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obesity in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029131/plasma-amino-acids-stimulate-uncoupled-respiration-of-muscle-subsarcolemmal-mitochondria-in-lean-but-not-obese-humans
#1
Katon A Kras, Nyssa Hoffman, Lori R Roust, Shivam H Patel, Chad C Carroll, Christos S Katsanos
Context: Obesity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Increasing the plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations stimulates mitochondrial ATP production in lean individuals. Objective: To determine whether acute elevation in plasma AAs enhances muscle mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria in obese adults. Design: Assessment of SS and IMF mitochondria function during saline (i...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028919/physical-activity-producing-low-but-not-medium-or-higher-vertical-impacts-is-inversely-related-to-bmi-in-older-adults-findings-from-a-multi-cohort-study
#2
Ahmed Elhakeem, Kimberly Hannam, Kevin C Deere, April Hartley, Emma M Clark, Charlotte Moss, Mark H Edwards, Elaine Dennison, Tim Gaysin, Diana Kuh, Andrew Wong, Cyrus Cooper, Rachel Cooper, Jon H Tobias
Background: High impact physical activity (PA) is thought to improve skeletal health but its relation to other health outcomes are unclear. We investigated associations between PA impact magnitude and body mass index (BMI) in older adults. Methods: Data were from the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon (COSHIBA), Hertfordshire Cohort Study and MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Vertical accelerations peaks from seven-day hip-worn accelerometer recordings were used to classify PA as low (0...
September 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027993/current-pharmacotherapy-for-obesity
#3
REVIEW
Gitanjali Srivastava, Caroline M Apovian
More than one-third of adults in the USA have obesity, which causes, exacerbates or adversely impacts numerous medical comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Despite intensive lifestyle modifications, the disease severity warrants further aggressive intervention, including pharmacotherapy, medical devices and bariatric surgery. Noninvasive anti-obesity drugs have thus now resurfaced as targeted adjunctive therapeutic approaches to intensive lifestyle intervention, bridging the gap between lifestyle and bariatric surgery...
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027816/a-comparison-of-the-genetic-and-clinical-risk-factors-for-arterial-hypertension-between-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-people-of-the-shoria-mountain-region
#4
Tatyana Mulerova, Michael Ogarkov, Evgenya Uchasova, Michael Voevoda, Olga Barbarash
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for arterial hypertension (AH) in two ethnic groups living in the Mountain Shoria region: Shors and non-indigenous people. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological study of compactly living population in the remote areas of the Mountain Shoria (Orton, Ust-Kabyrza, Sheregesh settlements, Kemerovo region). 1178 residents of these settlements were surveyed with the help of continuous sampling method; the sample consisted of adults (18 years and older)...
October 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027120/elucidating-the-preadipocyte-and-its-role-in-adipocyte-formation-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Christos N Sarantopoulos, Derek A Banyard, Mary E Ziegler, Beatrice Sun, Ashkaun Shaterian, Alan D Widgerow
Adipogenesis is a complex process whereby the multipotent adipose-derived stem cell is converted to a preadipocyte before terminal differentiation into the mature adipocyte. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life, exhibit adipose fat depot specificity, and differentiate and proliferate from distinct progenitor cells. The mechanisms that promote preadipocyte commitment and maturation involve numerous protein factor regulators, epigenetic factors, and miRNAs. Detailed characterization of this process is currently an area of intense research and understanding the roles of preadipocytes in tissue plasticity may provide insight into novel approaches for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and treating a host of obesity-related conditions...
October 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026833/primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-older-adults-in-china
#6
REVIEW
Jian Yong, Dong Lin, Xue-Rui Tan
Over the past two decades, the percentage of Chinese who is 60 years or older has increased from 5.2% in 1995 to 10.5% in 2015. Approximately 16% of the population in China was 60 years old and above in 2015. Since 1990, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death in China. Cardiovascular medications of older adults are usually more complicated than younger age groups due to polypharmacy, the presence of comorbidities and more susceptible to treatment-related adverse outcomes. Therefore, effective primary prevention of CVD for older adults is important in sustaining the health of older adults and reducing the burden of the healthcare system...
September 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026728/analysis-of-the-relationship-between-sleep-duration-and-body-mass-index-in-a-south-korean-adult-population-a-propensity-score-matching-approach
#7
Baksun Sung
BACKGROUND: One-third of the present adults in South Korea are obese, and previous studies have demonstrated that sleep duration is considered a risk factor for obesity. Hence, I assessed the relationship between sleep duration and body mass index in a South Korean adult population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study consists of a representative sample of 4,218 South Korean adults (20-64 years) who participated in the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015)...
July 2017: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026414/acute-myocardial-infarction-in-very-young-adults-a-clinical-presentation-risk-factors-hospital-outcome-index-and-their-angiographic-characteristics-in-north-india-amiya-study
#8
Santosh Kumar Sinha, Vinay Krishna, Ramesh Thakur, Ashutosh Kumar, Vikas Mishra, Mukesh Jitendra Jha, Karandeep Singh, Mohit Sachan, Rupesh Sinha, Mohammad Asif, Nasar Afdaali, Chandra Mohan Varma
BACKGROUND: India is currently in the fourth stage of epidemiological transitions where cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Purpose of the present study was to assess the risk factors, clinical presentation, angiographic profile including severity, and in-hospital outcome of very young adults (aged ≤ 30 years) with first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Total of 1,116 consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) were studied between March 2013 and February 2015 at LPS Institute of Cardiology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India...
March 2017: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026353/association-of-body-mass-index-and-postoperative-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-surgery
#9
Maged Y Argalious, Natalya Makarova, Alexander Leone, Jacek Cywinski, Ehab Farag
BACKGROUND: Whether the deleterious effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on the kidneys are exacerbated in the obese population remains unknown. We hypothesized that increased body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing noncardiac laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: Following institutional review board approval, we analyzed data on 8,543 adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores of I-IV who had inpatient noncardiac laparoscopic surgery from 2005-2014...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026216/associations-of-maternal-and-cord-blood-adipokines-with-offspring-adiposity-in-project-viva-is-there-an-interaction-with-child-age
#10
L-J Li, S L Rifas-Shiman, I M Aris, J G Young, C Mantzoros, M-F Hivert, E Oken
OBJECTIVES: Higher leptin and lower adiponectin correlate with adult and childhood adiposity, but it is unclear how exposure to these adipokines during gestation relates to offspring growth. We aimed to investigate the relationships of maternal and cord adipokines with offspring adiposity across childhood to early adolescence, as well as interactions with child age. METHODS: In mother-child pairs in the Project Viva cohort, we measured adipokines in mothers at 2nd trimester (n=1106) and in cord blood at birth (n=657)...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026064/the-effect-of-recipient-body-mass-index-and-its-extremes-on-survival-and-graft-vascular-and-biliary-complications-after-liver-transplantation-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#11
Emmanouil Giorgakis, Michele Tedeschi, Eliano Bonaccorsi-Riani, Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi, Krishna Menon, Hector Vilca-Melendez, Wayel Jassem, Parthi Srinivasan, Andreas Prachalias, Nigel Heaton
BACKGROUND This is the largest UK-based study on the effect of recipient body mass index (BMI) and its extremes (BMI <18.5 and BMI ≥35 kg/m²) on liver transplant (LT) outcomes. Its purpose was to analyze the BMI effect on post-LT mortality, graft loss, primary non-function (PNF), and graft vascular and biliary complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data were retrieved from a single-center LT database of 2,115 consecutive patients receiving first LT during period February 2004 to September 2015. Survivals were compared across the BMI groups; the effects of recipient BMI on survival, PNF, and graft vascular and biliary complications were analyzed via regression...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025840/a-county-level-cross-sectional-analysis-of-positive-deviance-to-assess-multiple-population-health-outcomes-in-indiana
#12
Michael Hendryx, Lucia Guerra-Reyes, Benjamin D Holland, Michael Dean McGinnis, Emily Meanwell, Susan E Middlestadt, Karen M Yoder
OBJECTIVE: To test a positive deviance method to identify counties that are performing better than statistical expectations on a set of population health indicators. DESIGN: Quantitative, cross-sectional county-level secondary analysis of risk variables and outcomes in Indiana. Data are analysed using multiple linear regression to identify counties performing better or worse than expected given traditional risk indicators, with a focus on 'positive deviants' or counties performing better than expected...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025451/mid-upper-arm-circumference-a-surrogate-for-body-mass-index-in-pregnant-women
#13
Ahminah Fakier, Gregory Petro, S Fawcus
BACKGROUND: Nutrition in pregnancy has implications for both mother and fetus, hence the importance of an accurate assessment at the booking visit during antenatal care. The body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) is currently the gold standard for measuring body fatness. However, pregnancy-associated weight gain and oedema, as well as late booking in our population setting, cause concern about the reliability of using the BMI to assess body fat or nutritional status in pregnancy. The mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) has been used for many decades to assess malnutrition in children aged <5 years...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025435/withania-somnifera-as-a-potential-candidate-to-ameliorate-high%C3%A2-fat-diet-induced-anxiety-and-neuroinflammation
#14
Taranjeet Kaur, Gurcharan Kaur
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of obesity has reached alarming levels in both developing and developed nations. Excessive calorie intake and sedentary lifestyle due to technological advancements are the main causal factors for overweight and obesity among the human population. Obesity has been associated with a number of co-morbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegeneration and dementia. The progression of neurological disorders in obese subjects has been mainly attributed to neuroinflammation...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025162/complications-of-obesity
#15
D Kinlen, D Cody, D O'Shea
Global obesity rates have increased exponentially in recent decades. People are becoming obese younger, morbid obesity is increasing and the full health implications are only beginning to be seen. This article discusses the latest epidemiological data on obesity in adults and children, and systemically reviews the complications associated with the condition.
July 24, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024553/obesity-risk-factors-complications-and-strategies-for-sustainable-long-term-weight-management
#16
Sharon M Fruh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aims of this article are to review the effects of obesity on health and well-being and the evidence indicating they can be ameliorated by weight loss, and consider weight-management strategies that may help patients achieve and maintain weight loss. METHODS: Narrative review based on literature searches of PubMed up to May 2016 with no date limits imposed. Search included terms such as "obesity," "overweight," "weight loss," "comorbidity," "diabetes," cardiovascular," "cancer," "depression," "management," and "intervention...
October 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024367/commissioning-guidance-for-weight-assessment-and-management-in-adults-and-children-with-severe-complex-obesity
#17
REVIEW
R Welbourn, J Hopkins, J B Dixon, N Finer, C Hughes, R Viner, J Wass
The challenge of managing the epidemic of patients with severe and complex obesity disease in secondary care is largely unmet. In England, the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence and the National Health Service England have published guidance on the provision of specialist (non-surgical) weight management services. We have undertaken a systematic review of 'what evidence exists for what should happen in/commissioning of: primary or secondary care weight assessment and management clinics in patients needing specialist care for severe and complex obesity?' using an accredited methodology to produce a model for organization of multidisciplinary team clinics that could be developed in every healthcare system, as an update to a previous review...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023853/antibiotics-gut-microbiome-and-obesity
#18
Karen S W Leong, José G B Derraik, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield
Antibiotics have been hailed by many as 'miracle drugs' that have been effectively treating infectious diseases for over a century, leading to a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality. However, with the increasing use of antibiotics, we are now faced not only with the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, but also with a rising concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on human health, including the development of obesity. The obesity pandemic continues to increase, a problem that affects both adults and children alike...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023304/association-of-insulin-and-cholesterol-levels-with-peripheral-nervous-system-function-in-overweight-adults-a-3-year-follow-up
#19
Henri Isojärvi, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Mika Kallio, Kaisu Kaikkonen, Timo Jämsä, Juha Korpelainen, Raija Korpelainen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this prospective 3-year follow-up was to investigate the association of glucose, insulin, and cholesterol levels with peripheral nervous system function in overweight and obese subjects. METHODS: Forty nondiabetic overweight and obese adults were enrolled, of whom 29 completed the follow-up. Peripheral nervous system function was measured and defined by conduction studies of the peroneal motor nerve and the radial, sural, and medial plantar sensory nerves...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022571/epidemiology-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-young-individuals
#20
REVIEW
Charlotte Andersson, Ramachandran S Vasan
In the past 2 decades, a high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet, has been observed among young individuals living in developed countries. The rate of substance abuse (opioids, cocaine, electronic cigarettes, and anabolic steroids) is also increasing among young adults, whereas cigarette smoking might be declining. Among younger individuals (aged 18-50 years), the incidence of cardiovascular diseases over the same time period has either been steady or has increased, in contrast to the trend towards a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in adults aged >50 years...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
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