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obesity in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656595/pathways-of-association-from-stress-to-obesity-in-early-childhood
#1
REVIEW
Alison L Miller, Julie C Lumeng
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to critically review the literature on early life stress in relation to obesity in humans, including the multiple biological and behavioral mechanisms through which early life stress exposure (birth to the age of 5 years) may associate with obesity risk during childhood. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted to identify studies on associations between early childhood stress and risk for obesity and the mechanisms of association...
April 14, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655968/mediation-of-the-bidirectional-relations-between-obesity-and-depression-among-women
#2
Jeffrey R Vittengl
Past research established that obesity increases risk for development of depression, and depression increases risk for development of obesity. The current study tested physical impairment (difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living), social dysfunction (low social support and high social strain), and emotional eating (using food to cope with stress) as mediators of the bidirectional, longitudinal relations between depression and obesity. A national sample of mid-life adults in the United States (N = 7108) was assessed at three time points over 18 years...
April 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652901/early-postnatal-soluble-fgfr3-therapy-prevents-the-atypical-development-of-obesity-in-achondroplasia
#3
Celine Saint-Laurent, Stephanie Garcia, Vincent Sarrazy, Karine Dumas, Florence Authier, Sophie Sore, Albert Tran, Philippe Gual, Isabelle Gennero, Jean-Pierre Salles, Elvire Gouze
BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652820/diet-quality-and-nutrient-intake-of-urban-overweight-and-obese-primarily-african-american-older-adults-with-osteoarthritis
#4
Sevasti Vergis, Linda Schiffer, Tiffany White, Andrew McLeod, Neda Khudeira, Andrew Demott, Marian Fitzgibbon, Susan Hughes, Lisa Tussing-Humphreys
Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA). Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9) were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
April 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652579/assessment-of-the-contribution-of-dietary-and-beverage-intake-quality-to-obesity-development
#5
Saniye Bilici, Hande Mortaş, Betül Kocaadam, Eda Köksal
OBJECTIVE: Low dietary quality is an important indicator of unhealthy eating patterns that can lead to some consequences such as obesity, so policy is a very powerful tool that can affect the consumption of both healthy and unhealthy foods. Indices that assess whether nutritional policies are applied contribute to the assessment of the quality of the population's diet. This study was conducted to investigate the quality of diets and beverages consumed by Turkish adults, and the factors affecting them...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651819/biochemical-predictors-of-early-onset-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-young-children-with-obesity
#6
Ju Young Kim, Jinmin Cho, Hye Ran Yang
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their associated risk factors are not well-established in young children with obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of early onset NAFLD and identify its biochemical predictors in obese children aged less than 10 years. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, laboratory tests, and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651678/performance-of-the-2015-us-preventive-services-task-force-screening-criteria-for-prediabetes-and-undiagnosed-diabetes
#7
Matthew J O'Brien, Kai McKeever Bullard, Yan Zhang, Edward W Gregg, Mercedes R Carnethon, Namratha R Kandula, Ronald T Ackermann
BACKGROUND: In 2015, The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended screening for prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes (collectively called dysglycemia) among adults aged 40-70 years with overweight or obesity. The recommendation suggests that clinicians consider screening earlier in people who have other diabetes risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of limited and expanded screening criteria recommended by the USPSTF for detecting dysglycemia among US adults...
April 12, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651573/metabolic-syndrome-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-relationship-to-disease-activity-and-neuropsychiatric-lupus
#8
N Hammam, S M Rashad, A A A Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to evaluate the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Egyptian systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Additionally, we intended to determine the association of MetS with disease activity, clinical and laboratory features. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included adult SLE patients diagnosed and followed in rheumatology outpatient clinics. The demographic data, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed for all patients...
April 12, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651435/which-kidney-transplant-recipients-can-benefit-from-the-initial-tacrolimus-dose-reduction
#9
Kinga Krzyżowska, Aureliusz Kolonko, Piotr Giza, Jerzy Chudek, Andrzej Więcek
Background: Observational data suggest that the fixed initial recommended tacrolimus (Tc) dosing (0.2 mg/kg/day) results in supratherapeutic drug levels in some patients during the early posttransplant period. The aim of the study was to analyze a wide panel of patient-related factors and their interactions which increase the risk for first Tc blood level > 15 ng/ml. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 488 consecutive adult kidney transplant recipients who were initially treated with triple immunosuppressive regimen containing tacrolimus twice daily...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650030/harnessing-qatar-biobank-to-understand-type-2-diabetes-and-obesity-in-adult-qataris-from-the-first-qatar-biobank-project
#10
Ehsan Ullah, Raghvendra Mall, Reda Rawi, Naima M Moustaid, Adeel A Butt, Halima Bensmail
BACKGROUND: Human tissues are invaluable resources for researchers worldwide. Biobanks are repositories of such human tissues and can have a strategic importance for genetic research, clinical care, and future discoveries and treatments. One of the aims of Qatar Biobank is to improve the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Qatari population such as obesity and diabetes. METHODS: In this study we apply a panorama of state-of-the-art statistical methods and machine learning algorithms to investigate associations and risk factors for diabetes and obesity on a sample of 1000 Qatari population...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650018/health-conditions-and-lifestyle-risk-factors-of-adults-living-in-puerto-rico-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Josiemer Mattei, Martha Tamez, Carlos F Ríos-Bedoya, Rui S Xiao, Katherine L Tucker, José F Rodríguez-Orengo
BACKGROUND: Puerto Rico is experiencing an economic and healthcare crisis, yet there are scarce recent and comprehensive reports on the population's health profile. We aimed to describe prevalent risk factors and health conditions of adults living in Puerto Rico and assess their interrelationship. METHODS: Participants (n = 380) aged 30-75y recruited from a 2015 convenience sample in primary care clinics in the San Juan, Puerto Rico metropolitan area answered cross-sectional interviewer-administered questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, self-reported medically-diagnosed diseases, health services, and psychosocial factors...
April 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649917/association-of-obesity-with-healthcare-resource-utilization-and-costs-in-a-commercial-population
#12
Pravin S Kamble, Jennifer Hayden, Jenna Collins, Raymond A Harvey, Brandon Suehs, Andrew Renda, Mette Hammer, Joanna Huang, Jonathan Bouchard
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of obesity with healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs among commercially insured individuals. METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study used insured individuals' administrative claims from 1/1/2007 to 12/1/2013. The ICD-9-CM status codes (V85 hierarchy) from 2008 to 2012 classified body mass index (BMI) into the World Health Organizations' BMI categories. The date of first observed BMI code was defined as the index date and continuous eligibility for one year pre- and post- index date was ensured...
April 12, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649425/effects-of-grape-consumption-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-endothelial-function-and-pbmc-gene-expression-in-obese-subjects
#13
Allison S Bardagjy, Qian Hu, Kathryn A Giebler, Addison Ford, Francene M Steinberg
This study investigated effects of grape consumption on biomarkers of cardiovascular health in obese participants in both postprandial and chronic settings. Twenty obese adults participated in this randomized, placebo controlled, double-blinded crossover trial. Participants were randomized to consume 60 g freeze-dried polyphenol-rich whole grape powder (GP) or placebo (PBO) followed by high fat high carbohydrate (HFHC) meal challenge. Following acute challenge, participants consumed their respective treatment daily for 4 weeks to determine effects of chronic consumption...
April 9, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649378/poor-sleep-quality-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-postmenopausal-women-with-and-without-metabolic-syndrome
#14
Christopher E Kline, Martica H Hall, Daniel J Buysse, Conrad P Earnest, Timothy S Church
BACKGROUND: Poor sleep quality has previously been shown to be related to insulin resistance in apparently healthy adults. However, it is unclear whether an association between sleep quality and insulin resistance exists among adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Participants included 347 overweight/obese postmenopausal women without type 2 diabetes (age: 57.5 ± 6.5 years; body mass index [BMI]: 31.7 ± 3.7 kg/m2 ; 54% with MetS). Sleep quality was assessed with the six-item Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale; values were categorized into quartiles...
March 20, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648999/cord-blood-klotho-levels-are-inversely-associated-with-leptin-in-healthy-latino-neonates-at-risk-for-obesity
#15
Janet M Wojcicki, Aric A Prather, Elissa Epel, Dan Wang, Dena B Dubal
BACKGROUND: Klotho serum levels reflect nutritional state in adults including obesity and anorexia. The relationship between cord blood klotho levels at birth and parameters of growth including anthropometrics are not known. METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between cord blood klotho, leptin and adipocyte hormones and infant, child and maternal anthropometrics and maternal depression in a cohort of 73 children. Non-parametric tests were used to assess differences between dichotomous and categorical predictors and klotho levels and Spearman's rank coefficients were used to assess the relationship between klotho levels and continuous predictors...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648664/how-does-the-association-of-general-and-central-adiposity-with-glycaemia-and-blood-pressure-differ-by-gender-and-area-of-residence-in-a-malawian-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Kathleen Mudie, Debbie A Lawlor, Neil Pearce, Amelia Crampin, Laurie Tomlinson, Terence Tafatatha, Crispin Musicha, Dorothea Nitsch, Liam Smeeth, Moffat J Nyirenda
Background: In high-income settings, body mass index (BMI) and measures of central adiposity, such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic risk, but evidence from low-income settings, particularly sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), is limited. We assessed whether there are differences between central and general adiposity in their associations with fasting glucose, diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and hypertension, and whether these associations differ with gender or rural/urban setting in Malawi...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648569/the-childhood-role-in-development-of-primary-hypertension
#17
Bonita Falkner
Primary hypertension is not just an adult disorder. Current US population data on children and adolescents demonstrate a prevalence of elevated blood pressure (BP) and hypertension combined of over 10%. Recent reports from prospective cohort studies describe an association of high BP in childhood with hypertension in young adulthood. Excess adiposity is strongly associated with higher BP in childhood and increases risk for hypertension in adulthood. In addition to overweight/obesity, other exposures that raise the risk for high BP include low birthweight, dietary sodium, and stress...
April 10, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644954/eating-frequency-is-inversely-associated-with-bmi-waist-circumference-and-the-proportion-of-body-fat-in-korean-adults-when-diet-quality-is-high-but-not-when-it-is-low-analysis-of-the-fourth-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-knhanes-iv
#18
Sunmi Kim, Jeong Hee Yang, Gyeong-Hun Park
The role of eating frequency (EF) in obesity development has been debated, and few studies have investigated Asian populations. Diet quality might affect the association between EF and obesity. Therefore, we investigated the association between EF and obesity indicators in a representative sample of Korean adults with consideration to diet quality. This cross-sectional study used data of 6951 participants aged 19-93 years (male 49·8 %, female 50·2 %) from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
April 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644951/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-insufficiency-among-us-adults-prevalence-predictors-and-clinical-implications
#19
Xuefeng Liu, Ana Baylin, Phillip D Levy
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and insufficiency (VDI) are increasing at a global level, and they are associated with increased risk of various diseases. However, little information is available on the prevalence and predictors of VDD and VDI in a representative population of US adults. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements were collected from 26 010 adults aged ≥18 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2010. Using thresholds recommended by the Endocrine Society, VDD was defined as 25(OH)D<50 nmol/l and VDI as 50≤25(OH)D<75 nmol/l...
April 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644787/impact-of-the-make-healthy-normal-mass-media-campaign-phase-1-on-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviours-a-cohort-study
#20
James Kite, Joanne Gale, Anne Grunseit, William Bellew, Vincy Li, Beverley Lloyd, Michelle Maxwell, John Vineburg, Adrian Bauman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of the first phase of the Make Healthy Normal mass media campaign on NSW adults' active living and healthy eating knowledge, attitudes, intentions and behaviour. METHODS: Cohort design with NSW adults, followed up three times over 12 months, with n=939 participants completing all three waves. We used generalised linear mixed models to examine campaign awareness, knowledge, attitudes, intentions and behaviours over time. RESULTS: Campaign recognition built to a reasonable level (45% at Wave 3), although unprompted recall was low (9% at Wave 3)...
April 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
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