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Sterile immunity

Nailia R Khasbiullina, Nadezhda V Shilova, Maxim E Navakouski, Alexey Yu Nokel, Yuri A Knirel, Ola Blixt, Nicolai V Bovin
Innate immunity natural Abs (NAbs) execute a number of functions, including protection and surveillance. Despite active research, the stimuli that induce the formation of NAbs are still described only hypothetically. Here, we compared repertoires of anti-glycan Abs in the peripheral blood of mice that received per os various bacteria. The repertoires of Abs of mice primed in this way were compared using a microarray that included about 350 glycans, as well as 150 bacterial polysaccharides. Sterile mice did not possess anti-glycan Abs...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Daniel Pedziwiatr, Monika Cymer, Magda Kucia, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Jerzy Samochowiec
Evidence has accumulated that the occurrence of psychiatric disorders is related to chronic inflammation. In support of this linkage, changes in the levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood (PB) of psychiatric patients as well as correlations between chronic inflammatory processes and psychiatric disorders have been described. Furthermore, an inflammatory process known as "sterile inflammation" when initiated directly in brain tissue may trigger the onset of psychoses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kelli A Davis, Kristin M Klohonatz, Darcy S O Mora, Hannah M Twenter, Peter E Graham, Pablo Pinedo, Douglas C Eckery, Jason E Bruemmer
Currently there is no contraceptive vaccine that can cause permanent sterility in mares. This study investigates the effect of vaccination against oocyte-specific growth factors, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP-15) and Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF-9), on ovarian function of mares. It was hypothesized that immunization against these growth factors would prevent ovulation and/or accelerate depletion of the oocyte reserve. For this study, 30 mares were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10/group) and vaccinated with BMP-15 or GDF-9 peptides conjugated to KLH and adjuvant, or a control of phosphate buffered saline and adjuvant...
March 6, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Gabriel Sollberger, Dorothea Ogmore Tilley, Arturo Zychlinsky
Neutrophils are essential to the homeostatic mission of safeguarding host tissues, responding rapidly and diversely to breaches of the host's barriers to infection, and returning tissues to a sterile state. In response to specific stimuli, neutrophils extrude modified chromatin structures decorated with specific cytoplasmic and granular proteins called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Several pathways lead to this unique form of cell death (NETosis). Extracellular chromatin may have evolved to defend eukaryotic organisms against infection, and its release has at least three functions: trapping and killing of microbes, amplifying immune responses, and inducing coagulation...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Cell
Trisha M Finlay, Alexandra L Palmer, Shalina S Ousman
Neutrophils are essential in the fight against invading pathogens. They utilize antimicrobial effector mechanisms such as phagocytosis, release of proteases and other antimicrobial products, robust oxidative bursts, and NETs to combat infections. Neutrophils also modulate immune responses through the production of eicosanoids, cytokines and chemokines as well as via direct communication with other immune cells. This system of high intensity offense against pathogens is exquisitely balanced through regulation to limit damage to host tissue...
March 13, 2018: Immunology
Parimal Samir, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
In recent years, trained immunity has emerged as an attractive concept to explain cross-protection against pathogens mediated by the innate immune system. Using a diet-based sterile inflammation model, Christ et al. (2018) have shown in a recent issue of Cell that trained immunity may also play a critical role in responding to diet and endogenous sterile triggers.
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Elise Chiffoleau
Over the last decade, C-type lectin-like receptors (CTLRs), expressed mostly by myeloid cells, have gained increasing attention for their role in the fine tuning of both innate and adaptive immunity. Not only CTLRs recognize pathogen-derived ligands to protect against infection but also endogenous ligands such as self-carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids to control homeostasis and tissue injury. Interestingly, CTLRs act as antigen-uptake receptors via their carbohydrate-recognition domain for internalization and subsequent presentation to T-cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kunitaka Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Iyori, Andrew M Blagborough, Ahmed M Salman, Pawan Dulal, Katarzyna A Sala, Daisuke S Yamamoto, Shahid M Khan, Chris J Janse, Sumi Biswas, Tatsuya Yoshii, Yenni Yusuf, Masaharu Tokoro, Adrian V S Hill, Shigeto Yoshida
With the increasing prevalence of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites, a highly efficacious and durable vaccine for malaria is urgently required. We have developed an experimental virus-vectored vaccine platform based on an envelope-modified baculovirus dual-expression system (emBDES). Here, we show a conceptually new vaccine platform based on an adenovirus-prime/emBDES-boost heterologous immunization regimen expressing the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP). A human adenovirus 5-prime/emBDES-boost heterologous immunization regimen consistently achieved higher sterile protection against transgenic P...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
C Barnig, C Martin
INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated recently that the respiratory tract, considered for a long time to be sterile in the healthy subject, contains a vast community of bacteria called the respiratory microbiome. This microbiome, like the intestinal microbiome, is in constant interaction with the immune system of the human host. This relationship has allowed us to formulate some new theories on the pathophysiology of asthma. BACKGROUND: The respiratory microbiome of the asthmatic differs quantitatively and qualitatively from that of the healthy subject...
February 23, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Ralf Bartenschlager, Thomas F Baumert, Jens Bukh, Michael Houghton, Stanley M Lemon, Brett D Lindenbach, Volker Lohmann, Darius Moradpour, Thomas Pietschmann, Charles M Rice, Robert Thimme, Takaji Wakita
The development and clinical implementation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Infection with any viral genotype can now be eliminated in more than 95% of patients with short courses of all-oral, well-tolerated drugs, even in those with advanced liver disease and liver transplant recipients. DAAs have proven so successful that some now consider hepatitis C virus (HCV) amenable to eradication, and continued research on the virus of little remaining medical relevance...
February 22, 2018: Virus Research
Rajesh Parmar, Hardik Patel, Naveen Yadav, Ritika Parikh, Khyati Patel, Aditi Mohankrishnan, Vishakha Bhurani, Urja Joshi, Sarat Kumar Dalai
Immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) shown to confer complete sterile protection against Plasmodia liver-stage (LS) infection that lasts about 6 to 9 months in mice. We have found that the intermittent infectious sporozoite challenge to immune mice following RAS vaccination extends the longevity of sterile protection by maintaining CD8+ T cell memory responses to LS infection. It is reported that CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs) are involved in the induction of LS-specific CD8+ T cells following RAS or genetically attenuated parasite (GAP) vaccination...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
John Eppensteiner, Robert Patrick Davis, Andrew S Barbas, Jean Kwun, Jaewoo Lee
Despite significant improvements in injury prevention and emergency response, injury-related death and morbidity continues to increase in the US and worldwide. Patients with trauma, invasive operations, anti-cancer treatment, and organ transplantation produce a host of danger signals and high levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediators, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and extracellular vesicles (EVs). DAMPs (e.g., nucleic acids, histone, high-mobility group box 1 protein, and S100) are molecules released from injured, stressed, or activated cells that act as endogenous ligands of innate immune receptors, whereas EVs (e...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Emmeran Le Moal, Gaëtan Juban, Anne Sophie Bernard, Tamas Varga, Clotilde Policar, Bénédicte Chazaud, Rémi Mounier
Macrophages are key players of immunity that display different functions according to their activation states. In a regenerative context, pro-inflammatory macrophages (Ly6Cpos ) are involved in the mounting of the inflammatory response whereas anti-inflammatory macrophages (Ly6Cneg ) dampen the inflammation and promote tissue repair. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a hallmark of tissue injury and of subsequent inflammation as described in a bacterial challenge context. However, whether macrophages produce ROS following a sterile tissue injury is uncertain...
February 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Edward J Schenck, Kevin C Ma, Santosh B Murthy, Augustine M K Choi
OBJECTIVES: Sterile and infectious critical illnesses often result in vasoplegic shock and a robust systemic inflammatory response that are similar in presentation. The innate immune system is at the center of the response to both infectious and traumatic insults. Damage-associated molecular patterns are small molecules that are released from stressed or dying cells. Damage-associated molecular patterns activate pattern recognition receptors and coordinate the leading edge of the innate immune response...
February 13, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Dominik Hartl, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Julie Laval, Catherine M Greene, David Habiel, Lokesh Sharma, Ali Önder Yildirim, Charles S Dela Cruz, Cory M Hogaboam
The respiratory tract is faced daily with 10,000 L of inhaled air. While the majority of air contains harmless environmental components, the pulmonary immune system also has to cope with harmful microbial or sterile threats and react rapidly to protect the host at this intimate barrier zone. The airways are endowed with a broad armamentarium of cellular and humoral host defense mechanisms, most of which belong to the innate arm of the immune system. The complex interplay between resident and infiltrating immune cells and secreted innate immune proteins shapes the outcome of host-pathogen, host-allergen, and host-particle interactions within the mucosal airway compartment...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Jamil Jubrail, Nisha Kurian, Florence Niedergang
In the normal non-diseased lung, various macrophage populations maintain homeostasis and sterility by ingesting and clearing inhaled particulates, pathogens and apoptotic cells from the local environment. This process of phagocytosis leads to the degradation of the internalized material, coordinated induction of gene expression, antigen presentation and cytokine production, implicating phagocytosis as a central regulator of innate immunity. Phagocytosis is extremely efficient and any perturbation of this function is deleterious...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
Zahra Talattof, Azita Azad, Maryam Zahed, Nazanin Shahradnia
AIM: The most common fungal infection among human population is candidiasis, the etiology of which is mostly Candida albicans. As a result of a disrupted balance of the normal flora or a compromised immune system, Candida species can become pathogenic. Various in vitro surveys have shown that glucose intake is a promoter of C. albicans growth, whereas in vivo studies have found that xylitol can decrease the risk of candidiasis and angular cheilitis. Hence, we aimed to evaluate for the first time the inhibitory effects of xylitol on C...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Robert G Schaut, Matthew T Brewer, Jesse M Hostetter, Kriscelle Mendoza, Julia E Vela-Ramirez, Sean M Kelly, John K Jackman, Giuseppe Dell'Anna, Joan M Howard, Balaji Narasimhan, Wen Zhou, Douglas E Jones
Traditionally, vaccination strategies require an initial priming vaccination followed by an antigen boost to generate adequate immunity. Here we describe vaccination against a self-peptide for reproductive sterilization utilizing a three-stage vaccine platform consisting of gonadotropin releasing hormone multiple antigenic peptide (GnRH-MAP) as a soluble injection coupled with subcutaneous administration of polyanhydride-immobilized GnRH-MAP and a cyto-exclusive implant containing GnRH-MAP dendrimer-loaded polyanhydride...
February 8, 2018: Vaccine
Cemile Merve Seymen, Serhan Tuncer, M Suhan Ayhan, Cigdem Elmas
BACKGROUND: In this study, our aim is to investigate the possible effects of Botulinum toxin type A administrations in the early and late periods on the brain stem. METHODS: Eighteen white New Zealand rabbits were used in this study with the subjects being divided into three groups. Group I received 0.05 mL sterile saline to the left anterior auricular muscles. Group II and III were injected with Botulinum toxin type A (Botox, Allergan) to the left anterior auricular muscles...
February 6, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Ifeanyichukwu C Egbuniwe, Joseph O Ayo, Mohammed U Kawu, Aliyu Mohammed
Heat stress is a major problem in poultry production in tropical regions. Assessing the impact of thermally stressful environmental conditions on the welfare of broiler chickens is of great importance. Behavioral responses in a novel environment and hematology of broiler chickens administered with betaine and/or ascorbic acid (AA) during the hot-dry season were evaluated. Broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups: Group I (control) was given sterile water, Group II was given betaine, Group III was given AA, and Group IV received betaine + AA orally and daily for 42 days...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
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