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Christa Kietz, Vilma Pollari, Annika Meinander
As several diseases have been linked to dysbiosis of the human intestinal microflora, manipulation of the microbiota has emerged as an exciting new strategy for potentially treating and preventing diseases. However, the human microbiota consists of a plethora of different species, and distinguishing the impact of a specific bacterial species on human health is challenging. In tackling this challenge, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, with its far simpler microbial composition, has emerged as a powerful model for unraveling host-microbe interactions...
June 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Seulah Lee, Dahae Lee, Joo Chan Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Rhim Ryoo, Hyun-Ju Park, Ki Hyun Kim
Calvatia species, generally known as puffball mushrooms, are used both as sources of food as well as traditional medicine. Among the Calvatia genus, Calvatia nipponica (Agaricaceae) is one of the rarest species. Using bioassay-guided fractionation based on anti-inflammatory effects, five alkaloids (1 - 5), two phenolics (6 - 7) and a fatty acid methyl ester (8) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of C. nipponica. Compound 8 was identified from C. nipponica for the first time, and all isolates (1 - 8) were tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264...
June 22, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Pedro J Rey, Inmaculada Cancio, Antonio J Manzaneda, Ana González-Robles, Francisco Valera, Teresa Salido, Julio M Alcántara
Global change drivers are currently affecting semiarid ecosystems. Because these ecosystems differ from others in biotic and abiotic filters, cues for plant regeneration and management derived from elsewhere may not be applicable to semiarid ecosystems. We sought to determine the extent to which regional variation in regeneration prospects of a long-lived semiarid keystone shrub depends on anthropogenic habitat degradation, plant-animal interactions and climate determinants. We investigated the regeneration ability (via population size structure, juvenile density and juvenile/adult ratio), fruit set and seed dispersal of Ziziphus lotus in 25 localities spanning the range of its threatened habitats in Spain...
June 22, 2018: Plant Biology
Kyoung Su Choi, Myounghai Kwak, Byoungyoon Lee, SeonJoo Park
The chloroplast genome of Tetragonia tetragonioides (Aizoaceae; Caryophyllales) was sequenced to provide information for studies on phylogeny and evolution within Caryophyllales. The chloroplast genome of Tetragonia tetragonioides is 149,506 bp in length and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,769 bp that separate a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,780 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 17,188 bp. Comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome showed that Caryphyllales species have lost many genes...
2018: PloS One
Seung Choi, Seokyoung Han, Noe-Heon Kim, Yuong-Nam Lee
The Gekkota is an important clade in the evolution of calcified eggshells in that some of its families lay rigid eggshells like archosaurs. However, the fundamental differences and similarities between the mechanism of rigid eggshell formation of the Gekkota and Archosauria have not been investigated thoroughly due to the lack of knowledge of gekkotan eggshells. Here, we report for the first time a comprehensive analysis of morphological, chemical compositional, and crystallographic features of rigid and soft gekkotan eggshells...
2018: PloS One
Christina Yacoob, Miles Darnell Lange, Kristen Cohen, Kanan Lathia, Junli Feng, Jolene Glenn, Sara Carbonetti, Brian Oliver, Vladimir Vigdorovich, David Noah Sather, Leonidas Stamatatos
Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) isolated from infected subjects display protective potential in animal models. Their elicitation by immunization is thus highly desirable. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole viral target of bnAbs, but is also targeted by binding, non-neutralizing antibodies. Env-based immunogens tested so far in various animal species and humans have elicited binding and autologous neutralizing antibodies but not bNAbs (with a few notable exceptions). The underlying reasons for this are not well understood despite intensive efforts to characterize the binding specificities of the elicited antibodies; mostly by employing serologic methodologies and monoclonal antibody isolation and characterization...
June 22, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Przemysław Bernat, Justyna Nykiel-Szymańska, Paulina Stolarek, Mirosława Słaba, Rafał Szewczyk, Sylwia Różalska
The study reports the response to herbicide of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading fungal strain Umbelopsis isabellina. A comparative analysis covered 41 free amino acids as well as 140 lipid species of fatty acids, phospholipids, acylglycerols, sphingolipids, and sterols. 2,4-D presence led to a decrease in fungal catalase activity, associated with a higher amount of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Damage to cells treated with the herbicide resulted in increased membrane permeability and decreased membrane fluidity...
2018: PloS One
Monika Mioduchowska, Michał Jan Czyż, Bartłomiej Gołdyn, Jarosław Kur, Jerzy Sell
The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene is the main mitochondrial molecular marker playing a pivotal role in phylogenetic research and is a crucial barcode sequence. Folmer's "universal" primers designed to amplify this gene in metazoan invertebrates allowed quick and easy barcode and phylogenetic analysis. On the other hand, the increase in the number of studies on barcoding leads to more frequent publishing of incorrect sequences, due to amplification of non-target taxa, and insufficient analysis of the obtained sequences...
2018: PloS One
Mubina Isani, Brandon A Bell, Patrick T Delaplain, Jordan D Bowling, Jamie M Golden, Melissa Elizee, Laura Illingworth, Jin Wang, Christopher P Gayer, Anatoly V Grishin, Henri R Ford
The use of lactobacilli in prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is hampered by insufficient knowledge about optimal species/strains and effects on intestinal bacterial populations. We therefore sought to identify lactobacilli naturally occurring in postnatal rats and examine their ability to colonize the neonatal intestine and protect from NEC. L. murinus, L. acidophilus, and L. johnsonii were found in 42, 20, and 1 out of 51 4-day old rats, respectively. Higher proportion of L. murinus in microbiota correlated with lower NEC scores...
2018: PloS One
Xiaofei Li, Sarah Zito, Michelle Sinclair, Clive J C Phillips
China is the world's biggest livestock producer, and has a rapidly expanding intensive livestock production in response to growing demand. The large size of the country and geographical dispersion of the livestock production systems means that animals are often transported long distances to slaughter. This study investigated perceptions of animal welfare issues by stakeholders in the Chinese transport and slaughter industry using utility scores and adaptive conjoint analysis. An initial workshop for experts in this field identified key concerns; these were then included in a questionnaire, which was distributed electronically to stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Imran Mahmud, Naznin Shahria, Sabina Yeasmin, Asif Iqbal, Emdadul Hasan Mukul, Sudipta Gain, Jamil Ahmad Shilpi, Md Khirul Islam
Ceriops decandra is a mangrove tree species, reputed for its folkloric uses in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, infection, snakebites, inflammation, and cancer. Different parts of the plant are rich with various phytoconstituents which include diterpenoids (ceriopsin A-G), triterpenoids (lupeol, α-amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid), and phenolics (catechin, procyanidins).These phytoconstituents and their derivatives could form a new basis for developing new drugs against various diseases. The objective of the present study is to compile the phytochemical, ethnobotanical, biological, and pharmacological significance of the plant to provide directions for future research to find out therapeutically active lead compounds for developing new drugs against diseases of current interest including diabetes, inflammation, and cancer...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Varinder Singh, Pawan Krishan, Richa Shri
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in ischemia reperfusion (IR)-mediated functional and neuronal impairment. Therefore, strategies employing antioxidants to reverse the damage due to IR are being investigated. Allium schoenoprasum L. is a culinary medicine whose antioxidant properties are well documented but whose neuroprotective potential has not been examined. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of A. schoenoprasum leaf extract (ASLE) on functional deficit against IR-induced cerebral injury in mice...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Jinjin Xu, Mengsen Li, Zhihong Yao, Yezi Zhang, Shishi Li, Liufang Hu, Zifei Qin, Frank J Gonzalez, Xinsheng Yao
Neobavaisoflavone (NBIF), a phenolic compound isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L., possesses several significant biological properties. However, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of NBIF have been characterized as rapid oral absorption, high clearance, and poor oral bioavailability. We found that NBIF underwent massive glucuronidation and oxidation by human liver microsomes (HLM) in this study with the intrinsic clearance (CLint ) values of 12.43, 10.04, 2.01, and 6.99 μL/min/mg for M2, M3, M4, and M5, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Arash Mirzahosseini, Tamás Pálla, Gábor Orgován, Gergő Tóth, Béla Noszál
Dopamine and 4 related compounds were studied by 1 H NMR-pH titrations and a case-tailored evaluation method. The resulting acid-base properties of dopamine are quantified in terms of 3 macroscopic and 12 microscopic protonation constants and the concomitant 3 interactivity parameters. The species- and site-specific basicities are interpreted by means of inductive and shielding effects through various intra- and intermolecular comparisons. The site-specific basicities determined this way are key parameters for the prediction of pharmacokinetic behavior and receptor-binding at the molecular level...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Muhammad Ali, Dario Rangel Shaw, Lei Zhang, Mohamed Fauzi Haroon, Yuko Narita, Abdul-Hamid Emwas, Pascal E Saikaly, Satoshi Okabe
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are well known for their aggregation ability. However, very little is known about cell surface physicochemical properties of anammox bacteria and thus their aggregation abilities have not been quantitatively evaluated yet. Here, we investigated the aggregation abilities of three different anammox bacterial species: "Candidatus Brocadia sinica", "Ca. Jettenia caeni" and "Ca. Brocadia sapporoensis". Planktonic free-living enrichment cultures of these three anammox species were harvested from the membrane bioreactors (MBRs)...
June 12, 2018: Water Research
Daína Lima, Flávia Lucena Zacchi, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Fabrício Flores-Nunes, Carlos Henrique Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Álvaro Cavaler Pessoa de Mello, Marília Nardelli Siebert, Clei Endrigo Piazza, Satie Taniguchi, Silvio Tarou Sasaki, Márcia Caruso Bícego, Maria João Bebianno, Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Exposure of aquatic organisms to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), such as phenanthrene (PHE), may increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause changes in the biotransformation systems. In addition, changes in water temperature can cause adverse effects in the organisms. Estuarine species, like the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, can adapt and tolerate temperature variation. To evaluate the influence of temperature on biological responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were maintained at three temperatures (18, 24 and 32 °C) for 15 days and co-exposed afterwards to 100 μg...
June 15, 2018: Chemosphere
Chao Fang, Ronghui Zheng, Yusheng Zhang, Fukun Hong, Jingli Mu, Mengyun Chen, Puqing Song, Longshan Lin, Heshan Lin, Fengfeng Le, Jun Bo
The seafloor is recognized as one of the major sinks for microplastics (MPs). However, to date there have been no studies reported the MP contamination in benthic organisms from the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. Therefore, this study provided the first data on the abundances and characteristics of MPs in a total of 413 dominant benthic organisms representing 11 different species inhabiting in the shelf of Bering and Chukchi Seas. The mean abundances of MP uptake by the benthos from all sites ranged from 0...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Minling Gao, Yu Liu, Youming Dong, Zhengguo Song
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used, artificially-synthesized, industrial chemical that can be released into the soil. However, to date, there is no comprehensive study on the effects of DEHP on photosynthesis, induction of reactive oxygen species, and response of the antioxidant defense system in wheat plants growing in DEHP contaminated soil. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge. Our results showed that after application of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg DEHP, photosynthetic parameters, fluorescence parameters, and chlorophyll content of wheat leaves at seedling, jointing, and booting stages decreased, while the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration increased...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Akira Ito, Winnie Eckardt, Tara S Stoinski, Thomas R Gillespie, Toshihiro Tokiwa
Four new species, Troglodytella gracilis, T. virunga, T. dolium, and Gorilloflasca longior were described from the mountain gorillas in Rwanda. The three Troglodytella species share a retractable adoral ciliary zone, four non-retractable ciliary arches, two broad skeletal plates, a skeletal rod plate, numerous longitudinal cortical grooves, and four contractile vacuoles. The anterior ciliary arch is the longest of the four arches, extending transversely on the left body surface. T. gracilis and T. virunga are characterized by an elongated body, a tail flap, and a wedge-shaped macronucleus...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Balázs E Helga, Christoph A O Schmid, Ioana Feher, Dorina Podar, Paul-Marian Szatmari, Olivian Marincaş, Zoltan R Balázs, Peter Schröder
Current physical or chemical methods used for remediation of soils contaminated with hexachlocyclohexane (HCH), leave behind significant levels of pollutants. Given the compound's volatility and persistence in the environment, sites contaminated with HCH remain a concern for the population living in nearby areas. By making use of both the recovery capacity and the pollutant uptake ability of spontaneously growing vegetation, our study aimed to identify native plant species able to cover and moreover take up the HCH left at a former lindane production unit in Turda, Romania...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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