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thorax vest

John Breeze, Mark Helliker, Debra J Carr
Ballistic protection for the neck has historically taken the form of collars attached to the ballistic vest (removable or fixed), but other approaches, including the development of prototypes incorporating ballistic material into the collar of an under body armour shirt, are now being investigated. Current neck collars incorporate the same ballistic protective fabrics as the soft armour of the remaining vest, reflecting how ballistic protective performance alone has historically been perceived as the most important property for neck protection...
May 2013: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
C Hessler, V Eckert, E Vettorazzi, N Meenen, C Jürgens, M Schult, C Flamme, H-J Herberhold, J Madert, A Ekkernkamp, U Lockemann, K Püschel, P Pohlenz
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefit of safety vests to the reduction of torso injuries in children and adolescents is unclear, its' use is recommended. The aim of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of safety vests actually used in pediatric equestrian activities. PATIENTS AND METHOD: In this case-control-study, we analyzed the accidents of 92 riders aged 18 or younger who fell off a horse onto his/her torso during a period of 18 months. Data were gathered from the clinical records...
November 2012: Klinische Pädiatrie
Jay K Shridharani, Garrett W Wood, Matthew B Panzer, Bruce P Capehart, Michelle K Nyein, Raul A Radovitzky, Cameron R 'dale' Bass
Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube...
2012: Frontiers in Neurology
Sezai Celik, Ahmet Kirbas, Onur Gurer, Yahya Yildiz, Omer Isik
OBJECTIVE: Sternal dehiscence after open surgery is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a significant risk factor. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether moderate and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had an effect on the development of sternal dehiscence and whether the use of the Robicsek technique for sternal closure along with sternal support vest postoperatively would reduce the incidence of sternal dehiscence in patients with moderate/severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing cardiac surgery...
June 2011: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Joseph B Long, Timothy L Bentley, Keith A Wessner, Carolyn Cerone, Sheena Sweeney, Richard A Bauman
Blast injury to the brain is the predominant cause of neurotrauma in current military conflicts, and its etiology is largely undefined. Using a compression-driven shock tube to simulate blast effects, we assessed the physiological, neuropathological, and neurobehavioral consequences of airblast exposure, and also evaluated the effect of a Kevlar protective vest on acute mortality in rats and on the occurrence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in those that survived. This approach provides survivable blast conditions under which TBI can be studied...
June 2009: Journal of Neurotrauma
Michael Gorlitzer, Sandra Folkmann, Johann Meinhart, Peter Poslussny, Markus Thalmann, Gabriel Weiss, Manfred Bijak, Martin Grabenwoeger
OBJECTIVE: Sternum infection remains one of the primary causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality after median sternotomy. We report the clinical efficacy for primary reinforcement of the sternum with a new design of thorax support vest. METHODS: A prospective randomized study including 455 patients was started in September 2007 to evaluate the effectiveness of the Posthorax sternum vest (Epple Inc., Vienna, Austria). One hundred and seventy five patients were treated with the sternum dressing postoperatively (group A), 227 patients did not receive the vest (group B) and 53 patients refused it (group C)...
August 2009: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Paul C Ivancic, Naseem N Beauchman, Fred Mo, Brandon D Lawrence
STUDY DESIGN: An in vitro biomechanical study of halo-vest and odontoid screw fixation of Type II dens fracture. OBJECTIVE: The objective were to determine upper cervical spine instability due to simulated dens fracture and investigate stability provided by the halo-vest and odontoid screw, applied individually and combined. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have evaluated posterior fixation techniques for stabilizing dens fracture...
March 1, 2009: Spine
Paul C Ivancic, Naseem N Beauchman, Lisa Tweardy
STUDY DESIGN: An in vitro biomechanical study. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to develop a new biofidelic skull-neck-thorax model capable of quantifying motion patterns of the cervical spine in the presence of a halo-vest; to investigate the effects of vest loosening, superstructure loosening, and removal of the posterior uprights; and to evaluate the ability of the halo-vest to stabilize the neck within physiological motion limits. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous clinical and biomechanical studies have investigated neck motion with the halo-vest only in the sagittal plane or only at the injured spinal level...
January 15, 2009: Spine
Tal Zucker, Neil M Skjodt, Richard L Jones
The effectiveness of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HF-CWO) is directly related to the level of oscillated flow (osc) in the airways. We used the Vest system to investigate the effects of HFCWO on chest wall and pleural pressures and we correlated these pressures to the resultant osc. We also compared the latest HFCWO device with it predecessor. Different combinations of vest inflation pressure (background pressure) and oscillation frequency were randomly applied to 10 healthy volunteers. Chest wall pressure was determined using an air-filled bag under the vest and pleural pressure was estimated using an esophageal balloon...
November 2008: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
Andrew C Merkle, Emily E Ward, James V O'Connor, Jack C Roberts
BACKGROUND: Although soft armor vests serve to prevent penetrating wounds and dissipate impact energy, the potential of nonpenetrating injury to the thorax, termed behind armor blunt trauma, does exist. Currently, the ballistic resistance of personal body armor is determined by impacting a soft armor vest over a clay backing and measuring the resulting clay deformation as specified in National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Standard-0101.04. This research effort evaluated the efficacy of a physical Human Surrogate Torso Model (HSTM) as a device for determining thoracic response when exposed to impact conditions specified in the NIJ Standard...
June 2008: Journal of Trauma
Amélie Bourget, Jennifer Dolmagian, Guy Lapierre, E Patricia Egerszegi
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the effects of compressive vests on the pulmonary function of infants with thoracic burn scars. METHODS: Between April 2000 and October 2005, all infants aged 2 years or less and all those aged between 2 and 3 years if they had concomitant pulmonary pathology, who were in need of a compressive vest for the treatment of burn scars to the thorax, underwent comparative pulmonary function testing under sedation with the vest closed and then opened...
August 2008: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Dan Drobin, Dan Gryth, Jonas K E Persson, David Rocksén, Ulf P Arborelius, Lars-Gunnar Olsson, Jenny Bursell, B Thomas Kjellström
BACKGROUND: Behind armor blunt trauma (BABT) is defined as the nonpenetrating injury resulting from a ballistic impact on personal body armor. The protective vest may impede the projectile, but some of the kinetic energy is transferred to the body, causing internal injuries and occasionally death. The aim in this study was to investigate changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) and physiologic parameters after high-velocity BABT. METHODS: Eight anesthetized pigs, wearing body armor (including a ceramic plate) on the right side of their thorax, were shot with a 7...
August 2007: Journal of Trauma
Charles F Babbs
OBJECTIVE: To discover design principles underlying the optimal waveforms for external chest and abdominal compression and decompression during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHOD: A 14-compartment mathematical model of the human cardiopulmonary system is used to test successive generations of randomly mutated external compression waveforms during cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Mutated waveforms that produced superior mean perfusion pressure became parents for the next generation...
February 2006: Resuscitation
J C Roberts, A C Merkle, P J Biermann, E E Ward, B G Carkhuff, R P Cain, J V O'Connor
Both computational finite element and experimental models of the human torso have been developed for ballistic impact testing. The human torso finite element model (HTFEM), including the thoracic skeletal structure and organs, was created in the finite element code LS-DYNA. The skeletal structure was assumed to be linear-elastic while all internal organs were modeled as viscoelastic. A physical human surrogate torso model (HSTM) was developed using biosimulant materials and the same anthropometry as the HTFEM...
2007: Journal of Biomechanics
Jack C Roberts, James V O'Connor, Emily E Ward
BACKGROUND: According to the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Standard 0101.04, the maximum deformation a soft armor vest can undergo without penetration is 44 mm. However, this does not take into account the effect of the pressure wave or energy transferred to the organs within the torso due to behind armor blunt trauma (BABT). Therefore, a study was undertaken to develop a finite element model (FEM) to study these effects. METHODS: A finite element model (FEM) of the human thorax; complete with musculoskeletal structure and internal organs (heart, liver, lungs and stomach), intercostal muscle and skin, has been developed in LS-DYNA...
June 2005: Journal of Trauma
Kazuichiro Ohnishi, Kei Miyamoto, Tadayuki Kato, Katsuji Shimizu
STUDY DESIGN: The effects of a halo vest on the gait were studied. The motions of the head, shoulder girdle, trunk, and hip were analyzed with the vest and tong either connected by bars or unconnected. OBJECTIVE: To analyze effects of wearing a halo vest using three-dimensional motion analysis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: We have little information on the effects of halo vests on gait. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy male volunteers participated (age, 32 +/- 7...
April 1, 2005: Spine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 1954: Journal of the American Medical Association
Elaine Fitzgibbon, Ronald Berger, Joshua Tsitlik, Henry R Halperin
During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the electrocardiogram (ECG) is often obscured by noise. This noise is in the form of baseline variations in the ECG, which often necessitate stopping chest compressions to adequately assess the ECG. Because survival from cardiac arrest has been shown to be related to blood flow generated during CPR, and because interruption of chest compressions will reduce blood flow, survival may be compromised by these interruptions. Three possible sources for the noise were considered: the heart, which is deformed during CPR, which may introduce a mechanical-electrical interaction and alter the normal electrical pattern of the heart; the thoracic cavity, which may have large impedance variations because of CPR and thereby modulate the ECG; and the skin-electrode interface, which may be mechanically disturbed during CPR and thus produce polarization potentials that cause additional noise...
April 2002: Critical Care Medicine
K Lurie, P Plaisance, P Sukhum, C Soleil
Challenged by the continued high mortality rates for patients in cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council developed a new set of guidelines in 2000 to help advance several new and promising cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques and devices. This is the first time these organizations have taken such a bold move, in part because of the poor results with standard closed-chest cardiac massage. The new techniques, interposed abdominal counterpulsation and active compression decompression CPR, each provide greater blood flow to the vital organs in animal models of CPR and lead to higher blood pressures in patients in cardiac arrest...
June 2001: Current Opinion in Critical Care
H Halperin, R Berger, N Chandra, M Ireland, C Leng, A Lardo, N Paradis
Improved blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been shown to enhance survival from cardiac arrest. Chest compression with a circumferential pneumatic vest enhances blood flow, but the size, weight, and energy consumption of the inflation system limit its portability and, thereby, have made clinical studies difficult. The purpose of this investigation was to study an improved circumferential chest compression device that uses a constricting band that is pneumatically actuated. The constricting band applies its force to a hydraulic cushion that contacts the anterior and lateral aspects of the chest...
November 2000: Critical Care Medicine
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