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herpetic encephalitis

Yasuhiro Takahashi, Takeshi Mikami, Hime Suzuki, Katsuya Komatsu, Daisuke Yamamoto, Shun Shimohama, Kiyohiro Houkin, Shintaro Sugita, Tadashi Hasegawa, Nobuhiro Mikuni
We report a case of moyamoya disease (MMD), which developed after non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis (NHALE) associated with anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibody. The patient's mother had a history of MMD. No vascular lesions were identified at the time of the NHALE. Nine years later, the patient visited our hospital due to memory disturbances and repeated transient ischemic attacks affecting the right limb. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed scattered areas of signal hyperintensity, and the patient was ultimately diagnosed with MMD based on angiography...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
O Picone
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the consequences of genital herpes infections in pregnant women. METHODS: The PubMed database and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. RESULTS: The symptomatology of herpes genital rash is often atypical (NP2) and not different during pregnancy (Professional consensus). It is most often due to HSV2 (NP2). Seventy percent of pregnant patients have a history of infection with Herpes simplex virus, without reference to genital or labial localization, and this is in most cases type 1 (NP2)...
December 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Christine Strippel, Constanze Mönig, Kristin S Golombeck, Andre Dik, Kathrin Bönte, Stjepana Kovac, Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth, Andreas Johnen, Catharina C Gross, Nico Melzer
Herpes simplex virus-1 has been identified as the trigger factor in certain cases of NMDA-receptor autoimmune encephalitis. We report on a 67-year-old female patient, who was severely affected by post-herpetic NMDA-receptor autoimmune encephalitis. Her symptoms did not improve under methylprednisolone pulse therapy and plasma exchange under acyclovir prophylaxis. She received protein A immunoadsorption and a long-term immunosuppression with rituximab. Under treatment, activated T-cells as well as B- and plasma cells decreased in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and anti-NMDA-R IgG titers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid declined with near complete cessation of intrathecal autoantibody synthesis...
July 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Anne A Gershon
Varicella and zoster continue to cause significant morbidity and even mortality in children and adults. Complications include bacterial superinfection, central nervous system manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia, and pain syndromes especially post herpetic neuralgia. Many developed countries but not all, are now administering live attenuated varicella vaccine routinely, with a decrease in the incidence of disease, providing personal and herd immunity. There is some controversy, however, in some countries concerning whether a decrease in the circulation of wild type virus will result in loss of immunity to VZV in persons who have already had varicella...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
R Levy, B Kerzmann, V Franssen, A S Schwab, J F Adam, Th Sottiaux
Early diagnosis and treatment of intracranial hypertension (ICHT) are major components of the management of neurological emergencies. The optic nerve sheath diameter is closely dependent on intracranial pressure and can be measured by bedside ultrasound (US). We report the story of a 70-year-old COPD patient initially admitted to the emergency room for a sepsis of pulmonary origin. An unusual confusion prompted us to perform an US of the optic nerve sheath. This exam clearly suggested the presence of an ICHT...
June 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
Leonardo D'Aiuto, Kelly Williamson, Peter Dimitrion, James McNulty, Carla E Brown, Chanti Babu Dokuburra, Alexander J Nielsen, Wen Jing Lin, Paolo Piazza, Mark E Schurdak, Joel Wood, Robert H Yolken, Paul R Kinchington, David C Bloom, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar
Acyclovir (ACV) and its derivatives have been highly effective for treating recurrent, lytic infections with Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 (HSV-1), but searches for additional antiviral drugs are motivated by recent reports of resistance to ACV, particularly among immunocompromised patients. In addition, the relative neurotoxicity of ACV and its inability to prevent neurological sequelae among HSV-1 encephalitis survivors compel searches for new drugs to treat HSV-1 infections of the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 2017: Antiviral Research
Shengtao Fan, Hongzhi Cai, Xingli Xu, Min Feng, Lichun Wang, Yun Liao, Ying Zhang, Zhanlong He, Fengmei Yang, Wenhai Yu, Jingjing Wang, Jumin Zhou, Qihan Li
As one of the major pathogens for human herpetic diseases, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) causes herpes labialis, genital herpes and herpetic encephalitis. Our aim here was to investigate the infectious process of HSV1 in rhesus macaques and the pathological features induced during this infection. Clinical symptoms that manifested in the rhesus macaque during HSV1 infection included vesicular lesions and their pathological features. Viral distribution in the nervous tissues and associated pathologic changes indicated the typical systematic pathological processes associated with viral distribution of HSV1...
January 30, 2017: Viruses
Zachary M Parker, Tracy Jo Pasieka, George A Parker, David A Leib
The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Sanjeet K Shahi
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), secondary to herpes simplex encephalitis, is a rare syndrome that can present in healthy individuals, as well as immuno-compromised patients. Most cases are caused by a secondary infection from the herpes virus family, with varicella zoster virus being the leading cause of this syndrome. Potential symptoms include blurry vision, floaters, ocular pain and photophobia. Ocular findings may consist of severe uveitis, retinal vasculitis, retinal necrosis, papillitis and retinal detachment...
May 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Bernardita González, Alberto Fica
Influenza vaccine is rarely associated with neurological adverse effects such as Guillain Barré syndrome, encephalitis or aseptic meningitis. We report the case of a male patient that presented two episodes of acute encephalitis in consecutive years, 16 and 20 days after his annual influenza vaccine shot, respectively. In both instances, patient required ICU admission and evolved with fast recovery and no sequels. The first episode was managed empirically as herpetic encephalitis but an extensive study was performed in the second episode without identifying any microorganism...
April 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Kingsley Okafor, Jonathan Lu, Sumeer Thinda, Ivan Schwab, Lawrence S Morse, Susanna S Park, Ala Moshiri
We report three cases of patients with developmental-delay from neonatal herpetic encephalitis and/or meningitis who presented years later with acute retinal necrosis due to herpes simplex virus. The diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to the patients' inability to verbalize their ocular complaints and cooperate with eye examinations. This case series documents the clinical course, pathophysiologic mechanism, and treatment of acute retinal necrosis in this patient population. Clinicians should understand the importance of prudent consideration of acute retinal necrosis in patients with a history of neonatal herpetic encephalitis and/or meningitis presenting with a red eye...
August 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Michael J Bradshaw, Arun Venkatesan
Herpetic infections have plagued humanity for thousands of years, but only recently have advances in antiviral medications and supportive treatments equipped physicians to combat the most severe manifestations of disease. Prompt recognition and treatment can be life-saving in the care of patients with herpes simplex-1 virus encephalitis, the most commonly identified cause of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. Clinicians should be able to recognize the clinical signs and symptoms of the infection and familiarize themselves with a rational diagnostic approach and therapeutic modalities, as early recognition and treatment are key to improving outcomes...
July 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
V L Andronova, M V Jasko, M K Kukhanova, G A Galegov, Yr S Skoblov, S N Kochetkov
As has been shown previously, phosphite of acycloguanosine (Hp-ACG) exhibits equal efficacy against ACV-sensitive and ACV-resistant HSV-1 strains in cell culture. Intraperitoneal administration of Hp-ACG to model mice with herpetic encephalitis caused by HSV-1 infection was shown to be effective in protecting against death. In the present work, we continue the study of the antiviral efficiency of Hp-ACG against HSV administered non-invasively; namely in vivo, orally and in the form of ointment formulations...
January 2016: Acta Naturae
Y Cag, H Erdem, S Leib, S Defres, S Kaya, L Larsen, M Poljak, D Ozturk-Engin, B Barsic, X Argemi, S M Sørensen, A L Bohr, P Tattevin, J D Gunst, L Baštáková, M Jereb, I S Johansen, O Karabay, A U Pekok, O R Sipahi, M Chehri, G Beraud, G Shehata, R Fontana, M Maresca, H Karsen, G Sengoz, M Sunbul, G Yilmaz, H Yilmaz, A Sharif-Yakan, S Kanj, E Parlak, F Pehlivanoglu, F Korkmaz, S Komur, S Kose, M Ulug, S Bolukcu, S A Coskuner, J P Stahl, N Ince, Y Akkoyunlu, G Halac, E Sahin-Horasan, H Tireli, G Kilicoglu, A Al-Mahdawi, S A Nemli, A Inan, S Senbayrak, H Vahaboglu, N Elaldi
There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focussed on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. Overall, 501 adult patients with PCR-proven HME were included retrospectively from 35 referral centres in 10 countries; 496 patients were found to be eligible for the analysis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis using a PCR assay yielded herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 DNA in 351 patients (70...
June 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Renata Dal-Prá Ducci, Francisco Manoel Branco Germiniani, Letícia Elizabeth Augustin Czecko, Eduardo S Paiva, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Masaaki Saito, Hirokazu Kiyozaki, Tamotu Obitsu, Hirofumi Imoto, Yusuke Taniyama, Osamu Takata, Toshiki Rikiyama
BACKGROUND: Systemic chemotherapy combined with steroids used as prophylactic antiemetics have been reported to induce immunosuppression. Further, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection has been reported to occur in patients with small cell carcinomas after chemoradiotherapy that includes brain irradiation. Here, we report a case of HSV-1 encephalitis that occurred in a patient undergoing chemoradiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old woman received chemoradiotherapy (5-fluorouracil, 700 mg/m(2); cisplatin, 70 mg/m(2); and radiotherapy, 60 Gy in total) for stage III esophageal cancer...
March 17, 2016: BMC Cancer
Raghav Govindarajan, Efrain Salgado
Herpes simplex encephalitis is an acute/subacute illness that causes both general and focal signs of cerebral dysfunction with fever, headache, and confusion as cardinal features. Recurrent herpes simplex meningitis, also known as Mollaret's meningitis, is another manifestation of central nervous system herpetic infection with recurrent episodes of fever, headache, and nuchal rigidity associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evidence of active herpes simplex infection. Bell's palsy is yet another manifestation of a herpes virus infection in at least some reported cases documented by CSF analysis...
January 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
Mahdi Paryan, Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh, Houri Rezvan, Vahid Kia, Ardalan Mansouri, Siamak Mirab Samiee
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a human pathogen that causes different pathologic manifestations. Rapid and feasible detection and discrimination methods for HSV genotyping is a challenge in clinical laboratories, especially in children suffering from herpetic encephalitis. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping assay using SYBR Green I was established. We designed only 1 pair of primer for HSV 1 and 2, targeting thymidine kinase gene conserved region. HSV genotypes were determined by PCR using melting curve analysis with LightCycler...
February 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Suilane Coelho Ribeiro Oliveira, Camila Motta Venchiarutti Moniz, Rachel Riechelmann, Alexandra Kichfy Alex, Maria Ignez Braghirolli, Giovanni Bariani, Caio Nahas, Paulo Marcelo Gehm Hoff
UNLABELLED: This was a phase II study of capecitabine in substitution of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the chemoradiotherapy regimen for patients with localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. BACKGROUND: Combined chemoradiation with infusional 5-FU and mitomycin is the standard treatment for localized squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal. Capecitabine is an oral fluoropirimidine that has been shown to be equally effective to 5-FU in many solid tumors...
March 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Alexandre S da Silva, Jéssica V Raposo, Tiago C Pereira, Marcelo A Pinto, Vanessa S de Paula
BACKGROUND: Herpetic encephalitis (HSE) is caused mainly by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) with an annual incidence of 1-4 cases/million inhabitants. Currently, HSE treatment faces difficulties such as the use of antivirals with elevated toxicity, metabolic side effects and HSV-1 resistance. An alternative to antivirals is the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a viral replication inhibitor. In this work, siRNA targeting the UL-39 region was evaluated for HSE treatment in vivo...
2016: Antiviral Therapy
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