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Marine Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785269/juvenile-steller-sea-lion-eumetopias-jubatus-utilization-distributions-in-the-gulf-of-alaska
#1
Amanda Bishop, Casey Brown, Michael Rehberg, Leigh Torres, Markus Horning
Background: A utilization distribution quantifies the temporal and spatial probability of space use for individuals or populations. These patterns in movement arise from individuals' internal state and from their response to the external environment, and thus can provide insights for assessing factors associated with the management of threatened populations. The Western Distinct Population Segment of the Steller sea lion ( Eumetopias jubatus ) has declined to approximately 20% of levels encountered 40 years ago...
2018: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779667/terminal-alkyne-biosynthesis-in-marine-microbes
#2
Xuejun Zhu, Wenjun Zhang
The terminal alkyne is a readily derivatized functionality valued for its diverse applications in material synthesis, pharmaceutical science, and chemical biology. The synthetic biology routes to terminal alkynes are highly desired and yet underexplored. Some marine natural products contain a terminal alkyne functionality, and the discovery of the biosynthetic gene clusters for jamaicamide B and carmabin A marked the beginning of a new era in the understanding and engineering of terminal alkyne biosynthesis...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779664/pks-nrps-enzymology-and-structural-biology-considerations-in-protein-production
#3
Meredith A Skiba, Finn P Maloney, Qingyun Dan, Amy E Fraley, Courtney C Aldrich, Janet L Smith, W Clay Brown
The structural diversity and complexity of marine natural products have made them a rich and productive source of new bioactive molecules for drug development. The identification of these new compounds has led to extensive study of the protein constituents of the biosynthetic pathways from the producing microbes. Essential processes in the dissection of biosynthesis have been the elucidation of catalytic functions and the determination of 3D structures for enzymes of the polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases that carry out individual reactions...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779659/preparation-assay-and-application-of-chlorinase-sall-for-the-chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-s-adenosyl-l-methionine-and-analogs
#4
Tony D Davis, Sylvia Kunakom, Michael D Burkart, Alessandra S Eustaquio
S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) is universal in biology, serving as the second most common cofactor in a variety of enzymatic reactions. One of the main roles of SAM is the methylation of nucleic acids, proteins, and metabolites. Methylation often imparts regulatory control to DNA and proteins, and leads to an increase in the activity of specialized metabolites such as those developed as pharmaceuticals. There has been increased interest in using SAM analogs in methyltransferase-catalyzed modification of biomolecules...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776592/response-to-metals-treatment-of-fra1-a-member-of-the-ap-1-transcription-factor-family-in-p-lividus-sea-urchin-embryos
#5
Roberta Russo, Rosa Bonaventura, Marco Chiaramonte, Caterina Costa, Valeria Matranga, Francesca Zito
Lithium (Li), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) are metals normally present in the seawater, although they can have adverse effects on the marine ecosystem at high concentrations by interfering with many biological processes. These metals are toxic for sea urchin embryos, affecting their morphology and developmental pathways. In particular, they perturb differently the correct organization of the embryonic axes (animal-vegetal, dorso-ventral): Li is a vegetalizing agent and Ni disrupts the dorso-ventral axis, while Zn has an animalizing effect...
May 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775828/size-season-and-origin-of-gastropods-matter-in-imposex-assessments
#6
Martina Rossato, Mércia Barcelos Costa, Ítalo Braga de Castro, Grasiela Lopes Leães Pinho
Through controlled exposure to tributyltin (TBT), the effects of season, size, and population origin were evaluated on imposex incidence in Stramonita brasiliensis. Four experiments were carried out with organisms collected from three different sites on the Brazilian coast (Torres - Rio Grande do Sul, Farol de Santa Marta - Santa Catarina, and Aracruz - Espírito Santo). S. brasiliensis were anesthetized, sexed, measured, classified by size in small (< 30 mm), medium (≥ 30 to ≤ 40 mm), or big (> 40 mm) and injected in the foot muscle with 0...
May 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774338/trace-metals-in-oysters-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-and-ecotoxicological-impacts
#7
REVIEW
Wen-Xiong Wang, Jie Meng, Nanyan Weng
Oysters are important benthic bivalves in coastal and estuarine environments. They are widely farmed due to their rapid growth and taste; they are also widely applied in environmental monitoring of coastal pollution due to their accumulation of contaminants. Most importantly, oysters are among the few marine organisms that are considered to be hyper-accumulators of many toxic metals, such as cadmium, copper and zinc. As such, there is a tremendous call to study the interactions between metals and oysters, especially due to the increasing metal pollution in many coastal and estuarine waters...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773889/searching-for-a-compromise-between-biological-and-economic-demands-to-protect-vulnerable-habitats
#8
M Grazia Pennino, Marie-Christine Rufener, Mario J F Thomé-Souza, Adriana R Carvalho, Priscila F M Lopes, U Rashid Sumaila
Identifying vulnerable habitats is necessary to designing and prioritizing efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to sustain the renewal of living marine resources. However, vulnerable habitats rarely become MPAs due to conflicting interests such as fishing. We propose a spatial framework to help researchers and managers determine optimal conservation areas in a multi-species fishery, while also considering the economic relevance these species may have in a given society, even in data poor situations. We first set different ecological criteria (i...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771340/reproductive-manipulators-in-the-bark-beetle-pityogenes-chalcographus-coleoptera-curculionidae-the-role-of-cardinium-rickettsia-spiroplasma-and-wolbachia
#9
Martin Schebeck, Lukas Feldkirchner, Belen Marín, Susanne Krumböck, Hannes Schuler, Christian Stauffer
Heritable bacterial endosymbionts can alter the biology of numerous arthropods. They can influence the reproductive outcome of infected hosts, thus affecting the ecology and evolution of various arthropod species. The spruce bark beetle Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was reported to express partial, unidirectional crossing incompatibilities among certain European populations. Knowledge on the background of these findings is lacking; however, bacterial endosymbionts have been assumed to manipulate the reproduction of this beetle...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769616/magnetic-field-induced-rotation-of-magnetosome-chains-in-silicified-magnetotactic-bacteria
#10
Marine Blondeau, Yohan Guyodo, François Guyot, Christophe Gatel, Nicolas Menguy, Imène Chebbi, Bernard Haye, Mickaël Durand-Dubief, Edouard Alphandery, Roberta Brayner, Thibaud Coradin
Understanding the biological processes enabling magnetotactic bacteria to maintain oriented chains of magnetic iron-bearing nanoparticles called magnetosomes is a major challenge. The study aimed to constrain the role of an external applied magnetic field on the alignment of magnetosome chains in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 magnetotactic bacteria immobilized within a hydrated silica matrix. A deviation of the chain orientation was evidenced, without significant impact on cell viability, which was preserved after the field was turned-off...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765677/drivers-of-temporal-beta-diversity-of-a-benthic-community-in-a-seasonally-hypoxic-fjord
#11
Jackson W F Chu, Curtis Curkan, Verena Tunnicliffe
Global expansion of oxygen-deficient (hypoxic) waters will have detrimental effects on marine life in the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) where some of the largest proportional losses in aerobic habitat are predicted to occur. However, few in situ studies have accounted for the high environmental variability in this region while including natural community-assembly dynamics. Here, we present results from a 14-month deployment of a benthic camera platform tethered to the VENUS cabled observatory in the seasonally hypoxic Saanich Inlet...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763421/discovery-of-chitin-in-skeletons-of-non-verongiid-red-sea-demosponges
#12
Hermann Ehrlich, Lamiaa A Shaala, Diaa T A Youssef, Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Mikhail Tsurkan, Roberta Galli, Heike Meissner, Marcin Wysokowski, Iaroslav Petrenko, Konstantin R Tabachnick, Viatcheslav N Ivanenko, Nicole Bechmann, Yvonne Joseph, Teofil Jesionowski
Marine demosponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) are recognized as first metazoans which have developed over millions of years of evolution effective survival strategies based on unique metabolic pathways to produce both biologically active secondary metabolites and biopolymer-based stiff skeletons with 3D architecture. Up to date, among marine demosponges, only representatives of the Verongiida order have been known to synthetize biologically active substances as well as skeletons made of structural polysaccharide chitin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761059/biodiversity-of-the-great-barrier-reef-how-adequately-is-it-protected
#13
Zoe T Richards, Jon C Day
Background: The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is the world's most iconic coral reef ecosystem, recognised internationally as a World Heritage Area of outstanding significance. Safeguarding the biodiversity of this universally important reef is a core legislative objective; however, ongoing cumulative impacts including widespread coral bleaching and other detrimental impacts have heightened conservation concerns for the future of the GBR. Methods: Here we review the literature to report on processes threatening species on the GBR, the status of marine biodiversity, and evaluate the extent of species-level monitoring and reporting...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760120/benthic-meltwater-fjord-habitats-formed-by-rapid-glacier-recession-on-king-george-island-antarctica
#14
Kerstin Jerosch, Hendrik Pehlke, Patrick Monien, Frauke Scharf, Lukas Weber, Gerhard Kuhn, Matthias H Braun, Doris Abele
The coasts of the West Antarctic Peninsula are strongly influenced by glacier meltwater discharge. The spatial structure and biogeochemical composition of inshore habitats are shaped by large quantities of terrigenous particulate material deposited in the vicinity of the coast, which impacts the pelagic and benthic ecosystems. We used a multitude of geochemical and environmental variables to identify the radius extension of the meltwater impact from the Fourcade Glacier into the fjord system of Potter Cove, King George Island...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760114/a-shallow-bathtub-ring-of-local-sedimentary-iron-input-maintains-the-palmer-deep-biological-hotspot-on-the-west-antarctic-peninsula-shelf
#15
Robert M Sherrell, Amber L Annett, Jessica N Fitzsimmons, Vincent J Roccanova, Michael P Meredith
Palmer Deep (PD) is one of several regional hotspots of biological productivity along the inner shelf of the West Antarctic Peninsula. The proximity of hotspots to shelf-crossing deep troughs has led to the 'canyon hypothesis', which proposes that circumpolar deep water flowing shoreward along the canyons is upwelled on the inner shelf, carrying nutrients including iron (Fe) to surface waters, maintaining phytoplankton blooms. We present here full-depth profiles of dissolved and particulate Fe and manganese (Mn) from eight stations around PD, sampled in January and early February of 2015 and 2016, allowing the first detailed evaluation of Fe sources to the area's euphotic zone...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760110/variability-in-summer-surface-residence-time-within-a-west-antarctic-peninsula-biological-hotspot
#16
Josh T Kohut, Peter Winsor, Hank Statscewich, Matthew J Oliver, Erick Fredj, Nicole Couto, Kim Bernard, William Fraser
Palmer Deep canyon along the central West Antarctic Peninsula is known to have higher phytoplankton biomass than the surrounding non-canyon regions, but the circulation mechanisms that transport and locally concentrate phytoplankton and Antarctic krill, potentially increasing prey availability to upper-trophic-level predators such as penguins and cetaceans, are currently unknown. We deployed a three-site high-frequency radar network that provided hourly surface circulation maps over the Palmer Deep hotspot...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760070/pacing-of-paleozoic-macroevolutionary-rates-by-milankovitch-grand-cycles
#17
James S Crampton, Stephen R Meyers, Roger A Cooper, Peter M Sadler, Michael Foote, David Harte
Periodic fluctuations in past biodiversity, speciation, and extinction have been proposed, with extremely long periods ranging from 26 to 62 million years, although forcing mechanisms remain speculative. In contrast, well-understood periodic Milankovitch climate forcing represents a viable driver for macroevolutionary fluctuations, although little evidence for such fluctuation exists except during the Late Cenozoic. The reality, magnitude, and drivers of periodic fluctuations in macroevolutionary rates are of interest given long-standing debate surrounding the relative roles of intrinsic biotic interactions vs...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758498/accumulation-elimination-and-neuro-oxidative-damage-under-lanthanum-exposure-in-glass-eels-anguilla-anguilla
#18
Cátia Figueiredo, Tiago F Grilo, Clara Lopes, Pedro Brito, Mário Diniz, Miguel Caetano, Rui Rosa, Joana Raimundo
Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise elements from lanthanum to lutetium that together with yttrium and scandium are emergent contaminants of critical importance for numerous groundbreaking environmental technologies. Transfer to aquatic ecosystems is expected to increase, however, little information is known about their potential impacts in marine biota. Considering the endangered conservation status of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the vulnerability of early fish life stages to contaminants, we exposed glass eels, through water, to an environmentally relevant concentration (120 ng...
May 7, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758484/biological-denitrification-in-marine-aquaculture-systems-a-multiple-electron-donor-microcosm-study
#19
Qiaochong He, Dongqing Zhang, Kevan Main, Chuanping Feng, Sarina J Ergas
There is a lack of information on denitrification of saline wastewaters, such as those from marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), ion exchange brines and wastewater in areas where sea water is used for toilet flushing. In this study, side-by-side microcosms were used to compare methanol, fish waste (FW), wood chips, elemental sulfur (S0 ) and a combination of wood chips and sulfur for saline wastewater denitrification. The highest denitrification rate was obtained with methanol (23.4 g N/(m3 ·d)), followed by FW (4...
May 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757237/investigation-of-the-anti-prostate-cancer-properties-of-marine-derived-compounds
#20
REVIEW
Meiqi Fan, Amit Kumar Nath, Yujiao Tang, Young-Jin Choi, Trishna Debnath, Eun-Ju Choi, Eun-Kyung Kim
This review focuses on marine compounds with anti-prostate cancer properties. Marine species are unique and have great potential for the discovery of anticancer drugs. Marine sources are taxonomically diverse and include bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, and mangroves. Marine-derived compounds, including nucleotides, amides, quinones, polyethers, and peptides are biologically active compounds isolated from marine organisms such as sponges, ascidians, gorgonians, soft corals, and bryozoans, including those mentioned above...
May 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
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