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Marine Biology

Filipa Paiva, Andrea Barco, Yiyong Chen, Alireza Mirzajani, Farrah T Chan, Velda Lauringson, Miguel Baltazar-Soares, Aibin Zhan, Sarah A Bailey, Jamileh Javidpour, Elizabeta Briski
Invasions of freshwater habitats by marine and brackish species have become more frequent in recent years with many of those species originating from the Ponto-Caspian region. Populations of Ponto-Caspian species have successfully established in the North and Baltic Seas and their adjoining rivers, as well as in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River region. To determine if Ponto-Caspian taxa more readily acclimatize to and colonize diverse salinity habitats than taxa from other regions, we conducted laboratory experiments on 22 populations of eight gammarid species native to the Ponto-Caspian, Northern European and Great Lakes-St...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Kevin M Kocot, Michael G Tassia, Kenneth M Halanych, Billie J Swalla
Tunicata, a diverse clade of approximately 3,000 described species of marine, filter-feeding chordates, is of great interest to researchers because tunicates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates and they facilitate comparative studies of our own biology. The group also includes numerous invasive species that cause considerable economic damage and some species of tunicates are edible. Despite their diversity and importance, relationships among major lineages of Tunicata are not completely resolved...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Wen-Ta Li, Hui-Wen Chang, Meng-Hsien Chen, Hue-Ying Chiou, Bang-Yeh Liou, Victor Fei Pang, Wei-Cheng Yang, Chian-Ren Jeng
Silver, such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), has been widely used in commercial products and may be released into the environment. The interaction between Ag deposition and biological systems is raising serious concerns because of one health consideration. Cetaceans, as the top predators of the oceans, may be exposed to Ag/Ag compounds and suffer negative health impacts from the deposition of these compounds in their bodies. In the present study, we utilized autometallography (AMG) to localize the Ag in the liver and kidney tissues of cetaceans and developed a model called the cetacean histological Ag assay (CHAA) to estimate the Ag concentrations in the liver and kidney tissues of cetaceans...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Lorna J Dallas, Andrew Turner, Tim P Bean, Brett P Lyons, Awadhesh N Jha
The mechanisms of sublethal toxicity of the antifouling biocide, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), have not been well-studied. This investigation demonstrates that 14-d sublethal exposure to ZnPT (0.2 or 2 μM, alongside inorganic Zn and sea water controls) is genotoxic to mussel haemocytes but suggests that this is not caused by oxidative DNA damage as no significant induction of oxidised purines was detected by Fpg-modified comet assay. More ecologically relevant endpoints, including decreased clearance rate (CR), cessation of attachment and decreased tolerance of stress on stress (SoS), also showed significant response to ZnPT exposure...
December 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Jordan Lock, Chris Bearman
Objective The objective of this paper is to examine quotation error in human factors. Background Science progresses through building on the work of previous research. This requires accurate quotation. Quotation error has a number of adverse consequences: loss of credibility, loss of confidence in the journal, and a flawed basis for academic debate and scientific progress. Quotation error has been observed in a number of domains, including marine biology and medicine, but there has been little or no previous study of this form of error in human factors, a domain that specializes in the causes and management of error...
January 1, 2018: Human Factors
Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy, Shaymaa M M Yahya, Ahmed R Hamed, Maha M Soltan, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed El-Bondkly
Forty-four endophytic fungal isolates obtained from marine sponge, Hyrtios erectus, were evaluated and screened for their hydrolase activities. Most of the isolates were found to be prolific producers of hydrolytic enzymes. Only 11 isolates exhibited maximum cellular contents of lipids, rhamnolipids, and protein in the fungal isolates under the isolation numbers MERVA5, MERVA22, MERVA25, MERVA29, MERVA32, MERVA34, MERV36, MERVA39, MERVA42, MERVA43, and MERVA44. These isolate extracts exhibit the highest reducing activities against carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes including α-amylase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and tyrosinase...
January 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Woon Yong Choi, Hyeon Yong Lee
This work first showed that very high amounts of phycocyanins, such as 11.3 mg/mL C-phycocyanin (C-PC), 3.1 mg/mL allophycocyanin (APC), and 0.8 mg/mL phycoerythrin (PE), can be obtained using an ultrasonic extraction process (UE) with a 60 kHz frequency and 3 h of process time at 25 °C, without any other pretreatments. These yields were higher than those from most conventional water extractions at 4 °C for 24 h (Control condition) or at 25 °C for 24 h (WE), namely, 9.8 and 5.7 mg/mL C-PC, 2.3 and 1.2 mg/mL APC, and 0...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Minghua Wang, Chang-Bum Jeong, Young Hwan Lee, Jae-Seong Lee
Ocean acidification (OA) leads to significant changes in seawater carbon chemistry, broadly affects marine organisms, and considered as a global threat to the fitness of marine ecosystems. Due to the crucial role of copepods in marine food webs of transferring energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels, numerous studies have been conducted to examine the impacts of OA on biological traits of copepods such as growth and reproduction. Under OA stress, the copepods demonstrated species-specific and stage-dependent responses...
January 5, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Nathalie Marquet, Peter C Hubbard, José P da Silva, João Afonso, Adelino V M Canário
The importance of chemical communication in reproduction has been demonstrated in many marine broadcast spawners. However, little is known about the use of chemical communication by echinoderms, the nature of the compounds involved and their mechanism(s) of action. Here, the hypothesis that the sea cucumber Holothuria arguinensis uses chemical communication for aggregation and spawning was tested. Water conditioned by males, but not females, attracted both males and females; gonad homogenates and coelomic fluid had no effect on attraction...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
Brooke Flammang is an Assistant Professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, where she investigates how organisms interact with their environment and how these interactions drive the evolutionary selection of morphology and function. She received her Bachelor's degree in Marine Biology from Fairleigh Dickinson University before moving to Moss Landing Marine Laboratories for her Master's degree and completing her PhD with George Lauder at Harvard University in 2010. She was awarded the Dorothy H. Skinner award in 2013 and the Carl Gans award in 2017 by the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Laura Cornara, Giulia Pastorino, Barbara Borghesi, Annalisa Salis, Marco Clericuzio, Carla Marchetti, Gianluca Damonte, Bruno Burlando
Seagrasses are high plants sharing adaptive metabolic features with both terrestrial plants and marine algae, resulting in a phytocomplex possibly endowed with interesting biological properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro activities on skin cells of an ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, family Potamogetonaceae, herein named Posidonia ethanolic extract (PEE). PEE showed high radical scavenging activity, high phenolic content, and resulted rich in chicoric acid, as determined through HPLC-MS analysis...
January 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Binnypreet Kaur, Matus Valach, Priscila Peña-Diaz, Sandrine Moreira, Patrick J Keeling, Gertraud Burger, Julius Lukeš, Drahomíra Faktorová
Diplonema papillatum is the type species of diplonemids, which are among the most abundant and diverse heterotrophic micro-eukaryotes in the world's oceans. Diplonemids are also known for a unique form of post-transcriptional processing in mitochondria. However, the lack of reverse genetics methodologies in these protists has hampered elucidation of their cell and molecular biology. Here we report a protocol for D. papillatum transformation. We have identified several antibiotics to which D. papillatum is sensitive and thus are suitable selectable markers, and focus in particular on puromycin...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Bo-Rong Peng, Mei-Chin Lu, Mohamed El-Shazly, Shwu-Li Wu, Kuei-Hung Lai, Jui-Hsin Su
Our continuous search for marine bioactive secondary metabolites led to the screening of crude extracts from a variety of aquaculture soft corals. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Lobophytum crassum showed a distinctive chemical profile that was different from the wild type. It demonstrated significant anti-proliferative activity against Molt 4 leukemia cell with an IC50 value of 1 μg/mL after 24 h. Chemical investigation focusing on the unique peaks in L. crassum profile led to the discovery of a new α-tocopherol crassumtocopherol C (1), and two new cembrane-based diterpenoids culobophylins D (2) and E (3), along with ten known cembranoids (4-13)...
January 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Qingong Li, Kun Zhao, Anssi Peuronen, Kari Rissanen, Dieter Enders, Yefeng Tang
The Plakortin polyketides represent a structurally and biologically fascinating class of marine natural products. Herein, we report a unified strategy that enables the divergent syntheses of various Plakortin polyketides with remarkable step-economy and overall efficiency. As proof-of-concept cases, the enantioselective total syntheses of (+)-hippolachnin A, (+)-gracilioether A, (-)-gracilioether E and (-)-gracilioether F have been accomplished based on a series of bio-inspired, rationally designed or serendipitously discovered reactions, which include 1) an organocatalytic asymmetric 1,4-conjugate addition to assemble the common chiral -butenolide intermediate en route to all of the aforementioned targets, 2) a challenging bio-mimetic [2+2]-photocycloaddition to forge the oxacyclobutapentalene core of (+)-hippolachnin A, 3) a [2+2]-photocycloaddition followed by one-pot oxidative cleavage of methyl ether/Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement to access (-)-gracilioether F, and 4) an unprecedented hydrogen-atom-transfer (HAT)-triggered oxygenation of vinylcyclobutane to af-ford (+)-gracilioether A and (-)-gracilioether E in one pot...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Maria Cristina S Barbosa, Camila de Souza Barbosa, Júlia T de Oliveira, Natália Chermont S Moreira, Natália Rezende de Miranda Martins, Gabrielle K Alves Gomes, Camila A Caldeira, Marília Ladeira Alves E Costa, Daniel Silqueira Martins Guimarães, Luciana Guimarães, Clebio S Nascimento, Fernando de Pilla Varotti, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro Viana, Fabio Vieira Dos Santos
Theonella sp is an important source of biologically-active 3-alkylpyridine alkaloids (3-APAs) that has shown a wide variety of promising biological effects. In the present work, two new 3-APAs analogues were synthesized based on molecular modeling studies to act as potential antimalarial agents. These theoneladin C analogues, containing the thiocyanate group in their chemical structures, were synthesized and evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 values ranging from 2.3 to 5.5μM). The structural and energetic analysis demonstrated a high chemical affinity of the two analogues for their target, the heme group...
January 2018: Mutation Research
Akbar Adjie Pratama, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Bacteriophages are among the most abundant and diverse biological units in the biosphere. They have contributed to our understanding of the central dogma of biology and have been instrumental in the evolutionary success of bacterial pathogens. In contrast to our current understanding of marine viral communities, the soil virome and its function in terrestrial ecosystems has remained relatively understudied. Here, we examine, in a comparative fashion, the knowledge gathered from studies performed in soil versus marine settings...
January 3, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Marion Tanguy, Sophie Gauthier-Clerc, Jocelyne Pellerin, Jean-Michel Danger, Ahmed Siah
The marine mussel Mytilus edulis, tolerant to a wide range of environmental changes, combines a key role as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring programs and a significant economic importance. Mortality events caused by infective agents and parasites have not been described in mussels, which suggests an efficient immune system. This study aims at identifying the molecular mechanisms involved in the early immune responses M. edulis' hemocytes challenged with Vibrio splendidus LGP32 strain during 2, 4 and 6 h...
January 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Stewart M Edie, David Jablonski, James W Valentine
Taxonomic diversity of benthic marine invertebrate shelf species declines at present by nearly an order of magnitude from the tropics to the poles in each hemisphere along the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), most steeply along the western Pacific where shallow-sea diversity is at its tropical maximum. In the Bivalvia, a model system for macroevolution and macroecology, this taxonomic trend is accompanied by a decline in the number of functional groups and an increase in the evenness of taxa distributed among those groups, with maximum functional evenness (FE) in polar waters of both hemispheres...
January 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guang Yang, Monica A Cozad, Destin A Holland, Yi Zhang, Hendrik Luesch, Yousong Ding
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites of a variety of marine organisms including cyanobacteria and macroalgae. These compounds have strong ultraviolet (UV) absorption maxima between 310 and 362 nm and are biological sunscreens for counteracting the damaging effects of UV radiation in nature. The common MAA shinorine has been used as one key active ingredient of environmentally friendly sunscreen creams. Commercially used shinorine is isolated from one red algae that is generally harvested from the wild...
January 5, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Ignacio Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Laura Marín, Javier Fernández, María Álvarez San Millán, Francisco Javier Ferrero, Marta Valledor, Juan Carlos Campo, Natalia Cobián, Ignacio Méndez, Felipe Lombó
Drinking water can be exposed to different biological contaminants from the source, through the pipelines, until reaching the final consumer or industry. Some of these are pathogenic bacteria and viruses which may cause important gastrointestinal or systemic diseases. The microbiological quality of drinking water relies mainly in monitoring three indicator bacteria of faecal origin, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens, which serve as early sentinels of potential health hazards for the population...
2018: PloS One
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