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vaccine; immunization; immunisation

Yulin Chen, Jie Wu, Jiajia Wang, Wenjing Zhang, Bohui Xu, Xiaojun Xu, Li Zong
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The intestinal immune system is an ideal target to induce immune tolerance physiologically. However, the efficiency of oral protein antigen delivery is limited by degradation of the antigen in the gastrointestinal tract and poor uptake by antigen-presenting cells. Gut dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that are prone to inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance. In this study, we delivered the antigen heat shock protein 65-6×P277 (H6P) directly to the gut DCs of NOD mice through oral vaccination with H6P-loaded targeting nanoparticles (NPs), and investigated the ability of this antigen to induce immune tolerance to prevent autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice...
March 15, 2018: Diabetologia
Sajal Kole, Ranjeeta Kumari, Deepika Anand, Saurav Kumar, Rupam Sharma, Gayatri Tripathi, M Makesh, K V Rajendran, Megha Kadam Bedekar
DNA-based immunization has proven to be an effective prophylactic measure to control aquatic animal diseases. In order to improve the efficiency of vaccine against fish pathogen, novel delivery mechanism needs to be adopted. In the present study we nanoconjugated the previously constructed DNA vaccine (pGPD + IFN) with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) by complex coacervation process. After construction of the vaccine, an in vivo vaccination trial was conducted in which 2 groups of rohu (L. rohita) fingerlings were vaccinated with CNPs-pGPD + IFN, one group by oral route (incorporated in feed for 14 days) and the other by immersion route (primary and booster immunised), whereas, a third group was intramuscularly (I/M) injected (initial and booster immunised) with naked pGPD + IFN and subsequently challenged with E...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Alan de Lima Pereira, Rosamund Southgate, Hikmet Ahmed, Penelope O'Connor, Vanessa Cramond, Annick Lenglet
Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Currents
Carlo Giaquinto, Giovanni Gabutti, Vincenzo Baldo, Marco Villa, Lara Tramontan, Nadia Raccanello, Francesca Russo, Chiara Poma, Antonio Scamarcia, Luigi Cantarutti, Rebecca Lundin, Emilia Perinetti, Xavier Cornen, Stéphane Thomas, Céline Ballandras, Audrey Souverain, Susanne Hartwig
BACKGROUND: Monovalent varicella vaccines have been available in the Veneto Region of Italy since 2004. In 2006, a single vaccine dose was added to the immunisation calendar for children aged 14 months. ProQuad®, a quadrivalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine, was introduced in May 2007 and used, among other varicella vaccines, until October 2008. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of ProQuad, and the population impact of a vaccination program (VP) against varicella of any severity in children who received a first dose of ProQuad at 14 months of age in the Veneto Region, METHODS: All children born in 2006/2007, i...
March 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Carly M Bliss, Georgina Bowyer, Nicholas A Anagnostou, Tom Havelock, Claudia M Snudden, Huw Davies, Simone C de Cassan, Amy Grobbelaar, Alison M Lawrie, Navin Venkatraman, Ian D Poulton, Rachel Roberts, Pooja B Mange, Prateek Choudhary, Saul N Faust, Stefano Colloca, Sarah C Gilbert, Alfredo Nicosia, Adrian V S Hill, Katie J Ewer
Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with viral vectors simian adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) induces potent T cell and antibody responses in humans. The 8-week regimen demonstrates significant efficacy against malaria when expressing the pre-erythrocytic malaria antigen Thrombospondin-Related Adhesion Protein fused to a multiple epitope string (ME-TRAP). We tested these vaccines in 7 new 4- and 8- week interval schedules to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of multiple ChAd63 ME-TRAP priming vaccinations (denoted A), multiple MVA ME-TRAP boosts (denoted M) and alternating vectors...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Homel, B Edwards
BACKGROUND: Many children in developed countries do not receive recommended vaccines on time. However, knowledge about factors related to timeliness remains limited. Quantifying the relative impact of parental attitudes compared with socio-demographic factors for delayed immunization would inform policy responses. METHODS: Participants in the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were matched with their vaccination histories in the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (N = 4,121)...
February 20, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Süleyman Görpelioğlu, Canan Emiroğlu, Özlem Suvak, Cenk Aypak, Derya Akbıyık
Susceptibility of the homecare patient to vaccine preventable infections and their complications is high. Hospitalization of this patient group increases costs to the healthcare system. Therefore vaccination services are of great importance for protecting these patients from complications and hospitalization. We aimed to determine vaccination status of the patients receiving home care services from a tertiary hospital in Turkey and to reveal their vaccination needs. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Division of Home Care Services of Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital in Ankara Turkey...
February 16, 2018: Vaccine
Diego A Díaz-Dinamarca, José I Jerias, Daniel A Soto, Jorge A Soto, Natalia V Díaz, Yessica Y Leyton, Rodrigo A Villegas, Alexis M Kalergis, Abel E Vásquez
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal meningitis and a common pathogen in livestock and aquaculture industries around the world. Conjugate polysaccharide and protein-based vaccines are under development. The surface immunogenic protein (SIP) is a conserved protein in all GBS serotypes and has been shown to be a good target for vaccine development. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli cells has been shown to be useful in the development of vaccines, and the protein purification is a factor affecting their immunogenicity...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Desiree Witte, Nigel A Cunliffe, Ann M Turner, Edward Ngulube, Opokua Ofori-Anyinam, Johan Vekemans, Philips Chimpeni, Marc Lievens, Trevor P Wilson, Jenala Njiramʼmadzi, Yolanda Guerra Mendoza, Amanda Leach
BACKGROUND: In a phase III trial, the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine produced lower anti-circumsporozoite (CS) antibody titres when co-administered with Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines (0,1,2-month schedule) at 6-12 weeks compared to 5-17 months at first vaccination. Alternative infant immunisation schedules within the EPI were investigated. METHODS: This phase II, open, single site (Blantyre, Malawi) trial was conducted in infants aged 1-7 days. Subjects were equally randomised across seven groups to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01E at time points that included ≤7 days, 6, 10, 14, 26 weeks, and 9 months...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Bernadette Earley, Katie Tiernan, Catherine Duffy, Amanda Dunn, Sinead Waters, Steven Morrison, Mark McGee
The study objectives were: 1) to characterise the development of immunocompetence in beef suckler calves from birth to three months of age, and 2) to trace glycoprotein E (gE)-negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) antibodies from dam to calf and subsequent vaccination against pneumonia. Thirty multiparous beef suckler, spring-calving cows, consisting of two genotypes were involved; Limousin×Friesian (LF) and Charolais×Limousin (CL). Cows were immunised against the inactivated antigen strain of BoHV-1 (gE- (IBR marker vaccine) at day -84 and received a booster at day -56 relative to the expected calving date (d 0)...
January 10, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Dasun Wagachchi, Jia-Yun C Tsai, Callum Chalmers, Sam Blanchett, Jacelyn M S Loh, Thomas Proft
Peptide vaccines are an attractive strategy to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses and avoid potentially allergenic and/or reactogenic protein regions. However, peptides by themselves are often unstable and poorly immunogenic, necessitating the need for an adjuvant and a specialised delivery system. We have developed a novel peptide delivery platform (PilVax) that allows the presentation of a stabilised and highly amplified peptide as part of the group A streptococcus serotype M1 pilus structure (PilM1) on the surface of the non-pathogenic bacterium Lactococcus lactis...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sandra N Freiberger, Deborah S Leuthard, Agathe Duda, Emmanuel Contassot, Michaela Thallmair, Thomas M Kündig, Pål Johansen
Vaccines typically come with adjuvants that trigger the innate immune system in order to prepare best possible inflammatory conditions as to allow the adaptive immune system to become activated, generally for the induction of antibodies. The oldest approved and most abundant immunological adjuvants are salts of aluminium, which are also frequently used in animal models of immunisation and allergy desensitization. In rodents, the intraperitoneal administration of aluminium adjuvants is commonly performed and considered safe...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Leen Moens, Philippe Hermand, Tine Wellens, Greet Wuyts, Rita Derua, Etienne Waelkens, Carine Ysebaert, Fabrice Godfroid, Xavier Bossuyt
Serotype-independent protein-based pneumococcal vaccines represent attractive alternatives to capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines. The aim of this study was to identify novel immunogenic proteins from Streptococcus pneumoniae that may be used in protein-based pneumococcal vaccine. An immunoproteomics approach and a humanized severe combined immunodeficient mouse model were used to identify S. pneumoniae proteins that are immunogenic for the human immune system. Among the several proteins identified, SP1683 was selected, recombinantly produced, and infection and colonization murine models were used to evaluate the capacity of SP1683 to elicit protective responses, in comparison to known pneumococcal immunogenic proteins (PhtD and detoxified pneumolysin, dPly)...
February 5, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Savita Saini, Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Sushmita Das, Ruby Singh, Kumar Abhishek, Sudha Verma, Ajay Kumar, Abhishek Mandal, Bidyut Purkait, Kislay Kumar Sinha, Pradeep Das
Currently, there is no approved vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by L. donovani. The ability to manipulate Leishmania genome by eliminating or introducing genes necessary for parasites' survival considered as the powerful strategy to generate the live attenuated vaccine. In the present study fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (LdFBPase) gene deleted L. donovani (Δfbpase) was generated using homologous gene replacement strategy. Though LdFBPase gene deletion (Δfbpase) does not affect the growth of parasite in the promastigote form but axenic amastigotes display a marked reduction in their capacity to multiply in vitro inside macrophages and in vivo in Balb/c mice...
February 21, 2018: Vaccine
Nadja Albertsen, Ivalu Meincke Fencker, Heidi Egede Noasen, Michael Lynge Pedersen
The children immunisation programme in Greenland correlates to the one in Denmark with the addition of the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccine and the immunisation against Hepatitis B (HBV). The immunisation rate among children in Greenland has been and is currently unknown and this study aims to estimate the immunisation rates among children in Nuuk from 1 July 2015 until 30 June 2016. We did an observational cross-sectional study based on a statistical extraction identifying all children in Nuuk eligible for an immunization in the children immunisation programme from 1 July 2015 until 30 June 2016 and a review of their medical records...
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Marie J Estcourt, Julie A Marsh, Dianne E Campbell, Michael S Gold, Katrina J Allen, Peter Richmond, Claire S Waddington, Thomas L Snelling
INTRODUCTION: Atopic diseases, including food allergy, have become a predominant cause of chronic illness among children in developed countries. In Australia, a rise in hospitalisations among infants coded as anaphylaxis to foods coincided with the replacement of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine with subunit acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine on the national immunisation schedule in the late 1990s. Atopy is characterised by a tendency to mount T helper type 2 (Th2) responses to otherwise innocuous environmental antigens...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Open
James K Jankovich, Dave Chapman, Debra T Hansen, Mark D Robida, Andrey Loskutov, Felicia Craciunescu, Alex Borovkov, Karen Kibler, Lynnette Goatley, Katherine King, Christopher L Netherton, Geraldine Taylor, Bertram Jacobs, Kathryn Sykes, Linda K Dixon
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs with high socio-economic impact. No vaccine is available limiting options for control. Although live attenuated ASFV can induce up to one hundred percent protection against lethal challenge, little is known of the antigens which induce this protective response. To identify additional ASFV immunogenic and potentially protective antigens we cloned 47 viral genes in individual plasmids for gene vaccination and in recombinant vaccinia viruses...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
Martin T Jepsen, Ramona Trebbien, Hanne Dorthe Emborg, Tyra G Krause, Kristian Schønning, Marianne Voldstedlund, Jens Nielsen, Thea K Fischer
For future decisions on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-vaccination strategies and implementation into national immunisation-programmes, we used national registry data (hospitalisation, microbiology and vital statistics) to determine the age-specific incidence and direct medical costs of annual RSV-associated admissions in children < 5 years-old for the period of 2010-2015. We identified ca 2,500 RSV-associated hospitalisations annually amounting to total direct medical-costs of ca EUR 4.1 million per year...
January 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Massimiliano Bissa, Greta Forlani, Carlo Zanotto, Giovanna Tosi, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Roberto S Accolla, Antonia Radaelli
A complete eradication of an HIV infection has never been achieved by vaccination and the search for new immunogens that can induce long-lasting protective responses is ongoing. Avipoxvirus recombinants are host-restricted for replication to avian species and they do not have the undesired side effects induced by vaccinia recombinants. In particular, Fowlpox (FP) recombinants can express transgenes over long periods and can induce protective immunity in mammals, mainly due to CD4-dependent CD8+ T cells. In this context, the class II transactivator (CIITA) has a pivotal role in triggering the adaptive immune response through induction of the expression of class-II major histocompatibility complex molecule (MHC-II), that can present antigens to CD4+ T helper cells...
2018: PloS One
Chunyan Wang, Shoujie Li, Huaijie Jia, Guohua Chen, Yongxiang Fang, Shuang Zeng, Xiaobing He, Wenjuan Yao, Qiwang Jin, Wenyu Cheng, Yuan Feng, Hong Yin, Zhizhong Jing
The classical swine fever virus C-strain vaccine (C-strain vaccine) plays a vital role in preventing and controlling the spread of classical swine fever (CSF). However, the protective mechanisms of C-strain vaccine and cellular immunity conferred by T cell receptors (TCRs) are less well defined. We aimed to analyse the association between the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) spectratype of αβTCR in CD4+ T cells and C-strain vaccine; and to find conserved CDR3 amino acid motifs in specific TCR α- and β-chains...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
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