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Preventative medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029236/first-in-human-experience-with-complete-integration-of-neuromodulation-device-within-a-customized-cranial-implant
#1
Chad R Gordon, Gabriel F Santiago, Judy Huang, Gregory K Bergey, Shuya Liu, Mehran Armand, Henry Brem, William S Anderson
BACKGROUND: Neuromodulation devices have the potential to transform modern day treatments for patients with medicine-resistant neurological disease. For instance, the NeuroPace System (NeuroPace Inc, Mountain View, California) is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved device developed for closed-loop direct brain neurostimulation in the setting of drug-resistant focal epilepsy. However, current methods require placement either above or below the skull in nonanatomic locations. This type of positioning has several drawbacks including visible deformities and scalp pressure from underneath leading to eventual wound healing difficulties, micromotion of hardware with infection, and extrusion leading to premature explantation...
October 6, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027648/prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-with-the-chinese-herbal-medicine-tianqi-capsule-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Bing Pang, Ying Zhang, Jing Liu, Li-Sha He, Yu-Jiao Zheng, Feng-Mei Lian, Xiao-Lin Tong
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of the rapid growth in incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a big challenge for clinicians. In China, many trials have indicated that Tianqi capsule, which contains several Chinese herbal medicines as part of a large healing system called traditional Chinese medicine, could decrease the incidence of T2DM. The review assessed the effectiveness of Tianqi capsule in prevention of T2DM. METHODS: Seven electronic databases were searched to identify eligible trials published from the inception of the databases up until May 1, 2017...
October 13, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026997/a-systematic-review-of-integrative-clinical-trials-for-supportive-care-in-pediatric-oncology-a-report-from-the-international-society-of-pediatric-oncology-t-cm-collaborative
#3
REVIEW
Andrea L Radossi, Katherine Taromina, Stacey Marjerrison, Caroline J Diorio, Raquel Similio, Festus Njuguna, Glenn M Afungchwi, Elena J Ladas
PURPOSE: Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) use in children with cancer is well established among high-income, upper middle-income, low-middle-income, and low-income countries (HIC, UMIC, LMIC, LIC, respectively). In HIC, a developing body of evidence exists for several T&CM therapies; however, evidence in other income settings is less well described despite a significantly higher use when compared to reports from HIC. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for T&CM for a variety of supportive care indications among children with cancer...
October 13, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026940/advanced-bioanalytics-for-precision-medicine
#4
Aldo Roda, Elisa Michelini, Cristiana Caliceti, Massimo Guardigli, Mara Mirasoli, Patrizia Simoni
Precision medicine is a new paradigm that combines diagnostic, imaging, and analytical tools to produce accurate diagnoses and therapeutic interventions tailored to the individual patient. This approach stands in contrast to the traditional "one size fits all" concept, according to which researchers develop disease treatments and preventions for an "average" patient without considering individual differences. The "one size fits all" concept has led to many ineffective or inappropriate treatments, especially for pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer...
October 12, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026930/-burnout-a%C3%A2-call-for-action
#5
REVIEW
C S Hartog
BACKGROUND: Burnout is an emerging topic and has recently been the subject of a position paper of the US American Society of Critical Care Medicine. OBJECTIVES: To give an overview over prevalence, causes, and relevance of burnout in intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians and point to potential prevention strategies MATERIALS AND METHODS: Narrative review. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Burnout is a job-related state which results from long-lasting, permanent work overload when short spells of recreation, for instance during the weekend, are not effective to reduce exhaustion, vegetative symptoms, loss of efficiency, and depersonalization...
October 12, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025838/association-between-childhood-allergic-diseases-educational-attainment-and-occupational-status-in-later-life-systematic-review-protocol
#6
Laura Beate von Kobyletzki, Linda Beckman, Liam Smeeth, Martin McKee, Jennifer K Quint, Katrina Abuabara, Sinead Langan
INTRODUCTION: Childhood allergic diseases may prevent affected children from achieving their academic potential. Potential mechanisms include absence from school due to illness and medical appointments. Experience of symptoms in classes or leisure time, and stigma associated with visible signs and symptoms, including skin disease, requirements for medication during school time or the need for specific diets, may also contribute to reduced educational attainment. Studies have investigated the association between specific allergic diseases and educational attainment...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025642/engineered-chimeric-peptides-with-antimicrobial-and-titanium-binding-functions-to-inhibit-biofilm-formation-on-ti-implants
#7
Hongjuan Geng, Yang Yuan, Aidina Adayi, Xu Zhang, Xin Song, Lei Gong, Xi Zhang, Ping Gao
Titanium (Ti) implants have been commonly used in oral medicine. However, despite their widespread clinical application, these implants are susceptible to failure induced by microbial infection due to bacterial biofilm formation. Immobilization of chimeric peptides with antibacterial properties on the Ti surface may be a promising antimicrobial approach to inhibit biofilm formation. Here, chimeric peptides were designed by connecting three sequences (hBD-3-1/2/3) derived from human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3) with Ti-binding peptide-l (TBP-l: RKLPDAGPMHTW) via a triple glycine (G) linker to modify Ti surfaces...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025526/hospital-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-results-of-a-cohort-study-performed-in-an-internal-medicine-department
#8
Maria João Lobão, Paulo Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections are the most frequent healthcare associated infections, being related to both high costs and morbidity. Our intention was to carry out an epidemiological characterization of hospital acquired urinary tract infections that occurred in an internal medicine department of a Portuguese hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study (historic cohort). Data were analysed from a systematic random sample of 388 patients, representative of the 3492 admissions occurred in 2014 in that department...
September 29, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025360/best-practice-of-identification-and-proteomic-analysis-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-human-health-and-disease
#9
Barbara W Sódar, Árpád Kovács, Tamás Visnovitz, Éva Pállinger, Károly Vékey, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Lilla Turiák, Edit I Buzás
Extracellular vesicles are emerging sources of biomarkers for modern preventive and precision medicine. Extracellular vesicles in body fluids offer a unique opportunity for integrative biomarker approaches due to their complex biocargo that includes proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and metabolites. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics data suggest that a significant portion of human proteins are sorted into extracellular vesicles and amenable for biomarker discovery schemes. Areas covered: this review focuses on key aspects of isolation, quality control and subsequent analysis of blood plasma- and conditioned medium-derived extracellular vesicle proteins, and summarizes the current state-of-the-art in the field...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024092/pharmaceutical-opioid-use-and-harm-in-australia-the-need-for-proactive-and-preventative-responses
#10
Briony Larance, Louisa Degenhardt, Amy Peacock, Natasa Gisev, Richard Mattick, Samantha Colledge, Gabrielle Campbell
There are parallels between the North American experience of escalating pharmaceutical opioid utilisation and harm and the trends being observed in Australia. In Australia, opioid utilisation has increased dramatically over the past two decades. There have been significant shifts away from the predominant prescribing of 'weak' and short-acting opioids, to 'strong' and long-acting opioids, for an increasing range of chronic pain indications. In concordance with escalating use, Australia is experiencing increases in opioid-related hospital admissions and overdose, as well as opioid dependence and treatment seeking...
October 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023306/medical-error-avoidance-in-intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-the-communication-imperative
#11
Stan Skinner, Robert Holdefer, John J McAuliffe, Francesco Sala
Error avoidance in medicine follows similar rules that apply within the design and operation of other complex systems. The error-reduction concepts that best fit the conduct of testing during intraoperative neuromonitoring are forgiving design (reversibility of signal loss to avoid/prevent injury) and system redundancy (reduction of false reports by the multiplication of the error rate of tests independently assessing the same structure). However, error reduction in intraoperative neuromonitoring is complicated by the dichotomous roles (and biases) of the neurophysiologist (test recording and interpretation) and surgeon (intervention)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023252/partner-notification-for-youth-living-with-hiv-in-14-cities-in-the-united-states
#12
Jacob J van den Berg, Marjan Javanbakht, Pamina M Gorbach, Bret J Rudy, Andrew O Westfall, Craig M Wilson, Michelle A Lally
BACKGROUND: Identifying factors associated with partner notification among youth living with HIV is critical for effective HIV prevention and treatment strategies. METHODS: A total of 924 male and female behaviorally-infected youth ages 13-24 across 14 U.S. cities completed an audio-computer assisted self-interview including questions about demographics and experiences with patient- and provider-referral partner notification. RESULTS: The majority of participants self-identified as male (82...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022634/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-agaricus-brasiliensis-is-partly-due-to-its-linoleic-acid-content
#13
Papawee Saiki, Yasuhiro Kawano, Leo J L D Van Griensven, Koyomi Miyazaki
For hundreds of years mushrooms have been used as functional food for health. The basidiomycete Agaricus brasiliensis (A. brasiliensis) is famous for the medicinal properties of its beta glucans and of its antioxidants. Most researchers have studied polysaccharides from A. brasiliensis for their anti-inflammatory activity. However, active compounds from this mushroom have not yet been studied for the inactivation of NO inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to find the active compounds from A. brasiliensis for their NO inhibitory activity related inflammatory activity...
October 12, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022574/osthole-prevents-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#14
Yun Cai, Wu Sun, Xin-Xin Zhang, Yan-Die Lin, Hao Chen, Hao Li
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose leads to severe hepatotoxicity. Osthole, a natural coumarin found in traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, has therapeutic potential in the treatment of various diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of osthole against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Mice were administered osthole (100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 3 d, then on the fourth day APAP (300 mg/kg, ip) was co-administered with osthole. The mice were euthanized post-APAP, their serum and livers were collected for analysis...
October 12, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022254/physical-inactivity-and-the-economic-and-health-burdens-due-to-cardiovascular-disease-exercise-as-medicine
#15
Mark Hamer, Gary O'Donovan, Marie Murphy
Leisure time physical activity, or exercise, has been described as today's best buy in public health. Physical inactivity is responsible for around 10% of all deaths and physical inactivity costs global healthcare systems billions of dollars each year. Here, we describe the human and economic costs of cardiovascular disease. Then, we explain that physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The evidence of the role of physical activity in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is reviewed and we make the case that exercise is medicine...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022166/patient-views-about-polypharmacy-medication-review-clinics-run-by-clinical-pharmacists-in-gp-practices
#16
Rosie Snell, Tim Langran, Parastou Donyai
Background Polypharmacy can decrease medication adherence and increase the incidence of adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions, resulting in falls, hospitalisations and other complications especially in the elderly. Medication-related problems of polypharmacy can be prevented through patient-centred medication reviews but research in this area has been completed largely without examining patients' viewpoints. Objective The aim was to investigate patient views about a clinical pharmacist-led patient-centred polypharmacy medication review service completed within 17 English GP practices with those ≥ 75 years of age and prescribed ≥ 15 medications, during 415 consultations...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021905/the-waterpolo-shoulder-paradigm-results-of-ultrasound-surveillance-at-poolside
#17
Felice Galluccio, Eleonora Bellucci, Francesco Porta, Lorenzo Tofani, Amato De Paulis, Diana Bianchedi, Tatiana Barskova, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
BACKGROUND: Waterpolo consists of a combination of swimming and throwing with close contact between players. The shoulder is the most frequently injured joint, with a combination of rotator cuff tear and tendinopathy, long head biceps tendinopathy, superior labral lesions and shoulder impingement. This unique combination is a challenge for the clinician who must determine which of these shoulder pathologies is responsible for the onset of pain and the best strategy to rehabilitate the joint and prevent recurrence...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021839/diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-multilevel-assessment-of-the-visual-pathway-possibilities-for-personalized-outcome-prediction-in-autoimmune-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#18
REVIEW
Joseph Kuchling, Alexander U Brandt, Friedemann Paul, Michael Scheel
The afferent visual pathway represents the most frequently affected white matter pathway in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can reveal microstructural or non-overt brain tissue damage and quantify pathological processes. DTI facilitates the reconstruction of major white matter fiber tracts allowing for the assessment of structure-function and damage-dysfunction relationships. In this review, we outline DTI studies investigating the afferent visual pathway in idiopathic optic neuritis (ON), NMOSD, and MS...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021836/specific-protein-biomarker-patterns-for-alzheimer-s-disease-improved-diagnostics-in-progress
#19
REVIEW
Illana Gozes
This short review looks at Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis through my own point of view, going from imaging through cerebrospinal fluid to blood proteins. Over the last couple of years, we have published two papers targeted at Alzheimer's diagnosis. In one paper, we took an approach of selecting a specific target, namely, activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), and our results tightened the association of ADNP blood expression with intelligence. In another paper, we took an unbiased approach of analysis of all genes expressed in lymphoblastoid cells lines and discovered changes in expression of the regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) as a potential AD predictor...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021833/what-california-sea-lions-exposed-to-domoic-acid-might-teach-us-about-autism-lessons-for-predictive-and-preventive-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Garet Paul Lahvis
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares many biological and behavioral similarities with the deleterious effects of domoic acid (DA) exposure. DA is produced by marine algae and most commonly by species of Pseudo-nitzschia. Humans and marine mammals can be exposed to DA when they consume whole fish or shellfish. The mammalian fetus is highly sensitive to the deleterious effects of DA exposure. Both ASD and exposures to toxic levels of DA feature repetitive behaviors, challenges with social interaction, and seizures...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
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