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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451672/predictors-of-persistent-prescription-opioid-analgesic-use-among-people-without-cancer-in-australia
#1
Samanta Lalic, Natasa Gisev, J Simon Bell, Maarit Jaana Korhonen, Jenni Ilomäki
AIMS: To identify patterns of opioid analgesic use and determine predictors of persistent opioid use among people without cancer. METHODS: A population-based cohort study of Australians initiating prescription opioids from July 2013 to December 2015 was conducted using data from a random 10% sample of people who accessed medicines through Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. A 12-month look-back period was used to define opioid initiation, exclude people with cancer, and determine comorbidities...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451619/increase-of-10-in-the-rate-of-adverse-drug-reactions-for-each-drug-administered-in-hospitalized-patients
#2
Marisa Rosimeire Ribeiro, Antonio Abílio Motta, Luiz Augusto Marcondes-Fonseca, Jorge Kalil-Filho, Pedro Giavina-Bianchi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk factors, incidence and severity of adverse drug reactions in in-patients. METHODS: This prospective study evaluated 472 patients treated at a teaching hospital in Brazil between 2010 and 2013 by five medical specialties: Internal Medicine, General Surgery, Geriatrics, Neurology, and Clinical Immunology and Allergy. The following variables were assessed: patient age, gender, comorbidities, family history of hypersensitivity, personal and family history of atopy, number of prescribed drugs before and during hospitalization, hospital diagnoses, days of hospitalization...
2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449779/-saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-improves-intestinal-enzyme-function-a-trophic-effects-review
#3
REVIEW
Margret I Moré, Yvan Vandenplas
Several properties of the probiotic medicinal yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 contribute to its efficacy to prevent or treat diarrhoea. Besides immunologic effects, pathogen-binding and anti-toxin effects, as well as positive effects on the microbiota, S boulardii CNCM I-745 also has pronounced effects on digestive enzymes of the brush border membrane, known as trophic effects. The latter are the focus of this review. Literature has been reviewed after searching Medline and PMC databases. All relevant non-clinical and clinical studies are summarized...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449443/sex-differences-in-ischemic-heart-disease-advances-obstacles-and-next-steps
#4
Niti R Aggarwal, Hena N Patel, Laxmi S Mehta, Rupa M Sanghani, Gina P Lundberg, Sandra J Lewis, Marla A Mendelson, Malissa J Wood, Annabelle S Volgman, Jennifer H Mieres
Evolving knowledge of sex-specific presentations, improved recognition of conventional and novel risk factors, and expanded understanding of the sex-specific pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease have resulted in improved clinical outcomes in women. Yet, ischemic heart disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the United States. The important publication by the Institute of Medicine titled "Women's Health Research-Progress, Pitfalls, and Promise," highlights the persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease burden among subgroups of women, particularly women who are socially disadvantaged because of race, ethnicity, income level, and educational attainment...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448284/-the-keyrole-of-multiomics-in-the-predictive-preventive-and-personalised-medical-approach-towards-glaucoma-management
#5
Olga Golubnitschaja
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness, with altogether about 70 million patients registered worldwide. These facts prompt us to reconsider currently applied concepts in overall glaucoma management. Innovative strategies of predictive, preventive and personalised medicine (PPPM) are expected to considerably improve disease prevention and personalised treatment. The comprehensive PPPM measures include the application of individualised patient profiles, "phenotyping", molecular characterisation of the pre-lesions and disease stages, innovative screening programs, patient stratification, early and predictive diagnosis, targeted prevention, and the creation of personalised treatment algorithms...
February 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447720/no-257-ultrasonographic-cervical-length-assessment-in-predicting-preterm-birth-in-singleton-pregnancies
#6
Kenneth Lim, Kimberly Butt, Joan M Crane
OBJECTIVES: To review (1) the use of ultrasonographic-derived cervical length measurement in predicting preterm birth and (2) interventions associated with a short cervical length. OUTCOMES: Reduction in rates of prematurity and/or better identification of those at risk, as well as possible prevention of unnecessary interventions. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library up to December 2009, using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (preterm labour, ultrasound, cervix, incompetent cervix, transvaginal, transperineal, cervical length, fibronectin)...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447711/no-355-physiologic-basis-of-pain-in-labour-and-delivery-an-evidence-based-approach-to-its-management
#7
Julie Bonapace, Guy-Paul Gagné, Nils Chaillet, Raymonde Gagnon, Emmanuelle Hébert, Sarah Buckley
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence relating to nonpharmacological approaches in the management of pain during labour and delivery. To formulate recommendations for the usage of nonpharmacological approaches to pain management. OPTIONS: Nonpharmacological methods available for pain management during labour and delivery exist. These should be included in the counselling and care of women. EVIDENCE: PubMed and Medline were searched for articles in French and English on subjects related to "breastfeeding," "pain," "epidural," "anaesthesia," "analgesia," "labour," "labor," and combined with "gate control theory," "alternative therapies," "massage," "position," "mobility," "TENS," "bathing," "DNIC," "acupuncture," "acupressure," "sterile water injection," "higher center," "control mind," "cognitive structuring," "holistic health," "complementary therapy(ies)," "breathing," "relaxation," "mental imagery," "visualization," "mind focusing," "hypnosis," "auto-hypnosis," "sophrology," "mind and body interventions," "music," "odors," "biofeedback," "Lamaze," "Bonapace," "prenatal training," "gymnastic," "chanting," "haptonomy," "environment," "transcutaneous electrical stimulus-stimulation," "antenatal education," "support," "continuous support," "psychosocial support," "psychosomatic medicine," "supportive care," "companion," "intrapartum care," "nurse," "midwife(ves)," "father," "doula," "caregiver," " hormones," "oxytocin," "endorphin," "prolactin," "catecholamine," "adrenaline," and "noradrenaline" from 1990 to December 2015...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446826/1-3-6-7-tetrahydroxy-8-prenylxanthone-ameliorates-inflammatory-responses-resulted-in-by-the-paracrine-interaction-of-adipocytes-and-macrophages
#8
Dan Li, Qianyu Liu, Wen Sun, Xiuping Chen, Ying Wang, Yuxiang Sun, Ligen Lin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue is critical in the onset and development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and pro-inflammatory polarization play key roles in adipose tissue inflammation. The fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of various inflammatory diseases. However, its role in regulating adipose tissue inflammation is unexplored. This study was designed to identify xanthones from G...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446222/engineering-controls-in-veterinary-oncology-a-survey-of-148-acvim-board-certified-oncologists-and-environmental-surveillance-in-20-specialty-hospitals
#9
K Alexander, N Northrup, D Clarke, H Lindell, T Laver
Engineering controls (EC, facility and equipment barriers between hazards and people) are used to avoid exposure to chemotherapy drugs. In this study, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine board-certified veterinary oncologists were surveyed about their use of containment primary EC (C-PEC) and supplemental EC (closed system transfer devices, CSTD). The survey was completed by 148 (38%) of practicing diplomates. All used EC. Both C-PEC and CSTD were used at 92% of hospitals; however, US Pharmacopoeial Convention Chapter <800> (USP <800>) standards were met at only 19% of hospitals and oncologists did not know the type of C-PEC at 18% of hospitals...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444611/the-effect-of-goreisan-on-the-prevention-of-chronic-subdural-hematoma-recurrence-multicenter-randomized-controlled-study
#10
Kosuke Katayama, Naoya Matsuda, Kiyohide Kakuta, Masato Naraoka, Atsuhito Takemura, Seiko Hasegawa, Kenichi Akasaka, Norihito Shimamura, Katsuhiro Itoh, Kenichiro Asano, Konno Hiromu, Hiroki Ohkuma
The relatively high rate of postoperative recurrence in the treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a significant problem. Goreisan is an herbal medicine that exhibits a hydragogue effect by inhibiting the expression of aquaporins, and its efficacy in preventing postoperative CSDH recurrence has been suggested by several case trials. This multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed to investigate the preventative effect of goreisan on postoperative CSDH recurrence. Patients with symptomatic CSDH over 60 years old undergoing burr hole surgery were enrolled in this study...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442025/sinomenine-inhibits-the-inflammatory-responses-of-human-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-via-the-tlr4-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Ru-Bing Yao, Zhi-Ming Zhao, Ling-Jie Zhao, Hui Cai
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disorder mainly characterized by inflammation of the synovial tissue that can lead to destruction of bone and cartilage. Sinomenine is an alkaloid extracted from the stem of the Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum. It has been reported that sinomenine has immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of sinominine on IL-1β-induced human RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RAFLS) is poorly understood...
June 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441495/evaluating-the-treatment-costs-for-uncomplicated-malaria-at-a-public-healthcare-facility-in-nigeria-and-the-implications
#12
Charles C Ezenduka, Daniel Resende Falleiros, Brian B Godman
BACKGROUND: Accurate information on the facility costs of treatment is essential to enhance decision making and funding for malaria control. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of providing treatment for uncomplicated malaria through a public health facility in Nigeria. METHODS: Hospital costs were estimated from a provider perspective, applying a standard costing procedure. Capital and recurrent expenditures were estimated using an ingredient approach combined with step-down methodology...
September 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441421/diagnostic-error-in-stroke-reasons-and-proposed-solutions
#13
REVIEW
Ekaterina Bakradze, Ava L Liberman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss the frequency of stroke misdiagnosis and identify subgroups of stroke at high risk for specific diagnostic errors. In addition, we review common reasons for misdiagnosis and propose solutions to decrease error. RECENT FINDINGS: According to a recent report by the National Academy of Medicine, most people in the USA are likely to experience a diagnostic error during their lifetimes. Nearly half of such errors result in serious disability and death...
February 13, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439875/consensus-document-on-the-implementation-of-next-generation-sequencing-in-the-genetic-diagnosis-of-hereditary-cancer
#14
José Luis Soto, Ignacio Blanco, Orland Díez, Javier García Planells, Isabel Lorda, Gert Matthijs, Mercedes Robledo, Erika Souche, Conxi Lázaro
Genetic diagnosis of hereditary cancer syndromes offers the opportunity to establish more effective predictive and preventive measures for the patient and their families. The ultimate objective is to decrease cancer morbidity and mortality in high genetic risk families. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) offers an important improvement in the efficiency of genetic diagnosis, allowing an increase in diagnostic yield with a substantial reduction in response times and economic costs. Consequently, the implementation of this new technology is a great opportunity for improvement in the clinical management of affected families...
February 10, 2018: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438841/anti-migraine-and-anti-depression-activities-of-tianshu-capsule-by-mediating-monoamine-oxidase
#15
Xiaoping Sun, Fangfang Zhu, Jun Zhou, Xiujuan Chang, Liang Li, Hanfei Hu, Zhenzhong Wang, Wei Xiao
BACKGROUND: Tianshu capsule(TSC)is a Chinese patent medicine. It's widely used to treat migraine clinically in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we investigated anti-migraine and anti-depression activities of TSC using in vivo animal models together with in vitro studies to investigate the mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nitroglycerin (NTG) -induced migraine rat model, rat was given a subcutaneous injection of the NTG suspension (10 mg/kg) once a week for 5 weeks...
February 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438458/the-problem-of-curcumin-and-its-bioavailability-could-its-gastrointestinal-influence-contribute-to-its-overall-health-enhancing-effects
#16
Adrian L Lopresti
Curcumin, from the spice turmeric, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, and neurotrophic activity and therefore holds promise as a therapeutic agent to prevent and treat several disorders. However, a major barrier to curcumin's clinical efficacy is its poor bioavailability. Efforts have therefore been dedicated to developing curcumin formulations with greater bioavailability and systemic tissue distribution. However, it is proposed in this review that curcumin's potential as a therapeutic agent may not solely rely on its bioavailability, but rather its medicinal benefits may also arise from its positive influence on gastrointestinal health and function...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437200/kunskap-om-levnadsvanor-v%C3%A3-rderas-olika-p%C3%A3-l%C3%A3-karutbildningarna-en-genomg%C3%A3-ng-av-124-skriftliga-examinationer
#17
Benno Krachler, Lars Jerdén, Christina Lindén
Substantial differences in valuation of lifestyle-related knowledge at Swedish medical schools Lifestyle factors are crucial for prevention and management of many non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, stroke, diabetes, coronary heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lifestyle medicine is included in national learning outcomes for undergraduate medical education in Sweden. Since assessment drives learning, we reviewed questions from 124 written examinations from all 7 medical schools in Sweden, conducted between 2012 and 2015...
February 9, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436404/from-systems-biology-to-p4-medicine-applications-in-respiratory-medicine
#18
Guillaume Noell, Rosa Faner, Alvar Agustí
Human health and disease are emergent properties of a complex, nonlinear, dynamic multilevel biological system: the human body. Systems biology is a comprehensive research strategy that has the potential to understand these emergent properties holistically. It stems from advancements in medical diagnostics, "omics" data and bioinformatic computing power. It paves the way forward towards "P4 medicine" (predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory), which seeks to better intervene preventively to preserve health or therapeutically to cure diseases...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436253/promoting-activity-independence-and-stability-in-early-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-praised-development-of-an-intervention-for-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#19
Vicky Booth, Rowan H Harwood, Victoria Hood-Moore, Trevor Bramley, Jennie E Hancox, Kate Robertson, Judith Hall, Veronika Van Der Wardt, Pip A Logan
This series of articles for rehabilitation in practice aims to cover a knowledge element of the rehabilitation medicine curriculum. Nevertheless, they are intended to be of interest to a multidisciplinary audience. The competency addressed in this article is an understanding of how to develop an intervention for people with mild cognitive impairment and dementia to promote their independence, stability, and physical activity. INTRODUCTION: Older adults with dementia are at a high risk of falls...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435984/economics-of-pharmacogenetic-guided-treatments-underwhelming-or-overstated
#20
Dyfrig A Hughes
Economic evaluations have dispelled a perception that precision medicine, achieved through pharmacogenetic testing, reduces healthcare costs. For many tests aimed at preventing adverse drug reactions, cost-effectiveness analyses predict modest improvements in health benefits and increases in total costs. While there are many uncertainties in estimating the value of testing, factors that influence cost-effectiveness include the rarity of the outcome, the effectiveness of alternative treatments, and the scope and perspective of analysis...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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