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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334404/calcium-homeostasis-modulator-1-like-currents-in-rat-fungiform-taste-cells-expressing-amiloride-sensitive-sodium-currents
#1
Albertino Bigiani
Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels...
March 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334158/the-impact-of-pregnancy-on-taste-function
#2
Ezen Choo, Robin Dando
It is common for women to report a change in taste (for instance an increased bitter or decreased sweet response) during pregnancy, however specifics of any variation in taste with pregnancy remain elusive. Here we review studies of taste in pregnancy, and discuss how physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may influence taste signaling. We aim to consolidate studies of human pregnancy and "taste function" (studies of taste thresholds, discrimination, and intensity perception, rather than hedonic response or self-report), discussing differences in methodology and findings...
February 23, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323498/predictors-of-adult-e-cigarette-users-vaporizing-cannabis-using-e-cigarettes-and-vape-pens
#3
Meghan E Morean, Noah Lipshie, Margo Josephson, Dawn Foster
BACKGROUND: Given limited extant research, we assessed the use of portable, battery-powered cannabis vaporizers by adult e-cigarette users. METHODS: 522 adult vapers completed an online survey. Demographics; lifetime and past-month cannabis vaporization via e-cigarettes/vape-pens; preferences for hash oil, D-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) wax, or dried buds; and cannabis vaporization beliefs and motives were examined. Demographics, age of e-cigarette onset, e-cigarette use frequency, state-level legal status of cannabis, cannabis vaping beliefs/motives, and impulsivity were examined as predictors of lifetime cannabis vaporization, past-month cannabis vaporization, and cannabis vaping frequency...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316078/5-ht3a-driven-gfp-delineates-gustatory-fibers-innervating-sour-responsive-taste-cells-a-labeled-line-for-sour-taste
#4
J M Stratford, E D Larson, R Yang, E Salcedo, T E Finger
Taste buds contain multiple cell types with each type expressing receptors and transduction components for a subset of taste qualities. The sour sensing cells, Type III cells, release serotonin (5-HT) in response to the presence of sour (acidic) tastants and this released 5-HT activates 5-HT3 receptors on the gustatory nerves. We show here, using 5-HT3A GFP mice, that 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers preferentially contact and receive synaptic contact from Type III taste cells. Further, these 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers terminate in a restricted central-lateral portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) - the same area that shows increased c-Fos expression upon presentation of a sour tastant (30 mM citric acid)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303565/morphometry-and-microanatomy-of-the-barbels-of-the-common-sawshark-pristiophorus-cirratus-pristiophoridae-implications-for-pristiophorid-behaviour
#5
R J Nevatte, J E Williamson, N G F Vella, V Raoult, B E Wueringer
The internal anatomy of the barbels of the common sawshark Pristiophorus cirratus was examined with light microscopy to clarify their sensory role. No sensory structures such as taste buds (chemoreception), ampullae of Lorenzini (electroreception) or free neuromasts (lateral line mechanoreception) could be located in the barbels. The presence of bundles of nerve fibres, however, indicates a tactile function for the barbels. Conveyance of information regarding potentially damaging stimuli (nociception) and temperature (thermoception) cannot be excluded at this stage...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238842/appetite-control-by-the-tongue-gut-axis-and-evaluation-of-the-role-of-cd36-sr-b2
#6
Isabelle Niot, Philippe Besnard
Understanding the mechanisms governing food intake is a public health issue given the dramatic rise of obesity over the world. The overconsumption of tasty energy-dense foods rich in lipids is considered to be one of the nutritional causes of this epidemic. Over the last decade, the identification of fatty acid receptors in strategic places in the body (i.e. oro-intestinal tract and brain) has provided a major progress in the deciphering of regulatory networks involved in the control of dietary intake. Among these lipid sensors, CD36/SR-B2 appears to play a significant role since this membrane protein, known to bind long-chain fatty acid with a high affinity, was specifically found both in enterocytes and in a subset of taste bud cells and entero-endocrine cells...
February 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202574/action-potentials-and-ion-conductances-in-wild-type-and-calhm1-knockout-type-ii-taste-cells
#7
Zhongming Ma, Wint Thu Saung, J Kevin Foskett
Taste bud type II cells fire action potentials in response to tastants, triggering non-vesicular ATP release to gustatory neurons via voltage-gated CALHM1-associated ion channels. Whereas CALHM1 regulates mouse cortical neuron excitability, its roles in regulating type II cell excitability are unknown. Here, we compared membrane conductances and action potentials in single identified TRPM5-GFP-expressing circumvallate papillae type II cells acutely isolated from wild-type (WT) and Calhm1-knockout (KO) mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198526/tongue-and-lingual-salivary-glands-of-the-canary-sem-and-histochemical-study
#8
Feyza Basak, Sukru Hakan Atalgin, Emine Umran Bozkurt
In this study, morphological characteristics of the canary tongue were examined macroscopically and histologically besides using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, histochemical features of the lingual salivary glands of the canary were also examined. The results suggest that the tongue of the canary has an equilateral quadrangle shape is sloped towards the apex on its dorsal surface; where its sides are bounded by tall epithelial extensions. Additionally, histological examination showed that salivary glands were only present on the body of the tongue and there were no taste buds...
February 15, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197867/ultramorphological-changes-in-gill-rakers-of-astyanax-altiparanae-characidae-kept-in-contaminated-environments
#9
F P Lopes, B F Pereira, R M S Alves, J R T Valim, F A T Figueiredo, D L Pitol, F H Caetano
Most water bodies in Brazil, and in the world, are contaminated by some types of pollutants, ranging from sewage to metal/chemicals, carcinogenic products, and biodegradable detergents. Despite the extensive knowledge on their effects on fish biology and especially on gill morphology, research that concerns their impacts on gill rakers and implications in parameters such as food consumption cannot be found in the literature. Gill rakers are vital because, together with gills, they are responsible for the defense and protection of the organism and for selecting appropriate food for survival...
February 14, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192057/tongue-and-taste-organ-biology-and-function-homeostasis-maintained-by-hedgehog-signaling
#10
Charlotte M Mistretta, Archana Kumari
The tongue is an elaborate complex of heterogeneous tissues with taste organs of diverse embryonic origins. The lingual taste organs are papillae, composed of an epithelium that includes specialized taste buds, the basal lamina, and a lamina propria core with matrix molecules, fibroblasts, nerves, and vessels. Because taste organs are dynamic in cell biology and sensory function, homeostasis requires tight regulation in specific compartments or niches. Recently, the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has emerged as an essential regulator that maintains lingual taste papillae, taste bud and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurophysiological function...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187302/a-kinetic-study-of-bitter-taste-receptor-sensing-using-immobilized-porcine-taste-bud-tissues
#11
Lihui Wei, Lixin Qiao, Guangchang Pang, Junbo Xie
At present, developing an efficient assay method for truly reflecting the real feelings of gustatory tissues is of great importance. In this study, a novel biosensor was fabricated to investigate the kinetic characteristics of the receptors in taste bud tissues sensing bitter substances for the first time. Porcine taste bud tissues were used as the sensing elements, and the sandwich-type sensing membrane was fixed onto a glassy carbon electrode for assembling the biosensor. With the developed sensor, the response currents induced by sucrose octaacetate, denatonium benzoate, and quercetin stimulating corresponding receptors were determined...
June 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120342/morphological-study-of-the-persian-leopard-panthera-pardus-saxicolor-tongue
#12
J Sadeghinezhad, M T Sheibani, I Memarian, R Chiocchetti
This study described the morphological features of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) tongue using light and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The keratinized filiform papillae were distributed all over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue and contained small processes. They were changed into a cylindrical shape in the body and conical shape in the root. The fungiform papillae were found on the apex and margin of the tongue. Few taste pores were observed on the dorsal surface of each papilla...
January 24, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115648/drug-induced-taste-disorders-in-clinical-practice-and-preclinical-safety-evaluation
#13
Tao Wang, John Glendinning, Miriam Grushka, Thomas Hummel, Keith Mansfield
More than 200 medications can induce taste disorders in patients. They not only reduce quality of life for those affected, but can lead to malnutrition, severe dehydration and difficulty in maintaining a therapeutic regimen. Nevertheless, the impact of drug candidates on taste is rarely evaluated in preclinical toxicology studies during the early stage of drug development. Moreover, knowledge about how to investigate these adverse effect is scarce in the toxicology field. Here, we discuss the clinical status of drug-induced taste disorders in patients, with the goal of providing toxicologists with a broad understanding its prevalence, and how stressful and even dangerous it can be to affected patients...
January 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100747/selective-deletion-of-sodium-salt-taste-during-development-leads-to-expanded-terminal-fields-of-gustatory-nerves-in-the-adult-mouse-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#14
Chengsan Sun, Edith Hummler, David L Hill
Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053191/extraoral-bitter-taste-receptors-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Ping Lu, Cheng-Hai Zhang, Lawrence M Lifshitz, Ronghua ZhuGe
Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs or T2Rs) belong to the superfamily of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors, which are the targets of >50% of drugs currently on the market. Canonically, T2Rs are located in taste buds of the tongue, where they initiate bitter taste perception. However, accumulating evidence indicates that T2Rs are widely expressed throughout the body and mediate diverse nontasting roles through various specialized mechanisms. It has also become apparent that T2Rs and their polymorphisms are associated with human disorders...
February 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029722/taste-function-assessed-by-electrogustometry-in-burning-mouth-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#16
A Braud, V Descroix, M-N Ungeheuer, C Rougeot, Y Boucher
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic burning mouth syndrome (iBMS) is characterized by oral persistent pain without any clinical or biological abnormality. The aim of this study was to evaluate taste function in iBMS subjects and healthy controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Electrogustometric thresholds (EGMt) were recorded in 21 iBMS patients and 21 paired-matched controls at nine loci of the tongue assessing fungiform and foliate gustatory papillae function. Comparison of EGMt was performed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test...
December 28, 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026010/temperature-and-light-conditions-at-different-latitudes-affect-sensory-quality-of-broccoli-florets-brassica-oleracea-l-var-italica
#17
Tor J Johansen, Jørgen Ab Mølmann, Gunnar B Bengtsson, Monica Schreiner, Pablo Velasco, Anne L Hykkerud, Elena Cartea, Per Lea, Josefine Skaret, Randi Seljåsen
BACKGROUND: Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009-2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply at natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42-70 °N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture...
December 27, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009451/sonic-hedgehog-is-present-in-parotid-saliva-and-is-decreased-in-patients-with-taste-dysfunction
#18
Robert I Henkin, Alexandra B Knöppel, Mona Abdelmeguid, William A Stateman, Suzanna Hosein
PURPOSE: To demonstrate that sonic hedgehog (Shh) is present in human parotid saliva and is decreased in human taste dysfunction. METHODS: Shh was measured in parotid saliva of 27 normal subjects and 81 patients with taste dysfunction of multiple etiologies by use of a sensitive spectrophotometric ELISA assay. Taste dysfunction was defined clinically by both subjective decreases of taste acuity and flavor perception and by impaired gustometry. RESULTS: Shh was found in parotid saliva in both normal subjects and in patients with taste dysfunction...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990675/the-tongue-dorsal-surface-in-fish-a-comparison-among-three-farmed-species
#19
REVIEW
M Levanti, A Germanà, G Montalbano, M C Guerrera, M Cavallaro, F Abbate
The oral cavity of vertebrates has a very important role in many functions strictly related to the food processing. Two species, sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and seabream Sparus aurata, are mainly involved in the aquaculture industry in the mediterranean area; moreover, the white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus was recently chosen as the best candidate for the diversification of species of commercial interest. This investigation was carried out, using the standard procedures for light and scanning electron microscopy, to analyse the morphology of the tongue dorsal surface in order to show whether relationships are present between the tongue morphology and the nutritional choices of these species...
December 19, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940992/selective-deletion-of-sodium-salt-taste-during-development-leads-to-expanded-terminal-fields-of-gustatory-nerves-in-the-adult-mouse-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#20
Chengsan Sun, Edith Hummler, David L Hill
Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knockout model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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