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Sterile immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157967/the-role-of-interferon-in-persistent-viral-infection-insights-from-murine-norovirus
#1
REVIEW
Timothy J Nice, Bridget A Robinson, Jacob A Van Winkle
Persistent viral infections result from evasion or avoidance of sterilizing immunity, extend the timeframe of virus transmission, and can trigger disease. Prior studies in mouse models of persistent infection have suggested that ineffective adaptive immune responses are necessary for persistent viral infection. However, recent work in the murine norovirus (MNV) model of persistent infection demonstrates that innate immunity can control both early and persistent viral replication independently of adaptive immune effector functions...
November 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155150/enhancement-of-cutaneous-immunity-during-ageing-by-blocking-p38-mapkinase-induced-inflammation
#2
Milica Vukmanovic-Stejic, Emma S Chambers, Mayte Suarez- Farinas, Daisy Sandhu, Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Neil Patel, Elaine Agius, Katie E Lacy, Carolin T Turner, Anis Larbi, Veronique Birault, Mahdad Noursadeghi, Neil A Mabbott, Malcolm H A Rustin, James Krueger, Arne N Akbar
BACKGROUND: Immunity declines with age that leads to re-activation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). In humans, age associated immune changes are usually measured in blood leukocytes however this may not reflect alterations in tissue-specific immunity. OBJECTIVES: We used a VZV antigen challenge system in the skin to investigate changes in tissue specific mechanisms involved in the decreased response to this virus during ageing. METHODS: We assessed cutaneous immunity by the extent of erythema and induration after intradermal VZV antigen injection...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154174/immunoresolvents-signaling-molecules-at-intersection-between-the-brain-and-immune-system
#3
REVIEW
Jesmond Dalli, Charles N Serhan
Understanding mechanisms that control immunity is central in the quest to gain insights into the etiopathology of many of the diseases that afflict modern societies. New results implicate the nervous system as a central player in controlling many aspects of both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. Furthermore it is now well appreciated that a novel group of autacoids termed as specialized proresolving mediators, which are enzymatically produced from essential fatty acids, orchestrate the immune response promoting the termination of inflammation as well as tissue repair and regeneration...
November 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150600/mapping-tenascin-c-interaction-with-toll-like-receptor-4-reveals-a-new-subset-of-endogenous-inflammatory-triggers
#4
Lorena Zuliani-Alvarez, Anna M Marzeda, Claire Deligne, Anja Schwenzer, Fiona E McCann, Brian D Marsden, Anna M Piccinini, Kim S Midwood
Pattern recognition underpins innate immunity; the accurate identification of danger, including infection, injury, or tumor, is key to an appropriately targeted immune response. Pathogen detection is increasingly well defined mechanistically, but the discrimination of endogenous inflammatory triggers remains unclear. Tenascin-C, a matrix protein induced upon tissue damage and expressed by tumors, activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated sterile inflammation. Here we map three sites within tenascin-C that directly and cooperatively interact with TLR4...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147967/association-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-with-arthritis-evidence-from-in-silico-gene-expression-patterns-and-network-topological-analysis
#5
Anukriti Verma, Pallavi Somvanshi, Shafiul Haque, Bhawna Rathi, Shivani Sharda
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic prolonged ailment accountable for inflammatory conditions of the intestine. Moreover, arthritis is responsible for joints' stiffness and painful inflammation. IBD shows certain articular extra-intestinal manifestations associating IBD with arthritis. IBD associated arthritis is found to be linked with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The present study insights for the potential and putative drug targets and biomarkers of IBD associated with arthritis using in silico approaches...
November 17, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146903/wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-regulates-autophagy-and-inflammasome-activity-in-innate-immune-cells
#6
Pamela P Lee, Damián Lobato-Márquez, Nayani Pramanik, Andrea Sirianni, Vanessa Daza-Cajigal, Elizabeth Rivers, Alessia Cavazza, Gerben Bouma, Dale Moulding, Kjell Hultenby, Lisa S Westerberg, Michael Hollinshead, Yu-Lung Lau, Siobhan O Burns, Serge Mostowy, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Adrian J Thrasher
Dysregulation of autophagy and inflammasome activity contributes to the development of auto-inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence highlights the importance of the actin cytoskeleton in modulating inflammatory responses. Here we show that deficiency of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), which signals to the actin cytoskeleton, modulates autophagy and inflammasome function. In a model of sterile inflammation utilizing TLR4 ligation followed by ATP or nigericin treatment, inflammasome activation is enhanced in monocytes from WAS patients and in WAS-knockout mouse dendritic cells...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130033/danger-of-frustrated-sensors-role-of-toll-like-receptors-and-nod-like-receptors-in-aseptic-and-septic-inflammations-around-total-hip-replacements
#7
Michiaki Takagi, Yuya Takakubo, Jukka Pajarinen, Yasushi Naganuma, Hiroharu Oki, Masahiro Maruyama, Stuart B Goodman
The innate immune sensors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), can recognize not only exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), but also endogenous molecules created upon tissue injury, sterile inflammation, and degeneration. Endogenous ligands are called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and include endogenous molecules released from activated and necrotic cells as well as damaged extracellular matrix. TLRs and NLRs can interact with various ligands derived from PAMPs and DAMPs, leading to activation and/or modulation of intracellular signalling pathways...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126966/host-plant-associated-enhancement-of-immunity-and-survival-in-virus-infected-caterpillars
#8
Angela M Smilanich, Tara C Langus, Lydia Doan, Lee A Dyer, Joshua G Harrison, Jennifer Hsueh, Mike B Teglas
Understanding the interaction between host plant chemistry, the immune response, and insect pathogens can shed light on host plant use by insect herbivores. In this study, we focused on how interactions between the insect immune response and plant secondary metabolites affect the response to a viral pathogen. Based upon prior research, we asked whether the buckeye caterpillar, Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae), which specializes on plants containing iridoid glycosides (IGs), is less able to resist the pathogenic effects of a densovirus infection when feeding on plants with high concentrations of IGs...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126031/nlrp3-inflammasome-pathways-in-atherosclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Marta Baldrighi, Ziad Mallat, Xuan Li
Atherosclerosis is the major cause of death and disability. Atherosclerotic plaques are characterized by a chronic sterile inflammation in the large blood vessels, where lipid-derived and damage-associated molecular patterns play important roles in inciting immune responses. Following the initial demonstration that NLR family Pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) was important for atherogenesis, a substantial number of studies have emerged addressing the basic mechanisms of inflammasome activation and their relevance to atherosclerosis...
October 22, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121034/the-impact-of-advanced-opioid-drugs-and-analgesic-adjuvants-on-murine-macrophage-oxygen-burst
#10
Michael Kozlowski, Katarzyna Nazimek, Magdalena Wąsik, Iwona Filipczak-Bryniarska, Krzysztof Bryniarski
Macrophages (Mf) are a versatile group of phagocytic cells responsible for fulfilling a variety of immune functions, most notably for mounting the initial anti-microbial response and for the clearance of cellular debris and apoptotic bodies. The key processes for fulfilling these functions include the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and nitric oxide (NO). Mf also express a variety of receptors, including opioid, serotonin, and norepinephrine receptors, and thus can react to various substances...
2017: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118747/emerging-targets-for-developing-t-cell-mediated-vaccines-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1
#11
REVIEW
Danushka K Wijesundara, Charani Ranasinghe, Branka Grubor-Bauk, Eric J Gowans
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has infected >75 million individuals globally, and, according to the UN, is responsible for ~2.1 million new infections and 1.1 million deaths each year. Currently, there are ~37 million individuals with HIV infection and the epidemic has already resulted in 35 million deaths. Despite the advances of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), a cost-effective vaccine remains the best long-term solution to end the HIV-1 epidemic especially given that the vast majority of infected individuals live in poor socio-economic regions of the world such as Sub-Saharan Africa which limits their accessibility to ART...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118376/novel-plasmodium-antigens-identified-via-genome-based-antibody-screen-induce-protection-associated-with-polyfunctional-t-cell-responses
#12
Sophie Schussek, Angela Trieu, Simon H Apte, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Denise L Doolan
The development of vaccines against complex intracellular pathogens, such as Plasmodium spp., where protection is likely mediated by cellular immune responses, has proven elusive. The availability of whole genome, proteome and transcriptome data has the potential to advance rational vaccine development but yet there are no licensed vaccines against malaria based on antigens identified from genomic data. Here, we show that the Plasmodium yoelii orthologs of four Plasmodium falciparum proteins identified by an antibody-based genome-wide screening strategy induce a high degree of sterile infection-blocking protection against sporozoite challenge in a stringent rodent malaria model...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109172/development-of-subunit-vaccines-that-provide-high-level-protection-and-sterilizing-immunity-against-acute-inhalational-melioidosis
#13
Mary N Burtnick, Teresa L Shaffer, Brittany N Ross, Laura A Muruato, Elena Sbrana, David DeShazer, Alfredo G Torres, Paul J Brett
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, causes severe disease in humans and animals. Diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis can be challenging and no licensed vaccines currently exist. Several studies have shown that this pathogen expresses a variety of structurally conserved protective antigens that include cell-surface polysaccharides and cell-associated/-secreted proteins. Based on this, such antigens have become important components of the subunit vaccine candidates that we are currently developing...
November 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108998/unexpected-role-of-the-imd-pathway-in-drosophila-gut-defense-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Aki Hori, Shoichiro Kurata, Takayuki Kuraishi
In this study, fruit fly of the genus Drosophila is utilized as a suitable model animal to investigate the molecular mechanisms of innate immunity. To combat orally transmitted pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the Drosophila gut is armed with the peritrophic matrix, which is a physical barrier composed of chitin and glycoproteins: the Duox system that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn sterilize infected microbes, and the IMD pathway that regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which in turn control ROS-resistant pathogens...
November 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106304/role-of-mait-cells-in-the-immunopathogenesis-of-inflammatory-diseases-new-players-in-old-game
#15
Vijay Kumar, Ali Ahmad
Current advances in immunology have led to the identification of a population of novel innate immune T cells, called mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. The cells in humans express an invariant TCRα chain (Vα7.2-Jα33) paired with a limited subset of TCRβ chains (Vβ2, 13 and 22), are restricted by the MHC class I (MH1)-related (MR)-1, and recognize molecules that are produced in the bacterial riboflavin (vitamin B2) biosynthetic pathway. They are present in the circulation, liver and at various mucosal sites (i...
November 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097999/clostridium-butyricum-cgmcc0313-1-protects-against-autoimmune-diabetes-by-modulating-intestinal-immune-homeostasis-and-inducing-pancreatic-regulatory-t-cells
#16
Lingling Jia, Kai Shan, Li-Long Pan, Ninghan Feng, Zhuwu Lv, Yajun Sun, Jiahong Li, Chengfei Wu, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Julien Diana, Jia Sun, Yong Q Chen
Recent evidence indicates that indigenous Clostridium species induce colonic regulatory T cells (Tregs), and gut lymphocytes are able to migrate to pancreatic islets in an inflammatory environment. Thus, we speculate that supplementation with the well-characterized probiotics Clostridium butyricum CGMCC0313.1 (CB0313.1) may induce pancreatic Tregs and consequently inhibit the diabetes incidence in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. CB0313.1 was administered daily to female NOD mice from 3 to 45 weeks of age. The control group received an equal volume of sterile water...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095954/pyrazinamide-clearance-is-impaired-among-hiv-tuberculosis-patients-with-high-levels-of-systemic-immune-activation
#17
Christopher Vinnard, Shruthi Ravimohan, Neo Tamuhla, Jotam Pasipanodya, Shashikant Srivastava, Chawangwa Modongo, Nicola M Zetola, Drew Weissman, Tawanda Gumbo, Gregory P Bisson
Pyrazinamide is the main driver of sterilizing effect in the standard regimen in adults and older children, and this effect is concentration-dependent. Tuberculosis patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk for poor tuberculosis treatment outcomes and adverse drug events. We sought to determine whether measures of systemic immune activation were related to pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics among HIV/tuberculosis patients. We conducted a prospective cohort study of pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics in HIV/tuberculosis patients in Gaborone, Botswana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079696/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-are-required-for-the-induction-of-sterile-immunity-during-irradiated-sporozoite-vaccinations
#18
Irfan Zaidi, Hama Diallo, Solomon Conteh, Yvette Robbins, Jacqueline Kolasny, Sachy Orr-Gonzalez, Dariyen Carter, Brandi Butler, Lynn Lambert, Elizabeth Brickley, Robert Morrison, Mahamadou Sissoko, Sara A Healy, B Kim Lee Sim, Ogobara K Doumbo, Stephen L Hoffman, Patrick E Duffy
Whole-sporozoite vaccines confer sterilizing immunity to malaria-naive individuals by unknown mechanisms. In the first PfSPZ Vaccine trial ever in a malaria-endemic population, Vδ2 γδ T cells were significantly elevated and Vγ9/Vδ2 transcripts ranked as the most upregulated in vaccinees who were protected from Plasmodium falciparum infection. In a mouse model, absence of γδ T cells during vaccination impaired protective CD8 T cell responses and ablated sterile protection. γδ T cells were not required for circumsporozoite protein-specific Ab responses, and γδ T cell depletion before infectious challenge did not ablate protection...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078319/ptip-chromatin-regulator-controls-development-and-activation-of-b-cell-subsets-to-license-humoral-immunity-in-mice
#19
Dan Su, Stijn Vanhee, Rebeca Soria, Elin Jaensson Gyllenbäck, Linda M Starnes, Martina Kubec Højfeldt, Gabriel K Pedersen, Joan Yuan, Jeremy A Daniel
B cell receptor signaling and downstream NF-κB activity are crucial for the maturation and functionality of all major B cell subsets, yet the molecular players in these signaling events are not fully understood. Here we use several genetically modified mouse models to demonstrate that expression of the multifunctional BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domain-containing PTIP (Pax transactivation domain-interacting protein) chromatin regulator is controlled by B cell activation and potentiates steady-state and postimmune antibody production in vivo...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067554/extracellular-hsp70-induces-inflammation-and-modulates-lps-lta-stimulated-inflammatory-response-in-thp-1-cells
#20
Andrea Hulina, Marija Grdić Rajković, Daniela Jakšić Despot, Dubravko Jelić, Ana Dojder, Ivana Čepelak, Lada Rumora
Extracellular Hsp70 (eHsp70) can act as damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) via Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4, and stimulate immune and inflammatory responses leading to sterile inflammation and propagation of already existing inflammation. It was found elevated in the blood of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), who might suffer occasional bacterial colonizations and infections. We used a monocytic THP-1 cell line as a cellular model of systemic compartment of COPD to assess inflammatory effects of eHsp70 when present alone or together with bacterial products lypopolysaccharide (LPS) and lypoteichoic acid (LTA)...
October 24, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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