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vaccine; immunization; immunisation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785280/long-duration-of-immunity-against-a-type-1-heterologous-prrs-virus-challenge-in-pigs-immunised-with-a-novel-prrs-mlv-vaccine-a-randomised-controlled-study
#1
Jeremy Kroll, Mike Piontkowski, Poul H Rathkjen, Francois-Xavier Orveillon, Christian Kraft, Oliver G Duran
Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is widespread in commercial pig farms worldwide, and has a significant cost to the swine industry. Herd owners need a vaccine that will confer long-lasting immunity to prevent PRRSV infection and transmission. The studies described here evaluated duration of immunity conferred by a European-derived PRRS (isolate 94,881) modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, Ingelvac PRRSFLEX® EU, at 20, 24, and 26 weeks post-vaccination...
2018: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784457/the-dynamic-role-of-dengue-cross-reactive-immunity-changing-the-approach-to-defining-vaccine-safety-and-efficacy
#2
REVIEW
Kathryn B Anderson, Timothy P Endy, Stephen J Thomas
Dengue virus infections cause a substantial public health burden in tropical and subtropical regions. A single dengue vaccine has been approved by regulatory authorities in 19 countries, but concerns regarding vaccine safety in people who are dengue naive at the time of immunisation has introduced uncertainty into the vaccine's future. As other dengue vaccines complete or enter large-scale efficacy trials, we argue that foundational work by Sabin, historic epidemiological observations of dengue outbreaks, and prospective cohort studies in Asia and the Americas indicate that modifications must be made to the methods of assessing dengue vaccines...
May 18, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766840/rubella-infection-in-pregnancy-and-congenital-rubella-in-united-kingdom-2003-to-2016
#3
Antoaneta Bukasa, Helen Campbell, Kevin Brown, Helen Bedford, Mary Ramsay, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Pat Tookey
Rubella vaccination has been included in the United Kingdom's (UK) routine childhood schedule for nearly 30 years. The UK achieved World Health Organization (WHO) elimination status in 2016 and acute rubella infections are rare. In the period 2003-16, 31 rubella infections in pregnancy (0.23 per 100,000 pregnancies) were identified through routine surveillance, of which 26 were in women who were born abroad. Five of the 31 rubella infections led to congenital rubella syndrome in the infant and three had confirmed congenital rubella infection without congenital rubella syndrome...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765775/potential-impact-of-introducing-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-into-national-immunisation-programmes-an-economic-epidemiological-analysis-using-data-from-india
#4
Itamar Megiddo, Eili Klein, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Pneumococcal pneumonia causes an estimated 105 000 child deaths in India annually. The planned introduction of the serotype-based pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is expected to avert child deaths, but the high cost of PCV relative to current vaccines provided under the Universal Immunization Programme has been a concern. Cost-effectiveness studies from high-income countries are not readily comparable because of differences in the distribution of prevalent serotypes, population and health systems. We extended IndiaSim, our agent-based simulation model representative of the Indian population and health system, to model the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741455/could-information-about-herd-immunity-help-us-achieve-herd-immunity-evidence-from-a-population-representative-survey-experiment
#5
Sveinung Arnesen, Kristine Bærøe, Cornelius Cappelen, Benedicte Carlsen
AIMS: Immunisation causes dramatic reductions in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases; however, resistance to vaccination is nonetheless widespread. An understudied issue - explored here - is whether appeals to collective as opposed to individual benefits of vaccination encourage people to vaccinate. Knowledge of this is important not least with respect to the design of public health campaigns, which often lack information about the collective benefits of vaccination. METHODS: Using a between-subjects experimental survey design, we test whether information about the effects of herd immunity influences people's decision to vaccinate...
May 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735323/sub-optimal-protection-against-past-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-where-subtype-mismatch-exists-between-vaccine-and-circulating-viral-genotype-in-northern-australia
#6
Benjamin C Cheah, Jane Davies, Gurmeet R Singh, Nicholas Wood, Kathy Jackson, Margaret Littlejohn, Belinda Davison, Peter McIntyre, Stephen Locarnini, Joshua S Davis, Steven Y C Tong
BACKGROUND: In Australia's Northern Territory, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotype A2 (subtype adw2) vaccine was introduced in 1988 for Indigenous infants. Subsequently, the circulating viral genotype has been identified as subgenotype C4 (subtype ayw3). We assessed HBV vaccine effectiveness (VE) in light of this subtype mismatch. METHODS: Participants of the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study were recruited at birth (1987-1990), with HBV serology obtained at follow-up waves 3 (2005-2007) and 4 (2013-2015)...
May 4, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724235/how-can-the-use-of-data-within-the-immunisation-programme-be-increased-in-order-to-improve-data-quality-and-ensure-greater-accountability-in-the-health-system-a-protocol-for-implementation-science-study
#7
Binyam Tilahun, Alemayehu Teklu, Arielle Mancuso, Zeleke Abebaw, Kassahun Dessie, Desalegn Zegeye
BACKGROUND: Immunisation remains one of the most important and cost-effective interventions to reduce vaccine-preventable child morbidity, disability and mortality. Health programmes like the Expanded Program of Immunization rely on complex decision-making and strong local level evidence is important to effectively and efficiently utilise limited resources. Lack of data use for decision-making at each level of the health system remains the main challenge in most developing countries. While there is much evidence on data quality and how to improve it, there is a lack of sufficient evidence on why the use of data for decision-making at each level of the health system is low...
May 3, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720066/prevention-of-perinatal-hepatitis-b-virus-transmission-are-we-following-guidelines
#8
Peter G Markey, Helena A White, Alexander T Matthews, Charles R Strebor, Vicki Krause
It is recommended that infants born to women with hepatitis B infection should have serological review following completion of a four dose vaccination schedule. A review was undertaken on 102 neonates who received hepatitis B immunoglobulin to ascertain the proportion that were fully immunised and then followed up. Of the 66 infants for whom data were available, 65 (98.5%) had appropriately received four doses of hepatitis B vaccine in infancy and a further child had received three doses. Only 19/66 (29%; 95%CI: 18-41%) infants had documented follow-up serology results, one of whom was infected and one of whom was immune through clearance of infection...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717697/adverse-events-following-immunisation-with-a-meningococcal-serogroup-b-vaccine-report-from-post-marketing-surveillance-germany-2013-to-2016
#9
Dirk Mentzer, Doris Oberle, Brigitte Keller-Stanislawski
Background and aimIn January 2013, a novel vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB), was approved by the European Medicines Agency. We aimed to evaluate the safety profile of this vaccine. Methods: All adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) reported from Germany since the vaccine's launch in Germany in November 2013 through December 2016 were reviewed and analysed. Results: Through December 2016, a total of 664 individual case safety reports (ICSR) notifying 1,960 AEFI were received...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716777/attitudes-believes-determinants-and-organisational-barriers-behind-the-low-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-uptake-in-healthcare-workers-a-cross-sectional-survey
#10
Lise Boey, Charlotte Bral, Mathieu Roelants, Antoon De Schryver, Lode Godderis, Karel Hoppenbrouwers, Corinne Vandermeulen
BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza threatens hospitalised patients and residents of nursing homes annually. Due to age and chronic disease their protection following immunisation is diminished. Additional immunisation of direct contacts and in particular healthcare workers (HCWs) has proven added value. As vaccination coverage in HCWs remains low, we aimed to gain insight in the factors behind the demotivation for influenza vaccination. METHODS: Attitudes and believes towards influenza vaccination and socio-demographic and professional determinants were surveyed in 5141 Belgian HCWs from 13 hospitals and 14 nursing homes...
April 28, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709214/variant-proteins-stimulate-more-igm-gc-b-cells-revealing-a-mechanism-of-cross-reactive-recognition-by-antibody-memory
#11
Bronwen R Burton, Richard K Tennant, John Love, Richard W Titball, David C Wraith, Harry N White
Vaccines induce memory B-cells that provide high affinity secondary antibody responses to identical antigens. Memory B-cells can also re-instigate affinity maturation, but how this happens against antigenic variants is poorly understood despite its potential impact on driving broadly protective immunity against pathogens such as Influenza and Dengue. We immunised mice sequentially with identical or variant Dengue-virus envelope proteins and analysed antibody and germinal-centre (GC) responses. Variant protein boosts induced GC with higher proportions of IgM+ B-cells...
May 1, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693575/maternal-vaccination-as-an-essential-component-of-life-course-immunization-and-its-contribution-to-preventive-neonatology
#12
REVIEW
Naomi Bergin, Janice Murtagh, Roy K Philip
Maternal immunisation schedules are increasingly coming under the spotlight as part of the development of lifetime immunisation programmes for the role that they play in improving maternal, foetal, and neonatal health. Maternally-acquired antibodies are critical in protecting infants during the first months of their lives. Maternal immunisation was previously overlooked owing to concerns regarding vaccinations in this untested and high-risk population but is now acknowledged for its potential impact on the outcomes in many domains of foetal and neonatal health, aside from its maternal benefits...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691100/immunisation-of-chickens-with-live-salmonella-vaccines-role-of-booster-vaccination
#13
U Methner
It is accepted that booster vaccinations of chickens with live Salmonella vaccines are essential part of vaccinations schemes to induce an effective adaptive immune response. As manufacturer of registered live Salmonella vaccines recommend different times of booster the question raises whether the duration between the first and second immunisation might influence the protective effect against Salmonella exposure. Chickens were immunised with a live Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine on day 1 of age followed by a booster vaccination at different intervals (day 28, 35 or 42 of age) to study the effects on the colonisation and invasion of the Salmonella vaccine strain, the humoral immune response and the efficacy against infection with Salmonella Enteritidis on day 56 of age...
April 21, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688415/hepatitis-b-virus-immunisation-and-neonatal-acquisition-of-persistent-infection-in-england-and-wales
#14
Shoshanna May, Sema Mandal, Philip Keel, Becky Haywood, Siew Lin Ngui, Mary Ramsay, Richard S Tedder, Samreen Ijaz
Background: It is believed that between 2 and 5% of infants born to HBV-infected mothers at a high risk of perinatal transmission will become persistently infected in spite of immunisation starting at birth. We investigated factors associated with breakthrough infections. Methods: Sixty nine samples from HBV-infected infants born between 2003 and 2015 were tested for HBV serological and molecular markers. Sequencing and epitope phenotyping were used to investigate alterations in HBsAg sequence and antigenicity in infants and in mothers known to have transmitted and not to have transmitted virus to their infants...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678552/the-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-vaccines-based-on-modified-vaccinia-ankara-mva-viruses-expressing-african-horse-sickness-virus-vp2-antigens-depends-on-the-levels-of-expressed-vp2-protein-delivered-to-the-host
#15
Eva Calvo-Pinilla, Simon Gubbins, Peter Mertens, Javier Ortego, Javier Castillo-Olivares
African horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal equine disease transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV). AHS is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, but devastating outbreaks have been recorded periodically outside this region. The perceived risk of an AHS outbreak occurring in Europe has increased following the frequent epidemics caused in ruminants by bluetongue virus, closely related to AHSV. Attenuated vaccines for AHS are considered unsuitable for use in non-endemic countries due bio-safety concerns...
April 17, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657700/misleading-hepatitis-b-serology-following-rho-d-immune-globulin-human-injection-and-influenza-vaccine
#16
Xuanxuan Chen
Having a hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titre of more than 10 mIU/mL after hepatitis B vaccination is generally considered to confer immunity to hepatitis B. This case report discusses an unusual case of a false positive hepatitis B core total antibody (HBcAb) following administration of either Rho (D) immune globulin (Human) injection or influenza vaccine in a patriuent who was previously immunised against hepatitis B.
March 28, 2018: Clinics and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627147/determinants-of-antibody-persistence-across-doses-and-continents-after-single-dose-rvsv-zebov-vaccination-for-ebola-virus-disease-an-observational-cohort-study
#17
Angela Huttner, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Christophe Combescure, José F Fernandes, Emmanuel Bache Bache, Lumeka Kabwende, Francis Maina Ndungu, Jessica Brosnahan, Thomas P Monath, Barbara Lemaître, Stéphane Grillet, Miriam Botto, Olivier Engler, Jasmine Portmann, Denise Siegrist, Philip Bejon, Peter Silvera, Peter Kremsner, Claire-Anne Siegrist
BACKGROUND: The recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine expressing the Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein is efficacious in the weeks following single-dose injection, but duration of immunity is unknown. We aimed to assess antibody persistence at 1 and 2 years in volunteers who received single-dose rVSV-ZEBOV in three previous trials. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we prospectively followed-up participants from the African and European phase 1 rVSV-ZEBOV trials, who were vaccinated once in 2014-15 with 300 000 (low dose) or 10-50 million (high dose) plaque-forming units (pfu) of rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine to assess ZEBOV glycoprotein (IgG) antibody persistence...
April 4, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595510/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-novel-tuberculosis-vaccine-id93-gla-se-in-bcg-vaccinated-healthy-adults-in-south-africa-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-1-trial
#18
Adam Penn-Nicholson, Michele Tameris, Erica Smit, Tracey A Day, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Lakshmi Jayashankar, Julie Vergara, Simbarashe Mabwe, Nicole Bilek, Hendrik Geldenhuys, Angelique Kany-Kany Luabeya, Ruth Ellis, Ann M Ginsberg, Willem A Hanekom, Steven G Reed, Rhea N Coler, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill
BACKGROUND: A vaccine that prevents pulmonary tuberculosis in adults is needed to halt transmission in endemic regions. This trial aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of three administrations at varying doses of antigen and adjuvant of an investigational vaccine (ID93 + GLA-SE) compared with placebo in previously BCG-vaccinated healthy adults in a tuberculosis endemic country. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial, we enrolled HIV-negative, previously BCG-vaccinated adults (aged 18-50 years), with no evidence of previous or current tuberculosis disease, from among community volunteers in the Worcester region of Western Cape, South Africa...
April 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576305/a-bibliometric-analysis-of-systematic-reviews-on-vaccines-and-immunisation
#19
REVIEW
Silke Fernandes, Mark Jit, Fiammetta Bozzani, Ulla K Griffiths, J Anthony G Scott, Helen E D Burchett
INTRODUCTION: SYSVAC is an online bibliographic database of systematic reviews and systematic review protocols on vaccines and immunisation compiled by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and hosted by the World Health Organization (WHO) through their National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAG) resource centre (www.nitag-resource.org). Here the development of the database and a bibliometric review of its content is presented, describing trends in the publication of policy-relevant systematic reviews on vaccines and immunisation from 2008 to 2016...
March 22, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567034/squalene-containing-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-a-promising-adjuvant-system-for-yeast-vaccines
#20
Johannes J Stelzner, Martina Behrens, Sven-Erik Behrens, Karsten Mäder
Potent adjuvant systems are required for subunit and single antigen based vaccines to provide sufficient immunogenicity. Furthermore, adjuvants can reduce the required number of immunisations and the antigen amount. Squalene nanoemulsions, like MF59® and AddaVax™, are potent, safe and well characterised adjuvant systems and approved for use in humans. Here, we developed squalene containing solid lipid nanoparticles, which can be sterilised by steam sterilisation and stored as freeze-dried power together with a yeast-based vaccine...
March 19, 2018: Vaccine
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