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Takeshi Yamada, Miu Yagita, Yutaka Kobayashi, Goh Sennari, Hiroyuki Shimamura, Hidehito Matsui, Yuki Horimatsu, Hideaki Hanaki, Tomoyasu Hirose, Satoshi Omura, Toshiaki Sunazuka
Total synthesis of bottromycin A2 can be accomplished through a diastereoselective Mannich reaction of a chiral sulfinamide, mercury-mediated intermolecular amidination, and cyclization of a constrained tetracyclic peptide. Exploitation of this process allowed the synthesis of several novel bottromycin analogs. The antimicrobial activity of these analogs was evaluated in vitro against Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Theodore Gouliouris, Ben Warne, Edward J P Cartwright, Luke Bedford, Chathika K Weerasuriya, Kathy E Raven, Nick M Brown, M Estée Török, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Sharon J Peacock
Background: VRE bacteraemia has a high mortality and continues to defy control. Antibiotic risk factors for VRE bacteraemia have not been adequately defined. We aimed to determine the risk factors for VRE bacteraemia focusing on duration of antibiotic exposure. Methods: A retrospective matched nested case-control study was conducted amongst hospitalized patients at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Farnaz Foolad, Brandie D Taylor, Samuel A Shelburne, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken
VRE are associated with ∼1300 deaths per year in the USA. Recent literature suggests that daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic with concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, is the preferred treatment option for VRE bacteraemia, yet the optimal dosing strategy for this indication has not been established. In vitro evidence suggests that higher-than-labelled doses of daptomycin are required to optimally treat VRE bacteraemia and to inhibit the development of resistance. However, concern of dose-dependent toxicities, notably increases in creatine phosphokinase and the development of rhabdomyolysis, are a barrier to initiating high-dose schemes in clinical practice...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Mercedes Pérez-Bonilla, Daniel Oves-Costales, Mercedes de la Cruz, Maria Kokkini, Jesús Martín, Francisca Vicente, Olga Genilloud, Fernando Reyes
Phocoenamicins B and C ( 1 and 2 ), together with the known spirotetronate phocoenamicin ( 3 ), were isolated from cultures of Micromonospora sp. The acetone extract from a culture of this strain, isolated from marine sediments collected in the Canary Islands, displayed activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and Mycobacterium bovis . Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract using SP207ss column chromatography and preparative reversed-phased HPLC led to the isolation of the new compounds 1 and 2 belonging to the spirotetronate class of polyketides...
March 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
Leron Khalifa, Daniel Gelman, Mor Shlezinger, Axel Lionel Dessal, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
The deteriorating effectiveness of antibiotics is propelling researchers worldwide towards alternative techniques such as phage therapy: curing infectious diseases using viruses of bacteria called bacteriophages. In a previous paper, we isolated phage EFDG1, highly effective against both planktonic and biofilm cultures of one of the most challenging pathogenic species, the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Thus, it is a promising phage to be used in phage therapy. Further experimentation revealed the emergence of a mutant resistant to EFDG1 phage: EFDG1r ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Myreen E Tomas, Thriveen S C Mana, Brigid M Wilson, Michelle M Nerandzic, Joussef Samira, Miguel Quinones-Mateu, Curtis J Donskey
Vancomycin taper regimens are commonly used for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. One rationale for tapering and pulsing of the dose at the end of therapy is to reduce the selective pressure of vancomycin on the indigenous intestinal microbiota. Here, we used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that the indigenous microbiota that provide colonization resistance against C. difficile and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is re-populated during tapering courses of vancomycin. Mice were treated orally with vancomycin daily for 10 days, vancomycin in a tapering dose for 42 days, fidaxomicin for 10 days, or saline...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Aliana Meneses Ferreira, Frederico Moreira, Thais Guimaraes, Fernanda Spadão, Jessica Fernandes Ramos, Marjorie Vieira Batista, Jayr Schmidt Filho, Silvia Figueiredo Costa, Vanderson Rocha
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are a major complication in the early phase of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). AIM: To describe the incidence and risk factors for BSI occurring in the pre-engraftment phase of HSCT and its impact on mortality. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed clinical variables of 232 HSCT patients between 2014 and 2015. Univariate Cox regression analyses were performed to test the association between each covariate and the outcome...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Steven L Percival
A novel hydrophilic polyurethane (PU) foam dressing which is impregnated with silver chloride, Optifoam® Gentle (OG) Ag+ (Medline Industries Inc., Chicago, Illinois), was evaluated in this study. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of elution of silver from the foam dressing over a period of 168 hours into simulated wound fluid and an evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy using zone of inhibition (ZOI), direct kill, and time-kill viability. Thirty-two microorganisms associated with wounds including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Acinetobacter baumannii, Candida albicans, and antibiotic-resistant strains (Methicillin-resistant S...
March 12, 2018: Surgical Technology International
Elisabetta Nucleo, Mariasofia Caltagirone, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Roberto D'Angelo, Elena Fogato, Massimo Confalonieri, Camilla Reboli, Albert March, Ferisa Sleghel, Gertrud Soelva, Elisabetta Pagani, Richard Aschbacher, Roberta Migliavacca, Laura Pagani
Background: Rationale and aims of the study were to compare colonization frequencies with MDR bacteria isolated from LTCF residents in three different Northern Italian regions, to investigate risk factors for colonization and the genotypic characteristics of isolates. The screening included Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs) and high-level AmpC cephalosporinases, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii , methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Asher M Siddiqui, Jitendra A Sattigeri, Kalim Javed, Syed Shafi, M Shamim, Smita Singhal, Zubbair M Malik
Gram-positive bacteria are among the most common human pathogens associated with clinical infections which range from mild skin infections to sepsis. Resistance towards existing class of drugs by Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) is a growing concern. There is an urgent need to discover new antibiotics which are active against resistant strains of Gram positive bacteria. We report herein a novel class of spiropyrimidinetrione oxazolidinone derivatives as novel antibacterial agents...
March 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Herbert Galler, Gebhard Feierl, Christian Petternel, Franz F Reinthaler, Doris Haas, Juliana Habib, Clemens Kittinger, Josefa Luxner, Gernot Zarfel
Wastewater contains different kinds of contaminants, including antibiotics and bacterial isolates with human-generated antibiotic resistances. In industrialized countries most of the wastewater is processed in wastewater treatment plants which do not only include commercial wastewater, but also wastewater from hospitals. Three multiresistant pathogens-extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae (Gram negative bacilli), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE)-were chosen for screening in a state of the art wastewater treatment plant in Austria...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Katarzyna Talaga, Dalma Odrowąż-Konduracka, Beata Paradowska, Barbara Jagiencarz-Starzec, Zdzisław Wolak, Małgorzata Bulanda, Anna Szczypta
BACKGROUND: In the Małopolska province, the first case of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) occurrence was an outbreak in 2001 caused by strains of the genus E. faecium carrying the vanA operon. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of virulence determinants among Enterococcus spp. in patients hospitalized in the Małopolska region in 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and the E test...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Susan Jain, Kate Clezy, Mary-Louise McLaws
BACKGROUND: Routine hand hygiene effectively removes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) from the ungloved hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) who are caring for patients under contact precautions, when exposure to bodily fluids is not expected. METHODS: HCWs' ungloved hands were cultured after hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) or soap-and-water wash after routine clinical care of patients known to be colonized or infected with MRSA or VRE...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Vera Spatenkova, Ondrej Bradac, Daniela Fackova, Zdenka Bohunova, Petr Suchomel
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infection (NI) control is an important issue in neurocritical care due to secondary brain damage and the increased morbidity and mortality of primary acute neurocritical care patients. The primary aim of this study was to determine incidence of nosocomial infections and multidrug-resistant bacteria and seek predictors of nosocomial infections in a preventive multimodal nosocomial infection protocol in the neurointensive care unit (NICU). The secondary aim focused on their impact on stay, mortality and cost in the NICU...
March 7, 2018: BMC Neurology
Garam Jo, Brenda Rossow-Kimball, Gwitaek Park, Yongho Lee
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of virtual reality exercise (VRE) using Nintendo Wii-Fit on physical fitness of Korean adults with schizophrenia living in a mental health facility located in South Korea. Two male participants diagnosed with schizophrenia, ages 53 and 61, were recruited and selected for inclusion in this study. The intervention using the Nintendo Wii-Fit consisted of 35-min sessions, 3 times per week for 8 weeks and was facilitated by the primary researcher and two graduate students...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Chih-Ning Cheng, Shu-Wen Lin, Chien-Chih Wu
Linezolid, an oxazolidinone antibiotic, does not required dose adjustment in patients with Child's class A and B liver cirrhosis. The dose adjustment data for Child's class C liver cirrhosis is inadequate. We reported a case of Child's class C liver cirrhosis, in which lactic acidosis, an adverse effect related to prolonged use, occurred only after two weeks of linezolid treatment. A 63-year old male had underlying diseases, such as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and Child's class C liver cirrhosis, and was admitted for hepatic encephalopathy management and liver transplantation evaluation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
O Smibert, A K Aung, E Woolnough, G P Carter, M B Schultz, B P Howden, T Seemann, D Spelman, S McGloughlin, A Y Peleg
Few studies have utilized molecular epidemiological methods to study transmission links to clinical isolates in intensive care units. 94 multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) cultured from routine specimens from ICU patients over 13 weeks were stored (11 MRSA, 2 VRE and 81 Gram-negative bacteria). Medical staff personal mobile phones, departmental phones and ICU keyboards were swabbed and cultured for MDRO; MRSA was isolated from two phones. Environmental and patient isolates of the same genus were selected for whole genome sequencing...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Katherine Carroll, Jessica Mesman
Hospital-based video-reflexive ethnography (VRE) is a collaborative visual methodology used by researchers and/or health professionals to understand, interpret, and optimize health professionals' work practices and patients' experiences. For more than a decade, the VRE methodology has spread throughout (research) institutions and hospitals internationally, and VRE has evolved and broadened. Different ways of doing VRE have implications for the role of the researcher. A thorough examination of the consequences for the researcher's position is the central focus of this article...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Ann Dadich, Aileen Collier, Michael Hodgins, Gregory Crawford
Following increased interest in and use of new public management (NPM), greater regulation has been introduced into many Western health systems. Yet, the effects have revealed the negative aspects of NPM. Positive organizational scholars have argued that adversity can give rise to positive deviance. Yet as a form of noncompliance, positive deviance can be difficult to examine. This methodological article demonstrates how the combined methodologies of positive organizational scholarship in healthcare (POSH) and video reflexive ethnography (VRE) can help examine positive deviance...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Aurélien Dinh, Hafedh Fessi, Clara Duran, Rui Batista, Hugues Michelon, Frédérique Bouchand, Raphaël Lepeule, Daniel Vittecoq, Lelia Escaut, Iradj Sobhani, Christine Lawrence, François Chast, Pierre Ronco, Benjamin Davido
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carriage is increasing worldwide. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) appears to be an attractive option for decolonization. We aimed to evaluate CRE versus VRE clearance by FMT among carriers. METHODS: We performed a multicentre trial on patients with CRE or VRE digestive tract colonization who received FMT between January 2015 and April 2017. Adult patients with CRE or VRE colonization were included; confirmed by three consecutive rectal swabs at weekly intervals, including one in the week prior to FMT...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
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