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Marine Biology

David J McKenzie, Michael Axelsson, Denis Chabot, Guy Claireaux, Steven J Cooke, Richard A Corner, Gudrun De Boeck, Paolo Domenici, Pedro M Guerreiro, Bojan Hamer, Christian Jørgensen, Shaun S Killen, Sjannie Lefevre, Stefano Marras, Basile Michaelidis, Göran E Nilsson, Myron A Peck, Angel Perez-Ruzafa, Adriaan D Rijnsdorp, Holly A Shiels, John F Steffensen, Jon C Svendsen, Morten B S Svendsen, Lorna R Teal, Jaap van der Meer, Tobias Wang, Jonathan M Wilson, Rod W Wilson, Julian D Metcalfe
The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise to relate ecophysiology directly to habitat quality and population status...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Ying Qiao, Yong Mao, Jun Wang, Ruanni Chen, Yong-Quan Su, Jia Chen, Wei-Qiang Zheng
The white-spot disease caused by marine ciliate Cryptocryon irritans hindered the sustainable development of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea industry. Better understandings about the parasite-host interactions in the molecular level will facilitate the prevention of mass mortality of the L. crocea caused by white-spot disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules about 20-22 nucleotides which post-transcriptionally regulated many protein-coding genes and involved in many biological processes, especially in host-pathogen responses...
October 17, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Nicolas Marinval, Pierre Saboural, Oualid Haddad, Murielle Maire, Kevin Bassand, Frederic Geinguenaud, Nadia Djaker, Khadija Ben Akrout, Marc Lamy de la Chapelle, Romain Robert, Olivier Oudar, Erwan Guyot, Christelle Laguillier-Morizot, Angela Sutton, Cedric Chauvierre, Frederic Chaubet, Nathalie Charnaux, Hanna Hlawaty
Herein we investigate the structure/function relationships of fucoidans from Ascophyllum nodosum to analyze their pro-angiogenic effect and cellular uptake in native and glycosaminoglycan-free (GAG-free) human endothelial cells (HUVECs). Fucoidans are marine sulfated polysaccharides, which act as glycosaminoglycans mimetics. We hypothesized that the size and sulfation rate of fucoidans influence their ability to induce pro-angiogenic processes independently of GAGs. We collected two fractions of fucoidans, Low and Medium Molecular Weight Fucoidan (LMWF and MMWF, respectively) by size exclusion chromatography and characterized their composition (sulfate, fucose and uronic acid) by colorimetric measurement and Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy...
October 17, 2016: Marine Drugs
Andrés Núñez, Guillermo Amo de Paz, Alberto Rastrojo, Ana M García, Antonio Alcamí, A Montserrat Gutiérrez-Bustillo, Diego A Moreno
The first part of this review ("Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios") describes the current knowledge on the major biological particles present in the air regarding their global distribution, concentrations, ratios and influence of meteorological factors in an attempt to provide a framework for monitoring their biodiversity and variability in such a singular environment as the atmosphere. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, pollen and fragments thereof are the most abundant microscopic biological particles in the air outdoors...
March 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Marcelo E Fuentes, Renato A Quinones
Facultative marine filamentous fungi have recently emerged as a functional component in coastal marine systems. However, little is known about their ecological role and functions in biogeochemical cycles. Penicillium decumbens, S. strictum, and F. fujikuroi were isolated from the coastal upwelling zone off south-central Chile. Their carbon profiles were characterized using Biolog FF MicroPlates. These species used a wide range of carbon sources, mainly carbohydrates, but also amino acids, suggesting the use of metabolic routes that include glycolysis/gluconeogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Bryony A Caswell, Christopher L J Frid
Global warming during the Early Jurassic, and associated widespread ocean deoxygenation, was comparable in scale with the changes projected for the next century. This study quantifies the impact of severe global environmental change on the biological traits of marine communities that define the ecological roles and functions they deliver. We document centennial-millennial variability in the biological trait composition of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) seafloor communities and examine how this changed during the event using biological traits analysis...
October 18, 2016: Oecologia
Roberto Danovaro, Antonio Dell'Anno, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Eugenio Rastelli, Ricardo Cavicchioli, Mart Krupovic, Rachel T Noble, Takuro Nunoura, David Prangishvili
Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the world's oceans, and they play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. In deep-sea ecosystems, archaea and bacteria drive major nutrient cycles, and viruses are largely responsible for their mortality, thereby exerting important controls on microbial dynamics. However, the relative impact of viruses on archaea compared to bacteria is unknown, limiting our understanding of the factors controlling the functioning of marine systems at a global scale...
October 2016: Science Advances
Hannah B Vander Zanden, Alan B Bolten, Anton D Tucker, Kristen M Hart, Margaret M Lamont, Ikuko Fujisaki, Kimberly J Reich, David S Addison, Katherine L Mansfield, Katrina F Phillips, Mariela Pajuelo, Karen A Bjorndal
Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Caterina Faggio, Maria Pagano, Roberto Alampi, Irene Vazzana, Maria Rosa Felice
The presence of a xenobiotic in the environment can often represent a risk for living organisms. Quaternium-15, a preservative, is one of the most used substances and is added to several cosmetics and other industrial products. For this reason,kwowing the bio-indicator of the marine environment, the toxicological effects potentially elicited by this preservative on the marine invertebrate Mytilus galloprovincialis were studied. The results of this work confirm that quaternium-15, used at 0.1 and 1mg/l concentrations, while metabolized in M...
October 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Huawei Zhang, Phillip Crews, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote
BACKGROUND: A growing evidence indicates that marine sponge Phyllospongia sp. is one of rich sources of 20, 24-bishomoscalane sesterterpenes with potent biological activities. In order to search more bioactive 20, 24-bishomoscalane sesterterpenes for new drug discovery, chemical investigation was carried out on an Indonesian marine sponge P. papyrecea. METHODS: Bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out on its dichloromethane extract. And nine compounds were purified and isolated using HPLC...
October 7, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
Laura A Thompson, Tracy A Romano
Increased pressure, associated with diving, can alter cell function through several mechanisms and has been shown to impact immune functions performed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in humans. While marine mammals possess specific adaptations which protect them from dive related injury, it is unknown how their immune system is adapted to the challenges associated with diving. The purpose of this study was to measure PBMC activation (IL2R expression) and Concanavalin A induced lymphocyte proliferation (BrdU incorporation) in belugas following in vitro pressure exposures during baseline, Out of Water Examination (OWE) and capture/release conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Faten K Abd El-Hady, Walid Fayad, Carmine Iodice, Zeinab A El-Shahid, Mohamed S Abdel-Aziz, Egle Crudele, Giuseppina Tommonaro
Marine organisms have been considered as the richest sources of novel bioactive metabolites, which can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. In the last years, the interest for marine microorganisms has grown for their enormous biodiversity and for the evidence that many novel compounds isolated from marine invertebrates are really synthesized by their associated bacteria. Nevertheless, the discovery of a chemical communication Quorum sensing (QS) between bacterial cells and between bacteria and host has gained the researchers to expand the aim of their study toward the role of bacteria associated with marine invertebrates, such as marine sponge...
October 14, 2016: Current Microbiology
Tsuyoshi Momose, Jean-Paul Concordet
More and more genomes are sequenced and a great range of biological questions can be examined at the genomic level in a growing number of organisms. Testing the function of genome features, from gene networks, genome organization, conserved non-coding sequences to microRNAs, and, more generally, experimentally addressing the genotype-phenotype relationship is now possible owing to the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 revolution of genome editing. In the present review, we give a brief overview of the CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox and different strategies for genome editing currently available...
October 11, 2016: Marine Genomics
Maria Isabel Da Silva, Maria Inês Braga De Oliveira, Oscar Tadeu Ferreira Da Costa, Wallice Paxiúba Duncan
The reproductive biology of South American freshwater stingrays (family Potamotrygonidae) is still poorly studied compared to other marine species. In the present study, we examined the gross anatomy and histology of six species of potamotrygonids from the Amazon basin and described the structural asymmetry of the ovaries and their relationship between ovarian/uterine fecundities. Stereological techniques were used to quantify the volume of ovarian and epigonal organ tissue associated with the left and right sides of the Potamotrygon wallacei, a recently described species, locally known as the cururu ray...
October 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
L M Oliveira, T Knebelsberger, M Landi, P Soares, M J Raupach, F O Costa
A large-scale comprehensive reference library of DNA barcodes for European marine fishes was assembled, allowing the evaluation of taxonomic uncertainties and species genetic diversity that were otherwise hidden in geographically restricted studies. A total of 4118 DNA barcodes were assigned to 358 species generating 366 Barcode Index Numbers (BIN). Initial examination revealed as much as 141 BIN discordances (more than one species in each BIN). After implementing an auditing and five-grade (A-E) annotation protocol, the number of discordant species BINs was reduced to 44 (13% grade E), while concordant species BINs amounted to 271 (78% grades A and B) and 14 other had insufficient data (grade D)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Ganiyu Oladunjoye Oyetibo, Keisuke Miyauchi, Hitoshi Suzuki, Ginro Endo
Ecotoxicological implications of mercury (Hg) pollution of hydrosphere require effective Hg-removal strategies as antidote to the environmental problems. Mercury-tolerant yeasts, Yarrowia spp. Idd1 and Idd2 strains, were studied for intracellular accumulation and extracellular micro-precipitation of Hg during growth stage of the yeast strains. In a liquid medium containing 870 (±23.6) µg of bioavailable Hg(2+), 419.0 µg Hg(2+) (approx.) was taken up by the wet biomasses of the yeast strains after 48 h post-inoculation...
December 2016: AMB Express
Eric A Lewallen, Andrew J Bohonak, Carolina A Bonin, Andre J van Wijnen, Robert L Pitman, Nathan R Lovejoy
Delineating populations of pantropical marine fish is a difficult process, due to widespread geographic ranges and complex life history traits in most species. Exocoetus volitans, a species of two-winged flyingfish, is a good model for understanding large-scale patterns of epipelagic fish population structure because it has a circumtropical geographic range and completes its entire life cycle in the epipelagic zone. Buoyant pelagic eggs should dictate high local dispersal capacity in this species, although a brief larval phase, small body size, and short lifespan may limit the dispersal of individuals over large spatial scales...
2016: PloS One
Matthew A Richards, Thomas J Lie, Juan Zhang, Stephen W Ragsdale, John A Leigh, Nathan D Price
: Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis occurs in multiple environments ranging from the intestinal tracts of animals to anaerobic sediments and hot springs. Energy conservation in hydrogenotrophic methanogens was long a mystery; only within the last decade, it was reported that net energy conservation for growth depends on electron bifurcation. In this work we focus on Methanococcus maripaludis, a well-studied hydrogenotrophic marine methanogen. To better understand hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and compare it with methylotrophic methanogenesis that utilizes oxidative phosphorylation rather than electron bifurcation, we have built iMR539, a genome scale metabolic reconstruction that accounts for 539 of the 1722 protein-coding genes of M...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Minju Joy, Kajal Chakraborty, Vamshi Krishna Raola
Marine bivalves occupy a leading share in the total edible molluscs at the coastline regions of south-eastern Asia, and are found to possess significant nutritional and biological potential. Various in vitro evaluation (antioxidant and anti-inflammatory) guided purification of ethyl acetate-methanol (EtOAc-MeOH) extract of bivalve clam, Paphia malabarica characterised two new sterol derivatives as 23-gem-dimethylcholesta-5-en-3β-ol (1) and (22E)-24(1),24(2)-methyldihomocholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2) collected from the south-west coast of Arabian Sea...
October 13, 2016: Natural Product Research
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October 12, 2016: Nature
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