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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732688/molecular-pathophysiology-of-gout
#1
REVIEW
Jyaysi Desai, Stefanie Steiger, Hans-Joachim Anders
Three contradictory clinical presentations of gout have puzzled clinicians and basic scientists for some time: first, the crescendo of sterile inflammation in acute gouty arthritis; second, its spontaneous resolution, despite monosodium urate (MSU) crystal persistence in the synovium; and third, immune anergy to MSU crystal masses observed in tophaceous or visceral gout. Here, we provide an update on the molecular pathophysiology of these gout manifestations, namely, how MSU crystals can trigger the auto-amplification loop of necroinflammation underlying the crescendo of acute gouty arthritis...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730545/platelet-first-responders-in-wound-response-cancer-and-metastasis
#2
REVIEW
David G Menter, Scott Kopetz, Ernest Hawk, Anil K Sood, Jonathan M Loree, Paolo Gresele, Kenneth V Honn
Platelets serve as "first responders" during normal wounding and homeostasis. Arising from bone marrow stem cell lineage megakaryocytes, anucleate platelets can influence inflammation and immune regulation. Biophysically, platelets are optimized due to size and discoid morphology to distribute near vessel walls, monitor vascular integrity, and initiate quick responses to vascular lesions. Adhesion receptors linked to a highly reactive filopodia-generating cytoskeleton maximizes their vascular surface contact allowing rapid response capabilities...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728967/impact-of-the-microbiota-on-bacterial-infections-during-cancer-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Jessica Galloway-Peña, Chelcy Brumlow, Samuel Shelburne
Patients being treated for cancer are at high risk for infectious complications, generally due to colonizing organisms that gain access to sterile sites via disrupted epithelial barriers. There is an emerging understanding that the ability of bacterial pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms, to colonize and subsequently infect humans is largely dependent on protective bacterial species present in the microbiome. Thus, herein we review recent studies demonstrating strong correlations between the microbiome of the oncology patient and infections occurring during chemotherapy...
July 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715646/l-form-bacteria-cohabitants-in-human-blood-significance-for-health-and-diseases
#4
Nadya D Markova
From a historical perspective, intriguing assumptions about unknown "live units" in human blood have attracted the attention of researchers, reflecting their desire to define a new class of microorganisms. Thus, the concept of "blood microbiota" brings about many questions about the nature, origin, and biological significance of the "unusual microbial cohabitants" in human blood. In contrast to current views that bloodstream in healthy humans is sterile, the hypothesis about the existence of microbes as L-forms (cell wall deficient bacteria) in human blood has evolved on the basis of known facts about their unique biology, as observed in our studies and those of other authors...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715352/commensal-bacterial-modulation-of-the-host-immune-response-to-ameliorate-pain-in-a-murine-model-of-chronic-prostatitis
#5
Stephen F Murphy, Anthony J Schaeffer, Joseph D Done, Marsha L Quick, Utkucan Acar, Praveen Thumbikat
The human commensal microflora plays an essential role in modulating the immune response to control homeostasis. Staphylococcus epidermidis, a commensal bacterium most commonly associated with the skin exerts such effects locally, modulating local immune responses during inflammation and preventing superinfection by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Although the prostate is considered by many to be sterile, multiple investigations have shown that small numbers of gram-positive bacterial species such as S...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713372/nanoparticle-formulated-curcumin-prevents-posttherapeutic-disease-reactivation-and-reinfection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-following-isoniazid-therapy
#6
Sultan Tousif, Dhiraj Kumar Singh, Sitabja Mukherjee, Shaheer Ahmad, Rakesh Arya, Ranjan Nanda, Anand Ranganathan, Maitree Bhattacharyya, Luc Van Kaer, Santosh K Kar, Gobardhan Das
Curcumin, the bioactive component of turmeric also known as "Indian Yellow Gold," exhibits therapeutic efficacy against several chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases. Even though considered as a wonder drug pertaining to a myriad of reported benefits, the translational potential of curcumin is limited by its low systemic bioavailability due to its poor intestinal absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. Therefore, the translational potential of this compound is specifically challenged by bioavailability issues, and several laboratories are making efforts to improve its bioavailability...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711483/a-multistage-subunit-vaccine-effectively-protects-mice-against-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-latency-and-reactivation
#7
Jilei Ma, Xindong Teng, Xiaochun Wang, Xionglin Fan, Yaqi Wu, Maopeng Tian, Zijie Zhou, Longmeng Li
Adult tuberculosis (TB) is the main cause of TB epidemic and death. The infection results mainly by endogenous reactivation of latent TB infection and secondarily transmitted by exogenous infection. There is no vaccine for adult TB. To this end, we first chose antigens from a potential antigenic reservoir. The antigens strongly recognized T cells from latent and active TB infections that responded to antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultured under different metabolic states. Fusions of single-stage polyprotein CTT3H, two-stage polyprotein A1D4, and multistage CMFO were constructed...
July 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711137/genomics-biology-and%C3%A2-human-illness-advances-in-the-monogenic-autoinflammatory-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Hirotsugu Oda, Daniel L Kastner
The monogenic autoinflammatory diseases are a group of illnesses with prominent rheumatic manifestations that are characterized by genetically determined recurrent sterile inflammation and are thus inborn errors of innate immunity. Molecular targeted therapies against inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor, and intracellular cytokine signaling pathways have proved effective in many cases. Emerging next-generation sequencing technologies have accelerated the identification of previously unreported genes causing autoinflammatory diseases...
August 2017: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704385/immunoprotective-properties-of-recombinant-liga-and-ligb-in-a-hamster-model-of-acute-leptospirosis
#9
Karen V Evangelista, Kristel Lourdault, James Matsunaga, David A Haake
Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis and is considered a major public health problem worldwide. Currently, there is no widely available vaccine against leptospirosis for use in humans. A purified, recombinant subunit vaccine that includes the last six immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domains of the leptospiral protein LigA (LigA7'-13) protects against lethal infection but not renal colonization after challenge by Leptospira interrogans. In this study, we examined whether the addition of the first seven Ig-like domains of LigB (LigB0-7) to LigA7'-13, can enhance immune protection and confer sterilizing immunity in the Golden Syrian hamster model of acute leptospirosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694752/ischemic-preconditioning-modulates-ros-to-confer-protection-in-liver-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#10
REVIEW
Phillip Bystrom, Nicole Foley, Luis Toledo-Pereyra, Kelly Quesnelle
Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in liver transplantation. When oxygen is reintroduced to the liver graft it initiates a cascade of molecular reactions leading to the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These soluble mediators propagate a sterile immune response to cause significant tissue damage. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one method that reduces hepatocellular injury by altering the immune response and inhibiting the production of ROS...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691873/immune-inflammatory-activation-after-a-single-laparotomy-in-a-rat-model-effect-of-adenosine-lidocaine-and-mg-2-infusion-to-dampen-the-stress-response
#11
Lisa Davenport, Hayley L Letson, Geoffrey P Dobson
Our aim was to examine the effect of low-volume 0.9% NaCl adenosine, lidocaine and Mg(2+) (ALM) 'drip' on early immune-inflammatory activation after a single laparotomy with no further manipulation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and randomly assigned to one of the groups, baseline, 1 h infusion 0.9% NaCl ± ALM and metrics, 1 h infusion and 6-h metrics, and 6 h continuous infusion and metrics. Complete blood count, acid-base balance, systemic levels of IL-6 and IL-10, and coagulation status were measured...
July 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689234/evolutionary-insights-into-the-fusion-protein-of-newcastle-disease-virus-isolated-from-vaccinated-chickens-in-2016-in-egypt
#12
Ahmed Orabi, Ashraf Hussein, Ayman A Saleh, Mohammed Abu El-Magd, Muhammad Munir
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infections are one of the most devastating causes of economic losses in the poultry industry and despite extensive vaccination, outbreaks are being reported around the globe especially from developing and tropical countries. Analysis of NDV field strains from vaccinated flocks would highlight essential areas of consideration not only to design effective immunization strategies but also to devise vaccines that provide sterile immunity. For this purpose, 91 NDV suspected outbreaks were investigated and screened for NDV genetic material...
July 8, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683495/osteoimmunology-influence-of-the-immune-system-on-bone-regeneration-and-consumption
#13
Andreas Limmer, Dieter C Wirtz
Background Stimulating bone regeneration is a central aim in orthopaedic and trauma surgery. Although the replacement of bone with artificial materials like cement or apatite helps to keep up bone stability, new bone often cannot be regenerated. Increasing research efforts have led to the clinical application of growth factors stimulating bone growth (e.g. bone morphogenic protein, BMP) and inhibitors preventing bone consumption (e.g. RANKL blocking antibodies). These factors mostly concentrate on stimulating osteoblast or preventing osteoclast activity...
June 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680858/biofilm-induced-type-2-innate-immunity-in-a-cystic-fibrosis-model-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Kenny Bielen, Bart 's Jongers, Jan Boddaert, Tom K Raju, Christine Lammens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Philippe G Jorens, Herman Goossens, Samir Kumar-Singh
Biofilm-producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In these patients, increased levels of IL-17 as well as of IL-5 and IL-13 along with arginase (Arg)-positive macrophages have been observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. While IL-17 is a strong proinflammatory cytokine associated with host defense against bacterial and fungal infections and is also elevated in several autoimmune diseases, IL-5/IL-13 and Arg1-positive M2 macrophages are part of the anti-inflammatory type 2 (Th2) immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677264/influence-of-procyanidin-supplementation-on-the-immune-responses-of-broilers-challenged-with-lipopolysaccharide
#15
Qiu Jue Wu, Yu Qin Wang, Yan Xia Qi
In the present study, the effect of dietary procyanidin (PCA, from pine needles) supplementation on the innate immunity of broilers were investigated. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (eight cages / treatment; six birds (one-day-old) / cage) with dietary PCA concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1%) and two immune treatments (injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5 mg/kg body weight) or saline). LPS was dissolved in sterile 9 g/L (w/v) NaCl solution at 16, 18, 20 days of age to mimic immune stress...
July 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671588/implications-of-neuroinvasive-bacterial-peptides-on-rodents-behaviour-and-neurotransmission
#16
Aneela Taj, Nusrat Jamil
Neuroinvasive microbes are capable of applying their influences on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the host followed by the involvement of central nervous system (CNS) by releasing extracellular metabolites that may cause alterations in the biochemical and neurophysiological environment. Consequently synaptic, neuroendocrine, peripheral immune, neuro-immune, and behavioural responses of the host facilitate the progression of infection. The present study was designed to extrapolate the effects of crude and purified extracellular peptides of neuropathogenic bacteria on behavioural responses and neurotransmission of Sprague Dawley (SD) models...
July 2, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670626/the-impact-of-sterile-inflammation-in-acute-liver-injury
#17
Benjamin L Woolbright, Hartmut Jaeschke
BACKGROUND: The liver has a number of functions in innate immunity. These functions predispose the liver to innate immune-mediated liver injury when inflammation goes unchecked. Significant progress has been made in the last 25 years on sterile inflammatory liver injury in a number of models; however, a great deal of controversy and many questions about the nature of sterile inflammation still exist. AIM: The goal of this article is to review sterile inflammatory liver injury using both a basic approach to what constitutes the inflammatory injury, and through examination of current models of liver injury and inflammation...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668565/m2sr-a-novel-live-influenza-vaccine-protects-mice-and-ferrets-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza
#18
Yasuko Hatta, David Boltz, Sally Sarawar, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Gabriele Neumann, Pamuk Bilsel
The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses has heightened global concern about the threat posed by pandemic influenza. To address the need for a highly effective universal influenza vaccine, we developed a novel M2-deficient single replication (M2SR) influenza vaccine virus and previously reported that it provided strong heterosubtypic protection against seasonal influenza viruses in mice. In the current study, we assessed M2SR induced protection against H5N1 influenza in mice and ferrets...
June 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667561/lymphocytes-at-the-heart-of-wound-healing
#19
Vânia Nunes-Silva, Stefan Frantz, Gustavo Campos Ramos
The adult mammalian heart displays negligible regenerative capacity. Therefore, myocardial infarction (MI) often results in an irreversible loss of contractile tissue, leading to a collagenous scar formation, progressive remodelling and heart failure (HF). Over the past few years, emerging evidences indicate that a myocardial ischemic injury mobilizes not only sterile unspecific inflammation but also lymphocyte-mediated immune responses to cardiac auto-antigens. In the current chapter, we depict the infarcted heart as a "wounded" tissue and focus on the dynamic events leading to myocardial repair, with special emphasis on the role played by lymphocytes in this process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667492/inflammation-cause-or-consequence-of-heart-failure-or-both
#20
REVIEW
Sophie Van Linthout, Carsten Tschöpe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the intention to summarize the currently available evidence on the pathophysiological relevance of inflammation in heart failure, this review addresses the question whether inflammation is a cause or consequence of heart failure, or both. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses the diversity (sterile, para-inflammation, chronic inflammation) and sources of inflammation and gives an overview of how inflammation (local versus systemic) can trigger heart failure...
June 30, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
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