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Graphene biocompatibility

V Castagnola, W Zhao, L Boselli, M C Lo Giudice, F Meder, E Polo, K R Paton, C Backes, J N Coleman, K A Dawson
The systematic study of nanoparticle-biological interactions requires particles to be reproducibly dispersed in relevant fluids along with further development in the identification of biologically relevant structural details at the materials-biology interface. Here, we develop a biocompatible long-term colloidally stable water dispersion of few-layered graphene nanoflakes in the biological exposure medium in which it will be studied. We also report the study of the orientation and functionality of key proteins of interest in the biolayer (corona) that are believed to mediate most of the early biological interactions...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Guoxin Jing, Zhaojie Wang, Xizhen Zhuang, Xiaolie He, Huijun Wu, Qingxiu Wang, Liming Cheng, Zhongmin Liu, Shilong Wang, Rongrong Zhu
Graphene oxide (GO), with good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, is widely explored as a carrier for various factors in the field of stem cell differentiation. However, its function of sustaining the stemness of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and the underlying mechanisms of this process remains undiscovered. Herein, we explored the biofunction of GO on mESCs and revealed the involved signaling pathways and key gene. The alkaline phosphatase activity detection, pluripotency genes quantification and the teratomas formation in vivo confirmed that GO nanosheets could sustain the self-renewal ability of mESCs instead of influencing its pluripotency...
April 11, 2018: Biomaterials
Hui Wang, Qianwang Chen, Shuiqin Zhou
Nanosized crosslinked polymer networks, named as nanogels, are playing an increasingly important role in a diverse range of applications by virtue of their porous structures, large surface area, good biocompatibility and responsiveness to internal and/or external chemico-physical stimuli. Recently, a variety of carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon quantum dots, graphene/graphene oxide nanosheets, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and nanodiamonds, have been embedded into responsive polymer nanogels, in order to integrate the unique electro-optical properties of carbon nanomaterials with the merits of nanogels into a single hybrid nanogel system for improvement of their applications in nanomedicine...
April 18, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Feng Li, Xiaosong Jiang, Zhenyi Shao, Degui Zhu, Minhao Zhu
Biomaterial composites made of titanium and hydroxyapatite (HA) powder are among the most important biomedicalmaterials due to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. In this work, graphene-reinforced titanium matrix/nano-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites were prepared by vacuum hot-pressing sintering. The microstructure and mechanical properties of graphene-reinforced titanium matrix/nano-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites with different graphene content were systematically investigated. Microstructures of the nanocomposites were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), back scattered electron imaging (BSE), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), and transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
April 16, 2018: Materials
Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Fozieh Mokhtari, Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Nasrin Shadjou
This study reports on the electropolymerization of a low toxic and biocompatible nanopolymer with entitle poly arginine-graphene quantum dots-chitosan (PARG-GQDs-CS) as a novel strategy for surface modification of glassy carbon surface and preparation of a new interface for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) in exhaled breath condensate. Electrochemical deposition, as a well-controlled synthesis procedure, has been used for subsequently layer-by-layer preparation of GQDs-CS nanostructures on a PARG prepolymerized on the surface of glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry techniques in the regime of -1...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Miaoyi Wang, Ove J R Gustafsson, Ghizal Siddiqui, Ibrahim Javed, Hannah G Kelly, Thomas Blin, Hong Yin, Stephen J Kent, Darren J Creek, Kristian Kempe, Pu Chun Ke, Thomas P Davis
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a gold standard against protein fouling. However, recent studies have revealed surprising adverse effects of PEG, namely its immunogenicity and shortened bio-circulation upon repeated dosing. This highlights a crucial need to further examine 'stealth' polymers for controlling the protein 'corona', a new challenge in nanomedicine and bionanotechnology. Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEtOx) is another primary form of stealth polymer that, despite its excellent hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, has found considerably less applications compared with PEG...
April 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Giovanna M D'Abaco, Cristiana Mattei, Babak Nasr, Emma J Hudson, Abdullah J Alshawaf, Gursharan Chana, Ian P Everall, Bryony Nayagam, Mirella Dottori, Efstratios Skafidas
In this study, we explore the use of electrically active graphene foam as a scaffold for the culture of human-derived neurons. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cortical neurons fated as either glutamatergic or GABAergic neuronal phenotypes were cultured on graphene foam. We show that graphene foam is biocompatible for the culture of human neurons, capable of supporting cell viability and differentiation of hESC-derived cortical neurons. Based on the findings, we propose that graphene foam represents a suitable scaffold for engineering neuronal tissue and warrants further investigation as a model for understanding neuronal maturation, function and circuit formation...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Duo Wu, Archana Samanta, Rajiv K Srivastava, Minna Hakkarainen
A versatile and convenient way to produce bioactive poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds is described. PLA and PCL are extensively used as biocompatible scaffold materials for tissue engineering. Here, biobased nano graphene oxide dots (nGO) are incorporated in PLA or PCL electrospun scaffolds during the electrospinning process aiming to enhance the mechanical properties and endorse osteo-bioactivity. nGO was found to tightly attach to the fibers through secondary interactions...
April 6, 2018: Materials
F Pahlevanzadeh, H R Bakhsheshi-Rad, E Hamzah
In this study, a bone cement consisting of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-poly caprolactone (PCL)-fluorapatite (FA)-graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized as bone filler for application in orthopedic surgeries. The FA and GO particulates were homogenously distributed in the PMMA-PCL polymer matrix and no defects and agglomeration were found in the PMMA-PCL/FA/GO bone cement. The in-vitro bioactivity result exhibited that addition of FA and GO to the polymer cement (PMMA-PCL) improved the apatite formation ability on the surface of polymer...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Heng Ye, Guofeng Ma, Jian Kang, Hongqi Sun, Shaobin Wang
Herein, we demonstrate that iron oxide modified MnO2 (FeOx-MnO2) catalyzed micromotors can be fabricated via electrochemical co-reduction and exhibit exceptional high performance at an extremely low hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) fuel concentration. We observed that graphene/FeOx-MnO2 microtubes could show motion behaviors at fuel concentration as low as 0.03% H2O2, which is nearly one order of magnitude lower than Pt-based micromotors (normally at above 0.2% H2O2). Moreover, the micromotors exhibit higher speeds than any other reported catalytic micro/nanomotors (MNMs) at low peroxide levels...
April 6, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Lu Lu
Electrochemical (bio)sensors have attracted much attention due to their high sensitivity, fast response time, biocompatibility, low cost and easy miniaturization. Specially, ever-growing necessity and interest have given rise to the fast development of electrochemical (bio)sensors for the detection of small biomolecules. They play enormous roles in the life processes with various biological function, such as life signal transmission, genetic expression and metabolism. Moreover, their amount in body can be used as an indicator for diagnosis of many diseases...
March 28, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Titas Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Kalishankar Bhattacharyya, Ayan Datta
Recent toxicological assessments of graphene, graphene oxides and some other 2D materials have shown them to be substantially toxic at the nanoscale where they inhibit and eventually disrupt biological processes. These shortfalls of graphene and analogs have resulted in a quest for novel biocompatible two dimensional materials with minimum cytotoxicity. In this article, we demonstrate C2N (h2D-C2N), a newly synthesized two dimensional porous graphene analog to be non - nanotoxic towards genetic materials from an "in - silico" point of view through sequence dependent binding of different polynucleotide single stranded DNA onto it...
April 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sharali Malik, Felicite M Ruddock, Adam H Dowling, Kevin Byrne, Wolfgang Schmitt, Ivan Khalakhan, Yoshihiro Nemoto, Hongxuan Guo, Lok Kumar Shrestha, Katsuhiko Ariga, Jonathan P Hill
Pure graphene in the form of few-layer graphene (FLG) - 1 to 6 layers - is biocompatible and non-cytotoxic. This makes FLG an ideal material to incorporate into dental polymers to increase their strength and durability. It is well known that graphene has high mechanical strength and has been shown to enhance the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of biomaterials. However, for commercial applicability, methods to produce larger than lab-scale quantities of graphene are required. Here, we present a simple method to make large quantities of FLG starting with commercially available multi-layer graphene (MLG)...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Ying Wang, Min-Qiang Wang, Ling-Li Lei, Zhao-Yang Chen, Ying-Shuai Liu, Shu-Juan Bao
FePO4 is biocompatible and can act as a kind of promising enzyme mimetic. Unfortunately, the electrical conductivity of FePO4 is poor. In order to enhance its conductivity, FePO4 was embedded into nanofibers consisting of amorphous carbon and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by an electrospinning technique. As a sensing material for monitoring superoxide anion (O2 •- ) and typically operated at 0.5 V (vs. SCE), it displays high sensitivity (9.6 μA⋅μM-1 ⋅cm-2 ), a low detection limit (9.7 nM at S/N = 3), a wide linear response range (10 nM to 10 μM), and fast response (1...
January 27, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Elayaraja Kolanthai, Abinaya Sindu P, Deepak Kumar Khajuria, Sarath Chandra Veerla, Dhandapani Kuppuswamy, Luiz Henrique Catalani, D Roy Mahapatra
Developing a biodegradable scaffold remains a major challenge in bone tissue engineering. This study was aimed at developing novel alginate-chitosan-collagen (SA-CS-Col) based composite scaffolds consisting of graphene oxide (GO) to enrich porous structures, elicited by freeze-drying technique. To characterize porosity, water absorption and compressive modulus, GO scaffolds (SA-CS-Col-GO) were prepared with and without Ca2+ -mediated crosslinking (chemical crosslinking) and analyzed using Raman, FTIR, XRD, and SEM techniques...
March 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yu-Jen Lu, Pin-Yi Lin, Pei-Han Huang, Chang-Yi Kuo, K T Shalumon, Mao-Yu Chen, Jyh-Ping Chen
To develop a pH-sensitive dual targeting magnetic nanocarrier for chemo-phototherapy in cancer treatment, we prepared magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) by depositing Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanoparticles on graphene oxide (GO) through chemical co-precipitation. MGO was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and cetuximab (CET, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody) to obtain MGO-PEG-CET. Since EGFR was highly expressed on the tumor cell surface, MGO-PEG-CET was used for dual targeted delivery an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX)...
March 27, 2018: Nanomaterials
Yinxin Zhao, Yingjie Wang, Changmei Niu, Luzhong Zhang, Guicai Li, Yumin Yang
Various hydrogels made from natural or synthetic polymers have been widely used in biologic tissues, drug delivery, and artificial implants due to their good biocompatibility, indicating a promising perspective in regenerative medicine. In the present study, a composite hydrogel named polyacrylamide/graphene oxide/gelatin/sodium alginate (PAM/GO/Gel/SA) for accelerating peripheral nerve regeneration was fabricated via in-situ free radical polymerization for the first time. A series of physicochemical properties including morphology, porosity, swelling behaviors, component, mechanical properties and in vitro degradation behavior of the prepared composite hydrogel were characterized...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Xiaowei Wu, Shang Zheng, Yuanzhou Ye, Yuchen Wu, Kaili Lin, Jiansheng Su
The reconstruction of bone defects by guiding autologous bone tissue regeneration with artificial biomaterials is a potential strategy in the area of bone tissue engineering. The development of new polymers with good biocompatibility, favorable mechanical properties, and osteoinductivity is of vital importance. Graphene and its derivatives have attracted extensive interests due to the exceptional physiochemical and biological properties of graphene. In this study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films incorporated by graphene nanoplates were fabricated...
March 21, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Hande Nalvuran, Ayşe Eser Elçin, Yaşar Murat Elçin
Graphene and silk fibroin (SF) have been extensively investigated in the literature. Hybrid scaffolds of SF and graphene combine the properties of both of the materials and provide promising applications for tissue engineering purposes. In this study, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% (w/v)) was incorporated into SF and fabricated into composite nanofibers through electrospinning. The fibers were characterized and analyzed by SEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, circular dichroism analysis, contact angle measurements and tensile tests...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Leila Fathyunes, Jafar Khalil-Allafi, Seyed Omid Reza Sheykholeslami, Maryam Moosavifar
In this study, the ultrasound-assisted pulse electrodeposition was introduced to fabricate the graphene oxide (GO)-hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on TiO2 nanotubes. The results of the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscope (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy showed the successful synthesis of GO. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images revealed that in the presence of ultrasonic waves and GO sheets a more compact HA-based coating with refined microstructure could be formed on the pretreated titanium...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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