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Sterile immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337203/a-universal-vaccine-against-leptospirosis-are-we-going-in-the-right-direction
#1
André Alex Grassmann, Jéssica Dias Souza, Alan John Alexander McBride
Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world and a neglected tropical disease estimated to cause severe infection in more than one million people worldwide every year that can be combated by effective immunization. However, no significant progress has been made on the leptospirosis vaccine since the advent of bacterins over 100 years. Although protective against lethal infection, particularly in animals, bacterin-induced immunity is considered short term, serovar restricted, and the vaccine can cause serious side effects...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326080/characterization-of-the-highly-prevalent-regulatory-cd24-hi-cd38-hi-b-cell-population-in-human-cord-blood
#2
Ana Esteve-Solé, Irene Teixidó, Angela Deyà-Martínez, Jordi Yagüe, Ana M Plaza-Martín, Manel Juan, Laia Alsina
The newborn's immune system must transition from a sterile haploidentical uterus to the world full of antigens. Regulatory B-cells (Breg; broadly defined as CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi)) are tolerance promoters in the adult immune system. They can inhibit IFN-γ and IL-17 production by T-cells and are essential in different conditions, including pregnancy. Breg have still not been well characterized in umbilical cord blood, where we hypothesize that they are pivotal in the achievement of tolerance. We studied CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) Breg in healthy umbilical cord blood (hUCB) compared to healthy peripheral adult blood (hAPB)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325219/homeopathy-outperforms-antibiotics-treatment-in-juvenile-scallop-argopecten-ventricosus-effects-on-growth-survival-and-immune-response
#3
José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui, Milagro García-Bernal, Pedro Enrique Saucedo, Ángel Campa-Córdova, Fernando Abasolo-Pacheco
BACKGROUND: Mortality from vibriosis in mollusk production is attributed to pathogenic bacteria, particularly Vibrio alginolyticus. Use of increasingly potent antibiotics has led to bacterial resistance and increased pathogenicity. Alternatives in sanitation, safety, and environmental sustainability are currently under analysis. To-date, homeopathy has been investigated in aquaculture of freshwater fish, but not in marine mollusks. The effect of the homeopathic complexes in the growth, survival, and immune response of the Catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus were assessed...
February 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325059/lysophospholipids-and-their-receptors-serve-as-conditional-damps-and-damp-receptors-in-tissue-oxidative-and-inflammatory-injury
#4
Ying Shao, Gayani Nanayakkara, Jiali Cheng, Ramon Cueto, William Y Yang, Joon-Young Park, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
SIGNIFICANCE: We proposed LPLs and LPL-GPCRs as conditional DAMPs and conditional DAMP receptors as a paradigm shift to the widely accepted classical DAMP and DAMP receptor model. Recent Advances: The aberrant levels of LPLs and GPCRs activate pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways, trigger innate immune response and lead to tissue oxidative and inflammatory injury. CRITICAL ISSUES: Classical DAMPs model specify only the endogenous metabolites that are released from damaged/ dying cells as DAMPs but fails to identify elevated endogenous metabolites secreted from viable/ live cells during pathologies as DAMPs...
March 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320592/facilitators-and-barriers-of-parental-attitudes-and-beliefs-toward-school-located-influenza-vaccination-in-the-united-states-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Gloria J Kang, Rachel K Culp, Kaja M Abbas
The study objective was to identify facilitators and barriers of parental attitudes and beliefs toward school-located influenza vaccination in the United States. In 2009, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded their recommendations for influenza vaccination to include school-aged children. We conducted a systematic review of studies focused on facilitators and barriers of parental attitudes toward school-located influenza vaccination in the United States from 1990 to 2016...
March 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303904/microbiota-a-key-orchestrator-of-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Soumen Roy, Giorgio Trinchieri
The microbiota is composed of commensal bacteria and other microorganisms that live on the epithelial barriers of the host. The commensal microbiota is important for the health and survival of the organism. Microbiota influences physiological functions from the maintenance of barrier homeostasis locally to the regulation of metabolism, haematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity and other functions systemically. The microbiota is also involved in the initiation, progression and dissemination of cancer both at epithelial barriers and in sterile tissues...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301479/ligb-subunit-vaccine-confers-sterile-immunity-against-challenge-in-the-hamster-model-of-leptospirosis
#7
Neida L Conrad, Flávia W Cruz McBride, Jéssica D Souza, Marcelle M Silveira, Samuel Félix, Karla S Mendonça, Cleiton S Santos, Daniel A Athanazio, Marco A Medeiros, Mitermayer G Reis, Odir A Dellagostin, Alan J A McBride
Neglected tropical diseases, including zoonoses such as leptospirosis, have a major impact on rural and poor urban communities, particularly in developing countries. This has led to major investment in antipoverty vaccines that focus on diseases that influence public health and thereby productivity. While the true, global, impact of leptospirosis is unknown due to the lack of adequate laboratory diagnosis, the WHO estimates that incidence has doubled over the last 15 years to over 1 million cases that require hospitalization every year...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298290/a-prime-boost-pfcs14k-m-mva-spfcs-m-vaccination-protocol-generates-robust-cd8-t-cell-and-antibody-responses-to-plasmodium-falciparum-circumsporozoite-protein-and-protects-mice-against-malaria
#8
Aneesh Vijayan, Ernesto Mejías-Pérez, Diego A Espinosa, Suresh C Raman, Carlos Oscar S Sorzano, Fidel Zavala, Mariano Esteban
Vaccines against the pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria are appealing, since the parasite can be eliminated before disease onset and since they offer the unique possibility of targeting the parasite with both antibodies and T cells. Although the role CD8(+) T cells in pre-erythrocytic malaria stages is well documented, a highly effective T cell-inducing vaccine remains to be advanced. Here we report the development of a prime-boost immunization regimen with the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCS) fused to the oligomer-forming vaccinia virus A27 protein and a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector expressing PfCS...
March 15, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296893/hnrnp-i-regulates-neonatal-immune-adaptation-and-prevents-colitis-and-colorectal-cancer
#9
Zhigang Jin, Feng Liang, Jing Yang, Wenyan Mei
The intestinal epithelium plays a critical role in host-microbe homeostasis by sensing gut microbes and subsequently initiating proper immune responses. During the neonatal stage, the intestinal epithelium is under immune repression, allowing the transition for newborns from a relatively sterile intra-uterine environment to one that is rich in foreign antigens. The mechanism underlying such immune repression remains largely unclear, but involves downregulation of IRAK1 (interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase), an essential component of toll-like receptor-mediated NF-κB signaling...
March 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293548/age-appropriate-functions-and-dysfunctions-of-the-neonatal-neutrophil
#10
REVIEW
Shelley Melissa Lawrence, Ross Corriden, Victor Nizet
Neonatal and adult neutrophils are distinctly different from one another due to well-defined and documented deficiencies in neonatal cells, including impaired functions, reduced concentrations of microbicidal proteins and enzymes necessary for pathogen destruction, and variances in cell surface receptors. Neutrophil maturation is clearly demonstrated throughout pregnancy from the earliest hematopoietic precursors in the yolk sac to the well-developed myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow around the seventh month of gestation...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292894/receptor-mincle-promotes-skin-allergies-and-is-capable-of-recognizing-cholesterol-sulfate
#11
Alexey V Kostarnoy, Petya G Gancheva, Bernd Lepenies, Amir I Tukhvatulin, Alina S Dzharullaeva, Nikita B Polyakov, Daniil A Grumov, Daria A Egorova, Andrey Y Kulibin, Maxim A Bobrov, Ekaterina A Malolina, Pavel A Zykin, Andrey I Soloviev, Evgeniy Riabenko, Diana V Maltseva, Dmitry A Sakharov, Alexander G Tonevitsky, Lyudmila V Verkhovskaya, Denis Y Logunov, Boris S Naroditsky, Alexander L Gintsburg
Sterile (noninfected) inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of many widespread diseases, such as allergies and autoimmune diseases. The evolutionarily conserved innate immune system is considered to play a key role in tissue injury recognition and the subsequent development of sterile inflammation; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Here, we show that cholesterol sulfate, a molecule present in relatively high concentrations in the epithelial layer of barrier tissues, is selectively recognized by Mincle (Clec4e), a C-type lectin receptor of the innate immune system that is strongly up-regulated in response to skin damage...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289572/human-listeriosis-presenting-as-breast-abscess-report-of-a-rare-case
#12
Venkataramana Kandi
An abscess is defined as a collection of pus in various tissues of the body including skin and other organs. Abscesses most commonly are formed on the skin under the armpits, groin areas, and rectal areas. Most abscesses involve microbial infections with few remaining sterile. The treatment of abscesses includes both medical and surgical intervention. In the era of multidrug resistance, isolation and identification of the causative microbe and testing for antimicrobial susceptible patterns assume greater significance for the better management of patients, thereby reducing the resultant morbidity and mortality...
February 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283009/-production-and-molecular-characterization-of-plasmodium-falciparum-recombinant-circumsporozoite-protein-with-37-nanp-and-4-nvdp-epitopes
#13
Yunus Uyar, Abdüssamed Akşit, Serkan Karaca, Şirin Sahra Ceylan, Merve Yürük
Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, the leading cause of death amongst the parasitic diseases. The disease is transmitted to human by the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) data, there were an estimated 214 million malaria cases and estimated 438.000 deaths occurred worldwide, in 2015. It is observed that 90% of all the deaths due to malaria occur in Africa. 78% of these cases were children who are under five years old. Intensive malaria interventions helped to reduce malaria incidence by 37% between 2000 and 2015...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283008/-galleria-mellonella-larva-model-in-evaluating-the-effects-of-biofilm-in-candida-albicans
#14
Meral Karaman, Ali Alvandian, I Hakkı Bahar
Biofilm-related infections are chronic infections that cause serious increase in morbidity and mortality as well as significant economic loss. Galleria mellonella larva is shown as a reliable animal model for in vivo toxicology and pathogenicity tests due to its large size, ease of practice, ability to survive at 15-37°C and its similarity to mammals' natural immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects biofilm activity of Candida albicans in a G.mellonella larva model. Two C.albicans strains isolated as a disease agent were used for the model, where one was positive (BP), and the other one was negative (BN) for biofilm production...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268062/regulating-damage-from-sterile-inflammation-a-tale-of-two-tolerances
#15
Shin-Rong Wu, Pavan Reddy
The severity of immunopathology from non-infectious inflammation is mainly understood and is managed by targeting immune cells. However, the role of target tissues in determining damage severity has been largely overlooked. Here, we discuss the concept of 'tissue tolerance' for tissue-intrinsic programs that ameliorate organ damage in the setting of sterile immunopathology.
March 3, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267881/distinctive-role-of-efferocytosis-in-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-migration-in-sterile-or-infectious-conditions
#16
Letícia de Aquino Penteado, Naiara Naiana Dejani, Felipe Fortino Verdan, Allan Botinhon Orlando, Victoria Ninõ, Fernanda De Nuzzi Dias, Ana Carolina Guerta Salina, Alexandra Ivo Medeiros
Efferocytosis, or clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs), by dendritic cells (DCs) leads to immune response suppression and tolerance to self-antigens. However, efferocytosis of infected cells (IACs) leads to the production of a mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu. We examined the DC phenotype and ability to migrate after phagocytosis of ACs or IACs and observed higher levels of CD86 and CCR7 expression in DCs, as well as enhanced migration capacity following efferocytosis of infected cells. Interestingly, higher levels of IL-1β, IL-10 and PGE2 were also produced in this context...
March 7, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256492/evaluation-of-candida-albicans-biofilm-formation-on-various-dental-restorative-material-surfaces
#17
N Beldüz, A Kamburoğlu, Y Yılmaz, I Tosun, M Beldüz, C Kara
AIMS: Candida adhesion to any oral substrata is the first and essential stage in forming a pathogenic fungal biofilm. In general, yeast cells have remarkable potential to adhere to host surfaces, such as teeth or mucosa, and to artificial, nonbiological surfaces, such as restorative dental materials. This study compared the susceptibility of six dental restorative materials to Candida albicans adhesion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cylindrical samples of each material were made according to the manufacturersa instructions...
March 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250052/a-novel-mode-of-induction-of-the-humoral-innate-immune-response-in-drosophila-larvae
#18
Hiroyuki Kenmoku, Aki Hori, Takayuki Kuraishi, Shoichiro Kurata
Drosophila adults have been utilized as a genetically tractable model organism to decipher the molecular mechanisms of humoral innate immune responses. In an effort to promote the utility of Drosophila larvae as an additional model system, in this study, we describe a novel aspect of an induction mechanism for innate immunity in these larvae. By using a fine tungsten needle created for manipulating semi-conductor devices, larvae were subjected to septic injury. However, although Toll pathway mutants were susceptible to infection with Gram-positive bacteria as had been shown for Drosophila adults, microbe clearance was not affected in the mutants...
March 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245991/trem-1-and-its-potential-ligands-in-non-infectious-diseases-from-biology-to-clinical-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Alessandra Tammaro, Marc Derive, Sebastien Gibot, Jaklien C Leemans, Sandrine Florquin, Mark C Dessing
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is expressed on the majority of innate immune cells and to a lesser extent on parenchymal cells. Upon activation, TREM-1 can directly amplify an inflammatory response. Although it was initially demonstrated that TREM-1 was predominantly associated with infectious diseases, recent evidences shed new light into its role in sterile inflammatory diseases. Indeed, TREM-1 receptor and its signaling pathways contribute to the pathology of several non-infectious acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, ischemia reperfusion-induced tissue injury, colitis, fibrosis and cancer...
February 27, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236224/papa-pash-and-papash-syndromes-pathophysiology-presentation-and-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Massimo Cugno, Alessandro Borghi, Angelo V Marzano
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a neutrophilic dermatosis usually manifesting as skin ulcers with undermined erythematous-violaceous borders. It may be isolated, associated with systemic conditions or occurring in the context of autoinflammatory syndromes such as PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, PG and acne), PASH (PG, acne and suppurative hidradenitis) or PAPASH (pyogenic arthritis, acne, PG and suppurative hidradenitis). From a physiopathological point of view, all these conditions share common mechanisms consisting of over-activation of the innate immune system leading to increased production of the interleukin (IL)-1 family and 'sterile' neutrophil-rich cutaneous inflammation...
February 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
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