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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645649/evaluation-of-a-selective-chromogenic-medium-for-detecting-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#1
Renata Oliveira Soares, Adriana Medianeira Rossato, Gustavo Enck Sambrano, Neidimar Cezar Corrêa Tolfo, Juliana Caierão, Thiago Galvão da Silva Paim, Pedro Alves d'Azevedo
Rapid identification of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) can assist in choosing the appropriate treatment and preventing VRE spread. The performance of chromID™ VRE agar was evaluated using 184 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. and reference strains. The test had a sensitivity of 95.52% but a low specificity of 30%.
June 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627467/time-to-review-the-gold-standard-for-genotyping-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-epidemiology-comparing-whole-genome-sequencing-with-pfge-and-mlst-in-three-suspected-outbreaks-in-sweden-during-2013-2015
#2
Birgitta Lytsy, Lars Engstrand, Åke Gustafsson, Rene Kaden
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a challenge to the health-care system regarding transmission rate and treatment of infections. VRE outbreaks have to be controlled from the first cases which means that appropriate and sensitive genotyping methods are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of whole genome sequencing based analysis compared to Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) in epidemiological investigations as well as the development of a user friendly method for daily laboratory use...
June 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622949/changed-epidemiology-during-intra-and-interhospital-spread-of-high-risk-clones-of-vana-containing-enterococcus-in-brazilian-hospitals
#3
Andrey G Sacramento, Rosemeire C Zanella, Fernanda Esposito, Emanuela A S Costa, Lara M de Almeida, Carlos Pires, Artemir C de Brito, Elsa M Mamizuka, Louise T Cerdeira, Nilton Lincopan
We report changes in the molecular epidemiology of vanA-containing Enterococcus during the intra and interhospital spread of high-risk clones, in Southeastern Brazil. While VRE faecalis predominated during 1998 to 2006, a reversal has been observed in the last years, where VRE faecium belonging to ST114, ST203, ST412, ST478 and ST858 have become endemic.
May 18, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620204/neo-actinomycins-a-and-b-natural-actinomycins-bearing-the-5h-oxazolo-4-5-b-phenoxazine-chromophore-from-the-marine-derived-streptomyces-sp-imb094
#4
Qiang Wang, Yixuan Zhang, Mian Wang, Yi Tan, Xinxin Hu, Hongwei He, Chunling Xiao, Xuefu You, Yiguang Wang, Maoluo Gan
Neo-actinomycins A and B (1 and 2), two new natural actinomycins featuring an unprecedented tetracyclic 5H-oxazolo[4,5-b]phenoxazine chromophore, were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. IMB094. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The presence of this ring system was proposed to originate from a condensation between actinomycin D (3) with α-ketoglutarate and pyruvate, respectively. Compound 1 showed potent cytotoxic activities against human cancer HCT116 and A549 cell lines in the nanomolar range (IC50: 38...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617344/synthesis-and-biological-activity-evaluation-of-novel-heterocyclic-pleuromutilin-derivatives
#5
Yunpeng Yi, Yunxing Fu, Pengcheng Dong, Wenwen Qin, Yu Liu, Jiangping Liang, Ruofeng Shang
A series of pleuromutilin derivatives were synthesized by two synthetic procedures under mild reaction conditions and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), and High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRMS). Most of the derivatives with heterocyclic groups at the C-14 side of pleuromutilin exhibited excellent in vitro antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in vitro antibacterial activity...
June 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609453/evaluation-of-a-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-assisted-selective-broth-method-to-screen-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-patients-at-high-risk
#6
Tsi-Shu Huang, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Chia-Chien Lee, Chiu-Yen Chen, Fang-Chen Chen, Bao-Chen Chen, Cheng Len Sy, Kuan-Sheng Wu
BACKGROUND: Bile esculin azide with vancomycin (BEAV) medium is a sensitive, but slightly less specific method for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) screening. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid method for identification of clinical pathogens. This study aimed to assess the performance of a novel combination screening test for VRE, using BEAV broth combined with MALDI-TOF MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical specimens were collected from patients at risk of VRE carriage, and tested by the novel combination method, using selective BEAV broth culture method followed by MALDI-TOF MS identification (SBEAVM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600076/the-contribution-and-limits-of-clinical-specimens-for-the-screening-of-intestinal-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-view-of-laboratory-automation
#7
Geraud De Galassus Alix, Florence Cizeau, Aurélie Agathine, Cecilia Domrane, David Ducellier, Vincent Fihman, Jean-Winoc Decousser
The detection of multidrug-resistant bacteria carriers constitutes a race against time for infection preventionists. Alongside standard analysis for diagnosis purposes and rectal screening strategy, we tested a heavy-loaded selective method against 562 clinical specimens from 439 patients to detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Our approach identified five more specimens positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae than standard analysis, and 6 out of 9 known VRE/CPE carriers (three new CPE/VRE strains were also identified in this cohort)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579835/transmission-of-health-care-associated-infections-from-roommates-and-prior-room-occupants-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Bevin Cohen, Catherine Crawford Cohen, Borghild Løyland, Elaine L Larson
Pathogens that cause health care-associated infections (HAIs) are known to survive on surfaces and equipment in health care environments despite routine cleaning. As a result, the infection status of prior room occupants and roommates may play a role in HAI transmission. We performed a systematic review of the literature evaluating the association between patients' exposure to infected/colonized hospital roommates or prior room occupants and their risk of infection/colonization with the same organism. A PubMed search for English articles published in 1990-2014 yielded 330 studies, which were screened by three reviewers...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578090/genotyping-antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-factor-gene-profiles-of-vancomycin-resistance-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-blood-culture
#9
Shahnaz Armin, Fatemeh Fallah, Abdollah Karimi, Marjan Rashidan, Mehdi Shirdust, Leila Azimi
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus spp. is the common of intestinal micro flora in humans but nowadays this gram-positive bacterium causes the variety of nosocomial infections. Resistance to antibiotic and also, presence of different virulence genes in the enterococcus spp. can change it to problematic microorganisms in the health care centers. The aim of this study was determined the genotyping, antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of vancomycin resistance Enterococcus faecalis isolated from blood culture...
May 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574692/cell-wall-remodeling-by-a-synthetic-analog-reveals-metabolic-adaptation-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#10
Sean E Pidgeon, Marcos M Pires
Drug-resistant bacterial infections threaten to overburden our healthcare system and disrupt modern medicine. A large class of potent antibiotics, including vancomycin, operate by interfering with bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) evade the blockage of cell wall biosynthesis by altering cell wall precursors, rendering them drug insensitive. Herein, we reveal the phenotypic plasticity and cell wall remodeling of VRE in response to vancomycin in live bacterial cells via a metabolic probe...
June 2, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573685/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-infections-in-patients-undergoing-liver-transplantation-for-hilar-cholangiocarcinoma
#11
Poornima Ramanan, Nathan W Cummins, Mark P Wilhelm, Julie K Heimbach, Ross Dierkhising, Walter K Kremers, Charles B Rosen, Gregory J Gores, Raymund R Razonable
The epidemiology of infection after liver transplantation for hilar cholangiocarcinoma has not been systematically investigated. In this study of 124 patients, 255 infections occurred in 105 patients during the median follow-up of 4.2 years. The median time to first infection was 15.1 weeks (IQR 1.6 - 62.6). The most common sites were the abdomen, bloodstream and musculoskeletal system. Risk factors for any post-transplant infection were pre-transplant VRE colonization (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.9, p=0.002), living donor transplantation (HR 6...
June 2, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571980/effectiveness-of-cleaning-disinfection-wipes-and-sprays-against-multidrug-resistant-outbreak-strains
#12
Nikki Kenters, Elisabeth G W Huijskens, Sophie C J de Wit, Joost van Rosmalen, Andreas Voss
BACKGROUND: Hospital rooms play an important role in the transmission of several health care-associated pathogens. During the last few years, a number of innovative cleaning-disinfecting products have been brought to market. In this study, commercially available products combining cleaning and disinfection were compared, using 2 different application methods. The aim was to determine which product was most effective in simultaneous cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. METHODS: Seven cleaning-disinfecting wipes and sprays based on different active ingredients were tested for their efficacy in removal of microbial burden and proteins...
May 29, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570012/vancomycin-dependent-response-in-live-drug-resistant-bacteria-via-metabolic-labeling
#13
Marcos Moura Pires, Sean E Pidgeon
The surge in drug-resistant bacterial infections threatens to overburden healthcare systems worldwide. Bacterial cell walls are essential to bacteria - making them unique targets for the development of antibiotics. We describe a cellular reporter to directly monitor the phenotypic switch in drug resistant bacteria with temporal resolution. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) escape the bactericidal actions of vancomycin by chemically modifying their cell wall precursors, which renders them drug insensitive...
June 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566074/-evaluation-of-virulence-factors-in-enterococcus-species
#14
Ergun Mete, İlknur Kaleli, Nural Cevahir, Melek Demir, Yüksel Akkaya, Özgün Kiriş Satılmış
Enterococci have recently become important due to their increased isolation rates in community-based and nosocomial infections and resistance to many antibiotics, including glycopeptides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptible patterns and virulence factors of various clinical specimens; urine (n= 149), blood (n= 38), wound (n= 17), stool (n= 13), and other (n= 12) with a total of 229 enterococci including 138 E.faecalis and 91 E.faecium isolates. Aggregation factor (AF), enterococcus surface protein (esp), cytolysins and gelatinase encoding genes (asa1, esp, cylM, cylBcyl A, cylll, cylls, gelE, respectively) were investigated by molecular methods...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559345/peripheral-modifications-of-%C3%AE-ch2nh-tpg-4-vancomycin-with-added-synergistic-mechanisms-of-action-provide-durable-and-potent-antibiotics
#15
Akinori Okano, Nicholas A Isley, Dale L Boger
Subsequent to binding pocket modifications designed to provide dual d-Ala-d-Ala/d-Ala-d-Lac binding that directly overcome the molecular basis of vancomycin resistance, peripheral structural changes have been explored to improve antimicrobial potency and provide additional synergistic mechanisms of action. A C-terminal peripheral modification, introducing a quaternary ammonium salt, is reported and was found to provide a binding pocket-modified vancomycin analog with a second mechanism of action that is independent of d-Ala-d-Ala/d-Ala-d-Lac binding...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558010/effect-of-meteorological-factors-and-geographic-location-on-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-colonization-in-the-us
#16
Natalia Blanco, Eli Perencevich, Shan Shan Li, Daniel J Morgan, Lisa Pineles, J Kristie Johnson, Gwen Robinson, Deverick J Anderson, Jesse T Jacob, Lisa L Maragakis, Anthony D Harris
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of meteorological conditions and geographical location on bacterial colonization rates particularly of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of season, meteorological factors, and geographic location on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization. METHODS: The prospective cohort included all adults admitted to 20 geographically-dispersed ICUs across the US from September 1, 2011 to October 4, 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557193/binary-encoding-of-random-peptide-sequences-for-selective-and-differential-antimicrobial-mechanisms
#17
Zvi Hayouka, Angelo Bella, Tal Stern, Santanu Ray, Haibo Jiang, Chris R M Grovenor, Maxim G Ryadnov
Binary encoding of peptide sequences into differential antimicrobial mechanisms is reported. Such sequences are random in composition, but controllable in chain length, are assembled from the same two amino acids, but differ in the stereochemistry of one. Regardless of chirality, the sequences lyse bacteria including the "superbugs" methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Sequences with the same chirality, so-called homochiral sequences, assemble into antimicrobial pores and form contiguous helices that are biologically promiscuous and hemolytic...
May 29, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551912/-bacteria-without-borders-a-high-carriage-rate-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-among-syrian-children-hospitalized-in-galilee-medical-center
#18
Diana Faour Kassem, Naama Shahar, Smadar Ocampo, Tarif Bader, Zeev Zonis, Daniel Glikman
INTRODUCTION: As the civil war in Syria enters its fifth year, the Israeli government continues to provide humanitarian aid to Syrian civilians in Israeli hospitals. Many wounded Syrian children are treated at the Galilee Medical Center (GMC). Due to the patients' incomplete medical history and increasing infection rates in Syria, contact isolation and screening cultures for multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR's) are conducted upon admission for all Syrian children. AIMS: To describe the rate of MDR carriage in Syrian children and compare it to hospitalized Israeli children...
May 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544183/clinical-outcomes-of-intestinal-transplant-recipients-colonized-with-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-a-retrospective-study
#19
Jacques Simkins, Michele I Morris, Jose F Camargo, Rodrigo Vianna, Thiago Beduschi, Lilian M Abbo
Rates of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) colonization among intestinal transplant (ITx) recipients have not been reported. Colonization rates with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained retrospectively in adults undergoing ITx (isolated or multi-visceral) from 1/2009-12/2015. We assessed for VRE, CR-GNB and MRSA bacteremia during the first year post-transplant for patients colonized with VRE, CR-GNB and MRSA respectively and for those who were not colonized...
May 19, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541565/emergence-of-vana-enterococcus-faecium-in-denmark-2005-15
#20
Anette M Hammerum, Sharmin Baig, Yasmin Kamel, Louise Roer, Mette Pinholt, Heidi Gumpert, Barbara Holzknecht, Bent Røder, Ulrik S Justesen, Jurgita Samulioniené, Mona Kjærsgaard, Claus Østergaard, Anette Holm, Esad Dzajic, Turid Snekloth Søndergaard, Shahin Gaini, Petra Edquist, Erik Alm, Berit Lilje, Henrik Westh, Marc Stegger, Henrik Hasman
Objectives: To describe the changing epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in clinical samples in Denmark 2005-15 according to species and van type, and, furthermore, to investigate the genetic relatedness of the clinical E. faecium isolates from 2015. Methods: During 2005-14, all clinical VRE isolates were tested for the presence of vanA/B/C genes by PCR. In 2015, all clinical VRE isolates were whole-genome sequenced...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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