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Sterile immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768397/lipopolysaccharide-exposure-alleviates-asthma-in-mice-by-regulating-th1-th2-and-treg-th17-balance
#1
Fengxia Ding, Zhou Fu, Bo Liu
BACKGROUND It is generally believed that endotoxin exposure exacerbates risk of developing asthmatic symptoms. However, recent studies have indicated that prior bacterial exposure may prevent future symptoms of asthma. Here, we evaluated the influence of pre-exposure to different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to subsequent ovalbumin (OVA) allergen sensitization and challenge. MATERIAL AND METHODS Four-week-old Balb/c mice were treated intranasally with varying concentrations of LPS (1 ug, 10 ug, and 100 ug) or sterile PBS for 10 days, then 2 weeks later they were exposed to OVA...
May 16, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765997/effects-of-oral-probiotic-feeding-on-toll-like-receptor-gene-expression-of-the-chicken-s-cecal-tonsil
#2
Fatemeh Asgari, Reza Falak, Shahram Teimourian, Babak Pourakbari, Salimeh Ebrahimnezhad, Mehdi Shekarabi
Background: It was proposed that probiotics may influence immune system through direct or indirect exposure. Direct exposure is mostly mediated by surface receptors. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are conserved molecular sensors which could be triggered via some pathogen associated structures, hence, modulate the immune responses. This study was conducted to elucidate the impact of lactobacillus acidophilus as a common probiotic on the expression level of TLRs in the chicken's cecal tonsil...
April 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760707/the-yin-and-yang-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibition-during-experimental-polymicrobial-sepsis
#3
Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Ina Rohwedder, Adriana Ribeiro Silva, Alessandra Silveira Ferreira, Angela R M Kurz, Céline Cougoule, Sarah Klapproth, Tanja Eggersmann, Johnatas D Silva, Gisele Pena de Oliveira, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Gabriel Gutfilen Schlesinger, Edlaine Rijo Costa, Rita de Cassia Elias Estrela Marins, Attila Mócsai, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini, Barbara Walzog, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco, Markus Sperandio, Hugo Caire de Castro-Faria-Neto
Neutrophils are the first cells of our immune system to arrive at the site of inflammation. They release cytokines, e.g., chemokines, to attract further immune cells, but also actively start to phagocytose and kill pathogens. In the case of sepsis, this tightly regulated host defense mechanism can become uncontrolled and hyperactive resulting in severe organ damage. Currently, no effective therapy is available to fight sepsis; therefore, novel treatment targets that could prevent excessive inflammatory responses are warranted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759918/potential-immunotherapies-for-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury
#4
REVIEW
Raj Putatunda, John R Bethea, Wen-Hui Hu
Traumatic injury of the central nervous system (CNS) including brain and spinal cord remains a leading cause of morbidity and disability in the world. Delineating the mechanisms underlying the secondary and persistent injury versus the primary and transient injury has been drawing extensive attention for study during the past few decades. The sterile neuroinflammation during the secondary phase of injury has been frequently identified substrate underlying CNS injury, but as of now, no conclusive studies have determined whether this is a beneficial or detrimental role in the context of repair...
April 18, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759378/recombinant-m-bovis-bcg-expressing-the-pld-protein-promotes-survival-in-mice-challenged-with-a-c-pseudotuberculosis-virulent-strain
#5
Karen Silva Leal, Mara Thais de Oliveira Silva, Andréa de Fátima Silva Rezende, Francisco Silvestre Brilhante Bezerra, Karine Begnini, Fabiana Seixas, Tiago Collares, Odir Dellagostin, Ricardo Wagner Portela, Vasco Ariston de Carvalho Azevedo, Sibele Borsuk
The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of mice inoculated with M. bovis BCG Pasteur recombinant expressing the PLD protein and challenged with a C. pseudotuberculosis virulent strain. Four groups were immunized with a sterile 0.9% saline solution (G1), 106  CFU of M. bovis BCG Pasteur (G2), 106  CFU of M. bovis BCG/pld (G3) or 106  CFU of M. bovis BCG/pld with a booster with rPLD (G4) and challenged with 104 CFU of C. pseudotuberculosis MIC-6 strain. The highest survival rate of 88% was observed in G4, followed by 77% in G3 and 66% in G2...
May 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753769/fish-samhd1-performs-as-an-activator-for-ifn-expression
#6
Meifeng Li, Xiaowen Xu, Zeyin Jiang, Changxin Liu, Xiao Shi, Guoqin Qi, Yinping Li, Xin Chen, Qingli Huang, Huiling Mao, Chengyu Hu
As a host limiting factor, Sterile Alpha Motif and Histidine-Aspartate Domain 1 protein (SAMHD1) is associated with IRF3-mediated antiviral and apoptotic responses in mammals. However, the antiviral mechanism of SAMHD1 remains indistinct in fish. In this study, we found the expression of Ctenopharyngodon idella SAMHD1 (MF326081) was up-regulated after transfection with poly I:C (dsRNA analog), B-DNA or Z-DNA into C. idella kidney cells (CIKs), but these expression profiles had no obvious change when the cells were incubated with these nucleic acids...
May 10, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751213/from-human-antibody-structure-and-function-towards-the-design-of-a-novel-plasmodium-falciparum-circumsporozoite-protein-malaria-vaccine
#7
REVIEW
Hedda Wardemann, Rajagopal Murugan
Malaria is a life-threatening vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that infect millions of people in endemic areas every year. The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S targets the immune response against circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum (PfCSP), the most deadly Plasmodium species in humans. PfCSP plays a fundamental role in parasite development as well as the establishment of the infection and is a molecular target of protective antibodies. However, RTS,S shows overall low efficacy and insufficient long-term protection...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748549/genotype-i-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-virus-like-particles-elicit-sterilizing-immunity-against-genotype-i-and-iii-viral-challenge-in-swine
#8
Yi-Chin Fan, Jo-Mei Chen, Jen-Wei Lin, Yi-Ying Chen, Guan-Hong Wu, Kuan-Hsuan Su, Ming-Tang Chiou, Shang-Rung Wu, Ji-Hang Yin, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Gwong-Jen J Chang, Shyan-Song Chiou
Swine are a critical amplifying host involved in human Japanese encephalitis (JE) outbreaks. Cross-genotypic immunogenicity and sterile protection are important for the current genotype III (GIII) virus-derived vaccines in swine, especially now that emerging genotype I (GI) JE virus (JEV) has replaced GIII virus as the dominant strain. Herein, we aimed to develop a system to generate GI JEV virus-like particles (VLPs) and evaluate the immunogenicity and protection of the GI vaccine candidate in mice and specific pathogen-free swine...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743981/induction-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-heme-in-human-endothelial-cells
#9
Judit Erdei, Andrea Tóth, Enikő Balogh, Benard Bogonko Nyakundi, Emese Bányai, Bernhard Ryffel, György Paragh, Mario D Cordero, Viktória Jeney
Hemolytic or hemorrhagic episodes are often associated with inflammation even when infectious agents are absent suggesting that red blood cells (RBCs) release damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DAMPs activate immune and nonimmune cells through pattern recognition receptors. Heme, released from RBCs, is a DAMP and induces IL-1 β production through the activation of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing family and pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) in macrophages; however, other cellular targets of heme-mediated inflammasome activation were not investigated...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743371/roles-of-fc-domain-and-exudation-in-l2-antibody-mediated-protection-against-human-papillomavirus
#10
Joshua W Wang, Wai Hong Wu, Tsui-Chin Huang, Margaret Wong, Kihyuck Kwak, Keiko Ozato, Chien-Fu Hung, Richard B S Roden
To address how L2-specific antibodies prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the genital tract we generated neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) WW1, a rat IgG2a that binds L2 residues 17-36 (like mouse MAb RG1), and JWW3, a mouse IgG1 derivative of Mab24 specific to L2 residues 58-64. By Western blot, WW1 recognized L2 of 29/34 HPV genotypes tested, compared to only 13/34 for RG1, and 25/34 for JWW3. WW1 IgG and (Fab')2 bound HPV16 pseudovirions similarly, however whole IgG provided better protection against HPV vaginal challenge...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735521/the-complement-system-contributes-to-functional-antibody-mediated-responses-induced-by-immunization-with-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-sporozoites
#11
Marije C Behet, Liriye Kurtovic, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Celine M Haukes, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Wouter Graumans, Marga G van de Vegte-Bolmer, Anja Scholzen, Jeroen D Langereis, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, James G Beeson, Robert W Sauerwein
Long-lasting and sterile homologous protection against malaria can be achieved by exposure of malaria-naive volunteers under chemoprophylaxis to Plasmodium falciparum -infected mosquitoes (CPS-immunization). While CPS-induced antibodies neutralize sporozoite infectivity in vitro and in vivo , antibody-mediated effector mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, it was investigated whether complement contributes to CPS-induced pre-erythrocytic immunity.Sera collected before and after CPS-immunization in the presence of active or inactive complement were assessed for recognition of homologous NF54 and heterologous NF135...
May 7, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734397/evaluation-of-providencia-rettgeri-pathogenicity-against-laboratory-mediterranean-fruit-fly-strain-ceratitis-capitata
#12
Meriem Msaad Guerfali, Wafa Djobbi, Kamel Charaabi, Heithem Hamden, Salma Fadhl, Wafa Marzouki, Ferjani Dhaouedi, Claude Chevrier
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is often referred to as the most severe agricultural pest. Its biological control is mainly through the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Colonization, mass-rearing conditions and the irradiation process impact the competitiveness of sterile males and disrupt symbiotic associations by favoring some bacterial species and suppressing others. Levels of Providencia species have been shown to fluctuate considerably in the gut of the medfly laboratory strain Vienna 8 under irradiation, increasing by up to 22%...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733749/real-time-dynamics-of-neutrophil-clustering-in-response-to-phototoxicity-induced-cell-death-and-tissue-damage-in-mouse-ear-dermis
#13
Sang A Park, Young Ho Choe, Eunji Park, Young-Min Hyun
Neutrophils are highly motile innate immune cells; they actively migrate in response to inflammatory signals. Using two-photon intravital microscopy, we discovered that neutrophils form stable clusters upon phototoxicity at a certain threshold. Without significant damage to the collagen structure of mouse dermis, neutrophils aggregated together with nearby neutrophils. Surprisingly, this in situ neutrophil clustering resulted in rigorous changes of migratory direction. The density of residing neutrophils was also a critical factor affecting clustering...
May 7, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729320/ccr5%C3%AE-32-a-piece-of-protection-in-the-inflammatory-puzzle-of-multiple-sclerosis-susceptibility
#14
Lian Lopes Troncoso, Alessandra Pontillo, Enedina Maria Lobato de Oliveira, Alessandro Finkelszteijn, Silvete Schneider, José Artur Bogo Chies
BACKGROUND: Leucocyte infiltration and activation in the central nervous system (CNS) is an important step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is implicated in immune cell migration and cytokine release in the CNS, and it was demonstrated to strongly contribute to CNS inflammation and damage in several models of sterile and pathogen-mediated CNS diseases. Although the inhibition of CCR5 results in a beneficial effect in experimental models of MS, conflicting results have been found about the loss-of-function variant CCR5Δ32 (rs333) in MS patients...
May 2, 2018: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725032/novel-evidence-that-extracellular-nucleotides-and-purinergic-signaling-induce-innate-immunity-mediated-mobilization-of-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#15
Mateusz Adamiak, Kamila Bujko, Monika Cymer, Monika Plonka, Talita Glaser, Magda Kucia, Janina Ratajczak, Henning Ulrich, Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Pharmacological mobilization of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB) is a result of mobilizing agent-induced "sterile inflammation" in the BM microenvironment due to complement cascade (ComC) activation. Here we provide evidence that ATP, as an extracellular nucleotide secreted in a pannexin-1-dependent manner from BM cells, triggers activation of the ComC and initiates the mobilization process. This process is augmented in a P2X7 receptor-dependent manner, and P2X7-KO mice are poor mobilizers...
March 30, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723973/comparative-pathogenesis-of-asian-and-african-lineage-zika-virus-in-indian-rhesus-macaque-s-and-development-of-a-non-human-primate-model-suitable-for-the-evaluation-of-new-drugs-and-vaccines
#16
Jonathan O Rayner, Raj Kalkeri, Scott Goebel, Zhaohui Cai, Brian Green, Shuling Lin, Beth Snyder, Kimberly Hagelin, Kevin B Walters, Fusataka Koide
The establishment of a well characterized non-human primate model of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is critical for the development of medical interventions. In this study, challenging Indian rhesus macaques (IRMs) with ZIKV strains of the Asian lineage resulted in dose-dependent peak viral loads between days 2 and 5 post infection and a robust immune response which protected the animals from homologous and heterologous re-challenge. In contrast, viremia in IRMs challenged with an African lineage strain was below the assay’s lower limit of quantitation, and the immune response was insufficient to protect from re-challenge...
May 1, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723525/alk-is-required-for-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-macrophages
#17
Bibo Zhang, Wei Wei, Jiaming Qiu
The NLRP3 inflammasome is a key mediator of host immune responses through the induction of pyroptosis and the release of cytokines. Although the pathologic role of inflammasome in infection and sterile inflammation is well known, the mechanism and regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains obscure. Here, we report that anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a novel regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of ALK through targeted drugs (ceritinib and lorlatinib) or RNAi blocked extracellular ATP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages...
April 30, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721923/toll-like-receptors-and-age-related-macular-degeneration
#18
Kelly Mulfaul, Maedbh Rhatigan, Sarah Doyle
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss in the over 50s worldwide. Activation of the immune system has been implicated in disease progression, but while polymorphisms in genes associated with the immune system have been identified as risk factors for disease, the underlying pathways and mechanisms involved in disease progression remain incompletely characterised. Typically inflammatory responses are mediated by microbial infection; however, in chronic conditions, a form of 'sterile' inflammation exists whereby immune responses occur in areas of the body, in the absence of microbes; 'sterile' inflammation is likely to be central to AMD...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718430/post-ruminal-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-and-intravenous-lipopolysaccharide-infusion-alters-blood-metabolites-rumen-fermentation-and-nitrogen-balance-of-beef-steers
#19
C A Löest, G G Gilliam, J W Waggoner, J L Turner
Steers exposed to an endotoxin may require additional branched-chain AA (BCAA) to support an increase in synthesis of immune proteins. This study evaluated effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and BCAA supplementation on blood metabolites and N balance of 20 ruminally-cannulated steers (177 ± 4.2 kg BW). The experiment was a randomized block design, with 14-d adaptation to metabolism stalls and diet (DM fed = 1.5% BW) and 6-d collection. Treatments were a 2 × 2 factorial of LPS (0 vs 1.0 to 1.5 μg/kg BW; -LPS vs +LPS) and BCAA (0 vs 35 g/d; -BCAA vs +BCAA)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713472/the-role-of-il-22-in-the-resolution-of-sterile-and-nonsterile-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Saleh Y Alabbas, Jakob Begun, Timothy H Florin, Iulia Oancea
In a broad sense, inflammation can be conveniently characterised by two phases: the first phase, which is a pro-inflammatory, has evolved to clear infection and/or injured tissue; and the second phase concerns regeneration of normal tissue and restitution of normal physiology. Innate immune cell-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines activate and recruit nonresident immune cells to the site of infection, thereby amplifying the inflammatory responses to clear infection or injury. This phase is followed by a cytokine milieu that promotes tissue regeneration...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
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