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Shasha Li, Hao Hu, Zhiheng He, Deguang Liang, Rui Sun, Ke Lan
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic pathogen that displays latent and lytic life cycles. In KS lesions, infiltrated immune cells, secreted viral and/or cellular cytokines, and hypoxia orchestrate a chronic pro-lytic microenvironment that can promote KSHV reactivation. However, only a small subset of viruses spontaneously undergoes lytic replication in this pro-lytic microenvironment while the majority remains in latency. Here, we show that the expression of the Notch ligand JAG1 is induced by KSHV-encoded replication and transcription activator (RTA) during reactivation...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Wei-Wei Shi, Yun-Sang Tang, See-Yuen Sze, Zhen-Ning Zhu, Kam-Bo Wong, Pang-Chui Shaw
Ricin is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), containing a catalytic A chain and a lectin-like B chain. It inhibits protein synthesis by depurinating the N-glycosidic bond at α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA, which thereby prevents the binding of elongation factors to the GTPase activation center of the ribosome. Here, we present the 1.6 Å crystal structure of Ricin A chain (RTA) complexed to the C-terminal peptide of the ribosomal stalk protein P2, which plays a crucial role in specific recognition of elongation factors and recruitment of eukaryote-specific RIPs to the ribosomes...
October 13, 2016: Toxins
Miyeon Cho, Seok Won Jung, Soomin Lee, Kuwon Son, Gyu Hwan Park, Jong-Wha Jung, Yu Su Shin, Taegun Seo, Hyosun Cho, Hyojeung Kang
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a Gammaherpesvirus that causes acute infection and establishes life-long latency. KSHV causes several human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma, an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Genipin, an aglycone derived from geniposide found in Gardenia jasminoides, is known to be an excellent natural cross-linker, strong apoptosis inducer, and antiviral agent. Although evidence suggests antiviral activity of genipin in several in vitro viral infection systems, no inhibitory effect of genipin on KSHV infection has been reported...
2016: PloS One
Aladdin Shadyab, Kenrad E Nelson, Ram Rangsin
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Thailand was first recognized in 1988 among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok. Soon thereafter, HIV infections were reported among female sex workers (FSWs) and men attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Routine serological surveillance for HIV began in 1991 among young men who were conscripted annually into the Royal Thai Army (RTA). The data from these populations provided a national population-based sample to determine sexual behaviors and HIV prevalence among sexually active young men...
October 6, 2016: Current HIV Research
Sebastian Decker, Dietmar Otte, Christian Walter Muller, Mohamed Omar, Christian Krettek, Carl Haasper, Stephan Brand
BACKGROUND: While cyclists and pedestrians are known to be at significant risk for severe injuries when exposed to road traffic accidents (RTA) involving trucks, little is known about RTA injury risk for truck drivers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the injury severity in truck drivers following RTAs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our local accident research unit prospectively documented 43000 RTAs involving 582 trucks between 2000 and 2011...
June 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
Patricia M Legler, Jaimee R Compton, Martha L Hale, George P Anderson, Mark A Olson, Charles B Millard, Ellen R Goldman
Ricin is an A-B ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) toxin composed of an A-chain subunit (RTA) that contains a catalytic N-glycosidase and a B-chain (RTB) lectin domain that binds cell surface glycans. Ricin exploits retrograde transport to enter into the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum, and then dislocates into the cytoplasm where it can reach its substrate, the ribosomal RNA. A subset of isolated antibodies (Abs) raised against the RTA subunit protect against ricin intoxication, and RTA-based vaccine immunogens have been shown to provide long-lasting protective immunity against the holotoxin...
September 23, 2016: MAbs
André Luis Ribeiro Ribeiro, Luciana Campêlo da Silva Gillet, Hiam Ghassan de Vasconcelos, Luciana de Castro Rodrigues, João de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, Sérgio de Melo Alves-Junior
PURPOSE: Facial fractures are an important health problem worldwide that can cause temporary or permanent disability and an economic burden. Identifying the risk factors associated with facial fractures is a valuable tool to create preventive public health strategies. This study evaluated the epidemiologic profile of facial fractures in northern Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of 1,969 patients who sustained facial fractures were analyzed for characteristics of the population, types of facial fractures, and treatment performed...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Amanda E Jetzt, Xiao-Ping Li, Nilgun E Tumer, Wendie S Cohick
Ricin is a potent ribotoxin that is considered a bioterror threat due to its ease of isolation and possibility of aerosolization. In yeast, mutation of arginine residues away from the active site results in a ricin toxin A chain (RTA) variant that is unable to bind the ribosome and exhibits reduced cytotoxicity. The goal of the present work was to determine if these residues contribute to ribosome binding and cytotoxicity of RTA in mammalian cells. The RTA mutant R193A/R235A did not interact with mammalian ribosomes, while a G212E variant with a point mutation near its active site bound ribosomes similarly to wild-type (WT) RTA...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ye-Jie Lin, Guang-Xiang Zhu
The spider genus Plator Simon (1880) is a small and little-known group in the spider family Trochanteriidae. Species of Plator are called flat-spiders in Chinese for the extremely flat habitus (Zhu & Wang 1963). Up to now, 11 Plator species have been recorded from India, China, Korea and Japan. Six of them, P. insolens Simon (1880), P. pandeae Tikader (1969), P. pennatus Platnick (1976), P. sinicus Zhu & Wang (1963), P. yunlong Zhu et al. (2006) and P. bowo Zhu et al. (2006) are reported from China (World Spider Catalog 2016)...
2016: Zootaxa
Octavia Ramayanti, Hedy Juwana, Sandra A M W Verkuijlen, Marlinda Adham, Michiel D Pegtel, Astrid E Greijer, Jaap M Middeldorp
Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is 100% associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as oncogenic driver. NPC is often diagnosed late due to initial vague complaints and obscured location. Prior studies suggest that measurement of EBV DNA load and RNA transcripts in nasopharyngeal (NP) brushings is useful for minimally invasive NPC diagnosis. However, whether these EBV markers relate to local virus replication or reflect tumor origin remains to be demonstrated. To resolve this, we analysed EBV-DNA characteristics and quantified latent and lytic viral RNA transcripts in NP brushings and matching frozen NP-biopsy specimens from patients suspected of having NPC...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Mohanavalli Singaram, Sree Vijayabala G, Rajesh Kumar Udhayakumar
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study aims to evaluate the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma in a developing country, along with its pattern, etiology and management. Data for the present study were collected from the Department of Dentistry, ESIC Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Chennai in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of patients treated for maxillofacial injuries between May 2014 and November 2015 were retrospectively retrieved and analyzed for prevalence, pattern, etiology, and management of maxillofacial trauma...
August 2016: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
Andre S Nilsen, Ines Blix, Siri Leknes, Øivind Ekeberg, Laila Skogstad, Tor Endestad, Bjørn C Østberg, Trond Heir
Most studies of neuro-functional patterns in trauma-exposed individuals have been conducted considerable time after the traumatic event. Hence little is known about neuro-functional processing shortly after trauma-exposure. We investigated brain activity patterns in response to trauma reminders as well as neutral and negative stimuli in individuals who had recently (within 3 weeks) been involved in a road traffic accident (RTA). Twenty-three RTA survivors and 17 non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HCs) underwent functional MRI while viewing Trauma-specific, Negative, and Neutral pictures...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sian E Piret, Caroline M Gorvin, Anne Trinh, John Taylor, Stefano Lise, Jenny C Taylor, Peter R Ebeling, Rajesh V Thakker
The aim of this study was to identify the causative mutation in a family with an unusual presentation of autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (OPT), proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), renal stones, epilepsy, and blindness, a combination of features not previously reported. We undertook exome sequencing of one affected and one unaffected family member, followed by targeted analysis of known candidate genes to identify the causative mutation. This identified a missense mutation (c.643G>A; p.Gly215Arg) in the gene encoding the chloride/proton antiporter 7 (gene CLCN7, protein CLC-7), which was confirmed by amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR, and to be present in the three available patients...
November 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Andrew P Smith
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present research was to examine associations between poor driving behaviour (DB), driving when fatigued (DF), risk taking (RT) and road traffic accidents (RTAs). DESIGN: The study involved a cross-sectional online survey of clients of an insurance company. The survey measured DB (speeding, distraction, lapses of attention and aggression), RT and frequency of driving when fatigued (DF, driving late at night, prolonged driving, driving after a demanding working day and driving with a cold)...
2016: BMJ Open
Eliodoro Faiella, Giulia Frauenfelder, Domiziana Santucci, Giacomo Luppi, Bruno Beomonte Zobel, Rosario Francesco Grasso
We describe a new emergency interventional radiology approach in percutaneous procedure complications. We present the case of an 81-year-old male with small renal cancer, approached with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RTA) and complicated by pseudoaneurysm bleeding of a renal artery branch. In the emergency setting, pseudoaneurysm was treated in the CT room by the same RTA needle, without any complications or local tumor recurrence during the next 6-month follow-up.
October 2016: Emergency Radiology
Jennifer J Wood, James R Boyne, Christina Paulus, Brian R Jackson, Michael M Nevels, Adrian Whitehouse, David J Hughes
UNLABELLED: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of commonly fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). A hallmark of all herpesviruses is their biphasic life cycle-viral latency and the productive lytic cycle-and it is well established that reactivation of the KSHV lytic cycle is associated with KS pathogenesis. Therefore, a thorough appreciation of the mechanisms that govern reactivation is required to better understand disease progression...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Mohd Ashraf, Virender Kumar, Rifat Ara Bano, Khursheed Ahmed Wani, Javed Ahmed, Kaisar Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Definite paucity of data pertaining to spectrum of renal and urinary tract diseases in our state and in various parts of India forms the basis of this study. Available data has emphasized more on specific clinical syndromes and chronic renal diseases rather than over all spectrums of renal and urinary tract diseases, that too in adult population. AIM: The present study a retrospective analysis, forms one of the basic data of paediatric nephrology and urology related disorders in our state...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
V A Fetisov, A A Gusarov, S A Smirenin
The present article deals with the problem of forensic medical diagnostics of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during motor vehicle accidents. The authors place special emphasis on the fact of a significant increase in the number of road traffic accidents (RTA) with such consequences throughout the world. The modern automobile industry pays much attention to the enhancement of the car safety features by significantly improving the design of passenger compartments. It accounts for a change in the traditional character of the injuries to both the driver and the passengers resulting from motor vehicle accidents...
July 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Fasika Amdeslasie, Mizan Kidanu, Wondwosen Lerebo, Dagim Ali
BACKGROUND: Injuries are a neglected health problem in developing countries. Ethiopia has a high incidence of road traffic accidents and trauma constitutes about half of surgical emergencies among patient seen at health facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of trauma among patient seen at emergency outpatient departments of public hospitals in northern Ethiopia METHODS: Retrospective data on patient seen at the hospitals during a one-year period (January 1, 2013-December 31, 2013) was collected...
April 2016: Ethiopian Medical Journal
Carlos Huerta, Xin Jiang, Isaac Trevino, Christopher F Bender, Deborah A Ferguson, Brandon Probst, Kerren K Swinger, Vincent S Stoll, Philip J Thomas, Irina Dulubova, Melean Visnick, W Christian Wigley
BACKGROUND: Semi-synthetic oleanane triterpenoid antioxidant inflammation modulators (tpAIMs) are small molecules that interact with KEAP1 cysteine residue 151 (C151) and activate NRF2. Exploration of the structure-activity relationship between the tpAIMs and KEAP1 is limited by the predominantly hydrocarbon nature of the oleanane triterpenoid pentacyclic ring structure. Therefore, we used novel, chemically-tractable, synthetic antioxidant inflammation modulators (sAIMs) to probe the stereoselectivity of the ligand-protein interaction...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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