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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333154/maternal-neonatal-vitamin-d-deficiency-a-new-risk-factor-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#1
M Cetinkaya, T Erener-Ercan, T Kalayci-Oral, A Babayiğit, B Cebeci, S Y Semerci, G Buyukkale
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the possible association between maternal/neonatal 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) levels and development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). STUDY DESIGN: One hundred and forty-five preterm infants ⩽36 weeks of gestation were enrolled. 25-OHD levels were determined in maternal/neonatal blood samples that were obtained at the time of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. RESULTS: Of the 145 enrolled patients, 26 (18%) developed NEC...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325971/checklist-of-british-and-irish-hymenoptera-cynipoidea
#2
Mattias Forshage, Jeremy Bowdrey, Gavin R Broad, Brian M Spooner, Frank van Veen
BACKGROUND: The British and Irish checklist of Cynipoidea is revised, considerably updating the last complete checklist published in 1978. Disregarding uncertain identifications, 220 species are now known from Britain and Ireland, comprising 91 Cynipidae (including two established non-natives), 127 Figitidae and two Ibaliidae. NEW INFORMATION: One replacement name is proposed, Kleidotoma thomsoni Forshage, for the secondary homonym Kleidotoma tetratoma Thomson, 1861 (nec K...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323128/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-fmt-could-reverse-the-severity-of-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-nec-via-oxidative-stress-modulation
#3
Xiaomei Li, Xiaowen Li, Qingjuan Shang, Zongwei Gao, Fabao Hao, Hongjie Guo, Chunbao Guo
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used successfully to treat a variety of gastroenterological diseases. The alterations of microbiota in mouse models of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) as well as in patients suggested the possibility of treating NEC with FMT. Here we show that FMT caused an improvement in the histopathology and symptoms of NEC in WT mice, but not Grx1-/- mice. FMT eliminated O2(•)- production and promoted NO production in experimental NEC mice though the modulation of S-glutathionylation of eNOS (eNOS-SSG)...
March 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316968/a-stepwise-pilot-study-of-bovine-colostrum-to-supplement-the-first-enteral-feeding-in-preterm-infants-precolos-study-protocol-and-initial-results
#4
Yanqi Li, Sandra M Juhl, Xuqiang Ye, René L Shen, Elisabeth Omolabake Iyore, Yiheng Dai, Per T Sangild, Gorm O Greisen
STUDY PROTOCOL: The optimal feeding for preterm infants during the first weeks is still debated, especially when mother's own milk is lacking or limited. Intact bovine colostrum (BC) contains high amounts of protein, growth factors, and immuno-regulatory components that may benefit protein intake and gut maturation. We designed a pilot study to investigate the feasibility and tolerability of BC as the first nutrition for preterm infants. The study was designed into three phases (A, B, and C) and recruited infants with birth weights of 1,000-1,800 g (China) or gestational ages (GAs) of 27 + 0 to 32 + 6 weeks (Denmark)...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316967/the-role-of-mucosal-immunity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#5
REVIEW
Zerina Hodzic, Alexa M Bolock, Misty Good
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurity. Although the precise cause is not well understood, the main risk factors thought to contribute to NEC include prematurity, formula feeding, and bacterial colonization. Recent evidence suggests that NEC develops as a consequence of intestinal hyper-responsiveness to microbial ligands upon bacterial colonization in the preterm infant, initiating a cascade of aberrant signaling events, and a robust pro-inflammatory mucosal immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315470/the-nitric-oxide-synthase-2-pathway-is-targeted-by-both-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-treatments-in-the-immature-human-intestine
#6
Emanuela Ferretti, Eric Tremblay, Marie-Pier Thibault, David Grynspan, Karolina M Burghardt, Marcos Bettolli, Corentin Babakissa, Emile Levy, Jean-François Beaulieu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: NO synthase 2 (NOS2) was recently identified as one the most overexpressed genes in intestinal samples of premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NOS2 is widely implicated in the processes of epithelial cell injury/apoptosis and host immune defense but its specific role in inflammation of the immature human intestinal mucosa remains unclear. Interestingly, factors that prevent NEC such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) attenuate the inflammatory response in the mid-gestation human small intestine using serum-free organ culture while drugs that are associated with NEC occurrence such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (INDO), exert multiple detrimental effects on the immature human intestine...
March 14, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315238/comprehensive-gas-phase-peptide-ion-structure-studies-using-ion-mobility-techniques-part-2-gas-phase-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-for-ion-population-estimation
#7
Mahdiar Khakinejad, Samaneh Ghassabi Kondalaji, Amirmahdi Tafreshian, Stephen J Valentine
Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) using D2O reagent and collision cross-section (CCS) measurements are utilized to monitor the ion conformers of the model peptide acetyl-PAAAAKAAAAKAAAAKAAAAK. The measurements are carried out on a home-built ion mobility instrument coupled to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer containing electron transfer dissociation (ETD) capabilities. ETD is utilized to obtain per-residue deuterium uptake data for select ion conformers, and a new algorithm is presented for interpreting the HDX data...
March 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304317/early-onset-necrotizing-enterocolitis-nec-in-premature-twins
#8
B Afzal, V Elberson, C McLaughlin, V Hs Kumar
Twin infants born at 34 week gestation had frank blood in stools on day three of life on mixed feeds of formula and maternal breast milk. Sepsis work up was negative in these relatively well appearing infants with pneumatosis in the colon on abdominal x-ray. Blood in stools recurred on reintroduction of breast milk in Twin A. Both infants recovered from episodes of bloody stools on amino-acid based formula and were thriving at discharge. Early necrotizing enterocolitis in both twins is rare and has not been reported...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300135/a-combination-mode-of-climate-variability-responsible-for-extremely-poor-recruitment-of-the-japanese-eel-anguilla-japonica
#9
Yong-Fu Lin, Chau-Ron Wu, Yu-San Han
Satellite data and assimilation products are used to investigate fluctuations in the catch of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in eastern Asian countries. It has been reported that the salinity front has extended farther south, which has shifted the eel's spawning grounds to a lower latitude, resulting in smaller eel catches in 1983, 1992, and 1998. This study demonstrates that interannual variability in the eel catch is strongly correlated with the combination mode (C-mode), but not with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299311/immunostimulated-arginase-ii-expression-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-reduces-nitric-oxide-production-and-apoptosis
#10
Maria M Talavera, Sushma Nuthakki, Hongmei Cui, Yi Jin, Yusen Liu, Leif D Nelin
Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent local cytotoxicity to mucosal epithelial cells has been proposed as a putative mechanism involved in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) metabolize L-arginine to either nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase (NOS) or to L-ornithine and urea by arginase. L-ornithine is the first step in polyamine synthesis important for cell proliferation, while NO production can lead to apoptosis. We hypothesized that in IECs immunostimulation increases both NOS and arginase expression, and that arginase activity mitigates NO production and apoptosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298945/doppler-ultrasound-assessment-of-the-splanchnic-circulation-in-preterms-with-neonatal-sepsis-at-risk-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#11
Rania H Hashem, Yasmeen A Mansi, Nehal S Almasah, Shereen Abdelghaffar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of Doppler ultrasonography in the assessment of splanchnic circulation's hemodynamic changes in septic preterms at risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. METHODS: A total of 51 septic preterms were divided into two groups: 25 preterms with clinical signs of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and 26 preterms with no clinical signs of NEC. Both groups were assessed with Doppler ultrasonography of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries, and each septic preterm's peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistivity index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) was calculated and recorded...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291959/the-opening-of-atp-sensitive-k-channels-protects-h9c2-cardiac-cells-against-the-high-glucose-induced-injury-and-inflammation-by-inhibiting-the-ros-tlr4-necroptosis-pathway
#12
Weijie Liang, Meiji Chen, Dongdan Zheng, Jianhao Li, Mingcai Song, Wenzhu Zhang, Jianqiang Feng, Jun Lan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyperglycemia activates multiple signaling molecules, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3, a kinase promoting necroptosis), which mediate hyperglycemia-induced cardiac injury. This study explored whether inhibition of ROS-TLR4-necroptosis pathway contributed to the protection of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel opening against high glucose-induced cardiac injury and inflammation. METHODS: H9c2 cardiac cells were treated with 35 mM glucose (HG) to establish a model of HG-induced insults...
February 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289909/ripk1-ripk3-mlkl-mediated-necroptosis-contributes-to-compression-induced-rat-nucleus-pulposus-cells-death
#13
Songfeng Chen, Xiao Lv, Binwu Hu, Zengwu Shao, Baichuan Wang, Kaige Ma, Hui Lin, Min Cui
The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the role of necroptosis in compression-induced rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells death, as well as explore the underlying mechanisms involved. Rat NP cells underwent various periods of exposure to 1.0 MPa pressure. Cell viability and cell death were quantified by using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), and Calcein-AM/propidium iodine (PI) staining respectively. Necroptosis-associated target molecules receptor-interacing protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), phosphorylated RIPK1 (pRIPK1), receptor-interacing protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), phosphorylated RIPK3 (pRIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) were analyzed by Western-blot and RT-PCR...
March 13, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288180/neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-esophagus-clinicopathological-and-immunohistochemical-features-of-14-cases
#14
Akinori Egashira, Masaru Morita, Reiko Kumagai, Ken-Ichi Taguchi, Masanobu Ueda, Shohei Yamaguchi, Manabu Yamamoto, Kazuhito Minami, Yasuharu Ikeda, Yasushi Toh
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the esophagus is a rare and highly aggressive disease but the biological features are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of NEC of the esophagus. METHODS: Fourteen patients diagnosed with NEC of the esophagus from 1998 to 2013 were included in this study. Clinicopathologic features, therapeutic outcomes and immunohistochemical results were analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283864/lower-gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-associated-with-hereditary-cancer-syndromes-a-case-series
#15
Trilokesh D Kidambi, Christina Pedley, Amie Blanco, Emily K Bergsland, Jonathan P Terdiman
Lower gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the colon and rectum are uncommon and not traditionally associated with hereditary GI cancer syndromes. However, with widespread implementation of colorectal cancer screening programs, lower GI NENs are being identified with increasing frequency. We report the first case series of six patients with lower GI NENs who were diagnosed with hereditary GI cancer syndromes by germline testing. Two patients presented with poorly differentiated rectal neuroendocrine carcinoma (NECs) with colonic polyposis and were found to have Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and MYH-Associated Polyposis, respectively...
March 10, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280618/clinicopathologic-study-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-of-gastroenteropancreatic-tract-a-single-institutional-experience
#16
Megha S Uppin, Shantveer G Uppin, Chittiboyina Shiva Prasada Venkata Sunil, Monalisa Hui, Tara Roshni Paul, Nagari Bheerappa
BACKGROUND: The gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNET) have a characteristic histologic appearance unrelated of the exact site of origin. However the behavior of these tumors are different in each of these sites. In this article we study the clinicopathological features of GEPNET. These tumors were classified and graded according to WHO 2010 criteria. The immunohistochemical (IHC) features were evaluated and the grade of the tumor was correlated with Ki67. METHODS: A total of 40 cases of GEPNET diagnosed on biopsies as well as resected specimens were analyzed from January 2012 to June 2015...
February 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278201/the-symbiotic-bacterial-surface-factor-polysaccharide-a-on-bacteroides-fragilis-inhibits-il-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-in-human-fetal-enterocytes-via-toll-receptors-2-and-4
#17
Fei Jiang, Di Meng, Meiqian Weng, Weishu Zhu, Wenxue Wu, Dennis Kasper, W Allan Walker
Colonizing bacteria interacting with the immature, unlike the mature, human intestine favors inflammation over immune homeostasis. As a result, ten percent of premature infants under 1500 grams weight develop an inflammatory necrosis of the intestine after birth, e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NEC is a major health problem in this population causing extensive morbidity and mortality and an enormous expenditure of health care dollars. NEC can be prevented by giving preterm infants their mother's expressed breast milk or ingesting selective probiotic organisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274256/intestinal-dysbiosis-in-preterm-infants-preceding-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Mohan Pammi, Julia Cope, Phillip I Tarr, Barbara B Warner, Ardythe L Morrow, Volker Mai, Katherine E Gregory, J Simon Kroll, Valerie McMurtry, Michael J Ferris, Lars Engstrand, Helene Engstrand Lilja, Emily B Hollister, James Versalovic, Josef Neu
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a catastrophic disease of preterm infants, and microbial dysbiosis has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Studies evaluating the microbiome in NEC and preterm infants lack power and have reported inconsistent results. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our objectives were to perform a systematic review and meta-analyses of stool microbiome profiles in preterm infants to discern and describe microbial dysbiosis prior to the onset of NEC and to explore heterogeneity among studies...
March 9, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272242/predictive-factors-and-clinical-practice-profile-for-strictures-post-necrotising-enterocolitis
#19
Han Zhang, Jiaping Chen, Yan Wang, Chun Deng, Lei Li, Chunbao Guo
Intestinal stricture is a severe and common complication of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), causing severe and prolonged morbidity. Our goal was to investigate the clinical predictors for strictures developing after NEC and evaluate the management outcome of the post-NEC strictures to better orient their medicosurgical care.A total of 188 patients diagnosed with NEC with identical treatment protocols throughout the period under study were retrospectively reviewed from 4 academic neonatal centers between from January 1, 2011, and October 31, 2016...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270879/anal-neuroendocrine-tumor-masquerading-as-external-hemorrhoids-a-case-report
#20
Muhammad Khan, Ahmed Dirweesh, Chikezie Alvarez, Herbert Conaway, Robert Moser
Neuroendocrine tumors in gastrointestinal (GI) tract are a rare source of GI malignancy with an estimated incidence of 2.5 - 5 per 100,000 people per year and the prevalence of 35 per 100,000. In the GI tract, they are located in decreasing order of frequency in appendix, ileum, rectum, stomach, and colon. Those found in the anal region represent just 1% of all malignancies of the anal canal. Their clinical presentation can be widely varying, sometimes being found incidentally with metastatic disease and an unknown primary source...
February 2017: Gastroenterology Research
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