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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223123/differentiation-of-human-blood-from-animal-blood-using-raman-spectroscopy-a-survey-of-forensically-relevant-species
#1
Kyle C Doty, Igor K Lednev
The identification of blood samples is a crucial facet of forensic investigations, particularly for violent crimes. One step in forensic serology (i.e., the analysis of bodily fluids) that is often skipped or overlooked is the determination that a bloodstain is of human or nonhuman origin. Typically, subsequent to identifying a stain as blood using a presumptive blood test, which have the propensity of providing false positive results, the stain is submitted for extraction of a DNA profile to compare with those in a database...
November 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223118/speciation-of-chromium-compounds-from-humic-acid-zeolite-y-to-an-ionic-liquid-during-extraction
#2
Hsin-Liang Huang, Yu Jhe Wei
By synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, chemical structures of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))/trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) adsorbed on humic acid (HA)-zeolite Y and extracted in an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4])) have been studied. By combining the competitive adsorption results and reduction of Cr(VI)-HA with the carboxyl groups of HA, Cr(III)-HA (58%) was shown to be the major compound in HA-zeolite Y using synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy...
November 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223116/effect-of-pre-pyrolysis-mode-on-simultaneous-introduction-of-nitrogen-oxygen-containing-functional-groups-into-the-structure-of-bagasse-based-mesoporous-carbon-and-its-influence-on-cu-ii-adsorption
#3
Zeqing Wan, Kunquan Li
A convenient effective microwave pre-pyrolysis treatment to synthesize biomass-based mesoporous carbon with higher nitrogen/oxygen-chelating adsorption for Cu(II) is reported here, in which phosphoric acid impregnated bagasse was used as a microwave absorber and porogen. For comparison, conventional electric-heating pyrolyzed carbon was prepared and doped with nitrogen/oxygen groups. Nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and batch adsorption were employed to investigate the effects of the two pre-pyrolysis modes on the sample physicochemical and Cu(II) adsorptive properties...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223111/consumer-response-to-health-and-environmental-sustainability-information-regarding-seafood-consumption
#4
Silke Jacobs, Isabelle Sioen, António Marques, Wim Verbeke
Seafood consumption has an impact on both consumers' health and on the marine environment, making the integration of health and sustainability aspects in information and recommendation messages for consumers highly topical. This study presents the results of a consumer study in terms of the impact of exposure to a message about health and sustainability aspects of seafood on 986 participants from Belgium and Portugal. Possible drivers for behavioural change regarding seafood consumption frequency and sustainable seafood buying frequency are studied following exposure to the message...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223107/recreation-economics-to-inform-migratory-species-conservation-case-study-of-the-northern-pintail
#5
Brady J Mattsson, James A Dubovsky, Wayne E Thogmartin, Kenneth J Bagstad, Joshua H Goldstein, John B Loomis, James E Diffendorfer, Darius J Semmens, Ruscena Wiederholt, Laura López-Hoffman
Quantification of the economic value provided by migratory species can aid in targeting management efforts and funding to locations yielding the greatest benefits to society and species conservation. Here we illustrate a key step in this process by estimating hunting and birding values of the northern pintail (Anas acuta) within primary breeding and wintering habitats used during the species' annual migratory cycle in North America. We used published information on user expenditures and net economic values (consumer surplus) for recreational viewing and hunting to determine the economic value of pintail-based recreation in three primary breeding areas and two primary wintering areas...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223087/oxidative-stress-in-birds-along-a-nox-and-urbanisation-gradient-an-interspecific-approach
#6
Pablo Salmón, Emilie Stroh, Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Maria von Post, Caroline Isaksson
Urbanisation is regarded as one of the most threatening global issues for wildlife, however, measuring its impact is not always straight forward. Oxidative stress physiology has been suggested to be a useful biomarker of health and therefore, a potentially important indicator of the impact that urban environmental stressors, especially air pollution, can have on wildlife. For example, nitrogen oxides (NOx), released during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, are highly potent pro-oxidants, thus predicted to affect either the protective antioxidants and/or cause oxidative damage to bio-molecules...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223080/glacial-influence-and-stream-macroinvertebrate-biodiversity-under-climate-change-lessons-from-the-southern-alps
#7
Valeria Lencioni
The aim of this work was to highlight the main ecological predictors driving invertebrate distribution in eight glacier-fed streams in the Southern Alps. Thirty-five sites belonging to four stream types were sampled monthly during the ablation season of one, two or three years between 1996 and 2014. Taxa from glacial (kryal and glacio-rhithral) and non-glacial (kreno-rhithral and lake outlet) sites were separated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) along a glacial influence gradient and a hydrological-altitudinal gradient...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223074/bioaccumulation-and-trophic-transfer-of-cyclic-volatile-methylsiloxanes-cvms-in-the-aquatic-marine-food-webs-of-the-oslofjord-norway
#8
David E Powell, Merete Schøyen, Sigurd Øxnevad, Reinhard Gerhards, Thomas Böhmer, Martin Koerner, Jeremy Durham, Darren W Huff
The trophic transfer of cyclic methylsiloxanes (cVMS) in aquatic ecosystems is an important criterion for assessing bioaccumulation and ecological risk. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of cVMS, specifically octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), were evaluated for the marine food webs of the Inner and Outer Oslofjord, Norway. The sampled food webs included zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, shellfish, and finfish species. Zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and shellfish occupied the lowest trophic levels (TL ≈2 to 3); northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) occupied the middle trophic levels (TL ≈3 to 4), and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) occupied the highest tropic level (TL>4...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223068/comprehensive-analysis-and-transcript-profiling-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-oryza-sativa-catalase-gene-family-suggests-their-specific-roles-in-development-and-stress-responses
#9
Nazmir Binta Alam, Ajit Ghosh
Stress induces the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that ultimately hampers the growth, development, and productivity of the plant. As an antioxidant enzyme, catalase converts hydrogen peroxide to water and keeps ROS level down to protect cells from stress-induced apoptosis. Here, a genome-wide analysis of catalase gene family has been performed in two model plants- Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. Both Arabidopsis and rice has a small family of three and four genes, respectively; that code for seven proteins each...
December 1, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223067/dissection-of-resistance-to-microdochium-nivale-in-lolium-multiflorum-festuca-arundinacea-introgression-forms
#10
Agnieszka Płażek, Ewa Pociecha, Adam Augustyniak, Katarzyna Masajada, Michał Dziurka, Joanna Majka, Dawid Perlikowski, Izabela Pawłowicz, Arkadiusz Kosmala
The potential of resistance to Microdochium nivale is still not recognized for numerous plant species. The forage grasses of Lolium-Festuca complex are important for grass-biomass production in the temperate regions. Lolium multiflorum is a grass with a high forage quality and productivity but also a relatively low resistance to M. nivale. On the contrary, F. arundinacea has a higher potential of resistance but simultaneously a significantly lower forage quality. These two species cross with each other and the intergeneric hybrids possess complementary characters of both genera...
December 5, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223060/recent-advances-in-lipid-separations-and-structural-elucidation-using-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-ion-mobility-spectrometry-ion-molecule-reactions-and-fragmentation-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Xueyun Zheng, Richard D Smith, Erin S Baker
Lipids are a vital class of molecules that play important and varied roles in biological processes, however, fully understanding these roles is extremely difficult due to the immense number and diversity of possible lipid species. While recent advances in chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry have greatly progressed knowledge about distinct lipid species and functions, effectively separating many lipids still remains problematic. Isomeric lipids have made lipid characterization especially difficult and occur due to subclasses having the same chemical composition, or species having multiple acyl chain connectivities (sn-1, sn-2, or sn-3), double bond positions and orientations (cis or trans), and functional group stereochemistries (R versus S)...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223024/genomic-integration-and-expression-of-the-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-catalase-gene-in-aggregatibacter-aphrophilus
#12
Yuting Alice Yang, Ya-An Cheng, Casey Chen
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that virulence genes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans can be expressed and confer fitness advantages in the closely related Aggregatibacter aphrophilus. DESIGN: Clinical isolates of A. aphrophilus were screened for natural competence with marked genomic DNA from A. actinomycetemcomitans and A. aphrophilus. The gene katA of A. actinomycetemcomitans D7S-1 and its flanking regions were constructed and inserted into a comparable locus in the genome of a naturally competent A...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223021/pre-treatment-of-soybean-plants-with-calcium-stimulates-ros-responses-and-mitigates-infection-by-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum
#13
Arbia Arfaoui, Abdelbasset El Hadrami, Fouad Daayf
Considering the high incidence of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in a variety of field crops and vegetables, different control strategies are needed to keep the disease under economical threshold. This study assessed the effect of foliar application of a calcium formulation on disease symptoms, oxalic acid production, and on the oxidative stress metabolism in soybean plants inoculated with each of two isolates of the pathogen that have contrasting aggressiveness (HA, highly-aggressive versus WA, weakly-aggressive)...
November 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222974/cold-atmospheric-plasma-cap-a-novel-physicochemical-source-induces-neural-differentiation-through-cross-talk-between-the-specific-rons-cascade-and-trk-ras-erk-signaling-pathway
#14
Ja-Young Jang, Young June Hong, Junsup Lim, Jin Sung Choi, Eun Ha Choi, Seongman Kang, Hyangshuk Rhim
Plasma, formed by ionization of gas molecules or atoms, is the most abundant form of matter and consists of highly reactive physicochemical species. In the physics and chemistry fields, plasma has been extensively studied; however, the exact action mechanisms of plasma on biological systems, including cells and humans, are not well known. Recent evidence suggests that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), which refers to plasma used in the biomedical field, may regulate diverse cellular processes, including neural differentiation...
November 30, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222969/copper-ii-complexes-of-n3o-tripodal-ligands-appended-with-pyrene-and-polyamine-groups-anti-proliferative-and-nuclease-activities
#15
Doti Serre, Sule Erbek, Nathalie Berthet, Xavier Ronot, Véronique Martel-Frachet, Fabrice Thomas
A series of tripodal ligands based on the 2-tert-butyl-4-R-6-phenol was synthesized, where R=aldehyde (HL1), R=putrescine-pyrene (HL2) and R=putrescine (HL3). A dinucleating ligand wherein a putrescine group connects two tripodal moieties was also prepared (H2L4). The corresponding copper complexes (1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively) were prepared and characterized. We determined the phenol's pKas in the range 2.47-3.93. The DNA binding constants were determined at 6×106, 5.5×105 and 2.7×106 for 2, 3 and 4, respectively...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222956/demographic-drivers-of-a-refugee-species-large-scale-experiments-guide-strategies-for-reintroductions-of-hirola
#16
Abdullahi H Ali, Matthew J Kauffman, Rajan Amin, Amos Kibara, Juliet King, David Mallon, Charles Musyoki, Jacob R Goheen
Effective reintroduction strategies require accurate estimates of vital rates and the factors that influence them. The hirola (Beatragus hunteri) is the rarest antelope on Earth, with a global population size of <500 individuals restricted to the Kenya-Somali border. We estimated vital rates of hirola populations exposed to varying levels of predation and rangeland quality from 2012 to 2015, and then built population matrices to estimate the finite rate of population change (λ) and demographic sensitivities...
December 9, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222953/bacterial-community-changes-in-copper-and-pex-drinking-water-pipeline-biofilms-under-extra-disinfection-and-magnetic-water-treatment
#17
Jenni Inkinen, Balamuralikrishna Jayaprakash, Merja Ahonen, Tarja Pitkänen, Riika Mäkinen, Anna Pursiainen, Jorge W Santo Domingo, Heidi Salonen, Michael Elk, Minna M Keinänen-Toivola
AIMS: To study stability of biofilms and water quality in pilot scale drinking water copper and PEX pipes in changing conditions (extra disinfection, magnetic water treatment MWT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) to describe total bacterial community and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to describe active bacterial members in addition to traditional microbiological methods were applied. Biofilms from control copper and PEX pipes shared same most abundant bacteria (Methylobacterium spp...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222952/accumulation-of-the-coumarin-scopolin-under-abiotic-stress-conditions-is-mediated-by-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-tho-trex-complex
#18
Stefanie Döll, Markus Kuhlmann, Twan Rutten, Michael Florian Mette, Sarah Scharfenberg, Antonios Petridis, Dorothee-Carina Berreth, Hans-Peter Mock
Secondary metabolites are involved in plant stress response. Among these are scopolin and its active form scopoletin, which are coumarin-derivatives associated with reactive oxygen species scavenging and pathogen defence. Here we show that scopolin accumulation can be induced in the root by osmotic stress and in the leaf by low temperature stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. A genetic screen for altered scopolin levels in A. thaliana revealed a mutant compromised in scopolin accumulation in response to stress; the lesion was present in a homologue of THO1 coding for a subunit of the THO/TREX complex...
December 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222941/characterization-of-the-spoilage-potential-of-pure-and-mixed-cultures-of-bacterial-species-isolated-from-tropical-yellowfin-tuna-thunnus-albacares
#19
Adèle Silbande, Josiane Cornet, Mireille Cardinal, Frédérique Chevalier, Katia Rochefort, Juliette Smith-Ravin, Sandra Adenet, Françoise Leroi
AIM: The spoilage potential of 28 bacterial strains isolated from spoiled raw yellowfin tuna was evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial species were inoculated in irradiated tuna matrix. Chemical changes, bacterial growth and sensory quality were monitored during aerobic storage at 8°C. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia hermanii had no spoiling effect. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Carnobacterium divergens/maltaromaticum developed moderate unpleasant odors...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222870/a-route-to-base-coordinate-silicon-difluoride-and-the-silicon-trifluoride-radical
#20
Herbert W Roesky, Soumen Sinhababu, Subrata Kundu, Alexander Paesch, Regine Herbst-Irmer, Dietmar Stalke, Israel Fernández, Gernot Frenking, Claudia Stückl, Brigitte Schwederski, Wolfgang Kaim
Silicon difluoride (SiF2) is highly unstable at room temperature and condenses at this temperature rapidly to a polymeric material of unknown structure. Therefore the isolation of a stable monomeric silicon difluoride species is a challenging task. The cyclic alkyl(amino) carbene (cAAC) coordinated silicon difluoride was isolated as (cAAC)2SiF2 (2), synthesized from the reduction of cAAC-SiF4 (1) using two equivalents of KC8 in the presence of one equivalent of cAAC. In the solid state compound 2 is stable at room temperature for a long time under inert conditions...
December 9, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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