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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163209/the-role-of-cholecystokinin-in-peripheral-taste-signaling-in-mice
#1
Ryusuke Yoshida, Misa Shin, Keiko Yasumatsu, Shingo Takai, Mayuko Inoue, Noriatsu Shigemura, Soichi Takiguchi, Seiji Nakamura, Yuzo Ninomiya
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gut hormone released from enteroendocrine cells. CCK functions as an anorexigenic factor by acting on CCK receptors expressed on the vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamus with a synergistic interaction between leptin. In the gut, tastants such as amino acids and bitter compounds stimulate CCK release from enteroendocrine cells via activation of taste transduction pathways. CCK is also expressed in taste buds, suggesting potential roles of CCK in taste signaling in the peripheral taste organ...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163195/members-of-bitter-taste-receptor-cluster-tas2r143-tas2r135-tas2r126-are-expressed-in-the-epithelium-of-murine-airways-and-other-non-gustatory-tissues
#2
Shuya Liu, Shun Lu, Rui Xu, Ann Atzberger, Stefan Günther, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns
The mouse bitter taste receptors Tas2r143, Tas2r135, and Tas2r126 are encoded by genes that cluster on chromosome 6 and have been suggested to be expressed under common regulatory elements. Previous studies indicated that the Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 cluster is expressed in the heart, but other organs had not been systematically analyzed. In order to investigate the expression of this bitter taste receptor gene cluster in non-gustatory tissues, we generated a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) based transgenic mouse line, expressing CreERT2 under the control of the Tas2r143 promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152779/morphogenesis-of-lingual-papillae-of-one-humped-camel-camelus-dromedarius-during-prenatal-life-a-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopic-study
#3
A S Abou-Elhamd, M Abd-Elkareem, A El-Zuhry Zayed
This study was made on 24 camel fetuses of crown-rump vertebral length (CVRL) ranging from 10.5 cm to 105 cm CVRL (94-352 days old). These camel fetuses were classified into three groups representing the three trimesters of prenatal life. During the first trimester (94-142 days), lingual papillae (circumvallate and lentiform papillae) were demonstrated on the lingual root, but lingual body and the apex were almost free of papillae except for some scattered epithelial projections especially near the lateral borders of the body...
November 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133390/recovery-of-taste-organs-and-sensory-function-after-severe-loss-from-hedgehog-smoothened-inhibition-with-cancer-drug-sonidegib
#4
Archana Kumari, Alexandre N Ermilov, Marina Grachtchouk, Andrzej A Dlugosz, Benjamin L Allen, Robert M Bradley, Charlotte M Mistretta
Striking taste disturbances are reported in cancer patients treated with Hedgehog (HH)-pathway inhibitor drugs, including sonidegib (LDE225), which block the HH pathway effector Smoothened (SMO). We tested the potential for molecular, cellular, and functional recovery in mice from the severe disruption of taste-organ biology and taste sensation that follows HH/SMO signaling inhibition. Sonidegib treatment led to rapid loss of taste buds (TB) in both fungiform and circumvallate papillae, including disruption of TB progenitor-cell proliferation and differentiation...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108962/no-detriment-in-taste-response-or-expression-in-offspring-of-mice-fed-representative-levels-of-sucrose-or-non-caloric-sucralose-while-pregnant
#5
Ezen Choo, Robin Dando
Recent studies in mice indicate that consumption of acesulfame K (a high intensity sweetener) while pregnant, can lead to deficits in taste or enhanced sweet consumption in the offspring, leading to concerns the same may be common in human populations. However, this work employed a relatively unpopular sweetener, fed in quantities amounting to over 20× the FDA's Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). The aims of this study were to test the effects of sucralose, the USA's most popular high intensity sweetener, along with sucrose, on the taste system of the offspring of mice supplemented at a level commensurate with ADIs while pregnant...
November 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099943/genetic-labeling-of-car4-expressing-cells-reveals-subpopulations-of-type-iii-taste-cells
#6
Kristina Lossow, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Maik Behrens, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Carbonic anhydrases form an enzyme family of 16 members, which reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. In lung, kidney, and brain, presence of carbonic anhydrases is associated with protons and bicarbonate transport in capillary endothelium of lung, reabsorption of bicarbonate in proximal renal tubules, and extracellular buffering. In contrast, their role in taste is less clear. Recently, carbonic anhydrase IV expression was detected in sour-sensing presynaptic taste cells and was associated with the taste of carbonation, yet the precise role and cell population remained uncertain...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053803/effect-of-radiation-on-sucrose-detection-thresholds-of-mice
#7
Benjamin C Jewkes, Linda A Barlow, Eugene R Delay
Radiotherapy is one of the most common treatments for head and neck cancers, with an almost obligate side effect of altered taste (Conger 1973). In mice, targeted irradiation of the head and neck causes transient repression of proliferation of basal epithelial cells responsible for taste cell replacement, leading to a temporary depletion of taste sensory cells within taste buds, including Type II taste cells involved in detection of sweet stimuli (Nguyen et al. 2012). These findings suggest that irradiation may elevate sucrose detection thresholds, peaking at 7 days post-irradiation when loss of Type II cells is greatest...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044658/gills-of-the-medaka-oryzias-latipes-a-scanning-electron-microscopy-study
#8
Isabelle Leguen
The general morphology and surface ultrastructure of the gills of adult and larvae medaka (Oryzias latipes) were studied in freshwater and seawater using scanning electron microscopy. The gills of all examined fish were structurally similar to those of other teleosts and consisted of four pairs of arches supporting (i) filaments bearing lamellae and (ii) rakers containing taste buds. Three cell types, specifically pavement cells, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs), and mucous cells, constituted the surface layer of the gill epithelium...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044184/zebrafish-aversive-taste-co-receptor-is-expressed-in-both-chemo-and-mechanosensory-cells-and-plays-a-role-in-lateral-line-development
#9
Nazia Mojib, Jin Xu, Zinka Bartolek, Barry Imhoff, Nael A McCarty, Chong Hyun Shin, Julia Kubanek
Fishes rely on both chemical and tactile senses to orient themselves to avoid predators, and to detect and taste food. This is likely achieved by highly coordinated reception of signals by mechano- and chemosensory receptors in fish. A small co-receptor from zebrafish, receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP)-like triterpene glycoside receptor (RL-TGR), was previously found to be involved in recognition of triterpene glycosides, a family of naturally occurring compounds that act as chemical defenses in various prey species...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042066/lm-and-sem-study-on-the-swordfish-xiphias-gladius-tongue
#10
Francesco Abbate, Maria Cristina Guerrera, Mauro Cavallaro, Giuseppe Montalbano, Antonino Germanà, Maria Levanti
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L. 1758) is a predatory and migratory fish. Its characteristic feature is a flat and sharp upper jaw forming a "sword". The adaptation of vertebrates, including fish, to their environment is strictly related to the capacity of feeding and is carried out by often severe modifications of the anatomy of the buccal cavity, especially of the tongue. The aim of this study is, using light and scanning electron microscopy and considering that no data are so far available about the morphology of the tongue in this species, to analyse the anatomical characteristics of the tongue, especially its dorsal surface...
October 13, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992600/association-of-tongue-brushing-with-the-number-of-fungiform-taste-buds-and-taste-perception-a-preliminary-study-using-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy-in-combination-with-a-filter-paper-disc-method
#11
Junichi Kobayashi, Takehisa Saito, Tetsufumi Ito, Hitoshi Yoshimura, Shinpei Matsuda, Hisato Yoshida, Ryousuke Fujita, Kazuo Sano
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of tongue brushing with the number of fungiform taste buds and taste perception using a confocal laser scanning microscopy in combination with a filter-paper disc method (FPDM). METHODS: Twenty-four subjects with or without a habit of tongue brushing (11 males and 13 females, 20-46 years old) participated in this study. Nine of the 24 subjects had no habit of tongue brushing (Group 1, n=9). Fifteen subjects had a habit of tongue brushing, and the brushing regions of the tongue were as follows: central region (Group 2, n=7), or entire region (Group 3, n=8) of the tongue dorsum...
September 28, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970527/transcriptomes-and-neurotransmitter-profiles-of-classes-of-gustatory-and-somatosensory-neurons-in-the-geniculate-ganglion
#12
Gennady Dvoryanchikov, Damian Hernandez, Jennifer K Roebber, David L Hill, Stephen D Roper, Nirupa Chaudhari
Taste buds are innervated by neurons whose cell bodies reside in cranial sensory ganglia. Studies on the functional properties and connectivity of these neurons are hindered by the lack of markers to define their molecular identities and classes. The mouse geniculate ganglion contains chemosensory neurons innervating lingual and palatal taste buds and somatosensory neurons innervating the pinna. Here, we report single cell RNA sequencing of geniculate ganglion neurons. Using unbiased transcriptome analyses, we show a pronounced separation between two major clusters which, by anterograde labeling, correspond to gustatory and somatosensory neurons...
October 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968659/type-iii-cells-in-anterior-taste-fields-are-more-immunohistochemically-diverse-than-those-of-posterior-taste-fields-in-mice
#13
Courtney E Wilson, Thomas E Finger, Sue C Kinnamon
Activation of Type III cells in mammalian taste buds is implicated in the transduction of acids (sour) and salty stimuli. Several lines of evidence suggest that function of Type III cells in the anterior taste fields may differ from that of Type III cells in posterior taste fields. Underlying anatomy to support this observation is, however, scant. Most existing immunohistochemical data characterizing this cell type focus on circumvallate taste buds in the posterior tongue. Equivalent data from anterior taste fields-fungiform papillae and soft palate-are lacking...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952063/morphological-characteristics-of-the-tongue-and-lingual-papillae-of-the-large-bamboo-rat-rhizomys-sumatrensis
#14
Thanakul Wannaprasert
The large bamboo rat (Rhizomys sumatrensis) is a fossorial rodent found throughout Indochina that has a distinct habitat dominated by bamboo thickets. In the study reported here, the lingual biology of this rodent is described in detail, based on characteristic features of the tongue and lingual papillae as determined by light and scanning electron microscopy studies. The tongue was found to be elongated with a rounded apex and possessed a median groove and a well-developed intermolar prominence. Three types of the papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae...
September 26, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950008/cellular-mechanisms-of-cyclophosphamide-induced-taste-loss-in-mice
#15
Nabanita Mukherjee, Shreoshi Pal Choudhuri, Rona J Delay, Eugene R Delay
Many commonly prescribed chemotherapy drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CYP) have adverse side effects including disruptions in taste which can result in loss of appetite, malnutrition, poorer recovery and reduced quality of life. Previous studies in mice found evidence that CYP has a two-phase disturbance in taste behavior: a disturbance immediately following drug administration and a second which emerges several days later. In this study, we examined the processes by which CYP disturbs the taste system by examining the effects of the drug on taste buds and cells responsible for taste cell renewal using immunohistochemical assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939428/cd36-is-a-candidate-lipid-sensor-involved-in-the-sensory-detection-of-fatty-acid-in-zebrafish
#16
Haiyang Liu, Yanping Xu, Ying Wang, Shenjie Zhong, Min Wang, Pengyan Lin, Hongyan Li, Zhenhui Liu
Recently more and more evidences raise the possibility for the taste system in the role of the perception of lipids in mammals, and the fatty acid receptor CD36 has been proved to be as an important candidate receptor of fat taste. Fish has different taste modality with mammals. No information was known about the function of cd36 in fish taste till now. Here, using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence technologies, we showed that fish cd36/Cd36 localized in taste buds. Real-time PCR technology demonstrated that, in zebrafish cd36 (zcd36)-transfected cells, linoleic acid (LA) increased the expression level of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1), which encodes the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoamine neurotransmitter of 5-HT...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910570/nine-novel-pax9-mutations-and-a-distinct-tooth-agenesis-genotype-phenotype
#17
S-W Wong, D Han, H Zhang, Y Liu, X Zhang, M Z Miao, Y Wang, N Zhao, L Zeng, B Bai, Y-X Wang, H Liu, S A Frazier-Bowers, H Feng
Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies affecting function and esthetics. The paired-domain transcription factor, Pax9, is critical for patterning and morphogenesis of tooth and taste buds. Mutations of PAX9 have been identified in patients with tooth agenesis. Despite significant progress in the genetics of tooth agenesis, many gaps in knowledge exist in refining the genotype-phenotype correlation between PAX9 and tooth agenesis. In the present study, we complete genetic and phenotypic characterization of multiplex Chinese families with nonsyndromic (NS) tooth agenesis...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910546/could-hop-derived-bitter-compounds-improve-glucose-homeostasis-by-stimulating-the-secretion-of-glp-1
#18
Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Annunziata, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Angela Arnone, Gian Carlo Tenore, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) is by far the greatest contributors to the bitter property of beer. Over the past years, a large body of evidence demonstrated the presence of taste receptors in different locations of the oral cavity. In addition to the taste buds of the tongue, cells expressing these receptors have been identified in olfactory bulbs, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. In the gut, the attention was mainly directed to sweet Taste Receptor (T1R) and bitter Taste Receptor (T2R) receptors. In particular, T2R has shown to modulate secretion of different gut hormones, mainly Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), which are involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the control of gut motility, thereby increasing the sense of satiety...
September 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887230/multiparticulate-system-combining-taste-masking-and-immediate-release-properties-for-the-aversive-compound-praziquantel
#19
Magdalena Münster, Corinna Schoch, Carsten Schmidt, Jörg Breitkreutz
The taste of pharmaceuticals is of particular importance as it highly affects the compliance of patients, especially for patient groups like children. In view of oral solid dosage forms, various taste masking techniques can be applied encapsulating the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to prevent the interaction with the taste buds. Despite a delayed drug release in saliva, an immediate drug release in gastrointestinal media is desirable for efficient drug absorption. This combinatory approach is of particular interest for poorly soluble drugs still demonstrating an aversive, bitter taste, e...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856690/the-transcription-factor-phox2b-distinguishes-between-oral-and-non-oral-sensory-neurons-in-the-geniculate-ganglion
#20
Lisa Ohman-Gault, Tao Huang, Robin Krimm
Many basic characteristics of gustatory neurons remain unknown, partly due to the absence of specific markers. Some neurons in the geniculate ganglion project to taste regions in the oral cavity, whereas others innervate the outer ear. We hypothesized that the transcription factor Phox2b would identify oral cavity-projecting neurons in the geniculate ganglion. To test this possibility, we characterized mice in which Phox2b-Cre mediated gene recombination labeled neurons with tdTomato. Nerve labeling revealed that all taste neurons projecting through the chorda tympani (27%) and greater superficial petrosal nerves (15%) expressed Phox2b during development, whereas non-oral somatosensory neurons (58%) in the geniculate ganglion did not...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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