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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441632/emergency-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-first-seizure
#1
Kaisa Kotisaari, Pekka Virtanen, Nina Forss, Daniel Strbian, Filip Scheperjans
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of emergent imaging findings on head computed tomography (CT) in an adult population of first seizure (FS) patients presenting to an emergency department (ED); and to search for associations between clinical features and emergent imaging findings among these patients. METHODS: For this retrospective registry-based study, adult FS patients presenting to Helsinki University Hospital ED in 2006 were identified based on ICD-10 diagnosis...
April 17, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439843/effective-dose-estimation-for-oncological-and-neurological-pet-ct-procedures
#2
Josep M Martí-Climent, Elena Prieto, Verónica Morán, Lidia Sancho, Macarena Rodríguez-Fraile, Javier Arbizu, María J García-Velloso, José A Richter
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the patient effective dose (ED) for different PET/CT procedures performed with a variety of PET radiopharmaceutical compounds. PET/CT studies of 210 patients were reviewed including Torso (n = 123), Whole body (WB) (n = 36), Head and Neck Tumor (HNT) (n = 10), and Brain (n = 41) protocols with (18)FDG (n = 170), (11)C-CHOL (n = 10), (18)FDOPA (n = 10), (11)C-MET (n = 10), and (18)F-florbetapir (n = 10)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428473/technical-considerations-on-scanning-and-image-analysis-for-amyloid-pet-in-dementia
#3
Go Akamatsu, Akihito Ohnishi, Kazuki Aita, Yasuhiko Ikari, Yasuji Yamamoto, Michio Senda
Brain imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET), can provide essential and objective information for the early and differential diagnosis of dementia. Amyloid PET is especially useful to evaluate the amyloid-β pathological process as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews critical points about technical considerations on the scanning and image analysis methods for amyloid PET...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424453/comorbid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-muscle-specific-kinase-musk-myasthenia-gravis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Michael Sherpa, Ravi K Metai, Viki Kumar, Tinu Hirachan, Kawser U Ahmed, Sharon J Atkinson
BACKGROUND HIV infections with concomitant immunologically-mediated disorders have been frequently described but there has been little research on the association between HIV and myasthenia gravis. MuSK myasthenia gravis coexisting with HIV is an even a rarer entity and can occur as a part of immune restoration disease. We report the case of a patient with asymptomatic HIV infection who presented with new-onset MuSK myasthenia gravis. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old African-American woman with HIV since 2004 and on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presented to the ED with complains of double vision and difficulty swallowing for 2 weeks...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421396/-11-c-methionine-pet-ct-findings-in-benign-brain-disease
#5
REVIEW
Reiko Nakajima, Ken Kimura, Koichiro Abe, Shuji Sakai
(11)C-methionine (MET) is one of the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for evaluation of malignant brain tumor, with MET-PET being a sensitive technique for visualization of primary and recurrent malignant brain tumors. However, previous reports have demonstrated MET uptake in lesions associated with benign brain diseases. These diseases usually show an increase in MET uptake similar to that of malignant tumors. This pitfall in MET-PET image interpretation is important not only for nuclear medicine professionals, but also for radiologists...
April 18, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407334/time-to-cranial-computerised-tomography-for-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-in-paediatric-patients-effect-of-the-shorter-stays-in-emergency-departments-target-in-new-zealand
#6
Peter G Jones, Bridget Kool, Stuart Dalziel, Michael Shepherd, James Le Fevre, Alana Harper, Susan Wells, Joanna Stewart, Elana Curtis, Papaarangi Reid, Shanthi Ameratunga
AIM: Timely access to computerised tomography (CT) for acute traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) facilitates rapid diagnosis and surgical intervention. In 2009, New Zealand introduced a mandatory target for emergency department (ED) stay such that 95% of patients should leave ED within 6 h of arrival. This study investigated whether this target influenced the timeliness of cranial CT scanning in children who presented to ED with acute TBI. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a random sample of charts of children <15 years with acute TBI from 2006 to 2012...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393708/minor-head-trauma-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department-decision-making-nodes
#7
Mario Mastrangelo, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: Minor head trauma is one of the leading cause of access to pediatric emergency departments with only a limited quote of patients resulting in clinically relevant brain injuries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to guide physicians involved in the management of pediatric head trauma towards a correct clinical approach. METHODS: A Pubmed/Medline search was realized through different entries including "minor head trauma" or "mild head trauma", "minor head injury" or "mild head injury", "acute head trauma"...
April 4, 2017: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387644/medical-necessity-of-routine-admission-of-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-to-the-intensive-care-unit
#8
Jared D Ament, Krista N Greenan, Patrick Tertulien, Joseph M Galante, Daniel K Nishijima, Marike Zwienenberg
OBJECTIVE Approximately 475,000 children are treated for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the US each year; most are classified as mild TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] Score 13-15). Patients with positive findings on head CT, defined as either intracranial hemorrhage or skull fracture, regardless of severity, are often transferred to tertiary care centers for intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring. This practice creates a significant burden on the health care system. The purpose of this investigation was to derive a clinical decision rule (CDR) to determine which children can safely avoid ICU care...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387066/calcifying-pseudoneoplasm-of-the-neuraxis-in-direct-continuity-with-a-low-grade-glioma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Nayuta Higa, Hideaki Yokoo, Hirofumi Hirano, Hajime Yonezawa, Tatsuki Oyoshi, Yuko Goto, Kazunori Arita
Calcifying pseudoneoplasms of the neuraxis (CAPNON) are presumed to be a non-neoplastic reactive pathology, based on the frequent finding of granulomatous inflammation. To our knowledge, there are few reports of CAPNON in association with a neoplasm. Here, we report the case of a 62-year-old man presenting with headache, which was caused by CAPNON in the left cingulate gyrus. CT scan revealed a calcified mass exhibiting gradual growth and increasing peritumoral edema. MRI showed an intra-axial hypointense mass on T1- and T2-weighted images...
April 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382259/traumatic-tension-pneumocephalus-two-cases-and-comprehensive-review-of-literature
#10
REVIEW
Promod Pillai, Rohit Sharma, Larami MacKenzie, Eugene F Reilly, Paul R Beery, Thomas J Papadimos, Stanislaw Peter A Stawicki
Although traumatic pneumocephalus is not uncommon, it rarely evolves into tension pneumocephalus (TP). Characterized by the presence of increasing amounts of intracranial air and concurrent appearance or worsening neurological symptoms, TP can be devastating if not recognized and treated promptly. We present two cases of traumatic TP and a concise review of literature on this topic. Two cases of traumatic TP are presented. In addition, a literature search revealed 20 additional cases, of which 18 had sufficient information for inclusion...
January 2017: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381654/disorder-of-executive-function-of-the-brain-after-head-injury-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-neuroimaging-and-diagnostic-criteria-for-implementation-of-administrative-support-in-japan
#11
Jun Shinoda, Yoshitaka Asano
The diagnotic criteria for disorder of the executive function of the brain (DEFB) as a syndrome of sequela were administratively established (ad-DEFB) in Japan in 2006 to support disabled patients whose impairment, limited to cognition (memory, attention, execution, and behavior), emerges after organic brain injuries regardless of physical deficits. However, some patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been excluded from receiving medico-social services. In particular, this tendency is more prominent in patients with mild TBI because no lesions are apparent on conventional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the chronic phase...
April 6, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380656/early-results-of-surgical-simultaneous-therapy-for-significant-carotid-artery-stenosis-and-heart-disease
#12
Marc Irqsusi, Alessandro Vannucchi, Julius Beckers, Stefan Kasseckert, Stefan Waldhans, Sebastian Vogt, Rainer G H Moosdorf
Background The purpose of this single-center, retrospective study was to review the early outcome with defined endpoints of myocardial infarction, brain injury, and death after coronary bypass grafting and simultaneous carotid endarterectomy with or without combined valve replacement. Methods During the preoperative investigation 52 (44 males, 8 females) patients were examined by cardiac catheterization within the scope of their coronary status. In addition, all patients underwent echocardiography, CT angiography of the supra-aortic vessels, and full description of their neurologic status...
April 5, 2017: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378026/considerations-on-the-relevance-of-cerebral-fusiform-aneurysms-observed-during-hiv-infection
#13
Bruno Law-Ye, Robert-Yves Carlier, Raphaël Richard, Raphaël Blanc, Claire Jourdan, Pierre de Truchis, Flore Viry, Didier Dormont, Delphine Leclercq, Frédéric Clarençon
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated ectatic cerebral vasculitis (HIV-AECV) is a rare form of vasculitis with diffuse fusiform aneurysms. Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Although extensively described in children, it is still incompletely studied in adults. Our objective was to present five adult cases with emphasis on imaging findings and long-term evolution. From 2006 to 2014, we included 5 HIV-infected patients presenting with fusiform cerebral aneurysms. Vessels abnormalities were assessed with brain computed tomography (CT) angiography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and/or digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
April 4, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376856/the-causal-relationship-between-neurocysticercosis-infection-and-the-development-of-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Lucy B Gripper, Susan C Welburn
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the human central nervous system, the most common form of which involves infection of the brain parenchyma with the larval form of the Taenia solium tapeworm. A causal relationship between such an NCC infection and the development of epilepsy in infected individuals is acknowledged, in part supported by high levels of comorbidity in endemic countries worldwide. METHODS: This study undertook a systematic review and critical analysis of the NCC-epilepsy relationship with the primary objective of quantifying the risk of developing epilepsy following NCC infection...
April 5, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356002/prognostic-parameters-for-symptomatic-intracranial-hemorrhage-after-intravenous-thrombolysis-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-an-asian-population
#15
Thanin Lokeskrawee, Sombat Muengtaweepongsa, Jayanton Patumanond, Somsak Tiamkao, Thanoot Thamangraksat, Phanyarat Phankhian, Polchai Pleumpanupatand, Paworamon Sribussara, Teeraparp Kitjavijit, Anake Supap, Weerawan Rattanaphibool, Jariya Prisiri
Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) is a major complication after intravenous thrombolysis leading to severe disability and death. The incidence was higher in Asian than in westernized countries. Prognostic factors across ethnicities are presumably different. Studies in Asian populations are limited. Clinical data from January 2008 to September 2016 in one provincial and four regional hospitals in the northern part of Thailand were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were those with acute ischemic stroke, to whom recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) had been prescribed...
March 27, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352965/dual-energy-ct-to-diagnose-pseudoedema-in-contrast-induced-encephalopathy-following-cerebral-angiography
#16
Gabriel L Pagani-Estévez, Deena M Nasr, Waleed Brinjikji, Avital Perry, Jennifer E Fugate
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) is a syndrome that may be clinically unrecognized and misdiagnosed as cerebral edema. METHODS: Case report and review. RESULTS: A 72-year-old woman was admitted for elective endovascular embolization of a 10-mm left anterior communicating artery aneurysm. One hour post-procedure, she acutely developed global aphasia. Emergent head computed tomography (CT) and computed tomography-angiography (CTA) showed high attenuation of the left hemispheric subarachnoid spaces interpreted as hemispheric edema; emergent magnetic resonance imaging revealed left hemispheric punctate infarcts...
March 28, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348527/tuning-up-the-old-brain-with-new-tricks-attention-training-via-neurofeedback
#17
REVIEW
Yang Jiang, Reza Abiri, Xiaopeng Zhao
Neurofeedback (NF) is a form of biofeedback that uses real-time (RT) modulation of brain activity to enhance brain function and behavioral performance. Recent advances in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) and cognitive training (CT) have provided new tools and evidence that NF improves cognitive functions, such as attention and working memory (WM), beyond what is provided by traditional CT. More published studies have demonstrated the efficacy of NF, particularly for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343797/early-brain-edema-is-a-predictor-of-in-hospital-mortality-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Brian Tucker, Jill Aston, Megan Dines, Elena Caraman, Marianne Yacyshyn, Mary McCarthy, James E Olson
BACKGROUND: Identifying patients who may progress to a poor clinical outcome will encourage earlier appropriate therapeutic interventions. Brain edema may contribute to secondary injury in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and thus, may be a useful prognostic indicator. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether the presence of brain edema on the initial computed tomography (CT) scan of TBI patients would predict poor in-hospital outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all trauma patients with nonpenetrating head trauma at a Level I Trauma Center...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342701/predictive-subtle-or-overlooked-initial-head-ct-findings-in-patients-who-develop-delayed-chronic-subdural-hematoma
#19
William C Olivero, Huan Wang, Arash Farahvar, Thomas A Kim, Fei Wang
With the aging population, the incidence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is expected to rise. Once symptomatic the morbidity from CSDH is not insignificant. We studied patients who had a minor head injury and CT brain scan prior to developing CSDH to determine if there were any predictors on these scans for subsequent development of a CSDH. A retrospective review was performed on all patients operated for CSDH over a 3-year period and a review performed on those who had imaging studies at the time of a preceding minor head injury...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324183/multimodality-management-and-outcomes-of-brain-arterio-venous-malformations-avms-in-children-personal-experience-and-review-of-the-literature-with-specific-emphasis-on-age-at-first-avm-bleed
#20
REVIEW
Anan Shtaya, John Millar, Owen Sparrow
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to study the presentation and analyse the results of multimodality treatment of brain arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) in children at our centre and review age at first AVM rupture in the literature. METHODS: Of 52 patients aged <18 years, 47 with brain AVMs (27 males and 20 females) aged 4-17 years (mean 12.2) were retrospectively reviewed. PubMed search revealed five additional studies including 267 patients where the prevalence of age-related AVMs rupture was analysed...
April 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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