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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333263/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-infection-in-the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-an-overview-of-epidemiology-management-and-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Esther Benamu, Stanley Deresinski
Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) is now one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections in the United States. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at increased risk of VRE colonization and infection. VRE has emerged as a major cause of bacteremia in this population, raising important clinical questions regarding the role and impact of VRE colonization and infection in HSCT outcomes as well as the optimal means of prevention and treatment. We review here the published literature and scientific advances addressing these thorny issues and provide a rational framework for their approach...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322099/outbreaks-caused-by-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-in-hematology-and-oncology-departments-a-systematic-review
#2
Nikos Ulrich, Ralf-Peter Vonberg, Petra Gastmeier
Background: Vancomycin-resistance in Enterococcus faecium (VRE) poses a major threat in health care settings. It is well known that patients in hematology and oncology departments are especially at risk of nosocomial VRE acquisition. This systematic review of the literature provides data on the main sources, transmission modes and potential risk factors for VRE acquisition as well as appropriate infection control measures in order to terminate such nosocomial outbreaks. Methods: Data on nosocomial VRE outbreaks on hematology and oncology wards was retrieved from the Outbreak Database and PubMed...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312658/economic-burden-of-nosocomial-infections-caused-by-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#3
Laura Puchter, Iris Freya Chaberny, Frank Schwab, Ralf-Peter Vonberg, Franz-Christoph Bange, Ella Ebadi
Background: Nosocomial infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major problem during the last years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic burden of nosocomial VRE infections in a European university hospital. Methods: A retrospective matched case-control study was performed including patients who acquired nosocomial infection with either VRE or vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) within a time period of 3 years...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311068/identification-of-a-novel-genomic-island-associated-with-vand-type-vancomycin-resistance-in-six-dutch-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium
#4
Janetta Top, Jan C Sinnige, Ellen C Brouwer, Guido Werner, Jukka Corander, Juliëtte A Severin, Rogier Jansen, E Bathoorn, Marc J M Bonten, John W A Rossen, Rob J L Willems
Genomic comparison of the first six Dutch vanD-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) with four vanD-gene clusters from other enterococcal species and anaerobic gut commensals revealed that the vanD-gene cluster was located on a genomic island of variable size. Phylogenetic inferences revealed that the Dutch-VRE were genetically not closely related and genetic variation of the vanD-genomic island was not species specific, which suggest that this island is transferred horizontally between enterococci and anaerobic gut commensals...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308974/immunological-responses-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-and-enterococcus-faecalis-by-mice
#5
Yun Sang Cho, Mun Han Lee, Jong Man Kim, Hee Soo Lee, Han Sang Yoo, Yong Ho Park, Pan Dong Ryu
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in humans can currently only be treated with vancomycin. Consequently, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. pose a serious public health hazard because MRSA can acquire their vancomycin resistance. While the microbiological and genetic characteristics of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been extensively studied, serological diagnostic tools for these organisms are lacking. The VanA and VanB classes of VRE show marked resistance. Here, we identified the VanA and VanB proteins that are immunogenic in mice...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305547/evaluation-of-the-amplidiag-carbar-vre-kit-for-the-accurate-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-bacteria
#6
Saoussen Oueslati, Delphine Girlich, Laurent Dortet, Thierry Naas
As carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (CP-GNB) (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Acinetobacter spp.) are becoming a major public health issue, there is an urgent need for accurate and fast diagnostic tests. Amplidiag® Carba-R+VRE assay is a multiplex nucleic acid-based in-vitro diagnostic test intended for the detection of CP-GNB and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) from cultured colonies.We have evaluated its ability to detect carbapenemases genes in 100 well-characterized GNB, and in 200 consecutive enterobacterial isolates with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems and that were referred to the French National Reference Center for carbapenem-resistance...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301368/antimicrobial-activities-of-european-propolis-collected-from-various-geographic-origins-alone-and-in-combination-with-antibiotics
#7
Issam Al-Ani, Stefan Zimmermann, Jürgen Reichling, Michael Wink
Background: Propolis consists of a complex mixture of resinous substances collected by honeybees from different plant sources. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, biological activities, and synergistic properties with antibiotics of propolis samples collected from various geographic origins (Germany, Ireland, and Czech Republic). Methods: The chemical composition of the propolis was analyzed by Gas Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GLC-MS) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
January 3, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258920/optimization-of-antimicrobial-therapy-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcal-bacteremia-using-a-rapid-detection-gram-positive-blood-culture-assay
#8
Reid Nakagawa, Rupali Jain, Andrew B Bryan, Jeannie D Chan
Rapid molecular blood culture Gram-positive (BC-GP) assay can promptly identify vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) bloodstream infections (BSI). We sought to evaluate patients with VRE BSI following the pre- (n=44) and post-implementation (n=20) of Verigene BC-GP assay. The average time to detection of VRE and was 25.9 + 4.1 hours (95% CI: 17.6 to 34.1 hours, p<0.001) earlier with Verigene BC-GP assay. Compared to patients in the pre-Verigene BC-GP period, the mean adjusted difference in time to administration of anti-VRE therapy was 18...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250038/double-serine-fluoroquinolone-resistance-mutations-advance-major-international-clones-and-lineages-of-various-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#9
REVIEW
Miklos Fuzi, Dora Szabo, Rita Csercsik
The major international sequence types/lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and ESBL-producing E. coli were demonstrated to have been advanced by favorable fitness balance associated with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. The paper shows that favorable fitness in the major STs/lineages of these pathogens was principally attained by the capacity of evolving mutations in the fluoroquinolone-binding serine residues of both the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243921/extra-sugar-on-vancomycin-new-analogues-for-combating-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#10
Dongliang Guan, Feifei Chen, Lun Xiong, Feng Tang, Faridoon Faridoon, Yunguang Qiu, Naixia Zhang, Likun Gong, Jian Li, Lefu Lan, Wei Huang
Lipophilic substitution on vancomycin is an effective strategy for development of novel vancomycin analogues against drug-resistant bacteria by enhancing bacterial cell wall interaction. However, hydrophobic structures usually led to long elimination half-life and accumulative toxicity, therefore hydrophilic fragments were also introduced to the lipo-vancomycin to regulate their PK/PD properties. Here, we synthesized a series of new vancomycin analogues carrying various sugar moieties on the 7th-amino acid phenyl ring and lipophilic substitutions on vancosamine with extensive SAR analysis...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237512/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-vre-in-the-intensive-care-unit-in-a-nonoutbreak-setting-identification-of-potential-reservoirs-and-epidemiological-associations-between-patient-and-environmental-vre
#11
Hélène McDermott, Mairead Skally, James O'Rourke, Hilary Humphreys, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes
OBJECTIVE Among nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by enterococcal species, Ireland has the highest proportion caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in Europe at 45.8%. The contribution of the near-patient environment to VRE transmission outside of outbreaks was investigated. DESIGN A prospective observational study was conducted during 7 sampling periods. METHODS Recovery of VRE isolates by swabbing the near-patient environment and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) was conducted to identify reservoirs, clinical and molecular epidemiological associations, and the success of active surveillance cultures (ASCs)...
December 14, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225976/intensive-care-in-a-patient-with-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#12
J Wallenborn, M Fischer
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a serious adverse drug reaction with high lethality, which usually requires intensive-medical care. A 44-year-old man developed generalized exanthema with increasing exfoliation and mucosal involvement after taking allopurinol, ibuprofen, and etoricoxib. The clinical diagnosis of TEN was histologically confirmed. Prednisolone therapy with 3 mg/kg body weight (BW) was not able to prevent further progress to finally 80% of the body surface, and infliximab 5 mg/kg BW was given as a single dose...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224313/-incidence-of-blood-stream-infections-of-1265-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-and-analysis-of-pathogenic-bacteria
#13
Q Z Han, Y Chen, H Yang, X F Zhang, J Chen, D P Wu, S N Chen, H Y Qiu
Objective: To analyze the incidence and microbiological features of blood stream infections (BSI) of patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to provide laboratory data for empirical use of antibiotic for the HSCT patients with BSI. Methods: The incidence of bloodstream infection, the positive rate of blood culture, bacterial spectrum and drug resistance were analyzed in 1 265 HSCT recipients during 2013 and 2015 were retrospectively studied. Results: Of 1265 patients undergoing HSCT, 1 422 cases of suspected BSI occurred in 784 patients (61...
November 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#14
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207701/characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-hospitalized-patients-and-role-of-gut-colonization
#15
Geetarani Purohit, Rajni Gaind, Reetika Dawar, P K Verma, K C Aggarwal, Raman Sardana, Monorama Deb
Introduction: Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora and have been recognized as important human pathogens. Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are global threat as this resistance is transmissible and also poses a challenge for infection control. Aim: This study was undertaken to study phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE from clinically significant infections among hospitalized patients and their association with gut colonization. Materials and Methods: Clinically significant isolates of enterococci (n=250) were studied...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203445/rapid-monitoring-of-local-epidemiology-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-on-a-department-level-by-reppcr
#16
Frank Froeschen, Mike Gajdiss, Julia Uebele, Alina Meilaender, Achim Hoerauf, Martin Exner, Ernst Molitor, Gabriele Bierbaum, Steffen Engelhart, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
BACKGROUND: The current increase in nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) warrants improvement of detection methods and hygiene measures. Knowledge of the local epidemiology is important for monitoring compliance of medical personnel with hygiene measures. AIM: We evaluated semi-automated repPCR for rapid molecular typing of VRE. METHODS: Primary VRE isolates were collected over an observation period of one year and retrospectively typed by repPCR...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194412/a-new-dihydrochromone-dimer-and-other-secondary-metabolites-from-cultures-of-the-marine-sponge-associated-fungi-neosartorya-fennelliae-kufa-0811-and-neosartorya-tsunodae-kufc-9213
#17
Decha Kumla, Tin Shine Aung, Suradet Buttachon, Tida Dethoup, Luís Gales, José A Pereira, Ângela Inácio, Paulo M Costa, Michael Lee, Nazim Sekeroglu, Artur M S Silva, Madalena M M Pinto, Anake Kijjoa
A previously unreported dihydrochromone dimer, paecilin E (1), was isolated, together with eleven known compounds: β-sitostenone, ergosta-4,6,8 (14), 22-tetraen-3-one, cyathisterone, byssochlamic acid, dehydromevalonic acid lactone, chevalone B, aszonalenin, dankasterone A (2), helvolic acid, secalonic acid A and fellutanine A, from the culture filtrate extract of the marine sponge-associated fungus Neosartorya fennelliae KUFA 0811. Nine previously reported metabolites, including a chromanol derivative (3), (3β, 5α, 22E), 3,5-dihydroxyergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4), byssochlamic acid, hopan-3β,22-diol, chevalone C, sartorypyrone B, helvolic acid, lumichrome and the alkaloid harmane were isolated from the culture of the marine-sponge associated fungus Neosartorya tsunodae KUFC 9213...
December 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186590/frequency-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-cultured-from-urine-of-children-undergoing-clean-intermittent-catheterization
#18
Catherine S Forster, Joshua Courter, Elizabeth C Jackson, Joel E Mortensen, David B Haslam
Background: Children undergoing CIC frequently have positive urine culture results and receive many antimicrobial agents. Subsequently, this population is at high risk for infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Resistant pathogens, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and organisms that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), which are third-generation cephalosporin resistant (3GCR), are of particular concern...
November 24, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168322/biosynthetically-guided-structure-activity-relationship-studies-of-merochlorin%C3%A2-a-an-antibiotic-marine-natural-product
#19
Borja López-Pérez, Henry P Pepper, Rong Ma, Benjamin J Fawcett, Ashok D Pehere, Qi Wei, Zengchun Ji, Steven W Polyak, Huanqin Dai, Fuhang Song, Andrew D Abell, Lixin Zhang, Jonathan H George
The onset of new multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria demands continuous development of antibacterial agents with new chemical scaffolds and mechanisms of action. We present the first structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of 16 derivatives of a structurally novel antibiotic merochlorin A that were designed using a biosynthetic blueprint. Our lead compounds are active against several Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) and Bacillus subtilis, inhibit intracellular growth of Mycobacterium bovis, and are relatively nontoxic to human cell lines...
November 23, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148825/on-the-growth-and-detectability-of-land-plants-on-habitable-planets-around-m-dwarfs
#20
Duo Cui, Feng Tian, Yuwei Wang, Changshen Li, Chaoqing Yu, Le Yu
One signature of life on Earth is the vegetation red edge (VRE) feature of land plants, a dramatic change of reflectivity at wavelength near 0.7 μm. Potentially habitable planets around M dwarfs are tidally locked, which can limit the distribution of land plants. In this study, we used a biogeochemical model to investigate the distribution of land plants on potentially habitable planets around M dwarfs driven by climate data produced in a general circulation model (GCM). When considering the effects of clouds, the observation time needed for VRE detection on nearby p = 1 exoplanets around nearby M dwarfs is on the order of days using a 25 m(2) telescope if a large continent faces Earth during observations...
November 17, 2017: Astrobiology
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