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vaccine; immunization; immunisation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433702/group-b-streptococcus-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-immunisation-during-pregnancy-a-landscape-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Paul T Heath, Fiona J Culley, Christine E Jones, Beate Kampmann, Kirsty Le Doare, Marta C Nunes, Manish Sadarangani, Zain Chaudhry, Carol J Baker, Peter J M Openshaw
Group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. No licensed vaccines are available for either disease, but vaccines for both are under development. Severe respiratory syncytial virus disease can be prevented by passively administered antibody. The presence of maternal IgG antibody specific to respiratory syncytial virus is associated with reduced prevalence and severity of respiratory syncytial virus disease in the first few weeks of life, whereas maternal serotype-specific anticapsular antibody is associated with protection against both early-onset and late-onset group B streptococcus disease...
April 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389483/epidemiology-of-rubella-infection-in-cameroon-a-7-year-experience-of-measles-and-rubella-case-based-surveillance-2008-2014
#2
Marcellin Nimpa Mengouo, Valantine Ngum Ndze, Frangy Baonga, Marie Kobela, Charles Shey Wiysonge
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of rubella disease in a measles case-based surveillance in Cameroon prior to rubella vaccine introduction into the national immunisation programme. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study for rubella infection in Cameroon for the period 2008 to 2014. SETTING: Patients suspected with measles from the 10 regions of Cameroon were recruited according to the WHO measles case definition and were tested for rubella IgM antibodies accompanied with the case report/investigation forms...
April 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378596/bcg-loaded-chitosan-microparticles-interaction-with-macrophages-and-preliminary-in-vivo-studies
#3
Liliana Aranha Caetano, Lara Figueiredo, António J Almeida, L M D Gonçalves
The aim of this study was to develop a novel BCG-loaded chitosan vaccine with high association efficiency which can afford efficient interaction with APC and elicit local and Th1-type-specific immune response after intranasal administration. Chitosan-suspended BCG and BCG-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation. Interaction with APC was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy using rBCG-GFP. Specific immune responses were evaluated following intranasal immunisation of mice...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375554/inflammatory-responses-to-influenza-vaccination-at-the-extremes-of-age
#4
Jacqueline U McDonald, Ziyun Zhong, Helen T Groves, John S Tregoning
Age affects the immune response to vaccination, with individuals at the extremes of age responding poorly. The initial inflammatory response to antigenic materials shapes the subsequent adaptive response and so understanding is required about the effect of age on the profile of acute inflammatory mediators. In this study we measured the local and systemic inflammatory response after influenza vaccination or infection in neonatal, young adult and aged mice. Mice were immunised intramuscularly with inactivated influenza vaccine with and without the adjuvant MF59 and then challenged with H1N1 influenza...
April 4, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367510/determination-of-factors-affecting-the-vaccination-status-of-children-aged-12-35-months-in-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#5
Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Masahiko Hachiya, Shinsuke Miyano, Tetsuya Mizoue, Tomomi Kitamura
Vaccines are one of the most important achievements in public health, and a major contributor to this success is the Expanded Programme on Immunization. The utilisation of vaccination services and completion of the recommended schedule are determined by numerous factors. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), the overall immunisation coverage has been improving. However, notwithstanding the improvement in immunisation coverage and the supplementary immunisation activities, there have been measles, diphtheria, and polio outbreaks in the country...
March 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360258/impact-of-maternal-antibodies-and-infant-gut-microbiota-on-the-immunogenicity-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-african-indian-and-european-infants-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Kuladaipalayam Natarajan C Sindhu, Nigel Cunliffe, Matthew Peak, Mark Turner, Alistair Darby, Nicholas Grassly, Melita Gordon, Queen Dube, Sudhir Babji, Ira Praharaj, Valsan Verghese, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Gagandeep Kang
INTRODUCTION: Gastroenteritis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young children living in resource-poor settings, majority of which is attributed to rotavirus. Rotavirus vaccination can therefore have a significant impact on infant mortality. However, rotavirus vaccine efficacy in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia is significantly lower than in high-income countries. Maternally derived antibodies, infant gut microbiota and concomitant oral polio vaccination have been proposed as potential reasons for poor vaccine performance in low-income settings...
March 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342664/a-novel-live-attenuated-anthrax-spore-vaccine-based-on-an-acapsular-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-strain-with-mutations-in-the-htra-lef-and-cya-genes
#7
Theodor Chitlaru, Ma'ayan Israeli, Shahar Rotem, Uri Elia, Erez Bar-Haim, Sharon Ehrlich, Ofer Cohen, Avigdor Shafferman
We recently reported the development of a novel, next-generation, live attenuated anthrax spore vaccine based on disruption of the htrA (High Temperature Requirement A) gene in the Bacillus anthracis Sterne veterinary vaccine strain. This vaccine exhibited a highly significant decrease in virulence in murine, guinea pig and rabbit animal models yet preserved the protective value of the parental Sterne strain. Here, we report the evaluation of additional mutations in the lef and cya genes, encoding for the toxin components lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), to further attenuate the SterneΔhtrA strain and improve its compatibility for human use...
March 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340570/the-therapeutic-hiv-env-c5-gp41-vaccine-candidate-vacc-c5-induces-specific-t-cell-regulation-in-a-phase-i-ii-clinical-study
#8
Kristin Brekke, Maja Sommerfelt, Mats Ökvist, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise, Dag Kvale
BACKGROUND: Levels of non-neutralising antibodies (AB) to the C5 domain of HIV Env gp120 are inversely related to progression of HIV infection. In this phase I/II clinical study we investigated safety of Vacc-C5, a peptide-based therapeutic vaccine candidate corresponding to C5/gp41(732-744) as well as the effects on pre-existing AB levels to C5/gp41(732-744), immune activation and T cell responses including exploratory assessments of Vacc-C5-induced T cell regulation. Our hypothesis was that exposure of the C5 peptide motif may have detrimental effects due to several of its HLA-like features and that enhancement of non-neutralising anti-C5 AB by vaccination could reduce C5 exposure and thereby chronic immune activation...
March 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335329/nanoparticle-based-delivery-of-anaplasma-marginale-membrane-proteins-virb9-1-and-virb10-produced-in-the-pichia-pastoris-expression-system
#9
Bing Zhang, Antonio S Cavallaro, Karishma T Mody, Jun Zhang, James R Deringer, Wendy C Brown, Timothy J Mahony, Chengzhong Yu, Neena Mitter
Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are immunogenic components of the outer membrane type IV secretion system that have been identified as candidate antigens for vaccines targeting of A. marginale. Soluble VirB9-1 and VirB10 were successfully expressed using Pichia pastoris. When formulated with the self-adjuvanting silica vesicles, SV-100 (diameter: 50 nm, and pore entrance size: 6 nm), 200 µg of VirB9-1 and VirB10 were adsorbed per milligram of nanoparticle...
November 5, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333957/immune-response-of-rats-vaccinated-orally-with-various-plant-expressed-recombinant-cysteine-proteinase-constructs-when-challenged-with-fasciola-hepatica-metacercariae
#10
Malgorzata Kesik-Brodacka, Agnieszka Lipiec, Monika Kozak Ljunggren, Luiza Jedlina, Katarzyna Miedzinska, Magdalena Mikolajczak, Andrzej Plucienniczak, Andrzej B Legocki, Halina Wedrychowicz
BACKGROUND: Cysteine proteinases of Fasciola hepatica are important candidates for vaccine antigens because of their role in fluke biology and host-parasite relationships. In our previous experiments, we found that a recombinant cysteine proteinase cloned from adult F. hepatica (CPFhW) can protect rats against liver fluke infections when it is administered intramuscularly or intranasally in the form of cDNA. We also observed considerable protection upon challenge following mucosal vaccination with inclusion bodies containing recombinant CPFhW produced in Escherichia coli...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294099/tetanus-vaccination-antibody-persistence-and-decennial-booster-a-serosurvey-of-university-students-and-at-risk-workers
#11
M Borella-Venturini, C Frasson, F Paluan, D DE Nuzzo, G DI Masi, M Giraldo, F Chiara, A Trevisan
The aim of the present research is to verify the immune status against tetanus in students and workers exposed to risk and to ascertain whether a decennial booster is necessary. Antibodies against tetanus were measured in 1433 workers and students of Padua University (Italy). The enrolment criterion was the ability to provide a booklet of vaccinations released by a public health office. The influence of age, gender, the number of vaccine doses, and the interval since the last dose was determined. Ten years after the last dose, the majority of subjects (95·0%) displayed an antibody titre above the protective level (⩾0·10 IU/ml), and half of these (49·1%) had a long-term protective level (⩾1·0 IU/ml)...
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281773/b-cell-epitopes-of-african-horse-sickness-virus-serotype-4-recognised-by-immune-horse-sera
#12
Evans M Mathebula, Frederika E Faber, Wouter Van Wyngaardt, Antoinette Van Schalkwyk, Alri Pretorius, Jeanni Fehrsen
Identifying antigenic proteins and mapping their epitopes is important for the development of diagnostic reagents and recombinant vaccines. B-cell epitopes of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) have previously been mapped on VP2, VP5, VP7 and NS1, using mouse, rabbit and chicken monoclonal antibodies. A comprehensive study of the humoral immune response of five vaccinated horses to AHSV-4 antigenic peptides was undertaken. A fragmented-genome phage display library expressing a repertoire of AHSV-4 peptides spanning the entire genome was constructed...
February 24, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276463/regression-of-devil-facial-tumour-disease-following-immunotherapy-in-immunised-tasmanian-devils
#13
Cesar Tovar, Ruth J Pye, Alexandre Kreiss, Yuanyuan Cheng, Gabriella K Brown, Jocelyn Darby, Roslyn C Malley, Hannah V T Siddle, Karsten Skjødt, Jim Kaufman, Anabel Silva, Adriana Baz Morelli, Anthony T Papenfuss, Lynn M Corcoran, James M Murphy, Martin J Pearse, Katherine Belov, A Bruce Lyons, Gregory M Woods
Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a transmissible cancer devastating the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) population. The cancer cell is the 'infectious' agent transmitted as an allograft by biting. Animals usually die within a few months with no evidence of antibody or immune cell responses against the DFTD allograft. This lack of anti-tumour immunity is attributed to an absence of cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I molecule expression. While the endangerment of the devil population precludes experimentation on large experimental groups, those examined in our study indicated that immunisation and immunotherapy with DFTD cells expressing surface MHC-I corresponded with effective anti-tumour responses...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228336/evaluation-of-hydrophobic-chitosan-based-particulate-formulations-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-candidate-t-cell-antigens
#14
Helen Mokhtar, Lucia Biffar, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sarah McGowan, Miriam Pedrera, Rebecca Strong, Jane C Edwards, Margarita Garcia-Durán, Maria Jose Rodriguez, Graham R Stewart, Falko Steinbach, Simon P Graham
PRRS control is hampered by the inadequacies of existing vaccines to combat the extreme diversity of circulating viruses. Since immune clearance of PRRSV infection may not be dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies and the identification of broadly-neutralising antibody epitopes have proven elusive, we hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent potential candidates for development of a novel PRRS vaccine. Previously we had identified the M and NSP5 proteins as well-conserved targets of polyfunctional CD8 and CD4 T cells...
February 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214181/-adult-immunisation-general-points-hot-topics-and-perspectives
#15
P Loubet, O Launay
Vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. Some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. In addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. Immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, are particularly concerned by vaccination...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162130/influenza-hospitalizations-in-australian-children
#16
J Li-Kim-Moy, J K Yin, C C Blyth, A Kesson, R Booy, A C Cheng, K Macartney
Australia's National Immunisation Program (NIP) provides free influenza vaccination for children at high risk of severe influenza; a pilot-funded programme for vaccine in all children aged 6 months to <5 years in one of eight states, has seen poor vaccine impact, related to recent vaccine safety concerns. This retrospective review examined influenza hospitalizations in children aged <16 years from three seasons (2011-2013) at two paediatric hospitals on opposite sides of the country. Comparisons of this cohort were made with state-based data on influenza-coded hospitalizations and national immunization register data on population-level immunization coverage...
May 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161425/the-rise-and-fall-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-carried-in-the-pcv-era
#17
Vanessa T Devine, David W Cleary, Johanna M C Jefferies, Rebecca Anderson, Denise E Morris, Andrew C Tuck, Rebecca A Gladstone, Grace O'Doherty, Priyasharmila Kuruparan, Stephen D Bentley, Saul N Faust, Stuart C Clarke
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of meningitis, sepsis and pneumonia worldwide. Vaccination using pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has therefore been part of the UK's childhood immunisation programme since 2006. Here we describe pneumococcal carriage rates in children under five years of age attending the paediatric department of a large UK hospital in response to vaccine implementation over seven winter seasons from 2006 to 2013. S. pneumoniae (n=696) were isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs (n=2267) collected during seven consecutive winters, October to March, 2006/7 to 2012/13...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146323/workshop-report-immunoassay-standardisation-for-universal-influenza-vaccines
#18
Sophia Pavlova, Flavia D'Alessio, Sophie Houard, Edmond J Remarque, Norbert Stockhofe, Othmar G Engelhardt
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called universal influenza vaccines and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. More than fifty experts from the global influenza vaccine research and development field met to initiate such discussion at a workshop co-organised by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA...
February 1, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115243/intravaginal-immunisation-using-a-novel-antigen-releasing-ring-device-elicits-robust-vaccine-antigen-specific-systemic-and-mucosal-humoral-immune-responses
#19
Paul F McKay, Jamie F S Mann, Aditya Pattani, Vicky Kett, Yoann Aldon, Deborah King, R Karl Malcolm, Robin J Shattock
The generation of effective levels of antigen-specific immunity at the mucosal sites of pathogen entry is a key goal for vaccinologists. We explored topical vaginal application as an approach to initiate local antigen-specific immunity, enhance previously existing systemic immunity or re-target responses to the mucosae. To deliver a protein vaccine formulation to the vaginal mucosal surface, we used a novel vaginal ring device comprising a silicone elastomer body into which three freeze-dried, rod-shaped, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose inserts were incorporated...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061843/sun-protection-to-improve-vaccine-effectiveness-in-children-in-a-high-ambient-ultraviolet-radiation-and-rural-environment-an-intervention-study
#20
Caradee Y Wright, Patricia N Albers, Angela Mathee, Zamantimande Kunene, Catherine D'Este, Ashwin Swaminathan, Robyn M Lucas
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is a mainstay of preventive healthcare, reducing the incidence of serious childhood infections. Ecological studies have demonstrated an inverse association between markers of high ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure (e.g., sunny season, low latitude of residence) and reduction in the vaccination-associated immune response. Higher sun exposure on the day prior to and spanning the day of vaccination has been associated with a reduced antigen-specific immune response independent of skin pigmentation...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
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