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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734079/post-translational-palmitoylation-controls-the-voltage-gating-and-lipid-raft-association-of-calhm1-channel
#1
Akiyuki Taruno, Hongxin Sun, Koichi Nakajo, Tatsuro Murakami, Yasuyoshi Ohsaki, Mizuho A Kido, Fumihito Ono, Yoshinori Marunaka
Emerging roles of CALHM1, a recently discovered voltage-gated ion channel, include purinergic neurotransmission of tastes in taste buds and memory formation in the brain, highlighting its physiological importance. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the CALHM1 channel remain entirely unexplored, hindering full understanding of its contribution in vivo. In fact, the different gating properties of CALHM1 in vivo and in vitro suggest undiscovered regulatory mechanisms. Here, in searching for post-translational regulatory mechanisms, we discovered the regulation of CALHM1 gating and association with lipid microdomains via protein S-palmitoylation, the only reversible lipid modification of proteins on cysteine residues...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715412/cell-fate-specification-in-the-lingual-epithelium-is-controlled-by-antagonistic-activities-of-sonic-hedgehog-and-retinoic-acid
#2
Maha El Shahawy, Claes-Göran Reibring, Cynthia L Neben, Kristina Hallberg, Pauline Marangoni, Brian D Harfe, Ophir D Klein, Anders Linde, Amel Gritli-Linde
The interaction between signaling pathways is a central question in the study of organogenesis. Using the developing murine tongue as a model, we uncovered unknown relationships between Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and retinoic acid (RA) signaling. Genetic loss of SHH signaling leads to enhanced RA activity subsequent to loss of SHH-dependent expression of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1. This causes a cell identity switch, prompting the epithelium of the tongue to form heterotopic minor salivary glands and to overproduce oversized taste buds...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715040/-taste-dysfunction-dysgeusia-and-radioiodine-therapy-of-thyroid-cancer-be-aware-of-side-effects-by-antidepressants-and-sedatives
#3
Markus Dietlein, Alexander Drzezga
In addition to xerostomia, taste dysfunction (hypo-, dysgeusia) is an independent side effect of radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer. Hypogeusia results from damage of the small mucous salivary glands in the vicinity of the taste buds. Particularly in those patients, who are treated with drugs such as antidepressants or sedatives, taste dysfunction becomes frequently clinically symptomatic. If feasible, therapy regimens bearing a potential risk for taste dysfunction should be switched. Additional damage to taste function should be minimalized, including cessation of smoking, change of agents for dental hygiene, and change of toothpaste...
July 17, 2017: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687314/participation-of-the-peripheral-taste-system-in-aging-dependent-changes-in-taste-sensitivity
#4
Masataka Narukawa, Azusa Kurokawa, Rie Kohta, Takumi Misaka
Previous studies have shown that aging modifies taste sensitivity. However, the factors affecting the changes in taste sensitivity remain unclear. To investigate the cause of the age-related changes in taste sensitivity, we compared the peripheral taste detection systems in young and old mice. First, we examined whether taste sensitivity varied according to age using behavioral assays. We confirmed that the taste sensitivities to salty and bitter tastes decreased with aging. In other assays, the gustatory nerve responses to salty and sweet tastes increased significantly with aging, while those to bitter taste did not change...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672219/theophylline-increases-saliva-sonic-hedgehog-and-improves-taste-dysfunction
#5
Robert I Henkin, Alexandra B Knöppel, Mona Abdelmeguid, William A Stateman, Suzanna Hosein
OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in saliva sonic hedgehog (Shh) and in taste dysfunction before and after oral theophylline treatment. DESIGN: Shh was measured in parotid saliva of both normal subjects and patients with taste dysfunction of multiple etiologies by use of a sensitive spectrophotometric ELISA assay. Taste dysfunction was defined clinically by both subjective inhibition of taste function (including acuity loss) and impaired gustometry. RESULTS: Theophylline treatment increased patient saliva Shh and improved taste dysfunction both subjectively and by gustometry...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655883/taste-buds-cells-signals-and-synapses
#6
REVIEW
Stephen D Roper, Nirupa Chaudhari
The past decade has witnessed a consolidation and refinement of the extraordinary progress made in taste research. This Review describes recent advances in our understanding of taste receptors, taste buds, and the connections between taste buds and sensory afferent fibres. The article discusses new findings regarding the cellular mechanisms for detecting tastes, new data on the transmitters involved in taste processing and new studies that address longstanding arguments about taste coding.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600222/taste-bud-derived-bdnf-maintains-innervation-of-a-subset-of-trkb-expressing-gustatory-nerve-fibers
#7
Tao Tang, Jennifer Rios-Pilier, Robin Krimm
Taste receptor cells transduce different types of taste stimuli and transmit this information to gustatory neurons that carry it to the brain. Taste receptor cells turn over continuously in adulthood, requiring constant new innervation from nerve fibers. Therefore, the maintenance of innervation to taste buds is an active process mediated by many factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Specifically, 40% of taste bud innervation is lost when Bdnf is removed during adulthood. Here we speculated that not all gustatory nerve fibers express the BDNF receptor, TrkB, resulting in subsets of neurons that vary in their response to BDNF...
June 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595328/genetic-lineage-tracing-in-taste-tissues-using-sox2-creert2-strain
#8
Makoto Ohmoto, Wenwen Ren, Yugo Nishiguchi, Junji Hirota, Peihua Jiang, Ichiro Matsumoto
Taste cells in taste buds are epithelial sensory cells. Old taste bud cells die and are replaced by new ones generated from taste stem cells. Identifying and characterizing adult taste stem cells is therefore important to understand how peripheral taste tissues are maintained. SOX2 is expressed in oral epithelium including gustatory papillae and has been proposed to be a marker of adult taste stem/progenitor cells. Nevertheless, this hypothesis has never been directly tested. Here, by single-color genetic lineage tracing using Sox2-CreERT2 strain, we reveal that all types of taste bud cells distributed throughout the oral epithelium are derived from stem cells that express SOX2...
June 8, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589954/wnt10a-mutation-causes-ectodermal-dysplasia-by-impairing-progenitor-cell-proliferation-and-klf4-mediated-differentiation
#9
Mingang Xu, Jeremy Horrell, Melinda Snitow, Jiawei Cui, Heather Gochnauer, Camille M Syrett, Staci Kallish, John T Seykora, Fei Liu, Dany Gaillard, Jonathan P Katz, Klaus H Kaestner, Brooke Levin, Corinne Mansfield, Jennifer E Douglas, Beverly J Cowart, Michael Tordoff, Fang Liu, Xuming Zhu, Linda A Barlow, Adam I Rubin, John A McGrath, Edward E Morrisey, Emily Y Chu, Sarah E Millar
Human WNT10A mutations are associated with developmental tooth abnormalities and adolescent onset of a broad range of ectodermal defects. Here we show that β-catenin pathway activity and adult epithelial progenitor proliferation are reduced in the absence of WNT10A, and identify Wnt-active self-renewing stem cells in affected tissues including hair follicles, sebaceous glands, taste buds, nails and sweat ducts. Human and mouse WNT10A mutant palmoplantar and tongue epithelia also display specific differentiation defects that are mimicked by loss of the transcription factor KLF4...
June 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589232/lingual-tactile-sensitivity-effect-of-age-group-sex-and-fungiform-papillae-density
#10
Ronald G Bangcuyo, Christopher T Simons
Despite its contribution to food perception, lingual tactile sensitivity has been understudied. We hypothesized that sensitivity to threshold and suprathreshold tactile stimuli varies in the population and sought to determine proximate sources of variability. Forty-eight adults were tested for lingual threshold sensitivity via a modified letter identification task and suprathreshold sensitivity via estimation of stimulus size using magnitude estimation. In addition, taste bud density on the anterior tip of each panelist's tongue was estimated by counting the number of fungiform papillae in a 0...
June 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559238/epithelial-cell-behaviours-during-neurosensory-organ-formation
#11
REVIEW
Marika Kapsimali
Perception of the environment in vertebrates relies on a variety of neurosensory mini-organs. These organs develop via a multi-step process that includes placode induction, cell differentiation, patterning and innervation. Ultimately, cells derived from one or more different tissues assemble to form a specific mini-organ that exhibits a particular structure and function. The initial building blocks of these organs are epithelial cells that undergo rearrangements and interact with neighbouring tissues, such as neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells and sensory neurons, to construct a functional sensory organ...
June 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532581/unilateral-nasal-obstruction-induces-degeneration-of-fungiform-and-circumvallate-papillae-in-rats
#12
Jui-Chin Hsu, Ippei Watari, Yukiha Funaki, Satoshi Kokai, Takashi Ono
BACKGROUND: In clinical orthodontic treatment, chronic respiratory disturbance or mouth breathing has been concerned symptoms and screening criteria. In this study, to analyze the relation between nasal obstruction and taste sensing, a unilateral nasal obstruction model was performed to investigate the taste papillae and taste buds in rats. METHODS: Fourteen 6-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and experimental groups (n = 7 each). The experimental group underwent unilateral nasal obstruction at 8 days of age...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530322/-oro-dento-facial-manifestations-in-patients-with-familial-dysautonomia
#13
REVIEW
Eliyahu Mass
The oro-dento-facial features and dysfunctions of children with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III), known as familial dysautonomia (FD) or Riley-Day syndrome, were first described in the scientific literature in 1949. They include: dental trauma, dental and soft tissue selfmutilation, normal dental age, normal sequence and timing of eruption and exfoliation of teeth, smaller tooth size, different and disproportional tooth components, normal alveolar bone height, small jaws, mild crowding and malocclusion...
August 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506989/fgf-signaling-refines-wnt-gradients-to-regulate-the-patterning-of-taste-papillae
#14
Michaela Prochazkova, Teemu J Häkkinen, Jan Prochazka, Frantisek Spoutil, Andrew H Jheon, Youngwook Ahn, Robb Krumlauf, Jukka Jernvall, Ophir D Klein
The patterning of repeated structures is a major theme in developmental biology, and the inter-relationship between spacing and size of such structures is an unresolved issue. Fungiform papillae are repeated epithelial structures that house taste buds on the anterior tongue. Here, we report that FGF signaling is a crucial regulator of fungiform papillae development. We found that mesenchymal FGF10 controls the size of the papillary area, while overall patterning remains unchanged. Our results show that FGF signaling negatively affects the extent of canonical Wnt signaling, which is the main activation pathway during fungiform papillae development; however, this effect does not occur at the level of gene transcription...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502972/distribution-innervation-and-cellular-organization-of-taste-buds-in-the-sea-catfish-plotosus-japonicus
#15
Tatsufumi Nakamura, Naoki Matsuyama, Masato Kirino, Masanori Kasai, Sadao Kiyohara, Takanori Ikenaga
The gustatory system of the sea catfish Plotosus japonicus, like that of other catfishes, is highly developed. To clarify the details of the morphology of the peripheral gustatory system of Plotosus, we used whole-mount immunohistochemistry to investigate the distribution and innervation of the taste buds within multiple organs including the barbels, oropharyngeal cavity, fins (pectoral, dorsal, and caudal), and trunk. Labeled taste buds could be observed in all the organs examined. The density of the taste buds was higher along the leading edges of the barbels and fins; this likely increases the chance of detecting food...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488063/subgemmal-neurogenous-plaque-of-the-tongue-a-report-of-three-cases
#16
Amanda Katarinny Goes Gonzaga, Deborah Gondim Lambert Moreira, Dáurea Adília Cóbe Sena, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa Lopes, Lélia Batista de Souza, Lélia Maria Guedes Queiroz
Subgemmal neurogenous plaque (SNP) is a biphasic neural structure associated with the taste buds. Clinically, SNP usually presents as an asymptomatic, normally colored, papule located in the posterior lateral border of the tongue. Accurate diagnosis is based only on histopathological examination, which shows a superficial neurofibroma-like pattern and a neuroma-like in the deep zone. Appropriate recognition of clinical and morphological aspects of SNPs can avoid their misdiagnosis as neural neoplasms. We report three cases of SNP with detailed clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features...
May 10, 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487527/development-of-frequency-based-taste-receptors-using-bioinspired-glucose-nanobiosensor
#17
Amin TermehYousefi, Katsumi Tateno, Samira Bagheri, Hirofumi Tanaka
A method to fabricate a bioinspired nanobiosensor using electronic-based artificial taste receptors for glucose diagnosis is presented. Fabricated bioinspired glucose nanobiosensor designated based on an artificial taste bud including an amperometric glucose biosensor and taste bud-inspired circuits. In fact, the design of the taste bud-inspired circuits was inspired by the signal-processing mechanism of taste nerves which involves two layers. The first, known as a type II cell, detects the glucose by glucose oxidase and transduces the current signal obtained for the pulse pattern is conducted to the second layer, called type III cell, to induce synchronisation of the neural spiking activity...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386657/study-on-the-morphology-histology-and-enzymatic-activity-of-the-digestive-tract-of-gymnocypris-eckloni-herzenstein
#18
Lizhu Yang, Jing Fang, Xi Peng, Hengmin Cui, Min He, Zhicai Zuo, Yi Zhou, Zhuangzhi Yang
The present research was conducted to study the morphology, histology and enzymatic activities of the digestive tract of Gymnocypris eckloni by light and transmission electron microscopes as well as by enzyme assays. The digestive tract of G. eckloni consisted of the oropharyngeal cavity, oesophagus and intestine. The wall of the digestive tract was composed of mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa but lacked muscularis mucosa and glands. The stratified epithelium of the oropharyngeal cavity and oesophagus contained numerous mucous cells...
August 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379369/electrogustometry-thresholds-tongue-tip-vascularization-density-and-form-of-the-fungiform-papillae-following-smoking-cessation
#19
Pavlos Pavlidis, Haralampos Gouveris, Georgios Kekes
The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in gustatory function and in shape, density, and vascularization of the fungiform papillae (fPap) of smokers' tongue before and after smoking cessation. In 24 smokers (19 males, 5 females; median age: 54.6 ± 2.9 years) electrogustometry (EGM) thresholds at the chorda tympani area, at the soft palate area and at the area of the vallate papillae were recorded bilaterally. Morphology and density of the fungiform papillae (fPap) and blood vessels' density and morphology at the tip of the tongue were examined using contact endoscopy (CE)...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370265/zizyphin-modulates-calcium-signalling-in-human-taste-bud-cells-and-fat-taste-perception-in-the-mouse
#20
Babar Murtaza, Meryem Berrichi, Chahid Bennamar, Thierry Tordjmann, Fatima Z Djeziri, Aziz Hichami, Julia Leemput, Meriem Belarbi, Hakan Ozdener, Naim A Khan
Zizyphin, isolated from Zizyphus sps. leaf extracts, has been shown to modulate sugar taste perception, and the palatability of a sweet solution is increased by the addition of fatty acids. We, therefore, studied whether zizyphin also modulates fat taste perception. Zizyphin was purified from edible fruit of Zizyphus lotus L. Zizyphin-induced increases in [Ca(2+) ]i in human taste bud cells (hTBC). Zizyphin shared the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pool and also recruited, in part, Ca(2+) from extracellular environment via the opening of store-operated Ca(2+) channels...
April 2, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
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