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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893742/maintenance-of-taste-organs-is-strictly-dependent-on-epithelial-hedgehog-gli-signaling
#1
Alexandre N Ermilov, Archana Kumari, Libo Li, Ariell M Joiner, Marina A Grachtchouk, Benjamin L Allen, Andrzej A Dlugosz, Charlotte M Mistretta
For homeostasis, lingual taste papilla organs require regulation of epithelial cell survival and renewal, with sustained innervation and stromal interactions. To investigate a role for Hedgehog/GLI signaling in adult taste organs we used a panel of conditional mouse models to manipulate GLI activity within epithelial cells of the fungiform and circumvallate papillae. Hedgehog signaling suppression rapidly led to taste bud loss, papilla disruption, and decreased proliferation in domains of papilla epithelium that contribute to taste cells...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870442/contributory-role-of-sex-differences-in-the-variations-of-gustatory-function
#2
REVIEW
Louis J Martin, Suzanne I Sollars
Remarkable variability between males and females occurs for an array of taste-guided behaviors in both rodents and humans. Sex differences have been noted for taste preference, detection thresholds, and reactivity to taste stimuli. Manipulating sex hormones during early postnatal development or altering the amount of circulating estrogen in adulthood can dramatically alter the pattern of these behaviors. Receptors for sex hormones appear to be prominent in several nuclei associated with central gustatory pathways, indicating that steroid hormones may modulate central taste processing...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853250/labeling-and-analysis-of-chicken-taste-buds-using-molecular-markers-in-oral-epithelial-sheets
#3
Prasangi Rajapaksha, Zhonghou Wang, Nandakumar Venkatesan, Kayvan F Tehrani, Jason Payne, Raymond L Swetenburg, Fuminori Kawabata, Shoji Tabata, Luke J Mortensen, Steven L Stice, Robert Beckstead, Hong-Xiang Liu
In chickens, the sensory organs for taste are the taste buds in the oral cavity, of which there are ~240-360 in total number as estimated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is not an easy way to visualize all taste buds in chickens. Here, we report a highly efficient method for labeling chicken taste buds in oral epithelial sheets using the molecular markers Vimentin and α-Gustducin. Immediate tissue fixation following incubation with sub-epithelially injected proteases enabled us to peel off whole epithelial sheets, leaving the shape and integrity of the tissue intact...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829143/touch-receptors-undergo-rapid-remodeling-in-healthy-skin
#4
Kara L Marshall, Rachel C Clary, Yoshichika Baba, Rachel L Orlowsky, Gregory J Gerling, Ellen A Lumpkin
Sensory tissues exposed to the environment, such as skin, olfactory epithelia, and taste buds, continuously renew; therefore, peripheral neurons must have mechanisms to maintain appropriate innervation patterns. Although somatosensory neurons regenerate after injury, little is known about how these neurons cope with normal target organ changes. To elucidate neuronal plasticity in healthy skin, we analyzed the structure of Merkel-cell afferents, which are gentle touch receptors, during skin remodeling that accompanies mouse hair-follicle regeneration...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806254/taste-receptors-and-gustatory-associated-g-proteins-in-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus
#5
Sen Gao, Shikai Liu, Jun Yao, Tao Zhou, Ning Li, Qi Li, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
Taste sensation plays a pivotal role in nutrient identification and acquisition. This is particularly true for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) that live in turbid waters with limited visibility. This biological process is mainly mediated by taste receptors expressed in taste buds that are distributed in several organs and tissues, including the barbels and skin. In the present study, we identified a complete repertoire of taste receptor and gustatory associated G protein genes in the channel catfish genome...
October 23, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797725/morphology-and-distribution-of-taste-papillae-and-oral-denticles-in-the-developing-oropharyngeal-cavity-of-the-bamboo-shark-chiloscyllium-punctatum
#6
Carla J L Atkinson, Kyle J Martin, Gareth J Fraser, Shaun P Collin
Gustation in sharks is not well understood, especially within species that ingest food items using suction. This study examines the morphological and immunohistochemical characterisation of taste papillae and oral denticles in the oropharynx of the brown-banded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum and compares their distribution during development. Taste papillae of the brown-banded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum are located throughout the oropharyngeal region and are most concentrated on the oral valves (2,125-3,483 per cm(2) in embryos; 89-111 per cm(2) in mature adults) close to the tooth territories...
October 26, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797544/do-psychopathic-individuals-possess-a-misaligned-moral-compass-a-meta-analytic-examination-of-psychopathy-s-relations-with-moral-judgment
#7
Julia Marshall, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld
Psychopathic individuals are often characterized as lacking a moral sense. Although this hypothesis has received ample experimental attention over the past decade, findings have been inconsistent. To elucidate the relationship between psychopathy and abnormal moral judgment, we conducted a meta-analysis of the research on psychopathy and morality-related variables (k = 23, N = 4376). A random effects model indicated a small but statistically significant relation between psychopathy and moral decision-making (rw = ...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787515/ap1-transcription-factors-are-required-to-maintain-the-peripheral-taste-system
#8
Jayasha Shandilya, Yankun Gao, Tapan K Nayak, Stefan G E Roberts, Kathryn F Medler
The sense of taste is used by organisms to achieve the optimal nutritional requirement and avoid potentially toxic compounds. In the oral cavity, taste receptor cells are grouped together in taste buds that are present in specialized taste papillae in the tongue. Taste receptor cells are the cells that detect chemicals in potential food items and transmit that information to gustatory nerves that convey the taste information to the brain. As taste cells are in contact with the external environment, they can be damaged and are routinely replaced throughout an organism's lifetime to maintain functionality...
October 27, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746765/chilli-anthracnose-the-epidemiology-and-management
#9
Amrita Saxena, Richa Raghuwanshi, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Harikesh B Singh
Indian cuisine is renowned and celebrated throughout the world for its spicy treat to the tongue. The flavor and aroma of the food generated due to the use of spices creates an indelible experience. Among the commonly utilized spices to stimulate the taste buds in Indian food, whole or powdered chilli constitutes an inevitable position. Besides being a vital ingredient of of Indian food, chilli occupy an important position as an economic commodity, a major share in Indian economy. Chilli also has uncountable benefits to human health...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743264/a-pain-in-the-bud-implications-of-cross-modal-sensitivity-for-pain-experience
#10
Monica Perkins, Marien de Bruyne, Melita J Giummarra
There is growing evidence that enhanced sensitivity to painful clinical procedures and chronic pain are related to greater sensitivity to other sensory inputs, such as bitter taste. We examined cross-modal sensitivities in two studies. Study 1 assessed associations between bitter taste sensitivity, pain tolerance, and fear of pain in 48 healthy young adults. Participants were classified as non-tasters, tasters and super-tasters using a bitter taste test (6-n-propythiouracil; PROP). The latter group had significantly higher fear of pain (Fear of Pain Questionnaire) than tasters (p=...
November 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725147/corrigendum-to-acid-sensing-ion-channels-and-transient-receptor-potential-ion-channels-in-zebrafish-taste-buds-ann-anat-207c-2016-32-37
#11
M Levanti, B Randazzo, E Viña, G Montalbano, O Garcia-Suarez, A Germanà, J A Vega, F Abbate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706460/alteration-of-taste-buds-in-experimental-cirrhosis-is-there-correlation-with-human-hypogeusia
#12
Sabrina Alves Fernandes, Silvia Bona, Carlos Thadeu Schmidt Cerski, Norma Possa Marroni, Claudio Augusto Marroni
Background: The inherent complications of cirrhosis include protein-calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.Changes in taste are detrimental to the nutritional status, and the mechanism to explain these changes is not well documented in the cirrhotic patients. Objective: To evaluate the taste buds of cirrhotic rats. Methods: Fourteen male Wistar rats were evaluated. After 16 weeks, the liver was removed to histologically diagnose cirrhosis, and blood was collected to perform liver integrity tests...
October 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680547/chemosensory-epithelial-cells-in-the-urethra-sentinels-of-the-urinary-tract
#13
Klaus Deckmann, Wolfgang Kummer
A peculiar cell type of the respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia, originally termed "brush cell" or "tuft cell" by electron microscopists because of its apical tuft of microvilli, utilizes the canonical bitter taste transduction cascade known from oropharyngeal taste buds to detect potential hazardous compounds, e.g. bacterial products. Upon stimulation, this cell initiates protective reflexes and local inflammatory responses through release of acetylcholine and chemokines. Guided by the understanding of these cells as sentinels, they have been newly discovered at previously unrecognized anatomical locations, including the urethra...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641971/surface-architecture-of-the-oropharyngeal-cavity-and-the-digestive-tract-of-mulloidichthys-flavolineatus-from-the-red-sea-egypt-a-scanning-electron-microscope-study
#14
Usama M Mahmoud, Fatma Essa, Alaa El-Din H Sayed
Surface architecture of the buccal cavity and the surface organization of the luminal mucosa of the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine of the carnivorous fish M. flavolineatus from the Red Sea were studied by using SEM. The results revealed that M. flavolineatus has four kinds of teeth; curved-blunt, wedge-shaped, flattened crowns, molariform and papilliform. Three types of taste buds (type I, II and III) were recorded in the oropharyngeal cavity. It was observed that taste buds and teeth are co-located in the pharyngeal region...
September 5, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639649/distribution-of-%C3%AE-gustducin-and-vimentin-in-premature-and-mature-taste-buds-in-chickens
#15
Nandakumar Venkatesan, Prasangi Rajapaksha, Jason Payne, Forrest Goodfellow, Zhonghou Wang, Fuminori Kawabata, Shoji Tabata, Steven Stice, Robert Beckstead, Hong-Xiang Liu
The sensory organs for taste in chickens (Gallus sp.) are taste buds in the oral epithelium of the palate, base of the oral cavity, and posterior tongue. Although there is not a pan-taste cell marker that labels all chicken taste bud cells, α-Gustducin and Vimentin each label a subpopulation of taste bud cells. In the present study, we used both α-Gustducin and Vimentin to further characterize chicken taste buds at the embryonic and post-hatching stages (E17-P5). We found that both α-Gustducin and Vimentin label distinct and overlapping populations of, but not all, taste bud cells...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628900/selective-expression-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtype-m3-by-mouse-type-iii-taste-bud-cells
#16
Yusuke Mori, Kohgaku Eguchi, Kiyonori Yoshii, Yoshitaka Ohtubo
Each taste bud cell (TBC) type responds to a different taste. Previously, we showed that an unidentified cell type(s) functionally expresses a muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtype, M3, and we suggested the ACh-dependent modification of its taste responsiveness. In this study, we found that M3 is expressed by type III TBCs, which is the only cell type that possesses synaptic contacts with taste nerve fibers in taste buds. The application of ACh to the basolateral membrane of mouse fungiform TBCs in situ increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in 2...
September 14, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619029/morphology-of-nerve-endings-in-vocal-fold-of-human-newborn
#17
Janaina Gonçalves da Silva Leite, Maria Luzete Costa Cavalcante, Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine-Jamacaru, Margarida Maria de Lima Pompeu, José Alberto Dias Leite, Dulce Maria Nascimento Coelho, Marcos Rabelo de Freitas
Sensory receptors are distributed throughout the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Laryngeal sensitivity is crucial for maintaining safe swallowing, thus avoiding silent aspiration. Morphologic description of different receptor types present in larynx vary because of the study of many different species, from mouse to humans. The most commonly sensory structures described in laryngeal mucosa are free nerve endings, taste buds, muscle spindles, glomerular and corpuscular receptors. This study aimed at describing the morphology and the distribution of nerve endings in premature newborn glottic region...
October 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565979/anatomical-and-histological-structure-of-the-tongue-and-histochemical-characteristics-of-the-lingual-salivary-glands-in-the-persian-squirrel-sciurus-anomalus
#18
Javad Sadeghinezhad, Zahra Tootian, Faezeh Javadi
This study was carried out to describe the anatomical, histological and mucinous histochemical characteristics of the tongue in the Persian squirrel. This species is a rodent distributed all over the Middle East and recently has been considered a companion animal. Anatomical observations showed the median sulcus on the apex and absence of a lingual prominence in the body. Light and scanning electron microscopy showed that the filiform papillae cover the entire dorsal surface of the tongue, and their sizes increased approaching the root...
August 26, 2016: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538055/sonidegib-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-basal-cell-carcinoma
#19
Egle Ramelyte, Valerie C Amann, Reinhard Dummer
INTRODUCTION: Advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are rare but still present a severe medical problem. These tumors are often disfiguring and impact the quality of life by pain or bleeding. Based on discovery of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and its role in the pathogenesis of BCCs, smoothened (SMO) inhibitors have been developed with Sonidegib being the 2nd in class. It is the only Hh pathway inhibitor investigated in a randomized trial accompanied by pharmacodynamic investigations...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535766/synthetic-genome-engineering-forging-new-frontiers-for-wine-yeast
#20
Isak S Pretorius
Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes...
August 18, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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