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Clinical observers

Patrizia Carrieri, Antoine Vilotitch, Sandra Nordmann, Caroline Lions, Laurent Michel, Marion Mora, Alain Morel, Gwenaelle Maradan, Bruno Spire, Perrine Roux
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving buprenorphine who are poor responders can continue to commit drug-related offences. Switching them from buprenorphine to methadone may result in reduced criminal behaviour. We compared self-reported offences and incarceration before and after starting methadone treatment of patients switching from buprenorphine (PSB) and maintenance treatment incident users (MIU). METHODS: Data on offences, incarceration and other information, were obtained via a telephone interview...
October 19, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Katie Bardsley, Agnieska Kwarciak, Christine Freeman, Ian Brook, Paul Hatton, Aileen Crawford
The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
I Tsintsadze, T Gorgoshadze, S Donskov, L Akhvlediani, M Nagervadze
The distribution of erythrocyte blood group antigens was evaluated among 656 donors; samples were provided by the diagnostic laboratory "Medina" Ltd Health Centre of Batumi. Lab analysis of the sample was conducted by the immunogenetics laboratory at Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University. The frequency of the ABO allele system in donors was as follows: r (0.70), q (0.23), p (0.07). The distribution of Rhesus (Rh) factor in the donor population was as follows: Rh(-) was found among 16.3±1.43% of investigated donors; the Rh(+) phenotype was found in 83...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
T Didbaridze, L Saginashvili, L Akhmeteli, B Iremashvili, N Gogokhia
This study provides a contemporary epidemiology of aspirates taken during surgery from the abdominal cavity among patients with bacterial peritonitis to identify the isolates and study their sensitivity to antibiotics. Our bacteriology investigations included isolation of poor cultures, and detection of microbes was conducted using a rapid identification system (API20E, API Staph, API Strep, API Ana, BioMerieux). Rapid tests for detection of oxidase and catalase activity were also used. Susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics was defined by the disc-diffusion method using standard discs (EUCAST guidelines 2015) according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) protocols (ATB strips: ATB G, ATB Staph, ATBANA, ATBPse, ATBStrep...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Sathyaseelan Subramaniam, Jacqueline Bober, Jennifer Chao, Shahriar Zehtabchi
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, emergency department (ED) physicians rely on their clinical examination to differentiate between cellulitis and abscess when evaluating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Management of an abscess requires incision and drainage, whereas cellulitis generally requires a course of antibiotics. Misdiagnosis often results in unnecessary invasive procedures, sedations (for incision and drainage in pediatric patients), or a return ED visit for failed antibiotic therapy...
October 21, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Jimoh Agbaje, Antoon De Laat, Politis Constantinus, Peter Svensson, Lene Baad-Hansen
Qualitative somatosensory testing (QualST) is a simple chairside test. It can be used to roughly assess the presence or absence of altered somatosensory function. To use QualST clinically, it is important to assess its agreement with quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aims of this study were to assess the agreement between QST and QualST when testing the modulation of facial sensitivity by capsaicin in healthy participants and to explore the agreement between QST and QualST in assessing the intraoral sensory function in clinical atypical odontalgia (AO) patients...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
D Donegan, N Singh Ospina, R Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Z Al-Hilli, G B Thompson, B L Clarke, W F Young
BACKGROUND: In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1), pancreaticoduodenal (PD) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are associated with early mortality, yet, the best treatment strategy, remains uncertain. AIM: To assess patient important outcomes (mortality and metastasis) of PD NETs and predictors of outcomes in patients with MEN-1. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients with MEN-1 who attended the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from 1997-2014...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Motahare Soufi, Alireza Kamali-Asl, Parham Geramifar, Arman Rahmim
PURPOSE: Determination of intra-tumor high-uptake area using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is an important consideration for dose painting in radiation treatment applications. The aim of our study was to develop a framework towards automated segmentation and labeling of homogeneous vs. heterogeneous tumors in clinical lung [(18)F]FDG-PET with the capability of intra-tumor high-uptake region delineation. PROCEDURES: We utilized and extended a fuzzy random walk PET tumor segmentation algorithm to delineate intra-tumor high-uptake areas...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Michael L Schulte, Matthew R Hight, Gregory D Ayers, Qi Liu, Yu Shyr, M Kay Washington, H Charles Manning
PURPOSE: This study aimed to study whether cancer cells possess distinguishing metabolic features compared with surrounding normal cells, such as increased glutamine uptake. Given this, quantitative measures of glutamine uptake may reflect critical processes in oncology. Approximately, 10 % of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) express BRAF (V600E) , which may be actionable with selective BRAF inhibitors or in combination with inhibitors of complementary signaling axes. Non-invasive and quantitative predictive measures of response to these targeted therapies remain poorly developed in this setting...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Parker Magin, Rebecca Stewart, Allison Turnock, Amanda Tapley, Elizabeth Holliday, Nick Cooling
Underperforming trainees requiring remediation may threaten patient safety and are challenging for vocational training programs. Decisions to institute remediation are high-stakes-remediation being resource-intensive and emotionally demanding on trainees. Detection of underperformance requiring remediation is particularly problematic in general (family) practice. We sought to establish early-training assessment instruments predictive of general practice (GP) trainees' subsequently requiring formal remediation...
October 21, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Mara A Schonberg, Vicky W Li, A Heather Eliassen, Roger B Davis, Andrea Z LaCroix, Ellen P McCarthy, Bernard A Rosner, Rowan T Chlebowski, Susan E Hankinson, Edward R Marcantonio, Long H Ngo
PURPOSE: Accurate risk assessment is necessary for decision-making around breast cancer prevention. We aimed to develop a breast cancer prediction model for postmenopausal women that would take into account their individualized competing risk of non-breast cancer death. METHODS: We included 73,066 women who completed the 2004 Nurses' Health Study (NHS) questionnaire (all ≥57 years) and followed participants until May 2014. We considered 17 breast cancer risk factors (health behaviors, demographics, family history, reproductive factors) and 7 risk factors for non-breast cancer death (comorbidities, functional dependency) and mammography use...
October 21, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat, Maral Marzban, Mohsen Bahrami, Mohammad Mahdi Parvizi, Mahdie Hajimonfarednejad
One of the best remaining manuscripts is the "Canon of Medicine" fathered by Avicenna in the Islamic Golden Age [ninth to twelfth century AD]. Considering Avicenna's role in the development of medical science in the Islamic Golden Age, we reviewed Avicenna's point of view on sexual headache based on his famous book "Canon of Medicine". This historical review discusses the clinical approaches applied to diagnose, classify, and treat sexual headache-specifically herbal therapy-from the viewpoint of Avicenna and Traditional Persian Medicine...
October 21, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Wilfried Dinh, Barbara Albrecht-Küpper, Mihai Gheorghiade, Adriaan A Voors, Michael van der Laan, Hani N Sabbah
Adenosine exerts a variety of physiological effects by binding to cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, namely, A1, A2a, A2b, and A3. The central physiological role of adenosine is to preclude tissue injury and promote repair in response to stress. In the heart, adenosine acts as a cytoprotective modulator, linking cardiac function to metabolic demand predominantly via activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs), which leads to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity, modulation of protein kinase C, and opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels...
October 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Yuichiro Miyake, Junichi Nishimura, Hidekazu Takahashi, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Taishi Hata, Ichiro Takemasa, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic surgery for locally advanced colorectal cancer suspected of direct invasion to adjacent organs or structures remains controversial because of its high conversion rate, inadequate oncologic clearance and surgical outcomes. This study retrospectively evaluated the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic multivisceral resection for colorectal cancer and investigated the factors influencing conversion to open surgery. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2015, 39 patients who underwent laparoscopic multivisceral resection for colorectal cancer intraoperatively suspected of direct invasion to adjacent organs or structures were included...
October 21, 2016: Surgery Today
Walter Pirker, Regina Katzenschlager
Human gait depends on a complex interplay of major parts of the nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems. The individual gait pattern is influenced by age, personality, mood and sociocultural factors. The preferred walking speed in older adults is a sensitive marker of general health and survival. Safe walking requires intact cognition and executive control. Gait disorders lead to a loss of personal freedom, falls and injuries and result in a marked reduction in the quality of life. Acute onset of a gait disorder may indicate a cerebrovascular or other acute lesion in the nervous system but also systemic diseases or adverse effects of medication, in particular polypharmacy including sedatives...
October 21, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Ana M Denis-Bacelar, Sarah J Chittenden, David P Dearnaley, Antigoni Divoli, Joe M O'Sullivan, V Ralph McCready, Bernadette Johnson, Yong Du, Glenn D Flux
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of patient-specific dosimetry as a predictive marker of survival and as a potential tool for individualised molecular radiotherapy treatment planning of bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer, and to assess whether higher administered levels of activity are associated with a survival benefit. METHODS: Clinical data from 57 patients who received 2.5-5.1 GBq of (186)Re-HEDP as part of NIH-funded phase I/II clinical trials were analysed...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Robert Thompson Stone, Christopher Mooney, Erika Wexler, Jonathan Mink, Jennifer Post, Ralph F Jozefowicz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and utility of instituting a formalized bedside skills evaluation (BSE) for 3rd-year medical students on the neurology clerkship. METHODS: A neurologic BSE was developed for 3rd(-)year neurology clerks at the University of Rochester for the 2012-2014 academic years. Faculty directly observed 189 students completing a full history and neurologic examination on real inpatients. Mock grades were calculated utilizing the BSE in the final grade, and number of students with a grade difference was determined when compared to true grade...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Marion I Boldingh, Angelina H Maniaol, Cathrine Brunborg, Harald Weedon-Fekjær, Jan J G M Verschuuren, Chantal M E Tallaksen
OBJECTIVE: To study the risk of clinical onset of myasthenia gravis (MG) in pregnancy and during the first 6 months postpartum because an association between pregnancy or the postpartum period and the onset of autoimmune MG is widely assumed but not proven. METHODS: The design was a cross-sectional population-based cohort study of 2 MG cohorts (Norway and the Netherlands) with 1,038 healthy controls from Norway. Data were obtained on 246 women with MG (age at onset 15-45 years)...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Alexis V Mickelson, Sampath K Gollapudi, Murali Chandra
The present study investigated the functional consequences of the human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutation, A28V, in cardiac troponin T (TnT). The A28V mutation is located within the N-terminus of TnT, a region known to be important for full activation of cardiac thin filaments. The functional consequences of the A28V mutation in TnT remain unknown. Given how α- and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms differently alter the effect of the N-terminus of TnT, we hypothesized that the A28V-induced effects would be differently modulated by α- and β-MHC isoforms...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Islam Ghazi, Yukihiro Hamada, David P Nicolau
PURPOSE: The physical compatibility of commonly used agents that could be coadministered in the clinical setting with tedizolid phosphate during Y-site administration was evaluated. METHODS: Tedizolid phosphate vials were reconstituted to a final concentration of 0.8 mg/mL. All other drugs were prepared according to manufacturers' recommendations and diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection (where applicable) to the highest standard concentrations used clinically...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
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