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Marine Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734733/diatom-frustule-morphogenesis-and-function-a-multidisciplinary-survey
#1
REVIEW
Edoardo De Tommasi, Johan Gielis, Alessandra Rogato
Diatoms represent the major component of phytoplankton and are responsible for about 20-25% of global primary production. Hundreds of millions of years of evolution led to tens of thousands of species differing in dimensions and morphologies. In particular, diatom porous silica cell walls, the frustules, are characterized by an extraordinary, species-specific diversity. It is of great interest, among the marine biologists and geneticists community, to shed light on the origin and evolutionary advantage of this variability of dimensions, geometries and pore distributions...
July 19, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733994/seasonal-recruitment-and-survival-strategies-of-palisada-cervicornis-comb-nov-ceramiales-rhodophyta-in-coral-reefs
#2
Ligia Collado-Vides, Alain Duran, Elizabeth Armenis, Valéria Cassano, Deron Burkepile, Andrew A Shantz, Laura Palma, Jhoana Díaz-Larrea, Abel Sentíes, Mutue Toyota Fujii
As marine tropical ecosystems deteriorate and lose biodiversity, their communities are shifting to being dominated by a few species, altering ecosystem's functioning and services. Macroalgae are becoming dominant on coral reefs, and are frequently observed outcompeting corals. Turf algal assemblages are the base of energy flow in these systems and one of the most abundant types of macroalgae on coral reefs, but little is known about their biology and diversity. Through molecular and morphological analyses, we identified the turf-forming species Laurencia cervicornis, and by studying seasonal recruitment and the impact of herbivorous fishes on its abundance, we describe its survival strategy...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733819/estimating-environmental-value-losses-from-earth-materials-excavation-and-infilling-for-large-scale-airport-construction-a-case-of-dalian-offshore-airport-dalian-china
#3
Hua-Kun Yan, Nuo Wang, Nuan Wu, Nan-Qi Song, Dao-Li Zhu
Large-scale airport construction removes large quantities of earth materials, resulting in serious environmental pollution and ecosystem damage. However, studies of environmental concerns caused by the materials used in airport construction are still preliminary, and those case studies on the impacts of large-scale offshore airport development are very limited. China's Dalian Offshore Airport is considered here to study the environmental value loss from 240 million m(3) of materials excavations and 21 km(2) of artificial island infillings...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732297/influence-of-environmental-conditions-on-the-toxicokinetics-of-cadmium-in-the-marine-copepod-acartia-tonsa
#4
Maria D Pavlaki, Rui G Morgado, Cornelis A M van Gestel, Ricardo Calado, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
mMarine and estuarine ecosystems are highly productive areas that often act as a final sink for several pollutants, such as cadmium. Environmental conditions in these habitats can affect metal speciation, as well as its uptake and depuration by living organisms. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium uptake and depuration rates in the euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa under different pH, salinity and temperature conditions. Cadmium speciation did not vary with changing pH or temperature, but varied with salinity...
July 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731469/novel-chaperonins-are-prevalent-in-the-virioplankton-and-demonstrate-links-to-viral-biology-and-ecology
#5
Rachel L Marine, Daniel J Nasko, Jeffrey Wray, Shawn W Polson, K Eric Wommack
Chaperonins are protein-folding machinery found in all cellular life. Chaperonin genes have been documented within a few viruses, yet, surprisingly, analysis of metagenome sequence data indicated that chaperonin-carrying viruses are common and geographically widespread in marine ecosystems. Also unexpected was the discovery of viral chaperonin sequences related to thermosome proteins of archaea, indicating the presence of virioplankton populations infecting marine archaeal hosts. Virioplankton large subunit chaperonin sequences (GroELs) were divergent from bacterial sequences, indicating that viruses have carried this gene over long evolutionary time...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729856/biological-significance-of-marine-actinobacteria-of-east-coast-of-andhra-pradesh-india
#6
Alapati Kavitha, Handanahal S Savithri
An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis) of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727217/adaptation-strategies-to-climate-change-in-marine-systems
#7
Dana D Miller, Yoshitaka Ota, U Rashid Sumaila, Andrés M Cisneros-Montemayor, William W L Cheung
The world's oceans are highly impacted by climate change and other human pressures, with significant implications for marine ecosystems and the livelihoods that they support. Adaptation for both natural and human systems is increasingly important as a coping strategy due to the rate and scale of ongoing and potential future change. Here, we conduct a review of literature concerning specific case studies of adaptation in marine systems, and discuss associated characteristics and influencing factors, including drivers, strategy, timeline, costs, and limitations...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726124/diversity-of-culturable-filamentous-ascomycetes-in-the-eastern-south-pacific-ocean-off-chile
#8
Jeanett Vera, Marcelo H Gutiérrez, Götz Palfner, Silvio Pantoja
Our study reports the diversity of culturable mycoplankton in the eastern South Pacific Ocean off Chile to contribute with novel knowledge on taxonomy of filamentous fungi isolated from distinct physicochemical and biological marine environments. We characterized spatial distribution of isolates, evaluated their viability and assessed the influence of organic substrate availability on fungal development. Thirty-nine Operational Taxonomic Units were identified from 99 fungal strains isolated from coastal and oceanic waters by using Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery...
August 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725265/two-bifunctional-enzymes-from-the-marine-protist-thraustochytrium-roseum-biochemical-characterization-of-wax-ester-synthase-acyl-coa-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-activity-catalyzing-wax-ester-and-triacylglycerol-synthesis
#9
Nannan Zhang, Zejing Mao, Ling Luo, Xia Wan, Fenghong Huang, Yangmin Gong
BACKGROUND: Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters (WEs) are important neutral lipids which serve as energy reservoir in some plants and microorganisms. In recent years, these biologically produced neutral lipids have been regarded as potential alternative energy sources for biofuel production because of the increased interest on developing renewable and environmentally benign alternatives for fossil fuels. In bacteria, the final step in TAG and WE biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724699/early-career-researchers-an-interview-with-jeremy-goldbogen
#10
(no author information available yet)
Jeremy Goldbogen is an Assistant Professor at the Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, USA, where he studies the integrative biology of vertebrate filter feeders from forage fish to baleen whales. He received his Bachelor's degree in Zoology from the University of Texas, Austin, USA, before moving to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and then the University of British Columbia for his PhD, which he completed in 2010 in the laboratory of Bob Shadwick. After a short postdoc at Scripps, Goldbogen moved to continue his postdoc training at the Cascadia Research Collective in Olympia, Washington...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721615/phycoremediation-potential-of-marine-microalga-tetraselmis-indica-on-secondary-treated-domestic-sewage-for-nutrient-removal-and-biodiesel-production
#11
Amit, Rajesh Chandra, Uttam Kumar Ghosh, Jagdeep Kumar Nayak
Marine microalga Tetraselmis indica (T. indica) was cultivated in secondary treated domestic sewage (STDS) in batch mode. Optimization studies showed that after 14 days of cultivation period, highest biomass yield reached was 0.88 ± 0.04 g/L at the optimum temperature of 27 ± 1 °C and light intensity of 135 μmol m(-2) s(-1). T. indica removed about 60.93% phosphate, 78.46% nitrate, 72.94% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 73.17% biological oxygen demand (BOD), 98.90% total dissolved solids (TDS) and heavy metals (83...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721507/the-diversity-and-antibiotic-properties-of-actinobacteria-associated-with-endemic-deepwater-amphipods-of-lake-baikal
#12
Eugenii S Protasov, Denis V Axenov-Gribanov, Yuriy V Rebets, Irina V Voytsekhovskaya, Bogdan T Tokovenko, Zhanna M Shatilina, Andriy N Luzhetskyy, Maxim A Timofeyev
The emergence of pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotics increases the need for discovery of new effective antimicrobials. Unique habitats such as marine deposits, wetlands and caves or unexplored biological communities are promising sources for the isolation of actinobacteria, which are among the major antibiotic producers. The present study aimed at examining cultivated actinobacteria strains associated with endemic Lake Baikal deepwater amphipods and estimating their antibiotic activity. We isolated 42 actinobacterial strains from crustaceans belonging to Ommatogammarus albinus and Ommatogammarus flavus...
July 18, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721506/interaction-between-a-bacterivorous-ciliate-aspidisca-cicada-and-a-rotifer-lecane-inermis-doozers-and-fraggles-in-aquatic-flocs
#13
Aleksandra Walczyńska, Mateusz Sobczyk, Edyta Fiałkowska, Agnieszka Pajdak-Stós, Janusz Fyda, Krzysztof Wiąckowski
Activated sludge is a semi-natural habitat composed of macroaggregates made by flocculating bacteria and inhabited by numerous protozoans and metazoans, creating a complicated interactome. The activated sludge resembles the biological formation of naturally occurring floc habitats, such as "marine snow." So far, these two types of habitat have been analyzed separately, despite their similarities. We examined the effect of a bacterivorous ciliate, Aspidisca cicada, on the quality of the macroaggregate ecosystem by estimating (i) the floc characteristics, (ii) the proliferation of other bacterivores (rotifers), and (iii) the chemical processes...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720760/exploring-spatial-and-temporal-trends-in-the-soundscape-of-an-ecologically-significant-embayment
#14
R L Putland, R Constantine, C A Radford
The Hauraki Gulf, a shallow embayment in north-eastern New Zealand, provides an interesting environment for ecological soundscape research. It is situated on a tectonic plate boundary, contains one of the busiest ports in the southern hemisphere and is home to a diverse range of soniferous animals. The underwater soundscape was monitored for spatial and temporal trends at six different listening stations using passive acoustic recorders. The RMS sound pressure level of ambient sound (50-24,000 Hz) at the six listening stations was similar, ranging from 90-110 dB re 1 μPa throughout the recording period...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715756/the-occurrence-and-spatial-temporal-distribution-of-tetrabromobisphenol-a-in-the-coastal-intertidal-zone-of-qingdao-in-china-with-a-focus-on-toxicity-assessment-by-biological-monitoring
#15
Wen-Jing Gong, Li-Yan Zhu, Tian-Tian Jiang, Cui Han
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used flame retardant that has increasingly been found as contaminant in aquatic environments. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the pollution level of TBBPA at six locations around Qingdao and assess its biotoxicity through a two-generation toxicity study looking at a copepod species. In the chemical monitoring, the concentration of TBBPA in seawater samples ranged from nd to 1.8 μg/L. Next, the biological indicator monitoring used 1.8 μg/L as the middle exposure concentration to perform quantitative evaluations of the influence of TBBPA on the demographic traits of Pseudodiaptomus inopinus...
July 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715401/extraction-of-organochlorine-pesticides-from-plastic-pellets-and-plastic-type-analysis
#16
Marilyne Pflieger, Petra Makorič, Manca Kovač Viršek, Špela Koren
Plastic resin pellets, categorized as microplastics (≤5 mm in diameter), are small granules that can be unintentionally released to the environment during manufacturing and transport. Because of their environmental persistence, they are widely distributed in the oceans and on beaches all over the world. They can act as a vector of potentially toxic organic compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls) and might consequently negatively affect marine organisms. Their possible impacts along the food chain are not yet well understood...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712565/circadian-clock-involvement-in-zooplankton-diel-vertical-migration
#17
N Sören Häfker, Bettina Meyer, Kim S Last, David W Pond, Lukas Hüppe, Mathias Teschke
Biological clocks are a ubiquitous ancient and adaptive mechanism enabling organisms to anticipate environmental cycles and to regulate behavioral and physiological processes accordingly [1]. Although terrestrial circadian clocks are well understood, knowledge of clocks in marine organisms is still very limited [2-5]. This is particularly true for abundant species displaying large-scale rhythms like diel vertical migration (DVM) that contribute significantly to shaping their respective ecosystems [6]. Here we describe exogenous cycles and endogenous rhythms associated with DVM of the ecologically important and highly abundant planktic copepod Calanus finmarchicus...
July 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710898/projected-climate-changes-threaten-ancient-refugia-of-kelp-forests-in-the-north-atlantic
#18
Jorge Assis, Miguel B Araújo, Ester A Serrão
Intra-specific genetic variability is critical for species adaptation and evolution and yet it is generally overlooked in projections of the biological consequences of climate change. We ask whether ongoing climate changes can cause the loss of important gene pools from North Atlantic relict kelp forests that persisted over glacial-interglacial cycles. We use ecological niche modeling to predict genetic diversity hotspots for eight species of large brown algae with different thermal tolerances (Arctic to warm-temperate), estimated as regions of persistence throughout the Last Glacial Maximum (20,000 YBP), the warmer Mid-Holocene (6,000 YBP) and the present...
July 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710761/fast-micromethod-determination-of-dna-integrity-in-cell-suspensions-and-in-solid-tissues
#19
Nevenka Bihari
The Fast Micromethod is a rapid and convenient microplate procedure for the determination of DNA integrity in cell suspensions and in solid tissues. The procedure is based on the ability of fluorochromes to preferentially interact with double-stranded DNA in alkaline conditions. Rapid sample lysis is followed by denaturation at high pH during 15 min. Only 30 ng of DNA from cell suspensions or tissue homogenates per single well are required for the analyses. The whole analysis is performed within 3 h or less (for one 96-well microplate)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710727/the-occurrence-of-microplastic-contamination-in-littoral-sediments-of-the-persian-gulf-iran
#20
Abolfazl Naji, Zinat Esmaili, Sherri A Mason, A Dick Vethaak
Microplastics (MPs; <5 mm) in aquatic environments are an emerging contaminant of concern due to their possible ecological and biological consequences. This study addresses that MP quantification and morphology to assess the abundance, distribution, and polymer types in littoral surface sediments of the Persian Gulf were performed. A two-step method, with precautions taken to avoid possible airborne contamination, was applied to extract MPs from sediments collected at five sites during low tide. MPs were found in 80% of the samples...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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