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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770259/an-update-on-the-sense-of-taste-in-chickens-a-better-developed-system-than-previously-appreciated
#1
Hong-Xiang Liu, Prasangi Rajapaksha, Zhonghou Wang, Naomi E Kramer, Brett J Marshall
Taste is important in guiding nutritive choices and motivating food intake. The sensory organs for taste are the taste buds, that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. It has been reported that chickens have a low taste bud number and thus low taste acuity. However, more recent studies indicate that chickens have a well-developed taste system and the reported number and distribution of taste buds may have been significantly underestimated. Chickens, as a well-established animal model for research, are also the major species of animals in the poultry industry...
2018: Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739879/chemical-synapses-without-synaptic-vesicles-purinergic-neurotransmission-through-a-calhm1-channel-mitochondrial-signaling-complex
#2
Roman A Romanov, Robert S Lasher, Brigit High, Logan E Savidge, Adam Lawson, Olga A Rogachevskaja, Haitian Zhao, Vadim V Rogachevsky, Marina F Bystrova, Gleb D Churbanov, Igor Adameyko, Tibor Harkany, Ruibiao Yang, Grahame J Kidd, Philippe Marambaud, John C Kinnamon, Stanislav S Kolesnikov, Thomas E Finger
Conventional chemical synapses in the nervous system involve a presynaptic accumulation of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles, which fuse with the plasma membrane to release neurotransmitters that activate postsynaptic receptors. In taste buds, type II receptor cells do not have conventional synaptic features but nonetheless show regulated release of their afferent neurotransmitter, ATP, through a large-pore, voltage-gated channel, CALHM1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CALHM1 was localized to points of contact between the receptor cells and sensory nerve fibers...
May 8, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737577/gross-morphology-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-of-the-bagrus-bayad-forskal-1775-oropharyngeal-cavity-with-emphasis-to-teeth-food-adaptation
#3
Mohamed A M Alsafy, Naglaa F Bassuoni, Basma G Hanafy
Bagrus Bayad (Forskal, 1775) is a bottom feeder fish feeds on different food items. Its oral cavity anatomy has many types of teeth adapted to the capacity and varieties of feeding. The aim of the present study was to use the gross anatomy and scanning electron microscopy to identify the anatomical characteristic, especially of the teeth and taste buds distributed on the roof and floor of the oropharyngeal cavity. The results clarified that Bagrus Bayad has two types of teeth; curved pointed and blunt teeth of different sizes...
May 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729730/dual-functional-extracellular-recording-using-a-light-addressable-potentiometric-sensor-for-bitter-signal-transduction
#4
Liping Du, Jian Wang, Wei Chen, Luhang Zhao, Chunsheng Wu, Ping Wang
This paper presents a dual functional extracellular recording biosensor based on a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The design and fabrication of this biosensor make it possible to record both extracellular membrane potential changes and ATP release from a single taste bud cell for the first time. For detecting ATP release, LAPS chip was functionalized with ATP-sensitive DNA aptamer by covalent immobilization. Taste bud cells isolated from rat were cultured on LAPS surface. When the desired single taste bud cell was illuminated by modulated light, ATP release from single taste bud cells can be measured by recording the shifts of bias voltage-photocurrent curves (I-V curves) when the LAPS chip is working in discrete mode...
August 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723496/opening-a-wide-window-onto-taste-signal-transmission
#5
Yuki Oka
Taste bud cells for sweet, umami, and bitter transmit sensory signals without a synapse. A study by Ma et al. (2018) finds a key ATP-permeable pore-forming subunit required for rapid neurotransmission from the tongue to secondary taste neurons.
May 2, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720344/-the-sense-of-taste-in-a-clinical-setting
#6
Alexander Fjaeldstad, Henrique Fernandes, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Therese Ovesen
As a gatekeeper, taste buds forage chemicals to identify both nutrition and toxins. This can be the decisive difference between initiating the swallow reflex or spitting out the oral contents. In addition to this simple function the sense of taste takes part in more complex relations such as reflexes vs learning, perception vs expectation, and pleasure vs disgust. All relations, which can be perturbed into unbalance, create great discomfort in patients suffering from a dysfunctional sense of taste. This review discusses the most important mechanisms of taste function and dysfunction as well as the possible avenues for treatment of the disorders...
April 30, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701767/development-of-full-sweet-umami-and-bitter-taste-responsiveness-requires-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-21-rgs21
#7
Adam B Schroer, Joshua D Gross, Shane W Kaski, Kim Wix, David P Siderovski, Aurelie Vandenbeuch, Vincent Setola
The mammalian tastes of sweet, umami, and bitter are initiated by activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the T1R and T2R families on taste receptor cells. GPCRs signal via nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis, the latter hastened by GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) that include the Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) protein family. We previously reported that RGS21, uniquely expressed in Type II taste receptor cells, decreases the potency of bitter-stimulated T2R signaling in cultured cells, consistent with its in vitro GAP activity...
April 26, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681531/calhm3-is-essential-for-rapid-ion-channel-mediated-purinergic-neurotransmission-of-gpcr-mediated-tastes
#8
Zhongming Ma, Akiyuki Taruno, Makoto Ohmoto, Masafumi Jyotaki, Jason C Lim, Hiroaki Miyazaki, Naomi Niisato, Yoshinori Marunaka, Robert J Lee, Henry Hoff, Riley Payne, Angelo Demuro, Ian Parker, Claire H Mitchell, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Jessica E Tanis, Ichiro Matsumoto, Michael G Tordoff, J Kevin Foskett
Binding of sweet, umami, and bitter tastants to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in apical membranes of type II taste bud cells (TBCs) triggers action potentials that activate a voltage-gated nonselective ion channel to release ATP to gustatory nerves mediating taste perception. Although calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) is necessary for ATP release, the molecular identification of the channel complex that provides the conductive ATP-release mechanism suitable for action potential-dependent neurotransmission remains to be determined...
April 13, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558472/inflammation-arising-from-obesity-reduces-taste-bud-abundance-and-inhibits-renewal
#9
Andrew Kaufman, Ezen Choo, Anna Koh, Robin Dando
Despite evidence that the ability to taste is weakened by obesity and can be rescued with weight loss intervention, few studies have investigated the molecular effects of obesity on the taste system. Taste bud cells undergo continual turnover even in adulthood, exhibiting an average life span of only a few weeks, tightly controlled by a balance of proliferation and cell death. Recent data reveal that an acute inflammation event can alter this balance. We demonstrate that chronic low-grade inflammation brought on by obesity reduces the number of taste buds in gustatory tissues of mice-and is likely the cause of taste dysfunction seen in obese populations-by upsetting this balance of renewal and cell death...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534490/atp-release-channels
#10
REVIEW
Akiyuki Taruno
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525940/mash1-expressing-cells-could-differentiate-to-type-iii-cells-in-adult-mouse-taste-buds
#11
Hiroki Takagi, Yuji Seta, Shinji Kataoka, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Takashi Toyono, Tatsuo Kawamoto
The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system...
March 10, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500569/a-pathological-study-of-the-tongues-of-rabid-dogs-in-the-philippines
#12
Nozomi Shiwa, Kazunori Kimitsuki, Daria Llenaresas Manalo, Satoshi Inoue, Chun-Ho Park
During rabies virus infections, the minor salivary glands are one of the important organs for virus replication and excretion into the oral cavity. However, details of pathological findings and viral antigen distribution in the minor salivary glands remain poorly understood. In this study, we conducted pathological tests on the tongues of 71 rabid dogs in the Philippines; the minor salivary glands (von Ebner's glands, lingual glands), circumvallate papilla, autonomic ganglia, and skeletal muscles were evaluated...
March 2, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415007/gli3-is-a-negative-regulator-of-tas1r3-expressing-taste-cells
#13
Yumei Qin, Sunil K Sukumaran, Masafumi Jyotaki, Kevin Redding, Peihua Jiang, Robert F Margolskee
Mouse taste receptor cells survive from 3-24 days, necessitating their regeneration throughout adulthood. In anterior tongue, sonic hedgehog (SHH), released by a subpopulation of basal taste cells, regulates transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3 in stem cells to control taste cell regeneration. Using single-cell RNA-Seq we found that Gli3 is highly expressed in Tas1r3-expressing taste receptor cells and Lgr5+ taste stem cells in posterior tongue. By PCR and immunohistochemistry we found that Gli3 was expressed in taste buds in all taste fields...
February 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357707/use-of-polymers-for-taste-masking-pediatric-drug-products
#14
Linda A Felton
Many drugs are bitter and overcoming this bitter taste is a major barrier in developing a successful product, especially for pediatric patients. Approaches to mask taste include changing taste perception, creating a physical barrier to separate the drug from interacting with taste buds, and changing drug solubility. This review is focused on polymers and the different ways these materials are used to achieve taste masking. Attention is given to systems that are easily swallowed, as swallowability is another concern in developing palatable products for pediatrics...
February 1, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350451/morphological-specializations-of-the-epidermis-of-an-angler-catfish-chaca-chaca-siluriformes-chacidae-in-relation-to-its-ecological-niche-a-scanning-electron-microscopic-investigation
#15
Arup Mistri, Usha Kumari, Swati Mittal, Ajay Kumar Mittal
The present work was undertaken with the aim to deduce morphological adaptations in skin of an angler catfish Chaca chaca by means of scanning electron microscopy. The fish is nocturnal, bottom dwelling, sluggish, ambush predator, lives in sand, mud, or soft substrates often buried and camouflaged for protection and to feed. The surface of the epidermis is covered with polygonal epithelial cells, each having surface relief of microridges forming intricate patterns. In between epithelial cells irregularly distributed mucous cell openings, randomly distributed epidermal specialized structures, taste buds, and neuromasts are discernible...
January 19, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328505/substance-p-as-a-putative-efferent-transmitter-mediates-gabaergic-inhibition-in-mouse-taste-buds
#16
Anthony Y Huang, Sandy Y Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Capsaicin-mediated modulation of taste nerve responses is thought to be produced indirectly by the actions of neuropeptides, for example, CGRP and substance P (SP), on taste cells implying they play a role in taste sensitivity. During the processing of gustatory information in taste buds, CGRP shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signalling. The underlying assumption has been that SP exerts its effects on taste transmitter secretion in taste buds of mice...
April 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278699/postnatal-development-of-bitter-taste-avoidance-behavior-in-mice-is-associated-with-actin-dependent-localization-of-bitter-taste-receptors-to-the-microvilli-of-taste-cells
#17
Atsuko Yamashita, Kaori Kondo, Yoshimi Kunishima, Sachiko Iseki, Takashi Kondo, Masato S Ota
Bitter taste avoidance behavior (BAB) plays a fundamental role in the avoidance of toxic substances with a bitter taste. However, the molecular basis underlying the development of BAB is unknown. To study critical developmental events by which taste buds turn into functional organs with BAB, we investigated the early phase development of BAB in postnatal mice in response to bitter-tasting compounds, such as quinine and thiamine. Postnatal mice started to exhibit BAB for thiamine and quinine at postnatal day 5 (PD5) and PD7, respectively...
January 22, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236959/aging-decreases-chorda-tympani-nerve-responses-to-nacl-and-alters-morphology-of-fungiform-taste-pores-in-rats
#18
Zachary D Whiddon, Spencer T Rynberg, Thomas G Mast, Joseph M Breza
Sensory processing is susceptible to decline with age. The sense of taste is, however, generally thought to be resistant to aging. We investigated how chorda-tympani nerve responses and fungiform-taste pores are affected by aging in the Sprague-Dawley rat, a model system for salt taste. First, we measured chorda-tympani nerve responses to NH4Cl and NaCl solutions in young (3-5 months old) and aged (14-15 months old) rats. Aged rats had significantly attenuated chorda-tympani responses to 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0...
December 9, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203198/phylogeny-and-expression-patterns-of-two-apolipoprotein-e-genes-in-the-flatfish-senegalese-sole
#19
Javier Roman-Padilla, Ana Rodríguez-Rúa, Carlos Carballo, Manuel Manchado, Ismael Hachero-Cruzado
The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a key component of several lipoproteins involved in lipid homeostasis. In this study, two cDNA sequences encoding ApoE (referred to as apoEa and apoEb) were characterized in the flatfish Solea senegalensis. The predicted peptides contained conserved structural blocks related with their capacity for lipid binding and lipoprotein receptor interaction. At genomic level, both genes contained five exons and four introns and they were organized into two tandem arrays with apoA-IV gene copies...
February 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188655/-taste-signal-transduction-and-the-role-of-taste-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-microbial-infection
#20
Lu Yangyu, Xi Ranhui, Zheng Xin, He Jinzhi, Xu Xin
Taste receptors guide individuals to consume nutrients while avoiding potentially noxious substances. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that taste receptors are also expressed beyond the taste buds, including brain, respiratory system, and digestive system, etc. These extragustatory taste receptors play important roles in microbial infection, nutrient uptake and host homeostasis. Mang extragustatory taste receptors have been proposed to sense microorganisms and regulate host innate defense. More importantly, polymorphisms of genes encoding taste receptor, particularly bitter taste receptor, are linked to different innate defensive responses...
October 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
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