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vaccine; immunization; immunisation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#1
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807627/measles-immunity-gaps-and-the-progress-towards-elimination-a-multi-country-modelling-analysis
#2
Filippo Trentini, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Alessia Melegaro
BACKGROUND: The persistent circulation of measles in both low-income and high-income countries requires a better characterisation of present epidemiological trends and existing immunity gaps across different sociodemographic settings. Serological surveys, which provide direct measures of population protection against the infection, are underexploited and often supply fragmentary estimates of population immunity. This study aims to investigate how measles immunity has changed over time across different socioeconomic settings, as a result of demographic changes and past immunisation policies...
August 11, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802754/cost-benefit-analyses-of-supplementary-measles-immunisation-in-the-highly-immunized-population-of-new-zealand
#3
D T S Hayman, J C Marshall, N P French, T E Carpenter, M G Roberts, T Kiedrzynski
As endemic measles is eliminated from countries through increased immunisation, the economic benefits of enhanced immunisation programs may come into question. New Zealand has suffered from outbreaks after measles introductions from abroad and we use it as a model system to understand the benefits of catch up immunisation in highly immunised populations. We provide cost-benefit analyses for measles supplementary immunisation in New Zealand. We model outbreaks based on estimates of the basic reproduction number in the vaccinated population (Rv, the number of secondary infections in a partially immunised population), based on the number of immunologically-naïve people at district and national levels, considering both pre- and post-catch up vaccination scenarios...
August 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775292/mucosal-vaccination-with-pili-from-group-a-streptococcus-expressed-on-lactococcus-lactis-generates-protective-immune-responses
#4
Jacelyn M S Loh, Natalie Lorenz, Catherine J-Y Tsai, Adrina Hema J Khemlani, Thomas Proft
The human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS) produces pili that are involved in adhesion and colonisation of the host. These surface-exposed pili are immunogenic and therefore represent an attractive target for vaccine development. The pilus is encoded in the genomic region known as the fibronectin-collagen-T-antigen (FCT)-region, of which at least nine different types have been identified. In this study we investigate expressing two of the most common FCT-types (FCT-3 and FCT-4) in the food-grade bacteria Lactococcus lactis for use as a mucosal vaccine...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774566/correlation-between-anthrax-lethal-toxin-neutralizing-antibody-levels-and-survival-in-guinea-pigs-and-nonhuman-primates-vaccinated-with-the-av7909-anthrax-vaccine-candidate
#5
Vladimir Savransky, Jeffry D Shearer, Melicia R Gainey, Daniel C Sanford, Gloria S Sivko, Gregory V Stark, Na Li, Boris Ionin, Michael J Lacy, Mario H Skiadopoulos
The anthrax vaccine candidate AV7909 is being developed as a next generation vaccine for a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) indication against anthrax. AV7909 consists of the Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax®) bulk drug substance adjuvanted with the immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) compound, CPG 7909. The addition of CPG 7909 to AVA enhances both the magnitude and the kinetics of antibody responses in animals and human subjects, making AV7909 a suitable next-generation vaccine for use in a PEP setting...
July 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761614/-impact-of-controlled-temperature-chain-ctc-approach-on-immunization-coverage-achieved-during-the-preventive-vaccination-campaign-against-meningitis-a-using-menafrivac-in-togo-in-2014
#6
Dadja Essoya Landoh, Anna-Léa Kahn, Anani Lacle, Kodjovi Adjeoda, Bayaki Saka, Issifou Yaya, Danladi Ibrahim Nassoury, Assima Kalao, Makawa-Sy Makawa, Nsiari-Mueyi Joseph Biey, Andre Bita, Yaovi Temfa Toke, Petit Dörte, Lucile Imboua, Olivier Ronveaux
METHOD: We conducted a survey from 9 to 14 March 2015 (for approximately 3 months) after the end of the vaccination campaign in these four regions. Interviewees were selected using two stages cluster sampling stratified according to the regions. MenAfriVac vaccine in Controlled Temperature Chain (CTC) was used in 10 districts, in Togo. RESULTS: A total of 2707 households were surveyed and 9082 people aged 1-29 years were interviewed. The average age of the individuals surveyed was 11...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760805/h1n1-vaccination-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-triggers-polyclonal-b-cell-activation-and-promotes-autoantibody-production
#7
Susanna Brauner, Lasse Folkersen, Marika Kvarnström, Sabrina Meisgen, Sven Petersen, Michaela Franzén-Malmros, Johannes Mofors, Karl A Brokstad, Lars Klareskog, Roland Jonsson, Lisa S Westerberg, Christina Trollmo, Vivianne Malmström, Aurelie Ambrosi, Vijay K Kuchroo, Gunnel Nordmark, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
OBJECTIVES: Vaccination of patients with rheumatic disease has been reported to result in lower antibody titres than in healthy individuals. However, studies primarily include patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Here, we investigated the immune response of treatment-naïve patients diagnosed with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) to an H1N1 influenza vaccine. METHODS: Patients with Sjögren's syndrome without immunomodulatory treatment and age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls were immunised with an H1N1 influenza vaccine and monitored for serological and cellular immune responses...
July 31, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757186/the-basic-reproduction-number-r0-of-measles-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Fiona M Guerra, Shelly Bolotin, Gillian Lim, Jane Heffernan, Shelley L Deeks, Ye Li, Natasha S Crowcroft
The basic reproduction number, R nought (R0), is defined as the average number of secondary cases of an infectious disease arising from a typical case in a totally susceptible population, and can be estimated in populations if pre-existing immunity can be accounted for in the calculation. R0 determines the herd immunity threshold and therefore the immunisation coverage required to achieve elimination of an infectious disease. As R0 increases, higher immunisation coverage is required to achieve herd immunity...
July 27, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739825/neisseria-cinerea-expresses-a-functional-factor-h-binding-protein-which-is-recognised-by-immune-responses-elicited-by-meningococcal-vaccines
#9
Hayley Lavender, Katy Poncin, Christoph M Tang
Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis worldwide. Capsular polysaccharide vaccines are available against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y. More recently two protein based vaccines, Bexsero® and Trumenba®, have been licenced against meningococcal serogroup B strains; both vaccines contain meningococcal factor H binding protein (fHbp). fHbp is a surface exposed lipoprotein which binds the negative complement regulator, complement factor H (CFH), thereby inhibiting the alternative pathway of complement activation...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739285/promising-approaches-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-viral-respiratory-illnesses
#10
Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Spyridon Megremis, Nikolaos A Kitsioulis, Olympia Vangelatou, Peter West, Paraskevi Xepapadaki
Viral respiratory infections are the most common human ailments, leading to enormous health and economic burden. Hundreds of virus species and subtypes have been associated with these conditions, with influenza viruses (IFV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the rhinoviruses (RV) being the most frequent and with the highest burden. When considering prevention or treatment of viral respiratory infections, potential targets include the causative pathogens themselves but also the immune response, disease transmission or even just the symptoms...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733900/the-putative-role-of-environmental-mercury-in-the-pathogenesis-and-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-subtypes
#11
REVIEW
G Morris, B K Puri, R E Frye, M Maes
Exposure to organic forms of mercury has the theoretical capacity to generate a range of immune abnormalities coupled with chronic nitro-oxidative stress seen in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The paper discusses possible mechanisms explaining the neurotoxic effects of mercury and possible associations between mercury exposure and ASD subtypes. Environmental mercury is neurotoxic at doses well below the current reference levels considered to be safe, with evidence of neurotoxicity in children exposed to environmental sources including fish consumption and ethylmercury-containing vaccines...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721859/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-the-inactivated-hepatitis-a-vaccine-in-children-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-on-methotrexate-treatment-a-matched-case-control-study
#12
Despoina N Maritsi, Susan E Coffin, Ioanna Argyri, George Vartzelis, Nick Spyridis, Maria N Tsolia
OBJECTIVES: To describe the immunogenicity and side effects of immunisation against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in JIA patients on methotrexate treatment, who have not been previously exposed to HAV. METHODS: Case-control study performed in JIA patients and healthy controls matched on age and gender. The subjects received two doses of inactivated anti-HAV vaccine (720 mIU/ml) intramuscularly at 0 and 6 months. Seroconversion, seroprotection rates and anti-HAV-IgG titres were measured at 1, 7 and 18 months...
July 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711586/achieving-safe-effective-and-durable-zika-virus-vaccines-lessons-from-dengue
#13
REVIEW
Scott B Halstead
Newly proposed candidate Zika virus vaccines might or might not succeed in raising safe, effective, and durable protection against human Zika virus infections or syndromes. Analyses of a clinically tested and licensed dengue vaccine that failed to protect seronegative individuals from breakthrough or enhanced dengue infections suggest that poor T-cell immunity might have contributed to protection failure. Because of the similarity of Zika and dengue viruses, an analogous unwanted outcome might occur with some Zika virus vaccine designs...
July 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708953/trends-of-influenza-b-during-the-2010-2016-seasons-in-2-regions-of-north-and-south-italy-the-impact-of-the-vaccine-mismatch-on-influenza-immunisation-strategy
#14
Andrea Orsi, Giuseppina Maria Elena Colomba, Fanny Pojero, Giuseppe Calamusa, Cristiano Alicino, Cecilia Trucchi, Paola Canepa, Filippo Ansaldi, Francesco Vitale, Fabio Tramuto
Influenza A and B viruses are responsible for respiratory infections, representing globally seasonal threats to human health. The 2 viral types often co-circulate and influenza B plays an important role in the spread of infection. A 6-year retrospective surveillance study was conducted between 2010 and 2016 in 2 large administrative regions of Italy, located in the north (Liguria) and in the south (Sicily) of the country, to describe the burden and epidemiology of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages in different healthcare settings...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698120/effectiveness-of-formalin-killed-vaccines-containing-cpg-oligodeoxynucleotide-1668-adjuvants-against-vibrio-harveyi-in-orange-spotted-grouper
#15
Hai Trong Nguyen, Thuy Thi Thu Nguyen, Yi-Ting Wang, Pei-Chyi Wang, Shih-Chu Chen
Vibrio harveyi is a major bacterial pathogen that causes serious vibriosis in cultured groupers, leading to massive deaths. In this study, we evaluated the immune responses and protective efficacy of vaccines containing V. harveyi formalin-killed cells (FKC) formulated with CpG ODN 1668-enriched plasmids (p30CpG and p60CpG) in the orange-spotted grouper. Results indicated that antibody titres were remarkably increased in vaccinated fish 2 weeks post-immunisation. Expression level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, CD 8, and toll-like receptor 9 was significantly upregulated in the spleen of fish immunised with CpG ODN 1668-adjuvanted vaccines, as recorded at 6 weeks after immunisation...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697522/childhood-vaccination-against-seasonal-influenza-to-reduce-the-overall-burden-of-disease-ethical-perspectives
#16
Kyriakos Martakis, Kruthika Thangavelu, Peter Schröder-Bäck
Introduction Childhood immunisation against seasonal influenza promises to reduce the burden of disease through herd immunity. The option of intranasal vaccination seemed to offer a more acceptable vaccination for children, as they are perceived to be less invasive. Yet, intranasal vaccines have been recently proven not to be as effective as presumed. In Germany, contradictory recommendations of the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) first, to use and then, in October 2016, not use these vaccines have been issued for the 2016-2017 season, whereas recommendations not to use them were already issued in the USA (CDC, ACIP)...
July 11, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693854/community-transmission-of-type-2-poliovirus-after-cessation-of-trivalent-oral-polio-vaccine-in-bangladesh-an-open-label-cluster-randomised-trial-and-modelling-study
#17
Mami Taniuchi, Michael Famulare, Khalequ Zaman, Md Jashim Uddin, Alexander M Upfill-Brown, Tahmina Ahmed, Parimalendu Saha, Rashidul Haque, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, John F Modlin, James A Platts-Mills, Eric R Houpt, Mohammed Yunus, William A Petri
BACKGROUND: Trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) was replaced worldwide from April, 2016, by bivalent types 1 and 3 oral polio vaccine (bOPV) and one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) where available. The risk of transmission of type 2 poliovirus or Sabin 2 virus on re-introduction or resurgence of type 2 poliovirus after this switch is not understood completely. We aimed to assess the risk of Sabin 2 transmission after a polio vaccination campaign with a monovalent type 2 oral polio vaccine (mOPV2)...
July 7, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689773/the-toll-like-receptor-ligands-hiltonol-%C3%A2-polyiclc-and-imiquimod-effectively-activate-antigen-specific-immune-responses-in-tasmanian-devils-sarcophilus-harrisii
#18
Amanda L Patchett, Cesar Tovar, Lynn M Corcoran, A Bruce Lyons, Gregory M Woods
Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) describes two genetically distinct transmissible tumours that pose a significant threat to the survival of the Tasmanian devil. A prophylactic vaccine could protect devils from DFTD transmission. For this vaccine to be effective, potent immune adjuvants will be required. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) promote robust immune responses in human cancer studies and are highly conserved across mammalian species. In this study, we investigated the proficiency of TLR ligands for immune activation in the Tasmanian devil using in vitro mononuclear cell stimulations and in vivo immunisation trials with a model antigen...
July 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674570/paediatric-otogenic-tetanus-an-evidence-of-poor-immunization-in-nigeria
#19
Segun Ayodeji Ogunkeyede, Adekunle Daniel, Omowonuola Ogundoyin
Suppurative otitis media is a common childhood infection that predisposes to otogenic tetanus. Tetanus is a vaccine preventable disease that is associated with high cost of care and mortality. This study highlights reasons for otogenic tetanus in Nigerian children and way of reducing the menace. This is a 5-year retrospective review of all patients managed for otogenic tetanus in at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University College Hospital, Ibadan. The data collected include demographic, clinical presentations, tetanus immunisation history, and duration of hospital admission, and management- outcome...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641590/measles-elimination-and-immunisation-national-surveillance-trends-in-japan-2008-2015
#20
S Inaida, S Matsuno, F Kobune
Measles elimination relies on vaccination programmes. In Japan, a major outbreak started in 2007. In response, 5-year two-dose catch-up vaccination programme was initiated in April 2008 for children 13-16-years-old. In this study, we analysed the epidemic curves, incidence rates for each age group, virus genotype, vaccination coverage and ratio of measles gelatin particle agglutination (PA) antibody using surveillance data for 2008-2015. Monthly case counts markedly decreased as vaccination coverage increased...
June 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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