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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325485/hepatitis-a-immunisation-need-in-nursing-students-in-turkey
#1
Çiğdem Kader, Ayşe Erbay, Nazan Kılıç Akça, Selda Yüzer Alsaç, Sevinç Polat
Hepatitis A is a worldwide vaccine-preventable infection. The aim of our study was to determine the serological status of hepatitis A virus (HAV) among first-year nursing students in Turkey. A sample of 423 students was used and immunoglobulin G antibodies against HAV were determined quantitatively by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on each. Overall, 84.6% had no immunity to HAV, making them at risk for HAV, and so susceptible to nosocomial transmission. Nursing students who work in high-risk wards must be vaccinated against hepatitis A...
January 1, 2018: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310901/why-do-we-not-want-to-recommend-influenza-vaccination-to-young-children-a-qualitative-study-of-australian-parents-and-primary-care-providers
#2
Ruby Biezen, Danilla Grando, Danielle Mazza, Bianca Brijnath
INTRODUCTION: Influenza vaccination has been shown to be safe and effective against influenza and in the prevention of complicating secondary respiratory illnesses. However, its uptake in young children remains low. This study explored the views, attitudes and practices of parents and primary care providers (PCPs) on their knowledge and acceptance of influenza vaccination in children under 5. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional qualitative research design, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews with PCPs (i...
January 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227467/evidence-for-rise-in-meningococcal-serogroup-c-bactericidal-antibody-titers-in-the-absence-of-booster-vaccination-in-previously-vaccinated-children
#3
Al-Mamoon Badahdah, Ameneh Khatami, Mohamed Tashani, Harunor Rashid, Robert Booy
BACKGROUND: The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccines in the UK and Australia led to an impressive decline in the incidence of invasive disease. This study examined bactericidal antibody titres over time in UK and Australian children who received a MCC vaccine in early childhood to test the hypothesis that ongoing boosting of immunity in the absence of further doses of vaccine in some children may contribute to ongoing protection from disease. METHODS: Serum bactericidal assay using rabbit complement (rSBA) titres at each follow-up visit were compared to all preceding visits to identify any ≥4-fold rise in titres...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223483/differences-by-sex-in-igg-levels-following-infant-and-childhood-vaccinations-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis-of-vaccination-studies
#4
Anna G C Boef, Fiona R M van der Klis, Guy A M Berbers, Anne-Marie Buisman, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Jeanet M Kemmeren, Arie van der Ende, Hester E de Melker, Nynke Y Rots, Mirjam J Knol
BACKGROUND: If immune responses to vaccination differ between males and females, sex-specific vaccination schedules may be indicated. We systematically reanalysed childhood vaccination studies conducted in The Netherlands for sex-differences in IgG-responses. To assess the impact of potential sex-differences in IgG-responses, we explored sex-differences in vaccine failure/effectiveness and reactogenicity. METHODS: Six studies with IgG-measurements for 1577 children following infant pneumococcal (PCV7/PCV10/PCV13) and/or DTaP-IPV-Hib(-HepB) vaccinations, or the pre-school DTaP-IPV booster were included...
December 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213052/exosomes-from-antigen-pulsed-dendritic-cells-induce-stronger-antigen-specific-immune-responses-than-microvesicles-in-vivo
#5
Casper J E Wahlund, Gözde Güclüler, Stefanie Hiltbrunner, Rosanne E Veerman, Tanja I Näslund, Susanne Gabrielsson
Extracellular vesicles (EV), including exosomes and microvesicles (MV), represent a rapidly expanding field of research with diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although many aspects of EV function remain to be revealed and broad investigations are warranted, most published findings focus on only one vesicle category or a non-separated mix of EVs. In this paper, we investigated both MVs and exosomes from Ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed dendritic cells for their immunostimulatory potential side-by-side in vivo. Only exosomes induced antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells, and were more efficient than MVs in eliciting antigen-specific IgG production...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211241/parenteral-adjuvant-potential-of-recombinant-b-subunit-of-escherichia-coli-heat-labile-enterotoxin
#6
Carlos Eduardo Pouey da Cunha, Clóvis Moreira, Andréa da Silva Ramos Rocha, Paula Fonseca Finger, Carolina Georg Magalhães, Marcos Roberto Alves Ferreira, Odir Antônio Dellagostin, Ângela Nunes Moreira, Fabricio Rochedo Conceição
BACKGROUND: The B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) is a potent mucosal immune adjuvant. However, there is little information about LTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at evaluating and better understanding rLTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant using the fused R1 repeat of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin as an antigen to characterise the humoral immune response induced by this construct and comparing it to that generated when aluminium hydroxide is used as adjuvant instead...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195189/-one-of-the-greatest-medical-success-stories-physicians-and-nurses-small-stories-about-vaccine-knowledge-and-anxieties
#7
Terra Manca
In recent years, the Canadian province of Alberta experienced outbreaks of measles, mumps, pertussis, and influenza. Even so, the dominant cultural narrative maintains that vaccines are safe, effective, and necessary to maintain population health. Many vaccine supporters have expressed anxieties that stories contradicting this narrative have lowered herd immunity levels because they frighten the public into avoiding vaccination. As such, vaccine policies often emphasize educating parents and the public about the importance and safety of vaccination...
November 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194575/the-adjuvant-system-as01-upregulates-neutrophil-cd14-expression-and-neutrophil-associated-antigen-transport-in-the-local-lymphatic-network
#8
Melanie R Neeland, Wei Shi, Catherine Collignon, Els N T Meeusen, Arnaud M Didierlaurent, Michael J de Veer
The liposome-based Adjuvant System AS01 is under evaluation for use in several vaccines in clinical development. We have previously shown that AS01 injected with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) induces a distinct cellular signature within the draining lymphatics that enhances local lymphocyte recruitment and antigen-specific humoral immunity. Here, we show that AS01-induced neutrophil recruitment is associated with increased expression of CD14 and enhanced antigen uptake capacity in neutrophils from both afferent and efferent lymphatic compartments in the first 48h after vaccination...
December 1, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190736/humoral-immune-response-against-two-surface-antigens-of-chlamydia-pecorum-in-vaccinated-and-naturally-infected-sheep
#9
Sankhya Bommana, Evelyn Walker, Marion Desclozeaux, Peter Timms, Adam Polkinghorne
Chlamydia pecorum is a globally recognised livestock pathogen due to the significant clinical and economic impact it poses to livestock producers. Routine serological diagnosis is through a complement fixation test (CFT), which is often criticised for cross-reactivity, poor sensitivity and specificity. Although serology remains the preferred method in veterinary diagnostic laboratories, serological assays based on surface antigens of C. pecorum have not been established until now. In this study, we evaluated the use of two chlamydial recombinant protein antigens (PmpG and MOMP-G) by a direct IgG ELISA method for detection of ovine anti-chlamydial antibodies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180585/a-trivalent-hcv-vaccine-elicits-broad-and-synergistic-polyclonal-antibody-response-in-mice-and-rhesus-monkey
#10
Xuesong Wang, Yu Yan, Tianyu Gan, Xi Yang, Dapeng Li, Dongming Zhou, Qiang Sun, Zhong Huang, Jin Zhong
OBJECTIVE: Despite the development of highly effective direct-acting antivirals, a prophylactic vaccine is needed for eradicating HCV. A major hurdle of HCV vaccine development is to induce immunity against HCV with high genome diversity. We previously demonstrated that a soluble E2 (sE2) expressed from insect cells induces broadly neutralising antibodies (NAbs) and prevents HCV infection. The objective of this study is to develop a multivalent HCV vaccine to increase the antigenic coverage...
November 27, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174323/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-13-delivered-as-one-primary-and-one-booster-dose-1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-1-compared-with-two-primary-doses-and-a-booster-2%C3%A2-%C3%A2-1-in-uk-infants-a-multicentre-parallel-group-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
David Goldblatt, Jo Southern, Nick J Andrews, Polly Burbidge, Jo Partington, Lucy Roalfe, Marta Valente Pinto, Vasilli Thalasselis, Emma Plested, Hayley Richardson, Matthew D Snape, Elizabeth Miller
BACKGROUND: Infants in the UK were first offered a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2006, given at 2 and 4 months of age and a booster dose at 13 months (2 + 1 schedule). A 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in 2010. We aimed to compare the post-booster antibody response in UK infants given a reduced priming schedule of PCV13 (ie, a 1 + 1 schedule) versus the current 2 + 1 schedule and to assess the potential effect on population protection. METHODS: In this multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial, we recuited infants due to receive their primary immunisations aged up to 13 weeks on first vaccinations by information booklets mailed out via the NHS Child Health Information Service and the UK National Health Application and Infrastructure Services...
November 22, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168910/parental-immunisation-needs-and-attitudes-survey-in-paediatric-hospital-clinics-and-community-maternal-and-child-health-centres-in-melbourne-australia
#12
Jessica C Costa-Pinto, Harold W Willaby, Julie Leask, Monsurul Hoq, Tibor Schuster, Alice Ghazarian, Jacinta O'Keefe, Margie H Danchin
AIM: Despite Australia's high vaccination rates, an estimated 3.3% of children are under-vaccinated due to vaccine refusal and the proportion of parents with concerns is unclear. Amongst Australian parents, we aimed to determine the prevalence of vaccine concerns, resources and health-care providers (HCPs) accessed and satisfaction with these resources in two different settings. We also aimed to identify relationships between the level of vaccine concern, socio-economic status and vaccine uptake...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168855/high-adjuvant-activity-of-layered-double-hydroxide-nanoparticles-and-nanosheets-in-anti-tumour-vaccine-formulations
#13
Shiyu Yan, Wenyi Gu, Bing Zhang, Barbara E Rolfe, Zhi Ping Xu
Effective adjuvants in anti-tumour vaccine formulations are very important in the development of new-generation vaccines. In this study, two layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterial forms, i.e. nanoparticles (NPs) and nanosheets (NSs), were synthesised and examined as adjuvants to provoke the immune responses for anti-tumour purpose. Immunogen ovalbumin (OVA) delivered by both nanomaterials induced much stronger humoral and cell-medicated immune responses, together with an immune stimulant (TLR9 ligand CpG), as evidenced by higher levels of IgG1, IgG2a and interferon-γ...
November 23, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142125/emergence-of-double-and-triple-gene-reassortant-g1p-8-rotaviruses-possessing-a-ds-1-like-backbone-post-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-malawi
#14
Khuzwayo C Jere, Chrispin Chaguza, Naor Bar-Zeev, Jenna Lowe, Chikondi Peno, Benjamin Kumwenda, Osamu Nakagomi, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe, Iturriza-Gomara Miren
To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunisation programmes. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) into its immunisation schedule in 2012. Utilising a surveillance platform of hospitalised rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 - 2012) and after (2013 - 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next generation sequencing revealed that all randomly-selected pre-vaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced (n=32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas post-vaccine G1P[8] strains (n=18) had a DS-1-like constellation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132993/re-evaluating-the-effect-of-favipiravir-treatment-on-rabies-virus-infection
#15
Ashley C Banyard, Karen L Mansfield, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Leigh Thorne, Colin Birch, Penelope Koraka, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Anthony R Fooks
There is no antiviral treatment available once clinical disease following rabies virus infection has initiated. Considered a neglected tropical disease, >60,000 human rabies deaths are estimated each year despite the availability of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for pre-immunisation or administration following a potential exposure before the onset of clinical disease. Such post-exposure treatments include administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) and vaccination at a distant site to prime a humoral immune response...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124321/vaccine-responses-in-newborns
#16
REVIEW
Anja Saso, Beate Kampmann
Immunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months. Furthermore, the neonatal immunological milieu is polarised towards Th2-type immunity with dampening of Th1-type responses and impaired humoral immunity, resulting in qualitatively and quantitatively poorer antibody responses compared to older infants...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120017/review-of-maternal-immunisation-during-pregnancy-focus-on-pertussis-and-influenza
#17
Géraldine Blanchard-Rohner, Christiane Eberhardt
Seasonal influenza and pertussis infections are known to be significant causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates and infants worldwide. Influenza has also been associated with severe complications in pregnant women and after delivery. The most efficient and safe strategy to protect mothers and their offspring is maternal immunisation during pregnancy. The maternal antibodies thus acquired are transferred to the fetus as of the second trimester and confer passive immunity until the first infant immunisations...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062078/design-and-evaluation-of-the-immunogenicity-and-efficacy-of-a-biomimetic-particulate-formulation-of-viral-antigens
#18
Victor Riitho, Adam A Walters, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Benjamin Lamp, Till Rümenapf, Thomas Krey, Felix A Rey, Ernesto Oviedo-Orta, Graham R Stewart, Nicolas Locker, Falko Steinbach, Simon P Graham
Subunit viral vaccines are typically not as efficient as live attenuated or inactivated vaccines at inducing protective immune responses. This paper describes an alternative 'biomimetic' technology; whereby viral antigens were formulated around a polymeric shell in a rationally arranged fashion with a surface glycoprotein coated on to the surface and non-structural antigen and adjuvant encapsulated. We evaluated this model using BVDV E2 and NS3 proteins formulated in poly-(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles adjuvanted with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C) as an adjuvant (Vaccine-NP)...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042916/the-proposal-of-paediatric-virology-and-its-perspectives-an-interview-with-professor-of-paediatrics-maria-theodoridou
#19
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
Professor Maria Theodoridou, Emeritus Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Athens, is one of the few paediatricians in Greece, who have experienced almost all the infectious diseases of the second half of the 20th century and their severe consequences, prior to the widespread adoption of immunisations. A milestone during her career was the establishment of a specialised National Reference Unit for the care of paediatric patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the 'Aghia Sophia' Children's Hospital in Athens, Greece...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029940/antibody-dependent-phagocytosis-adp-responses-following-trivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccination-of-younger-and-older-adults
#20
Fernanda Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Angus P R Johnston, P Mark Hogarth, Bruce D Wines, Ian Barr, Adam K Wheatley, Stephen J Kent
Globally the most commonly utilised immunisation against influenza is the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) derived from an A/H1N1, an A/H3N2 and aB type influenza virus. Vaccine effectiveness of TIV varies year to year, depending on how well antigenically matched the strains in the vaccine are compared to circulating strains [1,2]. Moreover, vaccine effectiveness can vary within certain subpopulations such as HIV-positive, young children and the elderly. Decreased vaccine effectiveness in the elderly is associated with impaired Ab production, as measured by standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
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