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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778642/benefits-of-a-multicomponent-falls-unit-based-exercise-program-in-older-adults-with-falls-in-real-life
#1
Rafael García Molina, Marta Carolina Ruíz Grao, Alicia Noguerón García, Marta Martínez Reig, Mariano Esbrí Víctor, Míkel Izquierdo Redín, Pedro Abizanda Soler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Multicomponent exercise programs are the cornerstone in preventing gait and balance impairments and falls in older adults. However, the effects of these programs in usual clinical practice have been poorly analyzed. DESIGN: 4-Month, twice-a-week multicomponent exercise program cohort study in real-life. SETTING: Falls Unit, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario of Albacete, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-seven participants who had experienced a fall in the previous year were included...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777648/reasons-for-discontinuation-of-implanon-among-users-in-buffalo-city-metropolitan-municipality-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Khungelwa Patricia Mrwebi, Daniel Ter Goon, Eyitayo Omolara Owolabi, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Eunice Seekoe, Anthony Idowu Ajayi
Early discontinuation of implanon, a long-acting, reversible contraceptive among reproductive age women in South Africa is a serious public health concern. The aim of this study was to examine the reasons for discontinuation of implanon among its previous users. This descriptive cross-sectional study involved 188 consecutively selected participants in two large family planning clinics in Buffalo Metropolitan Municipality, East London, South Africa. Descriptive statistics was conducted using SPSS version 22...
March 2018: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777477/cardiac-and-gait-rhythms-in-healthy-younger-and-older-adults-during-treadmill-walking-tasks
#3
Matthew W Wittstein, Joseph M Starobin, Randy J Schmitz, Sandra J Shulz, Francis Jay Haran, Christopher K Rhea
BACKGROUND: Aging and pathology result in changes in the dynamics of several physiological subsystems. Often, these changes are concurrent, altering the dynamics between subsystems. Cardiac and gait rhythms are one example in which patterns change during physical activity. AIMS: The purpose of this research is to simultaneously monitor changes in cardiac and gait rhythms when participants complete various treadmill walking tasks-normal speed, fast speed, and while synchronizing steps with a blinking metronome...
May 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777234/prevotella-to-bacteroides-ratio-predicts-body-weight-and-fat-loss-success-on-24-week-diets-varying-in-macronutrient-composition-and-dietary-fiber-results-from-a-post-hoc-analysis
#4
Mads F Hjorth, Trine Blædel, Line Q Bendtsen, Janne K Lorenzen, Jacob B Holm, Pia Kiilerich, Henrik M Roager, Karsten Kristiansen, Lesli H Larsen, Arne Astrup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low ( ≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777094/biological-monitoring-and-lung-function-assessment-among-workers-exposed-to-chromium-in-the-ceramic-industry
#5
Fatemeh Kargar Shouroki, Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri, Farideh Golbabaei, Abolfazle Barkhordari, Abbas Rahimi-Froushani
BACKGROUND: Chromium exposure occurs in various industries such as ceramics industry. The main disadvantage of chromium is high toxicity when absorbed by the body. This study aimed to determine and compare urinary chromium values in the pre- and post-shift of ceramic glazers and the control group; investigate urinary chromium value according to the study variables; compare pulmonary function tests between ceramic glazers vs. the control group. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776623/nonrestorative-sleep-in-healthy-young-adults-without-insomnia-associations-with-executive-functioning-fatigue-and-pre-sleep-arousal
#6
Ruben Tinajero, Paula G Williams, Matthew R Cribbet, Holly K Rau, Daniel L Bride, Yana Suchy
OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that nonrestorative sleep (NRS), even in the absence of insomnia symptoms or other sleep disorders, may be associated with daytime dysfunction. This study examined the association between NRS and daytime dysfunction in healthy adults screened for insomnia and sleep apnea. DESIGN: Multi-day assessment approach. SETTING: Community-based adults and college students. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy young adults without insomnia and sleep apnea (n = 79; 68% female, mean age = 27...
June 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776399/simulation-based-power-calculations-for-planning-a-two-stage-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#7
Joie Ensor, Danielle L Burke, Kym I E Snell, Karla Hemming, Richard D Riley
BACKGROUND: Researchers and funders should consider the statistical power of planned Individual Participant Data (IPD) meta-analysis projects, as they are often time-consuming and costly. We propose simulation-based power calculations utilising a two-stage framework, and illustrate the approach for a planned IPD meta-analysis of randomised trials with continuous outcomes where the aim is to identify treatment-covariate interactions. METHODS: The simulation approach has four steps: (i) specify an underlying (data generating) statistical model for trials in the IPD meta-analysis; (ii) use readily available information (e...
May 18, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776365/nutrient-intake-disparities-in-the-us-modeling-the-effect-of-food-substitutions
#8
Zach Conrad, LuAnn K Johnson, James N Roemmich, WenYen Juan, Lisa Jahns
BACKGROUND: Diet quality among federal food assistance program participants remains low, and little research has assessed the diet quality of food insecure non-participants. Further research is needed to assess the extent to which food substitutions can improve the nutritional status of these vulnerable populations. Substituting egg dishes for other commonly consumed dishes at certain eating occasions may be an effective strategy for improving the daily nutrient intake among these groups...
May 17, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774465/effect-of-inositol-stereoisomers-at-different-dosages-in-gestational-diabetes-an-open-label-parallel-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Federica Fraticelli, Claudio Celentano, Isaia Al Zecca, Giacoma Di Vieste, Basilio Pintaudi, Marco Liberati, Marica Franzago, Marta Di Nicola, Ester Vitacolonna
AIMS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disorder of pregnancy. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of different dosages of inositol stereoisomers supplementation on insulin resistance levels and several maternal-fetal outcomes in GDM women. METHODS: Participants were randomly allocated to receive daily: 400 mcg folic acid (control treatment), 4000 mg myo-inositol plus 400 mcg folic acid (MI treatment), 500 mg D-chiro-inositol plus 400 mcg folic acid (DCI treatment) or 1100/27...
May 17, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773205/the-role-of-pre-sleep-cognitions-in-adolescent-sleep-onset-problems
#10
Melanie Heath, Anna Johnston, Hayley Dohnt, Michelle Short, Michael Gradisar
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between pre-sleep cognitions and sleep-onset difficulties in an adolescent sample. METHODS: Participants comprised 385 students (59% male) from grades 9 to 11, aged between 13 and 18 years (M = 15.6, SD = 1.0), from eight co-educational high schools of varied socio-economic status in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. The cross-sectional study used a questionnaire battery including the Sleep Anticipatory Anxiety Questionnaire -Adolescent Version (SAAQ-A), completed during school time, followed by eight days of sleep diary completion and wearing wrist actigraphy to obtain subjective and objective sleep onset latency (SOL)...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772351/a-couple-based-communication-intervention-for-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-survivors-and-their-caregiving-partners-feasibility-acceptability-and-change-in-process-measures
#11
Shelby Langer, Laura Porter, Joan Romano, Michael Todd, Stephanie Lee
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) poses significant challenges for recipients and their caregiving partners. Couples may refrain from talking about treatment-related fears and concerns in order to minimize distress. This single-group, pre-post study examined feasibility and acceptability of an intervention designed to optimize communication between HCT patients and partners; it also assessed change in process measures. Couples met with a therapist five times to learn skills for disclosing illness-related thoughts and feelings and responding supportively to one another...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771567/enacting-rituals-to-improve-self-control
#12
Allen Ding Tian, Juliana Schroeder, Gerald Häubl, Jane L Risen, Michael I Norton, Francesca Gino
Rituals are predefined sequences of actions characterized by rigidity and repetition. We propose that enacting ritualized actions can enhance subjective feelings of self-discipline, such that rituals can be harnessed to improve behavioral self-control. We test this hypothesis in 6 experiments. A field experiment showed that engaging in a pre-eating ritual over a 5-day period helped participants reduce calorie intake (Experiment 1). Pairing a ritual with healthy eating behavior increased the likelihood of choosing healthy food in a subsequent decision (Experiment 2), and enacting a ritual before a food choice (i...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770445/cost-effectiveness-of-a-community-based-diabetes-prevention-program-with-participation-incentives-for-medicaid-beneficiaries
#13
Todd Gilmer, Patrick J O'Connor, Jeffrey S Schiff, Gretchen Taylor, Gabriela Vazquez-Benitez, Joyce E Garrett, Houa Vue-Her, Sarah Rinn, Julie Anderson, Jay Desai
OBJECTIVE: To examine the cost-effectiveness of a community-based Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) for Medicaid beneficiaries from the perspective of the health care sector. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: A total of 847 Medicaid enrollees at high risk for type 2 diabetes participating in a community-based DPP. STUDY DESIGN: Pre- and post clinical outcome and cost data were used as inputs into a validated diabetes simulation model. The model was used to evaluate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and health care costs over a 40-year time horizon from the perspective of the health care sector...
May 16, 2018: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768244/harmonization-activities-of-noklus-a-quality-improvement-organization-for-point-of-care-laboratory-examinations
#14
Anne Stavelin, Sverre Sandberg
Noklus is a non-profit quality improvement organization that focuses to improve all elements in the total testing process. The aim is to ensure that all medical laboratory examinations are ordered, performed and interpreted correctly and in accordance with the patients' needs for investigation, treatment and follow-up. For 25 years, Noklus has focused on point-of-care (POC) testing in primary healthcare laboratories and has more than 3100 voluntary participants. The Noklus quality system uses different tools to obtain harmonization and improvement: (1) external quality assessment for the pre-examination, examination and postexamination phase to monitor the harmonization process and to identify areas that need improvement and harmonization, (2) manufacturer-independent evaluations of the analytical quality and user-friendliness of POC instruments and (3) close interactions and follow-up of the participants through site visits, courses, training and guidance...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764880/digital-breast-tomosynthesis-plus-synthesised-images-versus-standard-full-field-digital-mammography-in-population-based-screening-tosyma-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Stefanie Weigel, Joachim Gerss, Hans-Werner Hense, Miriam Krischke, Alexander Sommer, Jörg Czwoydzinski, Horst Lenzen, Laura Kerschke, Karin Spieker, Stefanie Dickmaenken, Sonja Baier, Marc Urban, Gerold Hecht, Oliver Heidinger, Joachim Kieschke, Walter Heindel
INTRODUCTION: Development of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) provides a technology that generates three-dimensional data sets, thus reducing the pitfalls of overlapping breast tissue. Observational studies suggest that the combination of two-dimensional (2D) digital mammography and DBT increases diagnostic accuracy. However, because of duplicate exposure, this comes at the cost of an augmented radiation dose. This undesired adverse impact can be avoided by using synthesised 2D images reconstructed from the DBT data (s2D)...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764877/efficacy-of-practising-tai-chi-for-older-people-with-mild-dementia-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-study
#16
Jihui Lyu, Wenjie Li, Xiangjiang Rong, Lian Wei, Nayan Huang, Mei Champ, Qian Xiong, Xueli Chen, Mo Li, Fangling Li
INTRODUCTION: Many studies suggest that Tai Chi exercise is a safe and appropriate mind-body exercise for older people and effectively slows down age-related cognitive decline. A set of bespoke Tai Chi exercise named 'Cognition Protecting Tai Chi' (CPT) has been created for older people with cognitive impairments by the research team of geriatricians, neurologists, rehabilitation specialists, experts of sports medicine and experienced practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine. This trial is designed to evaluate its effects on cognitive function, behaviour/moods, risk of falls and activities of daily living of the participants with mild dementia...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764875/efficacy-and-safety-of-ghx02-in-the-treatment-of-acute-bronchitis-protocol-of-a-phase-ii-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
Yee Ran Lyu, Won-Kyung Yang, So Jung Park, Seung-Hyeong Kim, Wee-Chang Kang, In Chul Jung, Yang Chun Park
INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infection of the large airways; cough is the primary symptom, usually lasting for about 3 weeks. Annually, approximately 5% of adults develop acute bronchitis, and its economic burden is substantial. There are also problems of antibiotic abuse in public health systems and symptomatic therapies are commonly prescribed, for which there is insufficient supporting evidence. GHX02 contains four herbs originating from gwaruhaengryeon-hwan, which has been used in the treatment of patients with acute bronchitis in Korea...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763969/hormone-replacement-therapy-for-women-previously-treated-for-endometrial-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Katharine A Edey, Stuart Rundle, Martha Hickey
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide and most commonly occurs after the menopause (75%) (globocan.iarc.fr). About 319,000 new cases were diagnosed worldwide in 2012. Endometrial cancer is commonly considered as a potentially 'curable cancer,' as approximately 75% of cases are diagnosed before disease has spread outside the uterus (FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage I). The overall five-year survival for all stages is about 86%, and, if the cancer is confined to the uterus, the five-year survival rate may increase to 97%...
May 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763767/to-deliver-or-not-to-deliver-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-eating-disorders-replication-and-extension-of-our-understanding-of-why-therapists-fail-to-do-what-they-should-do
#19
Sandra Mulkens, Chloé de Vos, Anastacia de Graaff, Glenn Waller
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the extent to which therapists fail to apply empirically supported treatments in a sample of clinicians in The Netherlands, delivering cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders (CBT-ED). It aimed to replicate previous findings, and to extend them by examining other potential intra-individual factors associated with the level of (non-)use of core CBT-ED techniques. METHOD: Participants were 139 clinicians (127 women; mean age 41...
May 4, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763448/modulation-of-functional-activity-and-connectivity-by-acupuncture-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease-as-measured-by-resting-state-fmri
#20
Weimin Zheng, Zhuangzhi Su, Xingyun Liu, Hao Zhang, Ying Han, Haiqing Song, Jie Lu, Kuncheng Li, Zhiqun Wang
Acupuncture has been used in the therapy of Alzheimer disease (AD); however, its neural mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of acupuncture on the functional connectivity in AD by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Twenty-eight subjects (14 AD and 14 normal controls) participated in this study. The rs-fMRI data were acquired before and after acupuncture stimulation at the acupoints of Tai chong (Liv3) and Hegu (LI4). During the baseline resting state, by using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), we found a significantly decreased or increased ALFF in the AD patients relative to the controls...
2018: PloS One
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