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Adenomas pituitary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933171/active-postoperative-acromegaly-sustained-remission-after-discontinuation-of-somatostatin-analogues
#1
Cristina Alvarez-Escola, Jersy Cardenas-Salas
: In patients with active acromegaly after pituitary surgery, somatostatin analogues are effective in controlling the disease and can even be curative in some cases. After treatment discontinuation, the likelihood of disease recurrence is high. However, a small subset of patients remains symptom-free after discontinuation, with normalized growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) levels. The characteristics of patients most likely to achieve sustained remission after treatment discontinuation are not well understood, although limited evidence suggests that sustained remission is more likely in patients with lower GH and IGF1 levels before treatment withdrawal, in those who respond well to low-dose treatment, in those without evidence of adenoma on an MRI scan and/or in patients who receive long-term treatment...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928434/adrenalectomy-for-cushing-s-syndrome-do-s-and-don-ts
#2
REVIEW
Paduraru Dn, Nica A, Carsote M, Valea A
Aim. To present specific aspects of adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS) by introducing well established aspects ("do's") and less known aspects ("don'ts"). Material and Method. This is a narrative review. Results. The "do's" for laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) are the following: it represents the "gold standard" for secretor and non-secretor adrenal tumors and the first line therapy for CS with an improvement of cardio-metabolic co-morbidities; the success rate depending on the adequate patients' selection and the surgeon's skills...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926659/macroprolactinomas-and-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas-and-pregnancy-outcomes
#3
Kimberley Lambert, Kate Rees, Paul T Seed, Mandish K Dhanjal, Marian Knight, David R McCance, Catherine Williamson
OBJECTIVE: To examine the monitoring, management, and outcomes of pituitary tumors in pregnancy. METHODS: A national, prospective, observational, population-based case series study was conducted in all U.K. consultant-led obstetric units over 3 years using the U.K. Obstetric Surveillance System. To evaluate rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes, women with a macroprolactinoma (10 mm or greater) or nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma, diagnosed before or during pregnancy, were compared with two comparison groups: 1) a U...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923456/strategies-to-use-micrornas-as-therapeutic-targets
#4
REVIEW
Erica Gentilin, Ettore Degli Uberti, Maria Chiara Zatelli
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs generated from endogenous hairpin-shaped transcripts that powerfully regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Each miRNA is capable to regulate the expression levels of hundreds of transcripts and each mRNA may have more than one miRNA recognition sequence. There is emerging evidence that deregulation of miRNA expression leads to the alteration of pivotal physiological functions contributing to the development of diseases and neoplasms, including pituitary adenoma...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920872/anterior-and-posterior-suprasellar-extensions-of-a-symmetrical-trilobed-nonfunctional-giant-pituitary-adenoma-in-the-sagittal-plane-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#5
Rushabh M Vakharia, Roman Kremen, Ajit Vakharia, Obed Adarkwah, Gordon Anderson
INTRODUCTION: To the best of our knowledge, the presence of a trilobed nonfunctional giant pituitary adenoma has never been described before in the literature. These tumors present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Tumors of this etiology can be managed with pharmacologic treatment or aggressive surgical intervention. The following case illustrates an unique visual presentation of a giant pituitary adenoma. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 40-year-old Hispanic man who presented with new onset seizures...
December 2016: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917338/six-different-extremely-calcified-lesions-of-the-brain-brain-stones
#6
Yurdal Gezercan, Vedat Acik, Gökhan Çavuş, Ali Ihsan Ökten, Emre Bilgin, Hakan Millet, Burak Olmaz
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to extend clinical documentation of cerebral calculi by reporting six cases of cerebral calculi with distinct etiologies and localizations. METHODS: We evaluated the age, sex distribution, presenting symptoms, neurological examination findings, pathology results, and location of the calcifications of six patients with intracranial calcifications. RESULTS: Three of the six patients with brain stones were female (50%), and three were male (50%)...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903019/osteochondroma-presenting-as-a-calcified-mass-in-the-sellar-region-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Kazuya Sekiguchi, Satoshi Tsutsumi, Sho Arai, Senshu Nonaka, Takamoto Suzuki, Hisato Ishii, Hiroshi Izumi, Yukimasa Yasumoto
Objective Osteochondroma (OC) is the most common benign bone neoplasm. It infrequently occurs in the cranial cavity as a calcified lesion and very rarely presents in the sellar region. The present study summarizes the knowledge about OCs of the sellar region. Methods We searched the literature search for the clinical appearance of OCs and other calcified pathologies occurring in the sellar region. Results A total of 21 English-language articles published from 1961 to 2015 documented cases of calcified lesions in the sellar region including cerebral aneurysm, chondroid chordoma, chondroma, craniopharyngioma, OC, odontome, osteoma, pituitary adenoma, pituitary stone, Rathke cleft cyst, retinoblastoma, schwannoma, and xanthogranuloma...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902467/autocrine-il-6-mediates-pituitary-tumor-senescence
#8
Melanie Sapochnik, Mariana R Haedo, Mariana Fuertes, Pablo Ajler, Guillermo Carrizo, Andrés Cervio, Gustavo Sevlever, Günter K Stalla, Eduardo Arzt
Cellular senescence is a stable proliferative arrest state. Pituitary adenomas are frequent and mostly benign, but the mechanism for this remains unknown. IL-6 is involved in pituitary tumor progression and is produced by the tumoral cells. In a cell autonomous fashion, IL-6 participates in oncogene-induced senescence in transduced human melanocytes. Here we prove that autocrine IL-6 participates in pituitary tumor senescence. Endogenous IL-6 inhibition in somatotroph MtT/S shRNA stable clones results in decreased SA-β-gal activity and p16INK4a but increased pRb, proliferation and invasion...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900635/somatostatin-and-dopamine-receptor-regulation-of-pituitary-somatotroph-adenomas
#9
REVIEW
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Ning-Ai Liu, Shlomo Melmed
Somatostatin and dopamine receptors are expressed in normal and tumoral somatotroph cells. Upon receptor stimulation, somatostatin and the somatostatin receptor ligands octreotide, lanreotide, and pasireotide, and to a lesser extent, dopamine and the dopamine analogs bromocriptine and cabergoline, suppress growth hormone (GH) secretion from a GH-secreting pituitary somatotroph adenoma. Somatostatin and dopamine receptors are Gαi-protein coupled that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP production and reduce intracellular calcium concentration and calcium flux oscillations...
November 29, 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899081/endoscopic-endonasal-pituitary-adenomas-surgery-the-surgical-experience-of-178-consecutive-patients-and-learning-curve-of-two-neurosurgeons
#10
Xuefei Shou, Ming Shen, Qilin Zhang, Yichao Zhang, Wenqiang He, Zengyi Ma, Yao Zhao, Shiqi Li, Yongfei Wang
BACKGROUND: We aim to study surgical technique and analyze the related factors affecting tumor total removal and postoperative endocrinological remission for endoscopic endonasal pituitary adenomas surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 178 endoscopic endonasal pituitary adenomas surgery from March 2011 to May 2014. Endonasal approach included the routine transnasal-sphenoidal approach, transnasal- maxillary sinus approach in four cases and transnasal-clivus approach in one case...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894339/the-identification-of-human-pituitary-adenoma-initiating-cells
#11
Branavan Manoranjan, Sujeivan Mahendram, Saleh A Almenawer, Chitra Venugopal, Nicole McFarlane, Robin Hallett, Thusyanth Vijayakumar, Almunder Algird, Naresh K Murty, Doron D Sommer, John P Provias, Kesava Reddy, Sheila K Singh
Classified as benign central nervous system (CNS) tumors, pituitary adenomas account for 10% of diagnosed intracranial neoplasms. Although surgery is often curative, patients with invasive macroadenomas continue to experience significant morbidity and are prone to tumor recurrence. Given the identification of human brain tumor-initiating cells (TICs) that initiate and maintain tumor growth while promoting disease progression and relapse in multiple CNS tumors, we investigated whether TICs also drive the growth of human pituitary adenomas...
November 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894193/currently-used-and-investigational-drugs-for-cushing%C3%A2-s-disease
#12
Denis Ciato, Aizhar G Mumbach, Marcelo Paez-Pereda, Günter K Stalla
Cushing's disease (CD) is caused by a corticotroph adenoma of the pituitary gland that secretes excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing increased morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but is not always successful. Alternatives include radiotherapy, adrenal surgery, and pharmaceutical therapy. The latter is increasingly gaining momentum due to the recent development of compounds that reduce hypercortisolaemia or its symptoms, acting through different mechanisms. Areas covered: In this article, the authors provide a complete overview of the treatment options for Cushing´s disease, including adrenal-directed, tumor-targeted, and peripheral therapies that are currently used or in development, and discuss their potential advantages and limitations...
December 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893664/genetic-aspects-of-pituitary-carcinoma-a-systematic-review
#13
Zijiang Yang, Ting Zhang, Heng Gao
BACKGROUND: Pituitary carcinoma (PC) is a rare type of malignant intracranial neoplasm defined as distant metastasis of pituitary adenoma (PA). Although PC incidence is low because only 0.1% to 0.2% of PAs ultimately develop into PCs, the prognosis is poor and 66% of patients die within the first year. Existing therapeutic measures, including surgical removal, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, have limited effectiveness. The lack of efficacy of current treatments is largely caused by the limited understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PA and the malignant transformation to PC...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892895/prothymosin-alpha-and-ki-67-expression-in-pituitary-adenomas
#14
Iga Wierzbicka-Tutka, Grzegorz Sokołowski, Agata Bałdys-Waligórska, Dariusz Adamek, Edyta Radwańska, Filip Gołkowski
INTRODUCTION: Prothymosin alpha (PTMA), a nuclear oncoprotein involved in cell cycle regulation, is used as a prognostic marker in many cancers. The histopathology of pituitary carcinomas and locally invasive adenomas is indistinguishable from that of benign tumors. A new marker is needed to differentiate these lesions. We evaluated PTMA in pituitary adenomas to determine its usefulness as a prognostic factor of tumor proliferation. MATERIAL/METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a group of 27 patients, including 15 females (56%) and 12 males (44%) with a mean age of 58...
November 7, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885957/visual-pathway-impairment-by-pituitary-adenomas-quantitative-diagnostics-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#15
Ylva Lilja, Oscar Gustafsson, Maria Ljungberg, Göran Starck, Bertil Lindblom, Thomas Skoglund, Henrik Bergquist, Karl-Erik Jakobsson, Daniel Nilsson
OBJECTIVE Despite ample experience in surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas, little is known about objective indices that may reveal risk of visual impairment caused by tumor growth that leads to compression of the anterior visual pathways. This study aimed to explore diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a means for objective assessment of injury to the anterior visual pathways caused by pituitary adenomas. METHODS Twenty-three patients with pituitary adenomas, scheduled for transsphenoidal tumor resection, and 20 healthy control subjects were included in the study...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876137/cathepsin-k-the-association-between-cathepsin-k-expression-and-sphenoid-sinus-invasion-of-pituitary-adenomas
#16
Hongyan Liu, Guoqi Wang, Weijun Gu, Yiming Mu
Pituitary adenomas with sphenoid sinus or clivus invasion are not uncommon, but the pathogenesis responsible for this phenomenon remains unclear. Cathepsin K, expressed predominantly in osteoclasts, can degrade type I collagen and plays an essential role in bone resorption. Recent studies reported the expression of Cathepsin K in various malignant tumors, such as bone, breast, lung and prostate cancers, and its expression is further increased in bone metastasis or invasive subpopulations. In addition, cathepsin K inhibitors (CatKi) were demonstrated to effectively prevent or reduce osteolytic lesions in breast cancers with bone metastasis...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872697/co-occurrence-of-pituitary-adenoma-with-suprasellar-and-olfactory-groove-meningiomas
#17
Kai-Zheong Lim, Tony Goldschlager, Ronil V Chandra, Jonathan Hall, Brent Uren, Michael Pullar
INTRODUCTION: The co-existence of pituitary adenoma and meningioma is extremely rare. It is even rarer in patients with no previous known risk factors for either tumour. Here, we present a case of synchronous non-functioning pituitary adenoma with suprasellar and olfactory groove meningiomas in a patient without previous irradiation. METHODS: The tumours were diagnosed on MRI in the 65-year-old patient who presented with patchy visual deficits. The decision was made to undergo surgery for resection of the suprasellar meningioma and the pituitary adenoma, leaving the small olfactory groove meningioma intact...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867914/therapeutic-strategy-for-cavernous-sinus-invading-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas-based-on-the-modified-knosp-grading-system
#18
Juyoung Hwang, Ho Jun Seol, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Min Ho Lee, Doo-Sik Kong
BACKGROUND: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) invading into the cavernous sinus are surgically challenging. To decrease recurrence rate, surgeon makes a strong endeavor to resect tumor gross totally. However, gross total resection (GTR) is difficult to achieve with cavernous sinus invasion. Recently, a new classification system for cavernous invasion of pituitary adenomas was suggested. The aim of this study is to validate this new classification system and to identify limitations and considerations in designing treatment strategies for patients with NFPA involving the cavernous sinus...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859437/characteristics-and-outcome-of-surgically-treated-pituitary-tumours-in-south-africa-a-single-centre-experience
#19
Khaled K Elmezughi, Fraser J Pirie, Ayesha A Motala
AIMS: To describe the clinical, biochemical, radiological and histological features and to determine the outcome of all patients with pituitary tumours treated surgically at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital in Durban over a 5 year period. RESEARCH DESIGN: Retrospective chart review from 2008 to 2012. Clinical, biochemical and radiologic data were collected before and one year after surgery. Histopathology findings and peri-operative complications were recorded...
November 12, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857870/persistent-trigeminal-artery-in-endonasal-resection-of-skull-base-tumors-a-systematic-review
#20
Jasper Shen, James Tourje, Elena E Chang, Adam N Mamelak, Arthur W Wu
Background Primitive persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is an uncommon embryologic vascular communication between the carotid and basilar arteries, which can be intimately involved by skull base tumors (SBT). Owing to its rarity, skull base surgeons should familiarize themselves with the anatomical variations of PTA to avoid catastrophic complications. Objective To appraise and summarize the available evidence of PTA involved by SBTs while advocating a standardized algorithm for the surgical planning of these patients...
December 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
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