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Marine Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925547/biogeographic-conservation-of-the-cytosine-epigenome-in-the-globally-important-marine-nitrogen-fixing-cyanobacterium-trichodesmium
#1
Nathan G Walworth, David A Hutchins, Egor Dolzhenko, Michael D Lee, Feixue Fu, Andrew D Smith, Eric A Webb
Cytosine methylation has been shown to regulate essential cellular processes and impact biological adaptation. Despite its evolutionary importance, only a handful of bacterial, genome-wide cytosine studies have been conducted, with none for marine bacteria. Here, we examine the genome-wide, C(5) -Methyl-cytosine (m5C) methylome and its correlation to global transcription in the marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. We characterize genome-wide methylation and highlight conserved motifs across 3 Trichodesmium isolates and 2 Trichodesmium metagenomes, thereby identifying highly conserved, novel genomic signatures of potential gene regulation in Trichodesmium...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925544/metaproteomics-of-marine-viral-concentrates-reveals-key-viral-populations-and-abundant-periplasmic-proteins-in-the-oligotrophic-deep-chlorophyll-maximum-of-the-south-china-sea
#2
Zhang-Xian Xie, Feng Chen, Shu-Feng Zhang, Ming-Hua Wang, Hao Zhang, Ling-Fen Kong, Min-Han Dai, Hua-Sheng Hong, Lin Lin, Da-Zhi Wang
Viral concentrates (VCs), containing bio-informative DNA and proteins, have been used to study viral diversity, viral metagenomics and virus-host interactions in natural ecosystems. Besides viruses, VCs also contain many non-cellular biological components including diverse functional proteins. Here, we used a shotgun proteomic approach to characterize the proteins of VCs collected from the oligotrophic deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) of the South China Sea. Proteins of viruses infecting picophytoplankton, i...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922472/mirna-506-promotes-primary-biliary-cholangitis-like-features-in-cholangiocytes-and-immune-activation
#3
Oihane Erice, Patricia Munoz-Garrido, Javier Vaquero, Maria J Perugorria, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Elena Saez, Alvaro Santos-Laso, Ander Arbelaiz, Raul Jimenez-Agüero, Joaquin Fernandez-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaria, Verónica Torrano, Arkaitz Carracedo, Meenakshisundaram Ananthanarayanan, Marco Marzioni, Jesus Prieto, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald P Oude Elferink, Nicholas F LaRusso, Luis Bujanda, Jose J G Marin, Jesus M Banales
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with autoimmune phenomena targeting intrahepatic bile duct cells (cholangiocytes). Although PBC etiopathogenesis still remains obscure, development of anti-mitochondrial auto-antibodies against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2) is a common feature. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation occurs in liver and immune cells of PBC patients, but their functional relevance is largely unknown. We previously reported that miR-506 is overexpressed in PBC cholangiocytes and directly targets both Cl(-) /HCO3(-) anion exchanger 2 (AE2) and type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R3), leading to cholestasis...
September 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921802/environmental-dna-metabarcoding-transforming-how-we-survey-animal-and-plant-communities
#4
Kristy Deiner, Holly M Bik, Elvira Mächler, Mathew Seymour, Anaïs Lacoursière-Roussel, Florian Altermatt, Simon Creer, Iliana Bista, David M Lodge, Natasha de Vere, Michael E Pfrender, Louis Bernatchez
The genomic revolution has fundamentally changed how we survey biodiversity on earth. High-throughput sequencing ('HTS') platforms now enable the rapid sequencing of DNA from diverse kinds of environmental samples (termed 'environmental DNA' or 'eDNA'). Coupling HTS with our ability to associate sequences from eDNA with a taxonomic name is called 'eDNA metabarcoding' and offers a powerful molecular tool capable of non-invasively surveying species richness from many ecosystems. Here, we review the use of eDNA metabarcoding for surveying animal and plant richness, and the challenges in using eDNA approaches to estimate relative abundance...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920157/mechanisms-of-cancer-cell-killing-by-sea-cucumber-derived-compounds
#5
REVIEW
Teresa Liliana Wargasetia, Widodo
The aim of cancer therapy is to specifically eradicate tumor cells while causing minimal damage to normal tissues and minimal side-effects. Because of this, the use of natural substances with low toxicity is a good option. Sea cucumbers are one of many potential marine animals that contain valuable nutrients and medicinal properties. The medicinal value of sea cucumbers is attributed to the presence of bioactive agents with promising biological and pharmacological properties that include cytotoxic activity, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of tumor growth, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic properties, and inhibition of drug resistance...
September 18, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918561/marine-polysaccharides-therapeutic-efficacy-and-biomedical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Young-Eun Lee, Hyeongmin Kim, Changwon Seo, Taejun Park, Kyung Bin Lee, Seung-Yup Yoo, Seong-Chul Hong, Jeong Tae Kim, Jaehwi Lee
The ocean contains numerous marine organisms, including algae, animals, and plants, from which diverse marine polysaccharides with useful physicochemical and biological properties can be extracted. In particular, fucoidan, carrageenan, alginate, and chitosan have been extensively investigated in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields owing to their desirable characteristics, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactivity. Various therapeutic efficacies of marine polysaccharides have been elucidated, including the inhibition of cancer, inflammation, and viral infection...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917882/a-review-about-brown-algal-cell-walls-and-fucose-containing-sulfated-polysaccharides-cell-wall-context-biomedical-properties-and-key-research-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Estelle Deniaud-Bouët, Kevin Hardouin, Philippe Potin, Bernard Kloareg, Cécile Hervé
Studies on brown algal cell walls have entered a new phase with the concomitant discovery of novel polysaccharides present in cell walls and the establishment of a comprehensive generic model for cell wall architecture. Brown algal cell walls are composites of structurally complex polysaccharides. In this review we discuss the most recent progress in the structural composition of brown algal cell walls, emphasizing the significance of extraction and screening techniques, and the biological activities of the corresponding polysaccharides, with a specific focus on the fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917214/novel-5-nitrofurfuryl-substituted-esters-of-phosphonoglycine-their-synthesis-and-phyto-and-ecotoxicological-properties
#8
Jarosław Lewkowski, Marta Morawska, Rafał Karpowicz, Piotr Rychter, Diana Rogacz, Kamila Lewicka
Since aminophosphonate-based herbicides like glyphosate are currently one of the most popular and widely applied active agent in agrochemistry, there is an urgent need for searching new compounds among this family with potential herbicidal activity, but exhibiting low toxicity against surrounding environment. Six new (5-nitrofurfuryl)-derived aminophosphonates were synthesized for the first time and apart from the only one example of N-benzylamino(5-nitrofuryl)-methylphosphonic acid, it was the first time in the history, when this class of compounds was prepared...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916813/genome-sequencing-reveals-metabolic-and-cellular-interdependence-in-an-amoeba-kinetoplastid-symbiosis
#9
Goro Tanifuji, Ugo Cenci, Daniel Moog, Samuel Dean, Takuro Nakayama, Vojtěch David, Ivan Fiala, Bruce A Curtis, Shannon J Sibbald, Naoko T Onodera, Morgan Colp, Pavel Flegontov, Jessica Johnson-MacKinnon, Michael McPhee, Yuji Inagaki, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Steven Kelly, Keith Gull, Julius Lukeš, John M Archibald
Endosymbiotic relationships between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are common in nature. Endosymbioses between two eukaryotes are also known; cyanobacterium-derived plastids have spread horizontally when one eukaryote assimilated another. A unique instance of a non-photosynthetic, eukaryotic endosymbiont involves members of the genus Paramoeba, amoebozoans that infect marine animals such as farmed fish and sea urchins. Paramoeba species harbor endosymbionts belonging to the Kinetoplastea, a diverse group of flagellate protists including some that cause devastating diseases...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915490/bioremoval-of-zinc-and-manganese-by-bacterial-biofilm-a-bioreactor-based-approach
#10
Trishna Pani, Anamika Das, Jabez Williams Osborne
Industrialization has led to the disposal of a massive amount of heavy metals every year, showing perilous effects on humans, marine life and agricultural products. There are numerous chemical and biological approaches available but their implementation is limited due to high cost and low efficiency. Therefore, the present study was focused on the biofilm- based bioremoval of heavy metals (zinc and manganese) using indigenous bacteria isolated from the tannery sludge obtained from Ranipet, Tamil Nadu. The effective isolate was capable of tolerating up to 2000mg/L of zinc and manganese and was further used for development of biofilm on the peels of Cucumis sativus...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915379/study-on-the-oxygen-reduction-reaction-catalyzed-by-a-cold-tolerant-marine-strain-phylogenetically-related-to-erythrobacter-citreus
#11
Lianqiang Li, Fei Ding, Lin Sang, Jiaquan Liu, Duolu Mao, Xingjiang Liu, Qiang Xu
As the development of marine economy, the submarine battery with the seawater electrolyte has obtained more and more attentions. Owing to the conventional electrochemical catalysts of the cathodes in seawater battery are expensive, it is to seek the new biological catalysts to improve the electrochemical performance of the cathode and reduce the cost of seawater battery. A novel marine bacterial strain (Strain SQ-32) phylogenetically related to the Erythrobactercitreus strain has been isolated from the sea-bed sludge in the Yellow Sea of China successfully...
September 8, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910720/study-of-the-influence-of-physical-chemical-and-biological-conditions-that-influence-the-deterioration-and-protection-of-underwater-cultural-heritage
#12
Manuel Bethencourt, Tomás Fernández-Montblanc, Alfredo Izquierdo, Manuel María González-Duarte, Cristian Muñoz-Mas
Two wrecks related to the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) were studied. Following the guidelines of the UNESCO-2001 Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, a holistic and interdisciplinary approach based on the development of four of the thirty-six Rules of this international agreement was applied. A non-destructive survey technique was developed to obtain information from the scattered cannons and anchors without altering their condition (Rule 4). The work performed provided information about the origin of both wrecks, the Fougueux and the Bucentaure, two ships of the line of the French Navy, and allowed to characterize the state of conservation at each site without jeopardizing their future conservation in the marine environment...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902905/bio-physical-characterisation-of-polynyas-as-a-key-foraging-habitat-for-juvenile-male-southern-elephant-seals-mirounga-leonina-in-prydz-bay-east-antarctica
#13
Veda Malpress, Sophie Bestley, Stuart Corney, Dirk Welsford, Sara Labrousse, Michael Sumner, Mark Hindell
Antarctic coastal polynyas are persistent open water areas in the sea ice zone, and regions of high biological productivity thought to be important foraging habitat for marine predators. This study quantified southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) habitat use within and around the polynyas of the Prydz Bay region (63°E- 88°E) in East Antarctica, and examined the bio-physical characteristics structuring polynyas as foraging habitat. Output from a climatological regional ocean model was used to provide context for in situ temperature-salinity vertical profiles collected by tagged elephant seals and to characterise the physical properties structuring polynyas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902894/what-determines-sclerobiont-colonization-on-marine-mollusk-shells
#14
Vanessa Ochi Agostini, Matias do Nascimento Ritter, Alexandre José Macedo, Erik Muxagata, Fernando Erthal
Empty mollusk shells may act as colonization surfaces for sclerobionts depending on the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of the shells. However, the main factors that can affect the establishment of an organism on hard substrates and the colonization patterns on modern and time-averaged shells remain unclear. Using experimental and field approaches, we compared sclerobiont (i.e., bacteria and invertebrate) colonization patterns on the exposed shells (internal and external sides) of three bivalve species (Anadara brasiliana, Mactra isabelleana, and Amarilladesma mactroides) with different external shell textures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900807/ecotoxicological-impact-assessment-of-the-brine-discharges-from-a-desalination-plant-in-the-marine-waters-of-the-algerian-west-coast-using-a-multibiomarker-approach-in-a-limpet-patella-rustica
#15
Meriem Benaissa, Omar Rouane-Hacene, Zitouni Boutiba, Marielle E Guibbolini-Sabatier, Christine Risso-De Faverney
The aim of our study is to evaluate the impact of Bousfer desalination plant brine discharges on the Algerian west coast, on a natural population of the marine gastropod mollusc Patella rustica. The effects of a chronic exposure to such discharges are complex to understand due to the combined effects of environmental physico-chemical parameters (e.g., high salinity) and different pollutants that can modulate the physiological responses of this species to stress. In this context, we assessed the biological effects in a marine species P...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898601/characterization-of-the-gray-whale-eschrichtius-robustus-genome-and-a-genotyping-array-based-on-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-candidate-genes
#16
J Andrew DeWoody, Nadia B Fernandez, Anna Brüniche-Olsen, Jennifer D Antonides, Jacqueline M Doyle, Phillip San Miguel, Rick Westerman, Vladimir V Vertyankin, Céline A J Godard-Codding, John W Bickham
Genetic and genomic approaches have much to offer in terms of ecology, evolution, and conservation. To better understand the biology of the gray whale Eschrichtius robustus (Lilljeborg, 1861), we sequenced the genome and produced an assembly that contains ∼95% of the genes known to be highly conserved among eukaryotes. From this assembly, we annotated 22,711 genes and identified 2,057,254 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using this assembly, we generated a curated list of candidate genes potentially subject to strong natural selection, including genes associated with osmoregulation, oxygen binding and delivery, and other aspects of marine life...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898078/review-of-oceanography-and-marine-biology-oceanography-and-marine-biology-an-annual-review-volume-54-edited-by-roger-n-hughes-bangor-university-uk-david-j-hughes-scottish-association-for-marine-science-uk-i-peter-smith-university-of-aberdeen-uk-and-andrew-c
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893599/natural-products-and-morphogenic-activity-of-%C3%AE-proteobacteria-associated-with-the-marine-hydroid-polyp-hydractinia-echinata
#18
Huijuan Guo, Maja Rischer, Martin Sperfeld, Christiane Weigel, Klaus Dieter Menzel, Jon Clardy, Christine Beemelmanns
Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to profile the associated bacterial community of the marine hydroid Hydractinia echinata, a long-standing model system in developmental biology. 56 associated bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Three strains were selected for further in-depth chemical analysis leading to the identification of 17 natural products. Several γ-Proteobacteria were found to induce settlement of the motile larvae, but only six isolates induced the metamorphosis to the primary polyp stage within 24h...
July 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892486/misattribution-of-musical-arousal-increases-sexual-attraction-towards-opposite-sex-faces-in-females
#19
Manuela M Marin, Raphaela Schober, Bruno Gingras, Helmut Leder
Several theories about the origins of music have emphasized its biological and social functions, including in courtship. Music may act as a courtship display due to its capacity to vary in complexity and emotional content. Support for music's reproductive function comes from the recent finding that only women in the fertile phase of the reproductive cycle prefer composers of complex melodies to composers of simple ones as short-term sexual partners, which is also in line with the ovulatory shift hypothesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892254/transcriptional-regulation-of-ectoine-catabolism-in-response-to-multiple-metabolic-and-environmental-cues
#20
Annina Schulz, Lucas Hermann, Sven-Andreas Freibert, Tobias Bönig, Tamara Hoffmann, Ramona Riclea, Jeroen S Dickschat, Johann Heider, Erhard Bremer
Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are effective microbial osmostress protectants, but can also serve as versatile nutrients for bacteria. We have studied the genetic regulation of ectoine and hydroxyectoine import and catabolism in the marine Roseobacter species Ruegeria pomeroyi and identified three transcriptional regulators involved in these processes: the GabR/MocR-type repressor EnuR, the feast and famine-type regulator AsnC, and the two-component system NtrYX. The corresponding genes are widely associated with ectoine and hydroxyectoine uptake and catabolic gene clusters (enuR, asnC), and with microorganisms predicted to consume ectoines (ntrYX)...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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