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Sterile immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916391/zika-virus-structural-biology-and-progress-in-vaccine-development
#1
REVIEW
Hsiao-Han Lin, Bak-Sau Yip, Li-Min Huang, Suh-Chin Wu
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915326/adaptive-immunity-and-metabolic-health-harmony-becomes-dissonant-in-obesity-and-aging
#2
Leena P Bharath, Blanche C Ip, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary energy reservoir organ, and thereby plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and regulation of metabolism. AT expands in response to chronic overnutrition or aging and becomes a major source of inflammation that has marked influence on systemic metabolism. The chronic, sterile inflammation that occurs in the AT during the development of obesity or in aging contributes to onset of devastating diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular pathologies. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation in the visceral AT of humans and animals is a critical trigger for the development of metabolic syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910270/updated-dosing-instructions-for-immune-globulin-human-gamastan-s-d-for-hepatitis-a-virus-prophylaxis
#3
Noele P Nelson
GamaSTAN S/D (Grifols Therapeutics, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) is a sterile, preservative-free solution of immune globulin (IG) for intramuscular administration and is used for prophylaxis against disease caused by infection with hepatitis A, measles, varicella, and rubella viruses (1). GamaSTAN S/D is the only IG product approved by the Food and Drug Administration for hepatitis A virus (HAV) prophylaxis. In July 2017, GamaSTAN S/D prescribing information was updated with changes to the dosing instructions for hepatitis A preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis indications...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903777/modest-heterologous-protection-after-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoite-immunization-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Jona Walk, Isaie J Reuling, Marije C Behet, Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Wouter Graumans, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Thorsten Janssen, Karina Teelen, Johannes H W de Wilt, Quirijn de Mast, André J van der Ven, Ernest Diez Benavente, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark, Martijn A Huynen, Cornelus C Hermsen, Else M Bijker, Anja Scholzen, Robert W Sauerwein
BACKGROUND: A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection against heterologous strains. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 39 healthy participants of NF54-CPS immunization by bites of 45 NF54-infected (n = 24 volunteers) or uninfected mosquitoes (placebo; n = 15 volunteers) against a controlled human malaria infection with the homologous NF54 or the genetically distinct NF135...
September 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902841/cgas-senses-long-and-hmgb-tfam-bound-u-turn-dna-by-forming-protein-dna-ladders
#5
Liudmila Andreeva, Björn Hiller, Dirk Kostrewa, Charlotte Lässig, Carina C de Oliveira Mann, David Jan Drexler, Andreas Maiser, Moritz Gaidt, Heinrich Leonhardt, Veit Hornung, Karl-Peter Hopfner
Cytosolic DNA arising from intracellular pathogens triggers a powerful innate immune response. It is sensed by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), which elicits the production of type I interferons by generating the second messenger 2'3'-cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Endogenous nuclear or mitochondrial DNA can also be sensed by cGAS under certain conditions, resulting in sterile inflammation. The cGAS dimer binds two DNA ligands shorter than 20 base pairs side-by-side, but 20-base-pair DNA fails to activate cGAS in vivo and is a poor activator in vitro...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899692/in-vitro-efficacy-of-bumped-kinase-inhibitors-against-besnoitia-besnoiti-tachyzoites
#6
Alejandro Jiménez-Meléndez, Kayode K Ojo, Alexandra M Wallace, Tess R Smith, Andrew Hemphill, Vreni Balmer, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Luis M Ortega-Mora, Adrian B Hehl, Erkang Fan, Dustin J Maly, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Gema Álvarez-García
Besnoitia besnoiti is an apicomplexan parasite responsible for bovine besnoitiosis, a chronic and debilitating disease that causes systemic and skin manifestations and sterility in bulls. Neither treatments nor vaccines are currently available. In the search for therapeutic candidates, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have arisen as promising drug targets in other apicomplexans (e.g. Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp. and Eimeria spp.) and are effectively targeted by bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs)...
September 9, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894161/microbial-communities-in-placentas-from-term-normal-pregnancy-exhibit-spatially-variable-profiles
#7
Lindsay A Parnell, Catherine M Briggs, Bin Cao, Omar Delannoy-Bruno, Andrew E Schrieffer, Indira U Mysorekar
The placenta is the principal organ nurturing the fetus during pregnancy and was traditionally considered to be sterile. Recent work has suggested that the placenta harbours microbial communities, however the location and possible function of these microbes remain to be confirmed and elucidated. Here, we employed genomic DNA sequencing of multiple variable (V) regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal gene, to interrogate microbial profiles in term pregnancies, from the basal plate, which is in direct contact with maternal uterine, endothelial, and immune cells; placental villi, which are bathed in maternal blood, and fetal membranes, which encapsulate the amniotic cavity...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892065/regulatory-t-cells-impede-acute-and-long-term-immunity-to-blood-stage-malaria-through-ctla-4
#8
Samarchith P Kurup, Nyamekye Obeng-Adjei, Scott M Anthony, Boubacar Traore, Ogobara K Doumbo, Noah S Butler, Peter D Crompton, John T Harty
Malaria, caused by the protozoan Plasmodium, is a devastating mosquito-borne disease with the potential to affect nearly half the world's population. Despite mounting substantial T and B cell responses, humans fail to efficiently control blood-stage malaria or develop sterilizing immunity to reinfections. Although forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)(+)CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells form a part of these responses, their influence remains disputed and their mode of action is unknown. Here we show that Treg cells expand in both humans and mice in blood-stage malaria and interfere with conventional T helper cell responses and follicular T helper (TFH)-B cell interactions in germinal centers...
September 11, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887852/cd8-lineage-dendritic-cells-determine-adaptive-immune-responses-to-inflammasome-activation-upon-sterile-skin-injury
#9
Rituparna Chakraborty, Janin Chandra, Shuai Cui, Lynn Tolley, Matthew A Cooper, Mark Kendall, Ian H Frazer
The molecular links between sterile inflammation and induction of adaptive immunity have not been fully identified. Here, we examine how damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), as opposed to pathogen associated molecules (PAMPs), regulates the immune response to non-self-antigens presented at the site of the physical injury. Heat applied briefly to the skin invokes sterile inflammation, characterised by local cell death and caspase-1 activation without demonstrably disrupting skin integrity. Co-delivery of ovalbumin (OVA) with heat injury induces OVA-specific CD8(+) T cell responses and this is dependent on caspase-1 activation and MyD88 signalling...
September 8, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883646/heat-conjugation-of-antibacterial-agents-from-amino-acids-and-plant-oil
#10
Man Tang, Yanchao Zhou, Jiayang Gao, Jingli Peng, Yuan Wang, Qirui Zhao, Lihao Liao, Kai Wang, Mengjia Pan, Meng Xing, Wen Pan, Danling Dai, Min Fu, Li Yu, Chuqing Zhang, Yuchuan Wang, Ying Zhang, Li Xu, Jing Li, Xiao Bao, Wenxian Piao, Shihong Lin, Kaibei Lu, Xuelan Zhang, Weiguo Cao, Kai Yang, Zhumei He, Shaoping Weng, Qiuyun Liu, Jianguo He
Antimicrobial peptides are components of the innate immune systems in animals and plants as natural defense against pathogens. Critical issues like manufacturing costs have to be addressed before mass production of these peptides for agriculture or community sterilizations. Here, we report a cost-effective chemical synthesis method to produce antimicrobial cocktails, which was based on the heat conjugation of amino acids in the presence of phosphoric acid and plant oil at 150 °C. The conjugates showed potent biological activities against all tested bacteria including a multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain Y5 and ampicillin resistant Pseudomonas aerugenosa ATCC9027 strain, demonstrating potential in agriculture, and prophylactic applications in hospital and community settings...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883073/sterilizing-immunity-in-the-lung-relies-on-targeting-fungal-apoptosis-like-programmed-cell-death
#11
Neta Shlezinger, Henriette Irmer, Sourabh Dhingra, Sarah R Beattie, Robert A Cramer, Gerhard H Braus, Amir Sharon, Tobias M Hohl
Humans inhale mold conidia daily and typically experience lifelong asymptomatic clearance. Conidial germination into tissue-invasive hyphae can occur in individuals with defects in myeloid function, although the mechanism of myeloid cell-mediated immune surveillance remains unclear. By monitoring fungal physiology in vivo, we demonstrate that lung neutrophils trigger programmed cell death with apoptosis-like features in Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, the most prevalent human mold pathogen. An antiapoptotic protein, AfBIR1, opposes this process by inhibiting fungal caspase activation and DNA fragmentation in the murine lung...
September 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876040/-secreted-expression-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-prme-in-pichia-pastoris-and-immunogenicity-evaluation-of-the-virus-like-particles-in-mice
#12
Peng Zhao, Ya Jiang, Jingman Wang, Haojie Fan, Ruibing Cao
The study was to express prME protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in Pichia pastoris and then to evaluate the immunological properties of the recombinant protein in mice, so as to explore a new way for subunit vaccine development of JEV. The JEV prME gene was amplified by RT-PCR with genome RNA of JEV vaccine strain SA14-14-2 and subcloned into pPICZa-A vector, designated as pPICZα-prME. pPICZα-SprME was constructed same as pPICZα-prME besides with the additional 19 Aa signal peptides coding gene of the JEV cap protein C terminal...
May 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873944/protective-efficacy-by-various-doses-of-a-new-brucellosis-vaccine-candidate-based-on-salmonella-strains-expressing-brucella-abortus-bscp31-omp3b-and-superoxide-dismutase-against-brucellosis-in-murine-model
#13
Won Kyong Kim, Ja Young Moon, Jeong Sang Cho, Jin Hur
Brucella species are important etiological agents of zoonotic diseases. Attenuated Salmonella strains expressing Brucella abortus BCSP31, Omp3b and superoxide dismutase proteins were tested as vaccine candidates in this study. In order to determine the optimal dose for intraperitoneal (IP) inoculation required to obtain effective protection against brucellosis, mice were immunized with various doses of a mixture of the three vaccine strains. Fifty BALB/c mice were divided into five equal groups (groups A-E)...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871201/protective-immunity-differs-between-routes-of-administration-of-attenuated-malaria-parasites-independent-of-parasite-liver-load
#14
Simone Haeberlein, Séverine Chevalley-Maurel, Arifa Ozir-Fazalalikhan, Hester Koppejan, Beatrice M F Winkel, Jai Ramesar, Shahid M Khan, Robert W Sauerwein, Meta Roestenberg, Chris J Janse, Hermelijn H Smits, Blandine Franke-Fayard
In humans and murine models of malaria, intradermal immunization (ID-I) with genetically attenuated sporozoites that arrest in liver induces lower protective immunity than intravenous immunization (IV-I). It is unclear whether this difference is caused by fewer sporozoites migrating into the liver or by suboptimal hepatic and injection site-dependent immune responses. We therefore developed a Plasmodium yoelii immunization/boost/challenge model to examine parasite liver loads as well as hepatic and lymph node immune responses in protected and unprotected ID-I and IV-I animals...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868897/recurrent-sterile-abscesses-after-immunization-with-aluminum-adjuvant-based-vaccines
#15
Keith M Vargas, Alwyn Koil, Walter Dehority
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860493/cxcr3-plays-a-critical-role-for-host-protection-against-salmonellosis
#16
Belal Chami, Amanda Yeung, Michael Buckland, Hongjun Liu, Genevieve M Fong, Kun Tao, Shisan Bao
CXCR3 and its ligands are heavily associated with inflammation and have been implicated in numerous inflammatory diseases. CXCR3 plays an important role in recruiting pro-inflammatory cells, specifically neutrophils, in a model of sterile colitis whereby CXCR3(-/-) mice showed an attenuated course of colitis with markedly reduced host-tissue damage in the inflamed caecum. The role of CXCR3 during infectious colitis, however, is unclear and therefore in this study, we investigated the role of CXCR3 in the regulation of the immune response during acute and chronic gastrointestinal infection, using a murine model of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856733/a-bacteriophages-journey-through-the-human-body
#17
REVIEW
Jeremy J Barr
The human body is colonized by a diverse collective of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The smallest entity of this microbial conglomerate are the bacterial viruses. Bacteriophages, or phages for short, exert significant selective pressure on their bacterial hosts, undoubtedly influencing the human microbiome and its impact on our health and well-being. Phages colonize all niches of the body, including the skin, oral cavity, lungs, gut, and urinary tract. As such our bodies are frequently and continuously exposed to diverse collections of phages...
September 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855075/origin-and-production-of-inflammatory-perivascular-macrophages-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Jonathan Florentin, Partha Dutta
Myeloid cells, including monocytes and macrophages participate in steady state immune homeostasis and help mount the adaptive immune response during infection. The function and production of these cells in sterile inflammation, such as pulmonary hypertension (PH), is understudied. Emerging data indicate that pulmonary inflammation mediated by lung perivascular macrophages is a key pathogenic driver of pulmonary remodeling leading to increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP). However, the origin of these macrophages in pulmonary inflammation is unknown...
August 28, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838855/exosomes-damps-and-mirna-features-of-stress-physiology-and-immune-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Monika Fleshner, Camille R Crane
Psychological/physical stressors and local tissue damage increase inflammatory proteins in tissues and blood in humans and animals, in the absence of pathogenic disease. Stress-evoked cytokine/chemokine responses, or sterile inflammation, can facilitate host survival and/or negatively affect health, depending on context. Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that systemic stress-evoked sterile inflammation is initiated by the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in the elevation of exosome-associated immunostimulatory endogenous danger/damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and a reduction in immunoinhibitory miRNA, which are carried in the circulation to tissues throughout the body...
August 21, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831137/immunological-memory-to-blood-stage-malaria-infection-is-controlled-by-the-histamine-releasing-factor-hrf-of-the-parasite
#20
Claudia Demarta-Gatsi, Roger Peronet, Leanna Smith, Sabine Thiberge, Robert Ménard, Salaheddine Mécheri
While most subunit malaria vaccines provide only limited efficacy, pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic genetically attenuated parasites (GAP) have been shown to confer complete sterilizing immunity. We recently generated a Plasmodium berghei (PbNK65) parasite that lacks a secreted factor, the histamine releasing factor (HRF) (PbNK65 hrfΔ), and induces in infected mice a self-resolving blood stage infection accompanied by a long lasting immunity. Here, we explore the immunological mechanisms underlying the anti-parasite protective properties of the mutant PbNK65 hrfΔ and demonstrate that in addition to an up-regulation of IL-6 production, CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T effector lymphocytes are indispensable for the clearance of malaria infection...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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