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Sterile immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433042/-alarmins-and-surgical-injury
#1
J Máca, M Peteja
Surgical intervention is an inseparable part of the management of serious surgical disease. However, surgery also presents a potential risk related to the so-called surgical injury causing immune response. When dysregulated the immune activation is able to cause local complications (i.e. wound dehiscence, impaired healing). Systemic decompartmentization of the immunologic disturbance can negatively influence long-term outcomes (i.e. hospital length of stay, mortality). Due to aseptic conditions in the operating room, such an immune activation is almost always of sterile nature...
2017: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432664/human-perinatal-immunity-in-physiological-conditions-and-during-infection
#2
REVIEW
Gijs T J van Well, Leonie A Daalderop, Tim Wolfs, Boris W Kramer
The intrauterine environment was long considered sterile. However, several infectious threats are already present during fetal life. This review focuses on the postnatal immunological consequences of prenatal exposure to microorganisms and related inflammatory stimuli. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems of the fetus and neonate are immature, which makes them highly susceptible to infections. There is good evidence that prenatal infections are a primary cause of preterm births. Additionally, the association between antenatal inflammation and adverse neonatal outcomes has been well established...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429734/neuroprotective-pentapeptide-cn-105-is-associated-with-reduced-sterile-inflammation-and-improved-functional-outcomes-in-a-traumatic-brain-injury-murine-model
#3
Daniel T Laskowitz, Haichen Wang, Tony Chen, David T Lubkin, Viviana Cantillana, Tian Ming Tu, Dawn Kernagis, Guanen Zhou, Gary Macy, Bradley J Kolls, Hana N Dawson
At present, there are no proven pharmacological treatments demonstrated to improve long term functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury(TBI). In the setting of non-penetrating TBI, sterile brain inflammatory responses are associated with the development of cerebral edema, intracranial hypertension, and secondary neuronal injury. There is increasing evidence that endogenous apolipoprotein E(apoE) modifies the neuroinflammatory response through its role in downregulating glial activation, however, the intact apoE holoprotein does not cross the blood-brain barrier due to its size...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426649/the-importance-of-appropriate-initial-bacterial-colonization-of-the-intestine-in-newborn-child-and-adult-health
#4
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
The fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment and is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut/blood stream which crosses the placenta and enters the amniotic fluid. This intestinal exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life and has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Intestinal crosstalk with colonizing bacteria in the developing intestine affects the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life (immune homeostasis) and provides protection against disease expression (allergy, autoimmune disease, obesity, etc...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424677/responses-of-the-housefly-musca-domestica-to-the-hytrosavirus-replication-impacts-on-host-s-vitellogenesis-and-immunity
#5
Henry M Kariithi, Xu Yao, Fahong Yu, Peter E Teal, Chelsea P Verhoeven, Drion G Boucias
Hytrosaviridae family members replicate in the salivary glands (SGs) of their adult dipteran hosts and are transmitted to uninfected hosts via saliva during feeding. Despite inducing similar gross symptoms (SG hypertrophy; SGH), hytrosaviruses (SGHVs) have distinct pathobiologies, including sex-ratio distortions in tsetse flies and refusal of infected housefly females to copulate. Via unknown mechanism(s), SGHV replication in other tissues results in reduced fecundity in tsetse flies and total shutdown of vitellogenesis and sterility in housefly females...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424241/microbiota-induced-antibodies-are-essential-for-host-inflammatory-responsiveness-to-sterile-and-infectious-stimuli
#6
Daniel Cisalpino, Caio T Fagundes, Camila B Brito, Fernando R Ascenção, Celso M Queiroz-Junior, Angélica T Vieira, Lirlândia P Sousa, Flávio A Amaral, Leda Q Vieira, Jacques R Nicoli, Mauro M Teixeira, Danielle G Souza
The indigenous intestinal microbiota is frequently considered an additional major organ of the human body and exerts profound immunomodulating activities. Germ-free (GF) mice display a significantly different inflammatory responsiveness pattern compared with conventional (CV) mice, and this was dubbed a "hyporesponsive phenotype." Taking into account that the deposition of immune complexes is a major event in acute inflammation and that GF mice have a distinct Ig repertoire and B cell activity, we aimed to evaluate whether this altered Ig repertoire interferes with the inflammatory responsiveness of GF mice...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422178/enhancing-protective-immunity-to-malaria-with-a-highly-immunogenic-virus-like-particle-vaccine
#7
Katharine A Collins, Rebecca Snaith, Matthew G Cottingham, Sarah C Gilbert, Adrian V S Hill
The leading malaria vaccine in development is the circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-based particle vaccine, RTS,S, which targets the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum infection. It induces modest levels of protective efficacy, thought to be mediated primarily by CSP-specific antibodies. We aimed to enhance vaccine efficacy by generating a more immunogenic CSP-based particle vaccine and therefore developed a next-generation RTS,S-like vaccine, called R21. The major improvement is that in contrast to RTS,S, R21 particles are formed from a single CSP-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) fusion protein, and this leads to a vaccine composed of a much higher proportion of CSP than in RTS,S...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421072/dysregulated-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-in-autoinflammatory-diseases-a-matter-of-stress
#8
Sonia Carta, Claudia Semino, Roberto Sitia, Anna Rubartelli
Infectious and sterile inflammation is induced by activation of innate immune cells. Triggering of toll-like receptors by pathogen-associated molecular pattern or damage-associated molecular pattern (PAMP or DAMP) molecules generates reactive oxygen species that in turn induce production and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β. Recent evidence indicates that cell stress due to common events, like starvation, enhanced metabolic demand, cold or heat, not only potentiates inflammation but may also directly trigger it in the absence of PAMPs or DAMPs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412972/mammary-microbiota-of-dairy-ruminants-fact-or-fiction
#9
Pascal Rainard
Explorations of how the complex microbial communities that inhabit different body sites might contribute to health and disease have prompted research on the ways the harmonious relationship between a host and its microbiota could be used to keep animals healthy in their production conditions. In particular, there is a growing interest in the bacterial signatures that can be found in the milk of healthy or mastitic dairy cows. The concept of sterility of the healthy mammary gland of dairy ruminants has been challenged by the results of studies using bacterial DNA-based methodology...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407422/microbiological-diagnosis-of-device-related-biofilm-infections
#10
REVIEW
Yijuan Xu, Lone Heimann Larsen, Jan Lorenzen, Luanne Hall-Stoodley, Judith Kikhney, Annette Moter, Trine Rolighed Thomsen
Medical device-related infections cause undue patient distress, increased morbidity and mortality and pose a huge financial burden on healthcare services. The pathogens are frequently distributed heterogeneously in biofilms, which can persist without being effectively cleared by host immune defenses and antibiotic therapy. At present, there is no 'gold standard' available to reveal the presence of device-related biofilm infections. However, adequate sample collection and logistics, standardised diagnostic methods, and interpretation of results by experienced personnel are important steps in efficient diagnosis and treatment of these infections...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397799/an-mrna-based-vaccine-strategy-against-zika
#11
Gary Wong, George F Gao
Infections with Zika virus are strongly associated with complications such as congenital microcephaly and can trigger Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans, highlighting the urgent need for a safe, efficacious vaccine as a preventative countermeasure. In a recent paper published in Cell, Richner et al. generated a lipid nanoparticle encapsulated modified mRNA vaccine encoding the prM and E genes from Zika virus, which showed protection and sterilizing immunity in immunocompetent mice.
April 11, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394331/dectin-1-activation-on-macrophages-by-galectin-9-promotes-pancreatic-carcinoma-and-peritumoral-immune-tolerance
#12
Donnele Daley, Vishnu R Mani, Navyatha Mohan, Neha Akkad, Atsuo Ochi, Daniel W Heindel, Ki Buom Lee, Constantinos P Zambirinis, Gautam Sd Balasubramania Pandian, Shivraj Savadkar, Alejandro Torres-Hernandez, Shruti Nayak, Ding Wang, Mautin Hundeyin, Brian Diskin, Berk Aykut, Gregor Werba, Rocky M Barilla, Robert Rodriguez, Steven Chang, Lawrence Gardner, Lara K Mahal, Beatrix Ueberheide, George Miller
The progression of pancreatic oncogenesis requires immune-suppressive inflammation in cooperation with oncogenic mutations. However, the drivers of intratumoral immune tolerance are uncertain. Dectin 1 is an innate immune receptor crucial for anti-fungal immunity, but its role in sterile inflammation and oncogenesis has not been well defined. Furthermore, non-pathogen-derived ligands for dectin 1 have not been characterized. We found that dectin 1 is highly expressed on macrophages in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
April 10, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394328/a-live-attenuated-zika-virus-vaccine-candidate-induces-sterilizing-immunity-in-mouse-models
#13
Chao Shan, Antonio E Muruato, Bruno T D Nunes, Huanle Luo, Xuping Xie, Daniele B A Medeiros, Maki Wakamiya, Robert B Tesh, Alan D Barrett, Tian Wang, Scott C Weaver, Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Shannan L Rossi, Pei-Yong Shi
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of pregnant women can cause a wide range of congenital abnormalities, including microcephaly, in the infant, a condition now collectively known as congenital ZIKV syndrome. A vaccine to prevent or significantly attenuate viremia in pregnant women who are residents of or travelers to epidemic or endemic regions is needed to avert congenital ZIKV syndrome, and might also help to suppress epidemic transmission. Here we report on a live-attenuated vaccine candidate that contains a 10-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region of the ZIKV genome (10-del ZIKV)...
April 10, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388953/a-randomized-controlled-study-on-the-efficacy-of-a-novel-combination-vaccine-against-enzootic-pneumonia-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-and-porcine-circovirus-type-2-pcv2-in-the-presence-of-strong-maternally-derived-pcv2-immunity-in-pigs
#14
Panagiotis D Tassis, Ioannis Tsakmakidis, Vassileios G Papatsiros, Dimitrios Koulialis, Tom Nell, Georgia Brellou, Eleni D Tzika
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) are major pathogens that cause significant health problems in swine worldwide. Maternal derived immunity (MDI) has been suggested as a significant immediate defence factor for newborn piglets and may interfere with piglet's vaccination-induced immunity. The study aimed to assess the efficacy of a novel combination vaccine (consisting of PCV2 subunits and inactivated M. hyo strain J), against PCV2 and M...
April 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383398/effect-of-probiotics-on-digestibility-and-immunity-in-infants-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Lingli Xiao, Guodong Ding, Yifang Ding, Chaoming Deng, Xiaolei Ze, Liang Chen, Yao Zhang, Lihua Song, Hongli Yan, Fang Liu, Xiaoming Ben
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of a fetus in utero is sterile but it becomes colonized with environmental microorganisms shortly after birth. Since the gut microbiota undergoes substantial changes in early life, healthy gut microflora is essential to an infant's gut health and immune system and probably also has an effect on overall health status in later life. Probiotics, defined as viable microbial preparations that have a beneficial effect on the health of the host, represent a rapidly expanding field. Although randomized controlled trials using probiotics in infants have shown promising results in the prevention and treatment of common diseases such as diarrhea and allergy, little is known about whether probiotics could offer benefits to healthy infants...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381580/development-of-an-alternative-modified-live-influenza-b-virus-vaccine
#16
Jefferson J S Santos, Courtney Finch, Troy Sutton, Adebimpe Obadan, Isabel Aguirre, Zhimin Wan, Diego Lopez, Ginger Geiger, Ana Silvia Gonzalez-Reiche, Lucas Ferreri, Daniel R Perez
Influenza B virus (IBV) is considered a major human pathogen, responsible for seasonal epidemics of acute respiratory illness. Two antigenically distinct IBV HA lineages co-circulate worldwide with little cross-reactivity between each other. Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines (LAIV) have been shown to provide improved cross-protective immune responses compared to inactivated vaccines by eliciting local mucosal immunity and systemic B cell and T cell-mediated memory responses. We have previously shown that incorporation of temperature sensitive (ts) mutations in the PB1 and PB2 subunits along with a modified HA epitope tag in the C-terminus of PB1 resulted in influenza A viruses (IAV) that are safe and effective as modified live attenuated (att) virus vaccines (IAV att)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381402/transcutaneous-immunization-with-a-bandaid-prevents-experimental-otitis-media-in-a-polymicrobial-model
#17
Laura A Novotny, John D Clements, Steven D Goodman, Lauren O Bakaletz
Otitis media (OM) is a common pediatric disease and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the predominant pathogen in chronic OM, recurrent OM and OM associated with treatment failure. OM is also a polymicrobial disease, wherein an upper respiratory tract viral infection predisposes to ascension of NTHI from the nasopharynx, the site of colonization, to the normally sterile middle ear, resulting in disease. Using a clinically relevant viral-bacterial co-infection model of NTHI-induced OM, we performed transcutaneous immunization (TCI) via a bandaid delivery system to administer each of three promising NTHI vaccine candidates derived from bacterial adhesive proteins and biofilm mediators: rsPilA, chimV4 and integration host factor...
April 5, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379162/old-maids-aging-and-its-impact-on-microglia-function
#18
REVIEW
Edward C Koellhoffer, Louise D McCullough, Rodney M Ritzel
Microglia are highly active and vigilant housekeepers of the central nervous system that function to promote neuronal growth and activity. With advanced age, however, dysregulated inflammatory signaling and defects in phagocytosis impede their ability to perform the most essential of homeostatic functions, including immune surveillance and debris clearance. Microglial activation is one of the hallmarks of the aging brain and coincides with age-related neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Age-associated microglial dysfunction leads to cellular senescence and can profoundly alter the response to sterile injuries and immune diseases, often resulting in maladaptive responses, chronic inflammation, and worsened outcomes after injury...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374568/inflammasome-activation-by-nucleic-acids-and-nucleosomes-in-sterile-inflammation%C3%A2-or-is-it-sterile
#19
Christopher R Lupfer, Angeline Rodriguez, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that form in the cytoplasm in response to cellular damage and cytosolic pathogen-associated molecules during infection. These complexes play important roles in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses to infectious disease. In addition, inflammasomes are now recognized as important mediators of sterile inflammation in various autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Interestingly, microbiota and infection play critical roles in the development of "sterile inflammation"...
April 4, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373578/intracellular-metabolite-%C3%AE-glucosylceramide-is-an-endogenous-mincle-ligand-possessing-immunostimulatory-activity
#20
Masahiro Nagata, Yoshihiro Izumi, Eri Ishikawa, Ryoko Kiyotake, Rieko Doi, Satoru Iwai, Zakaria Omahdi, Toshiyuki Yamaji, Tomofumi Miyamoto, Takeshi Bamba, Sho Yamasaki
Sensing and reacting to tissue damage is a fundamental function of immune systems. Macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) is an activating C-type lectin receptor that senses damaged cells. Notably, Mincle also recognizes glycolipid ligands on pathogens. To elucidate endogenous glycolipids ligands derived from damaged cells, we fractionated supernatants from damaged cells and identified a lipophilic component that activates reporter cells expressing Mincle. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy identified the component structure as β-glucosylceramide (GlcCer), which is a ubiquitous intracellular metabolite...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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