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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107695/antibacterial-activity-computational-analysis-and-host-toxicity-study-of-thymol-sulfonamide-conjugates
#1
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) are notorious pathogenic multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in both hospital and community sectors, and today the first antibacterial drug sulfamethoxazole is ineffective. The monoterpene phenol, thymol was conjugated with seven sulfa drug derivatives individually, adopting the dye-azo synthesis protocol, and conjugates were characterized using spectral analysis techniques such as, UV, FTIR, MS, HPLC, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and SEM...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093424/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-and-vre-pneumonia
#2
Mohannad Abu Omar, Mouhanna Abu Ghanimeh, Sola Kim, Gregory Howell
Immunocompromised patients have high risk of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. One of these infections is those caused by Strongyloides stercoralis Immunocompromised patients are at risk of hyperinfection syndrome which is characterised with more systemic manifestation and a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This can be complicated by coinfection with enteric organisms, specifically Gram-negative. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci which are inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050849/glycin-rich-antimicrobial-peptide-yd1-from-b-amyloliquefaciens-induced-morphological-alteration-in-and-showed-affinity-for-plasmid-dna-of-e-coli
#3
Md Saifur Rahman, Yun Hee Choi, Yoon Seok Choi, Jin Cheol Yoo
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), low-molecular-weight proteins with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, are the most promising candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials. A powerful cationic glycine-rich AMP YD1 (MW ~ 1.0 kDa) was purified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CBSYD1 isolated from traditional Korean fermented food kimchi, for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Strain CBSYD1 was identified 99.79% similar to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T) by 16S rRNA sequence analysis...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049149/rela-mutant-enterococcus-faecium-with-multiantibiotic-tolerance-arising-in-an-immunocompromised-host
#4
Erin S Honsa, Vaughn S Cooper, Mohammed N Mhaissen, Matthew Frank, Jessica Shaker, Amy Iverson, Jeffrey Rubnitz, Randall T Hayden, Richard E Lee, Charles O Rock, Elaine I Tuomanen, Joshua Wolf, Jason W Rosch
: Serious bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients require highly effective antibacterial therapy for cure, and thus, this setting may reveal novel mechanisms by which bacteria circumvent antibiotics in the absence of immune pressure. Here, an infant with leukemia developed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) bacteremia that persisted for 26 days despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 22 consecutive VRE isolates identified the emergence of a single missense mutation (L152F) in relA, which constitutively activated the stringent response, resulting in elevated baseline levels of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp)...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040891/quantification-of-d-ala-d-lac-terminated-peptidoglycan-structure-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-using-a-combined-solid-state-nmr-and-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#5
James D Chang, Erin C Foster, Hao Yang, Sung Joon Kim
Induction of vancomycin resistance in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) involves replacement of the D-Ala-D-Ala terminus of peptidoglycan (PG) stems with D-Ala-D-Lac, dramatically reducing the binding affinity of vancomycin to lipid II. Effects from vancomycin resistance induction on Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 51299) were characterized using a combined solid-state NMR and LC-MS analysis. Solid-state NMR directly measured the total amounts of D-Lac and L,D-Ala metabolized from [2-13C]pyruvate, accumulated Park's nucleotide, and changes to the PG bridge-linking density during early exponential growth phase (OD660nm 0...
December 31, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031272/polyclonal-emergence-of-vana-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-in-australia
#6
Sebastiaan J van Hal, Björn A Espedido, Geoffrey W Coombs, Benjamin P Howden, Tony M Korman, Graeme R Nimmo, Iain B Gosbell, Slade O Jensen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the genetic context associated with the emergence of vanA VRE in Australia. METHODS: The whole genomes of 18 randomly selected vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium patient isolates, collected between 2011 and 2013 from hospitals in four Australian capitals, were sequenced and analysed. RESULTS: In silico typing and transposon/plasmid assembly revealed that the sequenced isolates represented (in most cases) different hospital-adapted STs and were associated with a variety of different Tn1546 variants and plasmid backbone structures...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011602/comparative-effectiveness-and-safety-of-standard-medium-and-high-dose-daptomycin-strategies-for-the-treatment-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcal-bacteremia-among-veterans-affairs-patients
#7
Nicholas S Britt, Emily M Potter, Nimish Patel, Molly E Steed
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bloodstream infections (VRE-BSI) are associated with significant mortality. Daptomycin exhibits concentration-dependent activity versus VRE in vitro, yet the clinical impact of higher-dose strategies remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a national retrospective cohort study of hospitalized Veterans Affairs patients treated with standard- (6 mg/kg total body weight), medium- (8 mg/kg total body), and high-dose (≥ 10 mg/kg total body weight) daptomycin for VRE-BSI...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999068/linezolid-a-promising-option-in-the-treatment-of-gram-positives
#8
Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Mohammad Rahbar, Mehdi Yousefi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Linezolid, an oxazolidinone antimicrobial agent that acts by inhibiting protein synthesis in a unique fashion, is used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, skin and soft-tissue infections and other infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria including VRE and methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Currently, linezolid resistance among these pathogens remains low, commonly <1.0%, although the prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing in many countries. Therefore, the development of resistance by clinical isolates should prompt increased attention of clinical laboratories to routinely perform linezolid susceptibility testing for this important agent and should be taken into account when considering its therapeutic use...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999066/public-health-risk-of-antimicrobial-resistance-transfer-from-companion-animals
#9
Constança Pomba, Merja Rantala, Christina Greko, Keith Edward Baptiste, Boudewijn Catry, Engeline van Duijkeren, Ana Mateus, Miguel A Moreno, Satu Pyörälä, Modestas Ružauskas, Pascal Sanders, Christopher Teale, E John Threlfall, Zoltan Kunsagi, Jordi Torren-Edo, Helen Jukes, Karolina Törneke
Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998108/one-pot-synthesis-of-biocompatible-silver-nanoparticle-composites-from-cellulose-and-keratin-characterization-and-antimicrobial-activity
#10
Chieu D Tran, Franja Prosenc, Mladen Franko, Gerald Benzi
A novel, simple method was developed to synthesize biocompatible composites containing 50% cellulose (CEL) and 50% keratin (KER) and silver in the form of either ionic (Ag(+)) or Ag(0) nanoparticles (Ag(+)NPs or Ag(0)NPs). In this method, butylmethylimmidazolium chloride ([BMIm(+)Cl(-)]), a simple ionic liquid, was used as the sole solvent and silver chloride was added to the [BMIm(+)Cl(-)] solution of [CEL+KER] during the dissolution process. The silver in the composites can be maintained as ionic silver (Ag(+)) or completely converted to metallic silver (Ag(0)) by reducing it with NaBH4...
December 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994762/bromomethylthioindole-inspired-carbazole-hybrids-as-promising-class-of-anti-mrsa-agents
#11
Chia-Yi Cheng, Chun-Ping Chang, Tsai-Ling Yang Lauderdale, Guann-Yi Yu, Jinq-Chyi Lee, Yi-Wun Jhang, Chien-Huang Wu, Yi-Yu Ke, Amit A Sadani, Ching-Fang Yeh, I-Wen Huang, Yi-Ping Kuo, De-Jiun Tsai, Teng-Kuang Yeh, Chen-Tso Tseng, Jen-Shin Song, Yu-Wei Liu, Lun K Tsou, Kak-Shan Shia
Series of N-substituted carbazole analogues bearing an indole ring were synthesized as anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) agents from a molecular hybridization approach. The representative compound 19 showed an MIC = 1 μg/mL against a panel of MRSA clinical isolates as it possessed comparable in vitro activities to that of vancomycin. Moreover, compound 19 also exhibited MIC = 1 μg/mL activities against a recent identified Z172 MRSA strain (vancomycin-intermediate and daptomycin-nonsusceptible phenotype) and the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) strain...
December 8, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989378/vana-positive-multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-spp-isolated-from-surfaces-of-a-us-hospital-laundry-facility
#12
K E Michael, D No, M C Roberts
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus spp. are a normal part of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. They are also important pathogens, being responsible for 14% of US nosocomial infections from 2007 to 2010. AIM: To examine a laundry facility that processes clinical linens for the presence and seasonality of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. METHODS: Surface samples were collected four times in 2015 from the dirty and clean areas of the laundry facility...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987047/evaluation-of-the-novel-artus-c-difficile-qs-rgq-vanr-qs-rgq-and-mrsa-sa-qs-rgq-assays-for-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-and-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-vre-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-screening
#13
K A Morris, L R Macfarlane-Smith, M H Wilcox
Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are worldwide prevalent healthcare-associated pathogens. We have evaluated three Qiagen artus QS-RGQ assays for the detection of these pathogens. We examined 200 stool samples previously tested for C. difficile infection (CDI), 94 rectal swabs previously screened for VRE and 200 MRSA screening nasal swabs. With the routine diagnostic laboratory results being adopted as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the artus C...
December 16, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951483/synthesis-and-bioactivity-investigation-of-quinone-based-dimeric-cationic-triazolium-amphiphiles-selective-against-resistant-fungal-and-bacterial-pathogens
#14
Jaya P Shrestha, Coleman Baker, Yukie Kawasaki, Yagya P Subedi, Nzuwah Nziko Vincent de Paul, Jon Y Takemoto, Cheng-Wei Tom Chang
A series of synthetic dimeric cationic anthraquinone analogs (CAAs) with potent antimicrobial activities against a broad range of fungi and bacteria were developed. These compounds were prepared in 2-3 steps with high overall yield and possess alkyl chain, azole, quinone, and quaternary ammonium complexes (QACs). In vitro biological evaluations reveal prominent inhibitory activities of lead compounds against several drug-susceptible and drug-resistant fungal and bacterial strains, including MRSA, VRE, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus...
December 5, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940400/synthesis-and-antibacterial-activities-of-novel-pleuromutilin-derivatives-with-a-substituted-pyrimidine-moiety
#15
Yunpeng Yi, Ximing Xu, Yu Liu, Shuijin Xu, Xin Huang, Jianping Liang, Ruofeng Shang
The alarming growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) has become a major global health hazard. Therefore, urgent demand for new antibiotics with a unique mechanism of action is very necessary. The present study reports the design, synthesis, and antibacterial studies of a series of novel pleuromutilin derivatives with substituted 6-amino pyrimidine moieties. Most of the tested compounds exhibited highly potent anti-MRSA or Staphylococcus aureus (S...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938986/reduction-in-hospital-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-with-daily-chlorhexidine-gluconate-bathing-for-medical-inpatients
#16
Christopher F Lowe, Elisa Lloyd-Smith, Baljinder Sidhu, Gordon Ritchie, Azra Sharma, Willson Jang, Anna Wong, Jennifer Bilawka, Danielle Richards, Thomas Kind, David Puddicombe, Sylvie Champagne, Victor Leung, Marc G Romney
BACKGROUND: Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is increasingly used in intensive care units to prevent hospital-associated infections, but limited evidence exists for noncritical care settings. METHODS: A prospective crossover study was conducted on 4 medical inpatient units in an urban, academic Canadian hospital from May 1, 2014-August 10, 2015. Intervention units used CHG over a 7-month period, including a 1-month wash-in phase, while control units used nonmedicated soap and water bathing...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925693/identification-of-n-arylated-nh125-analogues-as-rapid-eradicating-agents-against-mrsa-persister-cells-and-potent-biofilm-killers-of-gram-positive-pathogens
#17
Yasmeen Abouelhassan, Akash Basak, Hussain Yousaf, Robert William Huigens Iii
Bacterial biofilms housing dormant persister cells are innately tolerant to antibiotics and disinfectants, yet several membrane-active agents are known to eradicate tolerant bacterial cells. NH125, a membrane-active persister-killer and starting point for development, led to the identification of N-arylated analogues 1 and 2 and displayed improved biofilm-killing potencies and rapid persister-killing activities in stationary cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We found 1 and 2 to be superior to other membrane-active agents in biofilm eradication assays with 1 demonstrating minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBEC) of 23...
December 7, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924114/total-synthesis-of-%C3%A2-naphthacemycin-a9-possessing-both-antibacterial-activity-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-circumventing-effect-of-%C3%AE-lactam-resistance
#18
Tomoyasu Hirose, Yasuhiro Kojima, Hidehito Matsui, Hideaki Hanaki, Masato Iwatsuki, Kazuro Shiomi, Satoshi Ōmura, Toshiaki Sunazuka
The total synthesis of KB-3346-5A9, named naphthacemycin A9, has been accomplished by combining the Dötz reaction and Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling as well as employing Friedel-Crafts reaction with dienone-phenol rearrangement as key steps. We also describe the preparation of the simplified tetarimycin A and naphthacemycin A analogs as a model study, which coincidentally reveal unique properties of naturally occurring naphthacene-5,6,11(12H)-trione framework. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) to elucidate their structure-activity relationships (SARs), the results of which agreed with a previously reported preliminary SAR study of tetarimycin A...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917692/once-daily-high-dose-tigecycline-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-based-dosing-for-optimal-clinical-effectiveness-dosing-matters-revisited
#19
Burke A Cunha, Jeffrey Baron, Cheston B Cunha
Tigecycline has emerged as first line therapy for serious systemic infections due to important pathogens (except P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp.), including multi-drug resistant (MDR) and Gram negative bacilli (GNB), including carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriae. Tigecycline has a 'low resistance potential,' is protective against C. difficile, and is often the only antibiotic effective against MDR GNB, e.g., Klebsiella sp. Areas covered: Standard dose tigecycline therapy has been used for intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin/skin structure infections (cSSSIs), and CAP...
December 22, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915096/universal-contact-precautions-do-not-change-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-in-a-tertiary-burn-unit
#20
Adelyn L Ho, Reid Chambers, Claudia Malic, Anthony Papp
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms (ARO) in burn units is increasing worldwide and contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Study aims are to describe the burden of AROs in burn patients admitted to a tertiary burn unit, to evaluate the impact of contact precautions implemented after an outbreak of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and to identify possible predictors of ARO acquisition. METHODS: Data of burn inpatients between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed...
November 30, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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