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Marine Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911765/optical-magnetic-detection-of-single-neuron-action-potentials-using-quantum-defects-in-diamond
#1
John F Barry, Matthew J Turner, Jennifer M Schloss, David R Glenn, Yuyu Song, Mikhail D Lukin, Hongkun Park, Ronald L Walsworth
Magnetic fields from neuronal action potentials (APs) pass largely unperturbed through biological tissue, allowing magnetic measurements of AP dynamics to be performed extracellularly or even outside intact organisms. To date, however, magnetic techniques for sensing neuronal activity have either operated at the macroscale with coarse spatial and/or temporal resolution-e.g., magnetic resonance imaging methods and magnetoencephalography-or been restricted to biophysics studies of excised neurons probed with cryogenic or bulky detectors that do not provide single-neuron spatial resolution and are not scalable to functional networks or intact organisms...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901192/evaluation-of-the-complexity-and-performance-of-marine-planktonic-trophic-models
#2
Suzana G Leles, Jean L Valentin, Gisela M Figueiredo
Planktonic models represent a powerful tool for creating hypotheses and making predictions about the functioning of marine ecosystems. Their complexity varies according to the number of state variables and the choice of functional forms. We evaluated plankton models during the last 15 years (n =145) with the aims of understanding why they differ in complexity, evaluating model robustness, and describing studies of plankton modelling around the globe. We classified models into four groups: Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton (NPZ), Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD), Size-Structured (SS) and Plankton-Functional-Type (PFT)...
2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898247/challenges-for-the-maintenance-and-cryopreservation-of-multiple-isolates-of-model-microorganisms-an-example-using-the-marine-diatom-skeletonema-marinoi
#3
John G Day, Simon Tytor, Jenny Egardt, Monica Applegren, Cecilia Rad-Menéndez, Olga Chepurnova, Wim Vyverman, Anna Godhe
Modern genomic and metabolomic tools have provided the possibility of generating and interrogating large datasets that can provide answers to previously imponderable taxonomic, evolutionary, ecological, and physiological questions. However, the curatorial tools needed to provide and maintain the relevant biological resources on which new knowledge can be built have not kept pace with this meteoric rise in scientific capacity, its associated activity, or the huge increase in published science. The availability of biological material of guaranteed identity and quality in Biological Resource Centers is fundamental for scientific research, but it crucially depends on there being adequate preservation/maintenance methods that are capable of ensuring phenotypic, genotypic, and functional security of the biological material(s)...
November 29, 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897055/novel-brominated-metabolites-from-bryozoa-a-functional-analysis
#4
Arina L Maltseva, Olga N Kotenko, Vladimir A Kutyumov, Darya A Matvienko, Alexey L Shavarda, Michael K Winson, Andrew N Ostrovsky
Marine invertebrates are a promising source of novel natural products with biological activities. The phylum Bryozoa is relatively under-investigated in this context, although a number of compounds with medical potential has been discovered in recent years. Here, we report on the novel group of brominated metabolites from the bryozoan Terminoflustra membranaceatruncata, including analysis of biological activities of the tribrominated terminoflustrindole A (Cm-1) and the structures of the related dibrominated variants terminoflustrindoles B and C...
November 29, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895595/moving-from-histopathology-to-molecular-tools-in-the-diagnosis-of-molluscs-diseases-of-concern-under-eu-legislation
#5
REVIEW
Raquel Aranguren, Antonio Figueras
One of the main factors limiting molluscs production is the presence of pathogens and diseases. Disease agent transfer via transfers of live molluscs has been a major cause of disease outbreaks and epizootics. Because of that, the European Union has adopted several decisions and directives, the last in 2006 (2006/88/EC) to control movements of marine organisms over the European countries. Once the disease is established in a determined area its eradication is a complicated task because life cycle of pathogens are not completely known and only a good and early diagnosis of the disease could be the most appropriate way to deal with it...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894769/identification-of-molecular-species-of-monoalkyldiacylglycerol-from-the-squid-berryteuthis-magister-using-liquid-chromatography-apci-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#6
Viacheslav G Rybin, Andrey B Imbs, Darja A Demidkova, Ekaterina V Ermolenko
Monoalkyldiacylglycerol (MADAG) is an important lipid class in mollusks, corals, starfishes, and some species of zooplankton. Up to 80% of liver oils of squids and sharks are comprised of MADAG. Except for one fish species, there are no data on the composition of MADAG molecular species of marine organisms. The molecular species of MADAG obtained from digestive glands of the deep-sea squid Berryteuthis magister were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) were applied...
November 25, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894055/indirect-effects-of-climate-changes-on-cadmium-bioavailability-and-biological-effects-in-the-mediterranean-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#7
Alessandro Nardi, Luana Fiorella Mincarelli, Maura Benedetti, Daniele Fattorini, Giuseppe d'Errico, Francesco Regoli
Despite the great interest in the consequences of climate change on the physiological functioning of marine organisms, indirect and interactive effects of rising temperature and pCO2 on bioaccumulation and responsiveness to environmental pollutants are still poorly explored, particularly in terms of cellular mechanisms. According to future projections of temperature and pH/pCO2, this study investigated the main cellular pathways involved in metal detoxification and oxidative homeostasis in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed for 4 weeks to various combinations of two levels of pH/pCO2 (8...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893826/macro-scale-patterns-in-upwelling-downwelling-activity-at-north-american-west-coast
#8
Romeo Saldívar-Lucio, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Miguel Nakamura, Héctor Villalobos, Daniel Lluch-Cota, Pablo Del Monte-Luna
The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891228/a-probabilistic-algorithm-to-process-geolocation-data
#9
Benjamin Merkel, Richard A Phillips, Sébastien Descamps, Nigel G Yoccoz, Børge Moe, Hallvard Strøm
BACKGROUND: The use of light level loggers (geolocators) to understand movements and distributions in terrestrial and marine vertebrates, particularly during the non-breeding period, has increased dramatically in recent years. However, inferring positions from light data is not straightforward, often relies on assumptions that are difficult to test, or includes an element of subjectivity. RESULTS: We present an intuitive framework to compute locations from twilight events collected by geolocators from different manufacturers...
2016: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890586/exploring-the-contribution-of-bacteriophages-to-antibiotic-resistance
#10
Itziar Lekunberri, Jèssica Subirats, Carles M Borrego, José Luis Balcázar
Bacteriophages (phages) are the most abundant and diverse biological entities in our planet. They infect susceptible bacterial hosts into which they either multiply or persist. In the latter case, phages can confer new functions to their hosts as a result of gene transfer, thus contributing to their adaptation (short-term) and evolution (long-term). In this regard, the role of phages on the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) among bacterial hosts in natural environments has not yet been clearly resolved...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889948/a-new-sequence-dataset-of-ssu-rrna-gene-for-scleractinia-and-its-phylogenetic-and-ecological-applications
#11
Roberto Arrigoni, Benoît Vacherie, Francesca Benzoni, Fabrizio Stefani, Eric Karsenti, Olivier Jaillon, Fabrice Not, Flavia Nunes, Claude Payri, Patrick Wincker, Valérie Barbe
Scleractinian corals (i.e. hard corals) play a fundamental role in building and maintaining coral reefs, one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth. Nevertheless, their phylogenies remain largely unresolved and little is known about dispersal and survival of their planktonic larval phase. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a commonly-used gene for DNA barcoding in several metazoans, and small variable regions of SSU rRNA are largely adopted as barcode marker to investigate marine plankton community structure worldwide...
November 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887698/simultaneous-extraction-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-through-the-complete-dissolution-of-solid-biological-samples-in-naoh-urea-thiourea-aqueous-solution
#12
Sedigheh Ale Mohammad, Kamal Ghanemi, Arash Larki
In order to precisely and simultaneously extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for measurement using a high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (HPLC-FL), a novel sample preparation method was developed. This method is based on the complete and fast dissolution of biological samples in a new non-alcoholic alkaline medium. A solution composed of NaOH/urea/thiourea at an optimized ratio was used for complete dissolution of approximately 0.25g dried fish samples within 20min. The proposed method was conducted at 10°C and under atmospheric pressure to obtain a stable and highly homogeneous solution, without the need for microwaves or any other apparatus...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886049/alkynyl-containing-peptides-of-marine-origin-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Qiu-Ye Chai, Zhen Yang, Hou-Wen Lin, Bing-Nan Han
Since the 1990s, a number of terminal alkynyl residue-containing cyclic/acyclic peptides have been identified from marine organisms, especially cyanobacteria and marine mollusks. This review has presented 66 peptides, which covers over 90% marine peptides with terminal alkynyl fatty acyl units. In fact, more than 90% of these peptides described in the literature are of cyanobacterial origin. Interestingly, all the linear peptides featured with terminal alkyne were solely discovered from marine cyanobacteria...
November 23, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883922/technical-and-environmental-evaluation-of-an-integrated-scheme-for-the-co-treatment-of-wastewater-and-domestic-organic-waste-in-small-communities
#14
Lucía Lijó, Simos Malamis, Sara González-García, Francesco Fatone, María Teresa Moreira, Evina Katsou
A technical and environmental evaluation of an innovative scheme for the co-treatment of domestic wastewater and domestic organic waste (DOW) was undertaken by coupling an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a fermentation reactor. Alternative treatment configurations were evaluated with different waste collection practices as well as various schemes for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. All treatment systems fulfilled the required quality of the treated effluent in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations...
October 24, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882538/gene-therapy-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-expressing-ifn%C3%A3-ameliorates-neuroinflammation-in-experimental-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#15
C Marin-Bañasco, K Benabdellah, C Melero-Jerez, B Oliver, M J Pinto-Medel, I Hurtado-Guerrero, F de Castro, D Clemente, O Fernández, F Martin, L Leyva, M Suardíaz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recombinant IFNß is one of the first line treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS), despite its lack of efficiency in some patients. In this context, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic alternative due to their immunomodulatory properties and multipotency. Moreover, taking advantage of their pathotropism ability, these cells can be genetically modified to be used as carriers for delivering or secreting therapeutic drugs into injured tissues...
November 24, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878099/spatial-pattern-of-distribution-of-marine-invertebrates-within-a-subtidal-community-do-communities-vary-more-among-patches-or-plots
#16
Chun-Yi Chang, Dustin J Marshall
Making links between ecological processes and the scales at which they operate is an enduring challenge of community ecology. Our understanding of ecological communities cannot advance if we do not distinguish larger scale processes from smaller ones. Variability at small spatial scales can be important because it carries information about biological interactions, which cannot be explained by environmental heterogeneity alone. Marine fouling communities are shaped by both the supply of larvae and competition for resources among colonizers-these two processes operate on distinctly different scales...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876949/new-occurrence-of-parasitic-isopod-argathona-sp-stebbing-1905-from-epinephelus-undulosus-in-the-tuticorin-coast-gulf-of-mannar-region
#17
Gurusamy Chelladurai, Srinivasan Balakrishanan, Ganapathy Rameshkumar, Kannan Banumathi
In the present study of Epinephelus undulosus captured in gillnets from the inshore waters of Tuticorin, Gulf of Mannar region during December 2014. The present findings represent the first occurrence of Argathona sp. and here in reported. The materials examined were deposited at the Kamaraj College, Marine Biological Research Laboratory, Tuticorin, India. The parasitological indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. Host-parasite relationships are considered and these parasites can cause the damage in gill, eye and internal organ including swim bladder...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875650/military-genitourinary-trauma-policies-implications-and-ethics
#18
Wendy K Dean, Arthur L Caplan, Brendan Parent
The men and women who serve in the armed forces, in the words of Major General Joseph Caravalho, "sign a blank check, co-signed by their families, payable to the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marines, up to and including their lives." It is human nature to consider such a pact in polarized terms; the pact concludes in either a celebratory homecoming or funereal mourning. But in reality, surviving catastrophic injury may incur the greatest debt. The small but real possibility of losing the ability to bear biological children due to genitourinary combat injury has been a topic of discussion in hushed tones, behind closed doors...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871231/transcriptomic-and-proteomic-insights-into-innate-immunity-and-adaptations-to-a-symbiotic-lifestyle-in-the-gutless-marine-worm-olavius-algarvensis
#19
Juliane Wippler, Manuel Kleiner, Christian Lott, Alexander Gruhl, Paul E Abraham, Richard J Giannone, Jacque C Young, Robert L Hettich, Nicole Dubilier
BACKGROUND: The gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis has a completely reduced digestive and excretory system, and lives in an obligate nutritional symbiosis with bacterial symbionts. While considerable knowledge has been gained of the symbionts, the host has remained largely unstudied. Here, we generated transcriptomes and proteomes of O. algarvensis to better understand how this annelid worm gains nutrition from its symbionts, how it adapted physiologically to a symbiotic lifestyle, and how its innate immune system recognizes and responds to its symbiotic microbiota...
November 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870024/macroinvertebrate-community-assembly-on-deep-sea-wood-falls-in-monterey-bay-is-strongly-influenced-by-wood-type
#20
Jenna Judge, James P Barry
Environmental filtering, including the influence of environmental constraints and biological interactions on species' survival, is known to significantly affect patterns of community assembly in terrestrial ecosystems. However, its role in regulating patterns and processes of community assembly in deep-sea environments is poorly studied. Here we investigated the role of wood characteristics in the assembly of deep-sea wood fall communities. Ten different wood species (substrata) that varied in structural complexity were sunk to a depth of 3,100 m near Monterey Bay, CA...
November 2016: Ecology
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