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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635652/fucaceae-a-source-of-bioactive-phlorotannins
#1
REVIEW
Marcelo D Catarino, Artur M S Silva, Susana M Cardoso
Fucaceae is the most dominant algae family along the intertidal areas of the Northern Hemisphere shorelines, being part of human customs for centuries with applications as a food source either for humans or animals, in agriculture and as remedies in folk medicine. These macroalgae are endowed with several phytochemicals of great industrial interest from which phlorotannins, a class of marine-exclusive polyphenols, have gathered much attention during the last few years due to their numerous possible therapeutic properties...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634300/understanding-the-mechanical-response-of-double-stranded-dna-and-rna-under-constant-stretching-forces-using-all-atom-molecular-dynamics
#2
Alberto Marin-Gonzalez, J G Vilhena, Ruben Perez, Fernando Moreno-Herrero
Multiple biological processes involve the stretching of nucleic acids (NAs). Stretching forces induce local changes in the molecule structure, inhibiting or promoting the binding of proteins, which ultimately affects their functionality. Understanding how a force induces changes in the structure of NAs at the atomic level is a challenge. Here, we use all-atom, microsecond-long molecular dynamics to simulate the structure of dsDNA and dsRNA subjected to stretching forces up to 20 pN. We determine all of the elastic constants of dsDNA and dsRNA and provide an explanation for three striking differences in the mechanical response of these two molecules: the threefold softer stretching constant obtained for dsRNA, the opposite twist-stretch coupling, and its nontrivial force dependence...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632943/habitat-coupling-writ-large-pelagic-derived-materials-fuel-benthivorous-macroalgal-reef-fishes-in-an-upwelling-zone
#3
Felipe Docmac, Miguel Araya, Ivan A Hinojosa, Cristina Dorador, Chris Harrod
Coastal marine upwelling famously supports elevated levels of pelagic biological production, but can also subsidise production in inshore habitats via pelagic-benthic coupling. Consumers inhabiting macroalgae-dominated rocky reef habitats are often considered to be members of a food web fuelled by energy derived from benthic primary production; conversely, they may also be subsidised by materials transported from pelagic habitats. Here, we used stable isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) to examine the relative contribution of pelagic and benthic materials to an ecologically and economically important benthivorous fish assemblage inhabiting subtidal macroalgae-dominated reefs along ~1000 km of the northern Chilean coast where coastal upwelling is active...
June 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632184/crude-fucoidan-extracts-impair-angiogenesis-in-models-relevant-for-bone-regeneration-and-osteosarcoma-via-reduction-of-vegf-and-sdf-1
#4
Fanlu Wang, Harald Schmidt, Dijana Pavleska, Thees Wermann, Andreas Seekamp, Sabine Fuchs
The marine origin polysaccharide fucoidan combines multiple biological activities. As demonstrated by various studies in vitro and in vivo, fucoidans show anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties, although the detailed molecular action remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of crude fucoidan extracts, on the formation of vascular structures in co-culture models relevant for bone vascularization during bone repair and for vascularization processes in osteosarcoma...
June 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631158/rapid-and-reliable-steroid-hormone-profiling-in-tursiops-truncatus-blubber-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms
#5
Ashley S P Boggs, Tracey B Schock, Lori H Schwacke, Thomas M Galligan, Jeanine S Morey, Wayne E McFee, John R Kucklick
Monitoring of marine mammal steroid hormone status using matrices alternative to blood is desirable due to the ability to remotely collect samples, which minimizes stress to the animal. However, measurement techniques in alternative matrices such as blubber described to date are limited in the number and types of hormones measured. Therefore, a new method using bead homogenization to QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction, C18 post extraction cleanup and analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and applied to the measurement of hormone suites in bottlenose dolphin blubber...
June 19, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630346/the-role-of-jet-and-film-drops-in-controlling-the-mixing-state-of-submicron-sea-spray-aerosol-particles
#6
Xiaofei Wang, Grant B Deane, Kathryn A Moore, Olivia S Ryder, M Dale Stokes, Charlotte M Beall, Douglas B Collins, Mitchell V Santander, Susannah M Burrows, Camille M Sultana, Kimberly A Prather
The oceans represent a significant global source of atmospheric aerosols. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles comprise sea salts and organic species in varying proportions. In addition to size, the overall composition of SSA particles determines how effectively they can form cloud droplets and ice crystals. Thus, understanding the factors controlling SSA composition is critical to predicting aerosol impacts on clouds and climate. It is often assumed that submicrometer SSAs are mainly formed by film drops produced from bursting bubble-cap films, which become enriched with hydrophobic organic species contained within the sea surface microlayer...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630155/haemolytic-actinoporins-interact-with-carbohydrates-using-their-lipid-binding-module
#7
Koji Tanaka, Jose M M Caaveiro, Koldo Morante, Kouhei Tsumoto
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are proteins endowed with metamorphic properties that enable them to stably fold in water solutions as well as in cellular membranes. PFTs produce lytic pores on the plasma membranes of target cells conducive to lesions, playing key roles in the defensive and offensive molecular systems of living organisms. Actinoporins are a family of potent haemolytic toxins produced by sea anemones vigorously studied as a paradigm of α-helical PFTs, in the context of lipid-protein interactions, and in connection with nanopore technologies...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622846/comparison-between-resident-and-caged-mussels-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-accumulation-and-biological-response
#8
Marin Glad, Nevenka Bihari, Željko Jakšić, Maja Fafanđel
The aim of this study was to compare the capability of "passive" and "active" biomonitoring to determine the environmental pressure. For this purpose, PAHs content and several biological responses in resident and caged mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) at five sampling sites (Rijeka Bay, Adriatic Sea) were analsed. Resident mussels were found better in reflecting the level of PAH loads at particular sites while only caged mussels could detect input of HMW PAHs. When data of each investigated parameter were compared separately, the majority of differences between resident and caged mussels' results were site-specific...
June 8, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618302/growth-and-physiological-responses-of-a-marine-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-against-two-imidazolium-based-ionic-liquids-c4mim-bf4-and-c8mim-bf4
#9
Xiang-Yuan Deng, Biao Chen, Da Li, Xiao-Li Hu, Jie Cheng, Kun Gao, Chang-Hai Wang
Ionic liquids (ILs) have been considered as "green" substitutes for traditional organic solvents in many existing biological and chemical areas. However, they have high solubility and poor biodegradability in water, suggesting that they could become persistent chemical pollutants in aquatic environment. The ability of two widely used imidazolium-based ILs to affect the growth and physiological characteristics of a marine diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) was investigated in this study. The diatom was exposed to different concentrations of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim]BF4) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C8mim]BF4) for 96h within a batch-culture system...
May 31, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614666/salt-triggers-the-simple-coacervation-of-an-underwater-adhesive-when-cations-meet-aromatic-%C3%AF-electrons-in-seawater
#10
Sangsik Kim, Hee Young Yoo, Jun Huang, Yongjin Lee, Sohee Park, Yeonju Park, Sila Jin, Young Mee Jung, Hongbo Zeng, Dong Soo Hwang, Yongseok Jho
Adhesive systems in many marine organisms are postulated to form complex coacervates (liquid-liquid phase separation) through a process involving oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. Despite this ubiquitous speculation, most well-characterized mussel adhesive proteins are cationic and polyphenolic and the pursuit of the negatively charged proteins required for bulk complex coacervation formation internally remains elusive. In this study, we provide a clue for unraveling this paradox by showing the bulky fluid/fluid separation of a single cationic recombinant mussel foot protein, rmfp-1, with no additional anionic proteins or artificial molecules, that is triggered by a strong cation-π interaction in natural seawater conditions...
June 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612090/organic-solvent-tolerant-marine-microorganisms-as-catalysts-for-kinetic-resolution-of-cyclic-%C3%AE-hydroxy-ketones
#11
Bi -Shuang Chen, Hui Liu, Fayene Zeferino Ribeiro de Souza, Lan Liu
Chiral cyclic β-hydroxy ketones represent key motifs in the production of natural products of biological interest. Although the molecules are structurally simple, they require cumbersome synthetic steps to get access to them and their synthesis remains a challenge in organic chemistry. In this report, we describe a straightforward approach to enantiomerically enriched (R)- and (S)-3-hydroxycyclopentanone 2a, (R)- and (S)-3-hydroxycyclohexanone 2b, and (R)- and (S)-3-hydroxycycloheptanone 2c involving a transesterification resolution of the racemates using whole cells of marine microorganisms as catalysts and vinyl acetate the acyl donor and solvent...
June 13, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611397/identification-of-gxxxxg-motif-in-chrysophsin-1-and-its-implication-in-the-design-of-analogs-with-cell-selective-antimicrobial-and-anti-endotoxin-activities
#12
Amit Kumar Tripathi, Tripti Kumari, Munesh Kumar Harioudh, Pranjal Kumar Yadav, Manoj Kathuria, P K Shukla, Kalyan Mitra, Jimut Kanti Ghosh
Marine fish antimicrobial peptide, chrysophsin-1 possesses versatile biological activities but its non-selective nature restricts its therapeutic possibilities. Often small alterations in structural motifs result in significant changes in the properties of concerned proteins/peptides. We have identified GXXXXG motif in chrysophsin-1. Glycine residue(s) of this motif in Chrysophsin-1 was/were replaced with alanine, valine and proline residue(s). Of these, proline-substituted Chrysophsin-1 analogs exhibited significantly reduced cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610952/structural-diversity-of-marine-cyclic-peptides-and-their-molecular-mechanisms-for-anticancer-antibacterial-antifungal-and-other-clinical-applications
#13
REVIEW
Yeji Lee, Chanvorleak Phat, Soon-Cheol Hong
Many cyclic peptides and analogues derived from marine sources are known to possess biological properties, including anticancer, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammation, anti-proliferative, anti-hypertensive, cytotoxic, and antibiotic properties. These compounds demonstrate different activities and modes of action according to their structure such as cyclic oligopeptide, cyclic lipopeptide, cyclic glycopeptide and cyclic depsipeptide. The recent advances in application of the above-mentioned cyclic peptides were reported in dolastatins, soblidotin, didemnin B, aplidine, salinosporamide A, kahalalide F and bryostatin 1 and they are currently in clinical trials...
June 10, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610114/diversity-of-sternaspidae-annelida-terebellida-in-the-south-china-sea-%C3%A2-with-descriptions-of-four-new-species
#14
Xuwen Wu, Kuidong Xu
Sternaspidae is one of the most common groups of polychaetes in the South China Sea, where however, the knowledge of its diversity and distribution is insufficiently understood and reports of the European species Sternaspis scutata are misidentifications. Based on the examination of material deposited in the Marine Biological Museum of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, we made a comprehensive investigation on the sternaspid polychaetes in the northern South China Sea. Five species belonging to two genera are described: Petersenaspis salazari sp...
March 20, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609883/updated-inventory-and-distribution-of-free-living-flatworms-from-tunisian-waters
#15
Mehrez Gammoudi, Myriam Garbouj, Bernhard Egger, Saïda Tekaya
Records of free-living flatworms (turbellarians) from Tunisian waters are scattered. Based on new material and published accounts, an annotated checklist of free-living flatworm species from Tunisian waters is provided. A total of 29 species is recorded, including 18 species with new material and 11 species only from literature records. For each species, information on systematics, habitats and distribution is supplied, together with taxonomic or biological remarks. Three species, the acotylean polyclads Cestoplana rubrocinta Lang, 1884 and Comoplana agilis (Lang, 1884) as well as the marine triclad Cercyra hastata Schmidt, 1861 are recorded for the first time in Tunisia...
May 8, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606613/distribution-of-heavy-metals-and-environmental-assessment-of-surface-sediment-of-typical-estuaries-in-eastern-china
#16
Shipu Bi, Yuan Yang, Chengfen Xu, Yong Zhang, Xiaobo Zhang, Xianrong Zhang
Estuary sediment is a major pollutant enrichment medium and is an important biological habitat. This sediment has attracted the attention of the marine environmental scientists because it is a more stable and effective medium than water for monitoring regional environmental quality conditions and trends. Based on a large amount of measurement data, we analyzed the concentrations, distribution, and sources of seven heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in the surface sediment of typical estuaries that empty into the sea in eastern China: the Liaohe River Estuary, Yellow River Estuary, Yangtze River Estuary, Minjiang River Estuary, and Pearl River Estuary...
June 9, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605381/ecotoxicological-method-with-marine-bacteria-vibrio-anguillarum-to-evaluate-the-acute-toxicity-of-environmental-contaminants
#17
Alice Rotini, Loredana Manfra, Filippo Spanu, Marco Pisapia, Anna Maria Cicero, Luciana Migliore
Bacteria are an important component of the ecosystem, and microbial community alterations can have a significant effect on biogeochemical cycling and food webs. Toxicity testing based on microorganisms are widely used because they are relatively quick, reproducible, cheap, and are not associated with ethical issues. Here, we describe an ecotoxicological method to evaluate the biological response of the marine bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. This method assesses the acute toxicity of chemical compounds, including new contaminants such as nanoparticles, as well as environmental samples...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604644/a-novel-exopolysaccharide-with-metal-adsorption-capacity-produced-by-a-marine-bacterium-alteromonas-sp-jl2810
#18
Zilian Zhang, Ruanhong Cai, Wenhui Zhang, Yingnan Fu, Nianzhi Jiao
Most marine bacteria can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). However, very few structures of EPS produced by marine bacteria have been determined. The characterization of EPS structure is important for the elucidation of their biological functions and ecological roles. In this study, the structure of EPS produced by a marine bacterium, Alteromonas sp. JL2810, was characterized, and the biosorption of the EPS for heavy metals Cu(2+), Ni(2+), and Cr(6+) was also investigated. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated that the JL2810 EPS have a novel structure consisting of the repeating unit of [-3)-α-Rhap-(1→3)-α-Manp-(1→4)-α-3OAc-GalAp-(1→]...
June 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602552/intensity-fading-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-and-functional-proteomics-assignments-to-identify-protease-inhibitors-in-marine-invertebrates
#19
Giovanni Covaleda, Sebastian A Trejo, Emir Salas-Sarduy, Maday Alonso Del Rivero, Maria Angeles Chavez, Francesc X Aviles
Proteases and their inhibitors have become molecules of increasing fundamental and applicative value. Here we report an integrated strategy to identify and analyze such inhibitors from Caribbean marine invertebrates extracts by a fast and sensitive functional proteomics-like approach. The strategy works in three steps: i) multiplexed enzymatic inhibition kinetic assays, ii) Intensity Fading MALDI-TOF MS to establish a link between inhibitory molecules and the related MALDI signal(s) detected in the extract(s), and iii) ISD-CID-T(3) MS fragmentation on the parent MALDI signals selected in the previous step, enabling the partial or total top-down sequencing of the molecules...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595872/distribution-and-diversity-of-marine-picocyanobacteria-community-targeting-of-prochlorococcus-ecotypes-in-winter-conditions-southern-adriatic-sea
#20
Ivana Babić, Ines Petrić, Sunčica Bosak, Hrvoje Mihanović, Iris Dupčić Radić, Zrinka Ljubešić
Adriatic, the northernmost part of the Mediterranean Sea, due its oligotrophy, topography, and hydrology dynamics, and complex circulation patterns, was suggested as an important study site for rapid climatology impacts. Its southern part is mainly oligotrophic and dominated by picophytoplankton, with cyanobacteria as main representatives. Diversity and distribution patterns of different Prochlorococcus ecotypes were investigated by molecular tools and flow cytometry during the winter convection event in the southern Adriatic (BIOTA winter cruise; February/March 2015)...
June 5, 2017: Marine Genomics
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