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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328911/western-diet-triggers-nlrp3-dependent-innate-immune-reprogramming
#1
Anette Christ, Patrick Günther, Mario A R Lauterbach, Peter Duewell, Debjani Biswas, Karin Pelka, Claus J Scholz, Marije Oosting, Kristian Haendler, Kevin Baßler, Kathrin Klee, Jonas Schulte-Schrepping, Thomas Ulas, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Vinod Kumar, Min Hi Park, Leo A B Joosten, Laszlo A Groh, Niels P Riksen, Terje Espevik, Andreas Schlitzer, Yang Li, Michael L Fitzgerald, Mihai G Netea, Joachim L Schultze, Eicke Latz
Long-term epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells in response to microbes, also termed "trained immunity," causes prolonged altered cellular functionality to protect from secondary infections. Here, we investigated whether sterile triggers of inflammation induce trained immunity and thereby influence innate immune responses. Western diet (WD) feeding of Ldlr-/- mice induced systemic inflammation, which was undetectable in serum soon after mice were shifted back to a chow diet (CD). In contrast, myeloid cell responses toward innate stimuli remained broadly augmented...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328908/metabolic-induction-of-trained-immunity-through-the-mevalonate-pathway
#2
Siroon Bekkering, Rob J W Arts, Boris Novakovic, Ioannis Kourtzelis, Charlotte D C C van der Heijden, Yang Li, Calin D Popa, Rob Ter Horst, Julia van Tuijl, Romana T Netea-Maier, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Leo A B Joosten, Jos W M van der Meer, Henk Stunnenberg, Niels P Riksen, Mihai G Netea
Innate immune cells can develop long-term memory after stimulation by microbial products during infections or vaccinations. Here, we report that metabolic signals can induce trained immunity. Pharmacological and genetic experiments reveal that activation of the cholesterol synthesis pathway, but not the synthesis of cholesterol itself, is essential for training of myeloid cells. Rather, the metabolite mevalonate is the mediator of training via activation of IGF1-R and mTOR and subsequent histone modifications in inflammatory pathways...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328785/immune-responses-in-the-liver
#3
Paul Kubes, Craig Jenne
The liver is a key, frontline immune tissue. Ideally positioned to detect pathogens entering the body via the gut, the liver appears designed to detect, capture, and clear bacteria, viruses, and macromolecules. Containing the largest collection of phagocytic cells in the body, this organ is an important barrier between us and the outside world. Importantly, as portal blood also transports a large number of foreign but harmless molecules (e.g., food antigens), the liver's default immune status is anti-inflammatory or immunotolerant; however, under appropriate conditions, the liver is able to mount a rapid and robust immune response...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321396/-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-underlying-the-sterile-inflammation-after-ischemic-stroke
#4
Takashi Shichita
Inflammation is an essential step for the pathology of ischemic stroke, and is also an important therapeutic target for developing novel therapeutic methods which have a wide therapeutic time window. Since there is no pathogen in the brain, the inflammation will be triggered by some endogenous molecules which are called as danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). So far two important DAMPs, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and peroxiredoxin (PRX), have been recently identified in the ischemic brain. HMGB1 exaggerates the disruption of blood brain barrier; on the other hand, PRX activates mononuclear phagocytes and induces the inflammatory cytokine production through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310977/immune-cells-and-non-immune-cells-with-immune-function-in-mammalian-cochleae
#5
REVIEW
Bo Hua Hu, Celia Zhang, Mitchell D Frye
The cochlea has an immune environment dominated by macrophages under resting conditions. When stressed, circulating monocytes enter the cochlea. These immune mediators, along with cochlear resident cells, organize a complex defense response against pathological challenges. Since the cochlea has minimal exposure to pathogens, most inflammatory conditions in the cochlea are sterile. Although the immune response is initiated for the protection of the cochlea, off-target effects can cause collateral damage to cochlear cells...
December 20, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310697/epidemiology-genetic-variants-and-clinical-course-of-natural-infections-with-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-in-a-dairy-cattle-herd
#6
Cornelia Silaghi, Marion Nieder, Carola Sauter-Louis, Gabriela Knubben-Schweizer, Kurt Pfister, Martin Pfeffer
BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular, tick-transmitted bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and several mammalian species including domestic ruminants where it is called tick-borne fever (TBF). Different genetic variants exist but their impact with regard to putative differences in host associations and pathogenicity are not yet completely understood. METHODS: Natural infections with A. phagocytophilum in a dairy cattle herd in Germany were investigated over one pasture season by using serology, haematology, blood chemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310594/the-impact-of-cathelicidin-the-human-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-in-urinary-tract-infections
#7
Ibrahim H Babikir, Elsir A Abugroun, Naser Eldin Bilal, Abdullah Ali Alghasham, Elmuataz Elmansi Abdalla, Ishag Adam
BACKGROUND: The defense mechanisms of the urinary tract are attributed mainly to the innate immune system and the urinary tract urothelium which represent the first line of defense against invading pathogens and maintaining sterility of the urinary tract. There are only a few publications regarding cathelicidin (LL-37) and a urinary tract infection (UTI). This study was done to investigate the plasma and urine levels of human LL-37 in patients with UTI. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted at Omdurman Hospital, Sudan during the period from August 2014 to May 2017...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298885/recombinant-chimpanzee-adenovirus-vaccine-adc7-m-e-protects-against-zika-virus-infection-and-testis-damage
#8
Kun Xu, Yufeng Song, Lianpan Dai, Yongli Zhang, Xuancheng Lu, Yijia Xie, Hangjie Zhang, Tao Cheng, Qihui Wang, Qingrui Huang, Yuhai Bi, William J Liu, Wenjun Liu, Xiangdong Li, Chuan Qin, Yi Shi, Jinghua Yan, Dongming Zhou, George F Gao
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a global health concern. ZIKV can persist in human semen and be transmitted by sexual contact, as well as by mosquitos as seen for classical arboviruses. We and others have previously demonstrated that ZIKV infection leads to testis damage and infertility in mouse models. So far, no prophylactics or therapeutics are available, therefore, vaccine development is urgently demanded. Recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus has been explored as the preferred vaccine vector for many pathogens due to the low pre-existing immunity against the vector among the human population...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295864/harnessing-an-rna-mediated-chaperone-for-the-assembly-of-influenza-hemagglutinin-in-an-immunologically-relevant-conformation
#9
Seung Won Yang, Yo Han Jang, Soon Bin Kwon, Yoon Jae Lee, Wonil Chae, Young Ho Byun, Paul Kim, Chan Park, Young Jae Lee, Choon Kang Kim, Young Seok Kim, Seong Il Choi, Baik Lin Seong
A novel protein-folding function of RNA has been recognized, which can outperform previously known molecular chaperone proteins. The RNA as a molecular chaperone (chaperna) activity is intrinsic to some ribozymes and is operational during viral infections. Our purpose was to test whether influenza hemagglutinin (HA) can be assembled in a soluble, trimeric, and immunologically activating conformation by means of an RNA molecular chaperone (chaperna) activity. An RNA-interacting domain (RID) from the host being immunized was selected as a docking tag for RNA binding, which served as a transducer for the chaperna function for de novo folding and trimeric assembly of RID-HA1...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290139/danger-associated-molecular-patterns-derived-from-the-extracellular-matrix-provide-temporal-control-of-innate-immunity
#10
Charles W Frevert, Jessica Felgenhauer, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Madalina V Nastase, Liliana Schaefer
It is evident that components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) through direct interactions with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasomes. Through these interactions, ECM-derived DAMPs autonomously trigger sterile inflammation or prolong pathogen-induced responses through the production of proinflammatory mediators and the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of injury and infection. Recent research, however, suggests that ECM-derived DAMPs are additionally involved in the resolution and fine-tuning of inflammation by orchestrating the production of anti-inflammatory mediators that are required for the resolution of tissue inflammation and the transition to acquired immunity...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290137/small-leucine-rich-proteoglycans-in-renal-inflammation-two-sides-of-the-coin
#11
Madalina V Nastase, Andrea Janicova, Heiko Roedig, Louise Tzung-Harn Hsieh, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Liliana Schaefer
It is now well-established that members of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family act in their soluble form, released proteolytically from the extracellular matrix (ECM), as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). By interacting with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the inflammasome, the two SLRPs, biglycan and decorin, autonomously trigger sterile inflammation. Recent data indicate that these SLRPs, besides their conventional role as pro-inflammatory DAMPs, additionally trigger anti-inflammatory signaling pathways to tightly control inflammation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289653/in-vitro-investigations-on-the-effects-of-semi-synthetic-sulphated-carbohydrates-on-the-immune-status-of-cultured-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-leucocytes
#12
N Kareem, E Yates, M Skidmore, D Hoole
The rapid emergence of drug resistance, unfavourable immunosuppression and mounting evidence to suggest the deleterious accumulation of drug breakdown residues within animal tissues has driven a strong desire to move away from these current methods of disease control. Some natural products such as β-glucan, which are extracted from, for example, plants and fungi, are able to modulate the immune system and increase protection against diseases. However, these products are heterogeneous and their effects can be variable thus limiting their applicability and reliability...
December 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288626/the-p2x7-receptor-a-main-player-in-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Elena Adinolfi, Anna Lisa Giuliani, Elena De Marchi, Anna Pegoraro, Elisa Orioli, Francesco Di Virgilio
Damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are intracellular molecules released from infected or injured cells to activate inflammatory and reparatory responses. One of the most ancient and conserved DAMPs is extracellular ATP (eATP) that exerts its phlogistic activity mainly through activation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). The P2X7 is an ATP gated ion channel, expressed by most immune cells, including the monocyte-derived cell lineages, T and B lymphocytes an their precursors. Here we give an overview of recent and established literature on the role of P2X7R in septic and sterile inflammation...
December 27, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287057/early-diagnosis-using-canonical-discriminant-analysis-of-innate-immune-receptor-gene-expression-profiles-in-a-murine-infectious-or-sterile-systemic-inflammation-model
#14
Goro Tajima, Ayako Tokunaga, Takahiro Umehara, Kazuya Ikematsu, Junya Miyamoto, Shuntaro Sato, Osamu Tasaki
BACKGROUND: Infection in patients with systemic inflammation is difficult to diagnose with a single biomarker. We aimed to clarify the time course of change in the gene expression profile of innate immune receptors in infectious or sterile inflammation and to establish an early diagnostic method using canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) of the gene expression profile. METHODS: To compare infectious and sterile inflammation, we used cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and 20% full-thickness burn injury (Burn) models...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283327/genetically-modified-aedes-aegypti-to-control-dengue-a-review
#15
Muhammad Qsim, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Zubair Yousaf, Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Ijaz Rasul, Namrah Noor, Azfar Hussain
Dengue is an acute infectious disease of viral etiology characterized by lymphadenopathy, leucopenia, headache, biphasic fever, pain in various parts of the body, rashes, and extreme physical weakness. It is a vector-borne disease caused by a positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Dengue inflicts a significant health, economic, and social burden on populations of endemic areas. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Vaccines against dengue viruses have been claimed to be developed, but as yet no effective treatment is available...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262323/extracellular-atp-activates-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-is-an-early-danger-signal-of-skin-allograft-rejection
#16
Joaquín Amores-Iniesta, Maria Barberà-Cremades, Carlos M Martínez, José A Pons, Beatriz Revilla-Nuin, Laura Martínez-Alarcón, Francesco Di Virgilio, Pascual Parrilla, Alberto Baroja-Mazo, Pablo Pelegrín
Immune cells are equipped with a number of receptors that recognize sterile injury and pathogens. We find that host immune cells release ATP as an inflammatory signal in response to allogeneic transplantation. ATP then acts via a feedback mechanism on the P2X7 channel to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequently process and release interleukin (IL)-18. This process is a necessary stage in the deleterious Th1 response against allotransplantation via interferon-γ production. Lack of IL-18 resulted in a decrease in graft-infiltrating CD8 cells but an increase in regulatory T cells...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260650/impact-of-sickle-cell-trait-and-naturally-acquired-immunity-on-uncomplicated-malaria-after-controlled-human-malaria-infection-in-adults-in-gabon
#17
Bertrand Lell, Benjamin Mordmüller, Jean-Claude Dejon Agobe, Josiane Honkpehedji, Jeannot Zinsou, Juliana Boex Mengue, Marguerite Massinga Loembe, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Jana Held, Albert Lalremruata, The Trong Nguyen, Meral Esen, Natasha Kc, Adam J Ruben, Sumana Chakravarty, B Kim Lee Sim, Peter Billingsley, Eric James, Thomas L Richie, Stephen L Hoffman, Peter G Kremsner
Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by direct venous inoculation (DVI) with 3,200 cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) consistently leads to parasitemia and malaria symptoms in malaria-naive adults. We used CHMI by DVI to investigate infection rates, parasite kinetics, and malaria symptoms in lifelong malaria-exposed (semi-immune) Gabonese adults with and without sickle cell trait. Eleven semi-immune Gabonese with normal hemoglobin (IA), nine with sickle cell trait (IS), and five nonimmune European controls with normal hemoglobin (NI) received 3,200 PfSPZ by DVI and were followed 28 days for parasitemia by thick blood smear (TBS) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and for malaria symptoms...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258183/the-lung-microbiome-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-promising-approach-for-targeted-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Fastrès Aline, Felice Florence, Roels Elodie, Moermans Catherine, Corhay Jean-Louis, Bureau Fabrice, Louis Renaud, Clercx Cécile, Guiot Julien
This review focuses on the role of the lung microbiome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Although historically considered sterile, bacterial communities have now been well documented in lungs both in healthy and pathological conditions. Studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) suggest that increased bacterial burden and/or abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria may drive disease progression, acute exacerbations, and mortality. More recent work has highlighted the interaction between the lung microbiome and the innate immune system in IPF, strengthening the argument for the role of both host and environment interaction in disease pathogenesis...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250748/age-is-the-work-of-art-impact-of-neutrophil-and-organism-age-on-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation
#19
REVIEW
Weronika Ortmann, Elzbieta Kolaczkowska
Neutrophil extracellular traps or NETs are released by highly activated neutrophils in response to infectious agents, sterile inflammation, autoimmune stimuli and cancer. In the cells, the nuclear envelop disintegrates and decondensation of chromatin occurs that depends on peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and neutrophil elastase (NE). Subsequently, proteins from neutrophil granules (e.g., NE, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase) and the nucleus (histones) bind to decondensed DNA and the whole structure is ejected from the cell...
December 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248470/spontaneous-preterm-birth-advances-toward-the-discovery-of-genetic-predisposition
#20
Jerome F Strauss, Roberto Romero, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Hannah Haymond-Thornburg, Bhavi P Modi, Maria E Teves, Laurel N Pearson, Timothy P York, Harvey A Schenkein
Evidence from family and twin-based studies provide strong support for a significant contribution of maternal and fetal genetics to the timing of parturition and spontaneous preterm birth. However, there has only been modest success in the discovery of genes predisposing to preterm birth, despite increasing sophistication of genetic and genomic technology. In contrast, DNA variants associated with other traits/diseases have been identified. For example, there is overwhelming evidence suggests that the nature and intensity of an inflammatory response in adults and children is under genetic control...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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