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obesity in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351022/reference-values-and-factors-associated-with-musculoskeletal-symptoms-in-healthy-adolescents-and-adults
#1
Jennifer N Baldwin, Marnee J McKay, Niamh Moloney, Claire E Hiller, Elizabeth J Nightingale, Joshua Burns
BACKGROUND: Insufficient attention has been given to individuals who report musculoskeletal symptoms yet experience minimal disability. OBJECTIVES: To examine musculoskeletal symptoms among healthy individuals, and compare demographic, psychological and physical factors between individuals with and without symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. METHOD: Data were from the 1000 Norms Project which recruited 1000 individuals aged 3-101 years...
March 23, 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346926/microbiota-and-obesity
#2
Erika Isolauri
Obesity is globally the most prevalent nutritional disorder. Multifaceted therapeutic approaches are called for to halt the cascade from neonatal adiposity/high birth weight to childhood excessive weight gain/adult obesity with comorbidities. Recent experimental and clinical data provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked to insulin resistance...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346858/circulating-soluble-il-6-receptor-concentration-and-visceral-adipocyte-size-are-related-to-insulin-resistance-in-taiwanese-adults-with-morbid-obesity
#3
Feng-Chih Kuo, Ya-Hsien Huang, Fu-Huang Lin, Yi-Jen Hung, Chang-Hsun Hsieh, Chieh-Hua Lu, Sheng-Chiang Su, Chia-Luen Huang, Chien-Hsing Lee, Nain-Feng Chu
BACKGROUND: Morbid obesity is related to chronic inflammation and many metabolic complications. Interleukin (IL)-6 plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in obesity, and IL-6 trans-signaling through the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) has a major proinflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sIL-6R, adipocyte size, and insulin resistance in morbidly obese individuals. METHODS: We measured concentrations of sIL-6R, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and lipid parameters and estimated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) before the patients underwent bariatric surgery...
March 27, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346492/dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-body-composition-reference-values-of-limbs-and-trunk-from-nhanes-1999-2004-with-additional-visualization-methods
#4
Benjamin J Hinton, Bo Fan, Bennett K Ng, John A Shepherd
Body Mass Index has traditionally been used as a measure of health, but Fat Mass Index (FMI) and Lean Mass Index (LMI) have been shown to be more predictive of mortality and health risk. Total body FMI and LMI reference curves have particularly been useful in quantifying sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Research has shown regional composition has significant associations to health outcomes. We derived FMI and LMI reference curves of the regions of the body (leg, arm, and trunk) for 15,908 individuals in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for each sex and ethnicity using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method and developed software to visualize this regional composition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346411/the-cold-induced-lipokine-12-13-dihome-promotes-fatty-acid-transport-into-brown-adipose-tissue
#5
Matthew D Lynes, Luiz O Leiria, Morten Lundh, Alexander Bartelt, Farnaz Shamsi, Tian Lian Huang, Hirokazu Takahashi, Michael F Hirshman, Christian Schlein, Alexandra Lee, Lisa A Baer, Francis J May, Fei Gao, Niven R Narain, Emily Y Chen, Michael A Kiebish, Aaron M Cypess, Matthias Blüher, Laurie J Goodyear, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Kristin I Stanford, Yu-Hua Tseng
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue combust fuels for heat production in adult humans, and so constitute an appealing target for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Cold exposure can enhance energy expenditure by activating BAT, and it has been shown to improve nutrient metabolism. These therapies, however, are time consuming and uncomfortable, demonstrating the need for pharmacological interventions. Recently, lipids have been identified that are released from tissues and act locally or systemically to promote insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; as a class, these lipids are referred to as 'lipokines'...
March 27, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346353/intake-and-dietary-food-sources-of-fibre-in-spain-differences-with-regard-to-the-prevalence-of-excess-body-weight-and-abdominal-obesity-in-adults-of-the-anibes-study
#6
Liliana G González-Rodríguez, José Miguel Perea Sánchez, Javier Aranceta-Bartrina, Ángel Gil, Marcela González-Gross, Lluis Serra-Majem, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Rosa M Ortega
The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18-64 years) from the ANIBES ("Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles") cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346156/association-of-sleep-characteristics-with-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-risk-factors-in-a-population-sample-the-chicago-area-sleep-study
#7
Samantha E Montag, Kristen L Knutson, Phyllis C Zee, Jeffrey J Goldberger, Jason Ng, Kwang-Youn A Kim, Mercedes R Carnethon
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of sleep characteristics with prevalent hypertension, diabetes, and obesity in a multiethnic cohort. DESIGN: This study used a population-based cross-sectional study design. SETTING: Participants were recruited between 2009 and 2011 from Chicago, Illinois, and the surrounding suburbs. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 492 adults aged 35 to 64years who self-reported as white, black, Hispanic, or Asian and who had a low likelihood of sleep apnea based on the apnea screening questionnaires and 1 night of apnea screening using an in-home device (apnea hypopnea index <15 or oxygen desaturation index <10)...
April 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345814/dapagliflozin-once-daily-plus-exenatide-once-weekly-in-obese-adults-without-diabetes-sustained-reductions-in-bodyweight-glycaemia-and-blood-pressure-over-1-year
#8
Per Lundkvist, Maria J Pereira, Petros Katsogiannos, C David Sjöström, Eva Johnsson, Jan W Eriksson
AIMS: Dapagliflozin and exenatide reduce bodyweight by differing mechanisms. Dual therapy with these agents reduces bodyweight, adipose tissue volume, glycaemia, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 24 weeks. Here, we examined these effects over 1 year in obese adults without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Obese adults without diabetes (N = 50; aged 18-70 years; body mass index 30-45 kg/m(2) ) initially randomized to double-blind oral dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily plus subcutaneous long-acting exenatide 2 mg once weekly or placebo entered an open-label extension from 24-52 weeks during which all participants received active treatment...
March 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345359/a-new-equation-based-on-the-6-min-walking-test-to-predict-vo2peak-in-women-with-obesity
#9
Lore Metz, David Thivel, Bruno Peirrera, Ruddy Richard, Valérie Julian, Martine Duclos
OBJECTIVE: The 6-min walking test (6 MWT) is commonly used to assess obese patients' aerobic fitness, but it has rarely been compared with a direct measurement of maximal aerobic capacities (VO2max or VO2peak) in obese adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the distance covered during a 6 MWT with objectively measured VO2peak and to propose a new equation to predict VO2peak from this walking test in obese patients. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-seven obese patients (45...
March 27, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344128/high-sucrose-induced-maternal-obesity-disrupts-ovarian-function-and-decreases-fertility-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Rita T Brookheart, Alison R Swearingen, Christina A Collins, Laura M Cline, Jennifer G Duncan
As the obesity epidemic worsens, the prevalence of maternal obesity is expected to rise. Both high-fat and high-sucrose diets are known to promote maternal obesity and several studies have elucidated the molecular influence of high-fat feeding on female reproduction. However, to date, the molecular impact of a high-sucrose diet on maternal obesity remains to be investigated. Using our previously reported Drosophila high-sucrose maternal obesity model, we sought to determine how excess dietary sucrose impacted the ovary...
March 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343834/evaluating-the-impact-of-obesity-on-safety-and-efficacy-of-weight-based-norepinephrine-dosing-in-septic-shock-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#11
Paul J Wong, Komal A Pandya, Alexander H Flannery
OBJECTIVE: Norepinephrine is the first-line vasopressor recommended for patients in septic shock. Weight-based dosing may increase drug exposure and the risk of adverse effects in obese patients. The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of weight-based norepinephrine dosing using actual body weight in the morbidly obese compared with normal weight patients. METHODS: This was a single centre, retrospective study of adult patients admitted with septic shock requiring norepinephrine for at least 12hours...
March 23, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342363/war-during-childhood-the-long-run-effects-of-warfare-on-health
#12
Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel
This paper estimates the causal long-term consequences of an exposure to war in utero and during childhood on the risk of obesity and the probability of having a chronic health condition in adulthood. Using the plausibly exogenous city-by-cohort variation in the intensity of WWII destruction as a unique quasi-experiment, I find that individuals who were exposed to WWII destruction during the prenatal and early postnatal periods have higher BMIs and are more likely to be obese as adults. I also find an elevated incidence of chronic health conditions such as stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorder in adulthood among these wartime children...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342299/plasma-microrna-signature-predicting-weight-gain-among-mexican-american-women
#13
Hua Zhao, Jie Shen, Carrie Daniel-MacDougall, Xifeng Wu, Wong-Ho Chow
OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in obesity. However, whether they can contribute to adult weight gain is still unclear. METHODS: In the training set with 40 nonsmoking, healthy women identified from the Mano-A-Mano Mexican American Cohort study, global circulating miRNA profiles in plasma samples were assessed. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the effects of plasma miRNAs on significant weight gain during a 5-year follow-up...
March 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342282/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacogenetic-analysis-of-immunosuppressive-agents-after-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy
#14
Tayyab S Diwan, Alicia B Lichvar, Abbie D Leino, Alexander A Vinks, Uwe Christians, Adele R Shields, Michael A Cardi, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Tomoyuki Mizuno, Tiffany Kaiser, E Steve Woodle, Rita R Alloway
BACKGROUND: Severe obesity has been shown to limit access to renal transplantation in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has been performed in the ESRD population to assist in achieving waitlist and transplant eligibility. Little is known about how LSG impacts the bioequivalence tacrolimus products and immunosuppression pharmacokinetics. METHODS: This was a prospective, open-label, single-dose, crossover, two-period pharmacokinetic (PK) study...
March 25, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341221/a-systematic-review-of-obesity-disparities-research
#15
REVIEW
Charlotte A Pratt, Catherine M Loria, Sonia S Arteaga, Holly L Nicastro, Maria Lopez-Class, Janet M de Jesus, Pothur Srinivas, Christine Maric-Bilkan, Lisa Schwartz Longacre, Josephine E A Boyington, Abera Wouhib, Nara Gavini
CONTEXT: A review of interventions addressing obesity disparities could reveal gaps in the literature and provide guidance on future research, particularly for populations with a high prevalence of obesity and obesity-related cardiometabolic risk. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of clinical trials in obesity disparities research that were published in 2011-2016 in PubMed/MEDLINE resulted in 328 peer-reviewed articles. Articles were excluded if they had no BMI, weight, or body composition measure as primary outcome or were foreign (n=201); were epidemiologic or secondary data analyses of clinical trials (n=12); design or protocol papers (n=54); systematic reviews (n=3); or retracted or duplicates (n=9)...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340870/collaboration-is-key-for-successful-treatment-of-youth-onset-type-2-diabetes
#16
Lisal J Folsom, Tamara S Hannon
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in U.S. adolescents, particularly those of ethnic and racial minority groups. Risk factors for youth-onset T2D include obesity, family history of T2D, poor diet, lack of exercise, and poverty. The onset of diabetes-related complications is accelerated in adolescents with T2D compared to adults, and knowledge regarding the optimal way to prevent and slow complications is lacking. Existing treatment options are limited, and research into novel pharmacologic treatments is hindered by lack of sufficient patient population for clinical trials...
April 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340865/association-of-systemic-inflammation-adiposity-and-metabolic-dysregulation-with-asthma-burden-among-hispanic-adults
#17
Deepa Rastogi, Molly Jung, Garrett Strizich, Pamela A Shaw, Sonia M Davis, Oana L Klein, Frank J Penedo, Andrew L Ries, Martha L Daviglus, Juan J Moreiras, Matthias A Salathe, Juan C Celedón, Carmen R Isasi, Robert C Kaplan
RATIONALE: Obesity-related asthma is associated with higher disease burden than normal-weight asthma among Hispanics. Adiposity, metabolic dysregulation, and inflammation are all implicated in pathogenesis of obesity-related asthma, but their independent contributions are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the independent contributions of body fat distribution, metabolic abnormalities and inflammation on asthma symptoms and pulmonary function among Hispanics...
April 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340859/heterogeneity-of-obesity-asthma-association-disentangled-by-latent-class-analysis-the-sapaldia-cohort
#18
Ayoung Jeong, Medea Imboden, Sofie Hansen, Elisabeth Zemp, Pierre-Olivier Bridevaux, Gianfranco Lovison, Christian Schindler, Nicole Probst-Hensch
Although evidence for the heterogeneity of asthma accumulated, consensus for definitions of asthma phenotypes is still lacking. Obesity may have heterogeneous effects on various asthma phenotypes. We aimed to distinguish asthma phenotypes by latent class analysis and to investigate their associations with different obesity parameters in adults using a population-based Swiss cohort (SAPALDIA). We applied latent class analysis to 959 self-reported asthmatics using information on disease activity, atopy, and age of onset...
April 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340132/the-impact-of-weight-and-weight-related-perceptions-on-smoking-status-among-young-adults-in-a-text-messaging-cessation-program
#19
Kisha I Coa, Erik Augustson, Annette Kaufman
Introduction: Weight gain and concerns about weight can influence a smoker's ability to successfully quit, and young adults are a subgroup of smokers who are particularly concerned about the impact of quitting on their body weight. This study explored the associations between body mass index (BMI), weight perceptions, and smoking status among young adults. Methods: The sample consisted of 4,027 young adults between the ages of 18 and 29 who participated in a randomized control trial of the National Cancer Institute's SmokefreeTXT program...
March 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339908/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-pathological-adaption-of-cardiac-hypertrophy1-2
#20
C Y Chen, H Y Lin, Y W Chen, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Broiler hens consuming feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) show increased mortality. Feed restriction (R) typically improves reproductive performance and livability of hens. Rapidly growing broilers can exhibit increased mortality due to cardiac insufficiency but it is unknown whether the increased mortality of non-R broiler hens is also due to cardiac compromise. To assess cardiac growth and physiology in fully mature birds, 45-week-old hens were either continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding for 7 or 21 days...
March 1, 2017: Poultry Science
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