schweizer, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that using no-touch disinfection technologies (ie, ultraviolet light [UVL] or hydrogen peroxide vapor [HPV] systems) can limit the transmission of nosocomial pathogens and prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). To investigate these findings further, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of no-touch disinfection methods to decrease HAIs. METHODS We searched PubMed, CINAHL, CDSR, DARE and EMBASE through April 2017 for studies evaluating no-touch disinfection technology and the nosocomial infection rates for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136420/assessment-of-environmental-contamination-with-pathogenic-bacteria-at-a-hospital-laundry-facility
#3
Karen E Michael, David No, William E Daniell, Noah S Seixas, Marilyn C Roberts
Little is known about exposure to pathogenic bacteria among industrial laundry workers who work with soiled clinical linen. To study worker exposures, an assessment of surface contamination was performed at an industrial laundry facility serving hospitals in Seattle, WA, USA. Surface swab samples (n = 240) from the environment were collected during four site visits at 3-month intervals. These samples were cultured for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134935/susceptibility-of-vancomycin-resistant-and-sensitive-enterococcus-faecium-obtained-from-danish-hospitals-to-benzalkonium-chloride-chlorhexidine-and-hydrogen-peroxide-biocides
#4
Sulaiman M I Alotaibi, Alafate Ayibiekea, Annemette Frøling Pedersen, Lotte Jakobsen, Mette Pinholt, Heidi Gumpert, Anette M Hammerum, Henrik Westh, Hanne Ingmer
PURPOSE: In Danish hospitals, the number of infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE faecium) has dramatically increased in recent years. Hospital disinfectants are essential in eliminating pathogenic microorganisms, and reduced susceptibility may contribute to hospital-associated infections. We have addressed whether clinical VRE faecium display decreased biocide susceptibility when compared to vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium (VSE faecium) isolates...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127125/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-bacteraemia-as-a-complication-of-kayexalate-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate-sps-in-sorbitol-induced-ischaemic-colitis
#5
Roberto Christian Cerrud-Rodriguez, Diego Alcaraz-Alvarez, Brian Bobby Chiong, Abdurhman Ahmed
We present the case report of an 80-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease stage G5 admitted to the hospital with fluid overload and hyperkalaemia. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS, Kayexalate) in sorbitol suspension was given orally to treat her hyperkalaemia, which precipitated an episode of SPS in sorbitol-induced ischaemic colitis with the subsequent complication of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteraemia. SPS (Kayexalate) in sorbitol suspension has been implicated in the development of intestinal necrosis...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112913/multifunctional-nanocomplex-for-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-imaging-and-near-infrared-photodynamic-antimicrobial-therapy-of-vancomycin-resistant-bacteria
#6
Zilong Zhou, Shanshan Peng, Minghao Sui, Shiguang Chen, Lishi Huang, Hui Xu, Tingting Jiang
Since vancomycin (Van)-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains first emerged as a serious threat to public health, extensive studies focused on optical imaging and antimicrobial therapy have been performed for monitoring and microbiological control. In this study, we developed silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine dihydroxide (Nc) and Van functionalized silica-encapsulated, silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@AgNP@SiO2@Nc-Van) as a novel theranostic system for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) of VRE strains...
November 2, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109928/ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-associated-vancomycin-resistant-meningitis-complicating-a-patient-undergoing-plasmapheresis-for-presumed-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-associated-transverse-myelitis
#7
Adam John Covach, William Nicholas Rose
Objectives  We report a patient who had a working diagnosis of transverse myelitis secondary to a lupus exacerbation. As his clinical course evolved, continued vigilance clarified that he was in fact suffering from a nosocomial infection caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Methods  We performed a retrospective review of the patient's medical record. Results  Despite radiographic improvement, he did not improve clinically following immunosuppressive therapy including plasma exchange. Once meningitis was diagnosed and treated, he improved rapidly...
October 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109580/fosfomycin-susceptibility-in-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-species-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-urinary-isolates
#8
Linda B Ou, Lynn Nadeau
Background: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to drug-resistant species of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus (e.g., organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL] or AmpC β-lactamase, as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]). However, this type of therapy can promote selection of resistant organisms and may necessitate venous access. Fosfomycin is an orally administered, single-dose antibiotic for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101082/the-emerging-problem-of-linezolid-resistant-enterococcus
#9
REVIEW
Ruru Bi, Tingting Qin, Wenting Fan, Ping Ma, Bing Gu
Enterococcus is a significant pathogen of numerous infections, particularly nosocomial infections, thus conferring a great challenge to clinicians. Linezolid (an oxazolidinone antibiotic) is an important therapeutic option for infections caused by Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, especially vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). To characterize these infections with respect to epidemiological, microbiological and clinical scenarios, we make a systematic review of literature available on linezolid-resistant Enterococcus (LRE)...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097754/real-time-acute-stress-facilitates-allocentric-spatial-processing-in-a-virtual-fire-disaster
#10
Zhengcao Cao, Yamin Wang, Liang Zhang
Prior studies have shown that spatial cognition is influenced by stress prior to task. The current study investigated the effects of real-time acute stress on allocentric and egocentric spatial processing. A virtual reality-based spatial reference rule learning (SRRL) task was designed in which participants were instructed to make a location selection by walking to one of three poles situated around a tower. A selection was reinforced by either an egocentric spatial reference rule (leftmost or rightmost pole relative to participant) or an allocentric spatial reference rule (nearest or farthest pole relative to the tower)...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079115/molecular-characterization-of-glycopeptide-and-macrolide-resistance-genes-among-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-strains
#11
Asieh Taji, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Hossein Kazemian, Hamid Heidari
BACKGROUND: Multiple-drug-resistant enterococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are major cause of healthcare associated infections due to their antibiotic resistance traits. Among the enterococci, Enterococcus faecalis is an important opportunistic pathogen causing various hospital-acquired infections. METHODS: A total of 51 E. faecalis strains were isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs), bloodstream infections, respiratory tract infections, abdominal infections, and eye infection...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071232/vancomycin-capped-with-silver-nanoparticles-as-an-antibacterial-agent-against-multi-drug-resistance-bacteria
#12
Mahsa Esmaeillou, Gholamreza Zarrini, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Javid Shahbazi Mojarrad, Ali Bahadori
Purpose: Many antimicrobial medications are available to combat infections. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance in the case of many bacterial pathogens. This study focuses on the development of nanoparticles (NPs) that enhance the in vitro antibiotic activity of vancomycin against multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. Methods: Spherical shaped thioglycolic acid-stabilized silver nanoparticles (TGA-AgNPs) were prepared by using a simple chemical reduction method...
September 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066140/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-isolates-colonizing-and-infecting-haematology-patients-clonality-and-virulence-and-resistance-profile
#13
A P Marchi, L V P Neto, R C R Martins, C F Rizek, C H Camargo, L Z Moreno, A M Moreno, M V Batista, M S Basqueira, F Rossi, U Amigo, T Guimaraes, A S S Levin, S F Costa
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important agent of colonization and infection in haematology patients. However, the role of virulence on VRE colonization and infection is controversial. The aim of this study was to characterize the lineage, virulence and resistance profile of VRE infection and colonization isolates; as well as their impact on outcome of haematology patients using a regression logistic model. METHODS: Eighty-six isolates (80 Enterococcus faecium and 6 E. faecalis) from 76 patients were evaluated...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058560/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-review-of-antimicrobial-resistance-mechanisms-and-perspectives-of-human-and-animal-health
#14
Mohamed O Ahmed, Keith E Baptiste
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are both of medical and public health importance associated with serious multidrug-resistant infections and persistent colonization. Enterococci are opportunistic environmental inhabitants with a remarkable adaptive capacity to evolve and transmit antimicrobial-resistant determinants. The VRE gene operons show distinct genetic variability and apparently continued evolution leading to a variety of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and various environmental and livestock reservoirs for the most common van genes...
October 23, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056328/controlling-for-endogeneity-in-attributable-costs-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-from-a-canadian-hospital
#15
Patrick Lloyd-Smith
BACKGROUND: Decisions regarding the optimal provision of infection prevention and control resources depend on accurate estimates of the attributable costs of health care-associated infections. This is challenging given the skewed nature of health care cost data and the endogeneity of health care-associated infections. The objective of this study is to determine the hospital costs attributable to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) while accounting for endogeneity. METHODS: This study builds on an attributable cost model conducted by a retrospective cohort study including 1,292 patients admitted to an urban hospital in Vancouver, Canada...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051750/epidemiology-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-e-coli-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-the-northern-dutch-german-cross-border-region
#16
Xuewei Zhou, Silvia García-Cobos, Gijs J H M Ruijs, Greetje A Kampinga, Jan P Arends, Dirk M Borst, Lieke V Möller, Nicole D Holman, Theo A Schuurs, Lesla E Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, Jan F Weel, Jan H van Zeijl, Robin Köck, John W A Rossen, Alexander W Friedrich
Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence study on ESBL/pAmpC/CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and VRE was carried out in hospitalized patients in the Northern Netherlands (n = 445, 2012-2013) and Germany (n = 242, 2012). Healthy individuals from the Dutch community (n = 400, 2010-2012) were also screened...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046248/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-bacteremia
#17
Jung-Jr Ye, Shian-Sen Shie, Chun-Wen Cheng, Jeng-How Yang, Po-Yen Huang, Ting-Shu Wu, Ming-Hsun Lee, Ching-Tai Huang
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE-fm) bacteremia causes significant mortality in hospitalized patients. We sought to investigate clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and microbiological eradication associated with VRE-fm bacteremia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted and included 210 adult patients admitted between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. RESULTS: The mean Pitt bacteremia score was 4...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044373/antimicrobial-resistance-a-one-health-perspective
#18
Laura H Kahn
Introduction: Worsening antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the practice of modern human and veterinary medicine. For decades, medicine and agriculture have blamed each other for the rise of resistant microbes. Widespread use and misuse of antibiotics in both medicine and agriculture have increased the prevalence and expression of resistance genes. VRE: The rise of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) in the European Union (EU) led to the ban of avoparcin, an antibiotic that is chemically related to vancomycin...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043959/purified-citritin-in-combination-with-vancomycin-inhibits-vre-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Kléber de Sousa Oliveira, Paulo Roberto Martins Queiroz, Isabel Cristina Marques Fensterseifer, Ludovico Migliolo, Aline Lima Oliveira, Octávio Luiz Franco
Gram-positive pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) have been frequently associated with bacterial resistance mechanisms. These mechanisms, in turn, restrict a range of therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of infections caused by these micro-organisms. Faced with this problem, the present study aims to isolate and characterize molecules with antimicrobial activity derived from the fungus Penicillium citrinum isolated from Cerrado soil...
October 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031863/validation-of-healthcare-associated-infection-surveillance-in-smaller-australian-hospitals
#20
A Hoskins, L J Worth, N Imam, S A Johnson, A Bull, M J Richards, N Bennett
A validation study was conducted in smaller (<100 acute beds) Victorian hospitals to evaluate case-detection for Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream (SAB), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections. Overall, 142 infections were identified in 20 hospitals. For routine surveillance of SAB events sensitivity was 74.4% and specificity was 100.0%. For MRSA infections, sensitivity was 47.5% and specificity was 90.9%. All confirmed VRE infections were correctly reported...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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