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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923560/computed-tomography-findings-in-young-children-with-minor-head-injury-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-greater-than-24h-post-injury
#1
Renana Gelernter, Giora Weiser, Eran Kozer
BACKGROUND: Large studies which developed decision rules for the use of Computed tomography (CT) in children with minor head trauma excluded children with late presentation (more than 24h). OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of significant traumatic brain injury (TBI) on CT in infants with head trauma presenting to the emergency department (ED) more than 24h from the injury. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of infants less than 24 months old referred for head CT because of traumatic brain injury from January 2004 to December 2014 in Assaf-Harofeh medical center was conducted...
September 11, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916167/structural-neuroimaging-in-sport-related-concussion
#2
Erin D Bigler
Structural neuroimaging of athletes who have sustained a sports-related concussion (SRC) can be viewed as either standard clinical imaging or with advanced neuroimaging methods that quantitatively assess brain structure. Negative findings from conventional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the norm in SRC. Nonetheless, these conventional measures remain the first line of neuroimaging of the athlete as they do detect clinically significant pathologies, when present, such as hemorrhagic abnormalities in the form of hematomas, contusions and mircobleeds along with regions of focal encephalomalacia or other signal abnormalities, with CT best capable of detecting skull fractures...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915161/unenhanced-dual-energy-computed-tomography-visualization-of-brain-edema
#3
Mohammed F Mohammed, Olivia Marais, Adam Min, David Ferguson, Sabeena Jalakhan, Faisal Khosa, Michael OʼKeeffe, Tim OʼConnell, Heiko Schmiedeskamp, Bernhard Krauss, Axel Rohr, Savvas Nicolaou
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) imaging is superior to conventional noncontrast computed tomography (CT) imaging for the detection of acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center study of 40 patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) of a major, acute care, teaching center with signs and symptoms of acute stroke. Only those patients who presented to the ED within 4 hours of symptom onset were included in this study...
September 14, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913298/the-unnecessity-of-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-the-etiologic-evaluation-of-neurodevelopmental-delay-in-craniosynostosis-patients
#4
Chae Eun Yang, Eun Kyung Park, Myung Chul Lee, Kyu Won Shim, Yong Oock Kim
BACKGROUND: In evaluation of craniosynostosis patients in terms of neurodevelopmental delay, positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) scan can be used to assess brain abnormalities through glucose metabolism. We aimed to determine the unnecessity of PET-CT in this study. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with craniosynostosis who underwent distraction osteogenesis from October, 2010 to November, 2013 were reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET-CT scan were carried out for evaluation of the brain structure and function, whereas X-ray and CT scan were taken for evaluation of the skull...
March 2017: Arch Craniofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910815/the-outcome-and-patterns-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-paediatric-population-of-a-developing-country-secondary-to-tv-trolley-tip-over
#5
Muhammad Waqas, Gohar Javed, Karim Rizwan Nathani, Badar Ujjan, Syed A Quadri, Muhammad Zubair Tahir
BACKGROUND: Television (TV) trolley tip-over incidences are common and can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study was aimed at analyzing the pattern and outcomes of head injuries resulting from TV trolley tip-over. METHOD: We conducted a medical chart review of children with TV trolley tip-over head injuries from January 2009 to April 2016. We collected data on demographics, the mechanism of injury, clinical and radiological features of the injury, and outcomes...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898130/imaging-of-children-with-nontraumatic-headaches
#6
Anna Trofimova, Brianna L Vey, Mark E Mullins, David S Wolf, Nadja Kadom
OBJECTIVE: Headache in children is a common symptom and often is worrisome for clinicians and parents because of the breadth of possible underlying significant abnormalities, including meningitis, brain neoplasms, and intracranial hemorrhage. For this reason, many children with headaches undergo neuroimaging. Most neuroimaging studies performed of children with headaches have normal findings but may lead to significant downstream effects, including unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation or sedation, as well as unnecessary cost to the health care system...
September 12, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895098/recurrent-cerebral-attack-caused-by-thrombosis-in-the-pulmonary-vein-stump-in-a-patient-with-left-upper-lobectomy-on-anticoagulant-therapy-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Takahito Nakano, Mayumi Inaba, Hiroyuki Kaneda
BACKGROUND: Thrombus formation in the pulmonary vein stump after pulmonary resection has recently been identified as a cause of systemic thrombosis including brain infarction. However, there is limited research focusing on the clinical course of pulmonary vein stump thrombus, and optimal treatment and prevention strategies of this important complication have not been established. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed with lung cancer of the left upper lobe, cT4N2M0, cStage IIIB...
September 11, 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894943/swirl-sign-in-traumatic-acute-epidural-hematoma-prognostic-value-and-surgical-management
#8
Cheng Guo, Lin Liu, Bing Wang, Zhigang Wang
The swirl sign is identified as a small area of low attenuation within an intracranial hyperattenuating clot on non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans of the brain, which represents active bleeding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of the swirl sign among patients with acute epidural hematoma (AEDH) and to identify its prognostic value and impact on surgical treatment. A retrospective review was performed of patients with a diagnosis of traumatic EDH by CT scan who were surgically treated at the Department of Neurosurgery of the First People's Hospital of Jingmen between January 2010 and January 2014...
September 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889124/factors-affecting-stereotactic-accuracy-in-image-guided-deep-brain-stimulator-electrode-placement
#9
Andrew L Ko, Aly Ibrahim, Philippe Magown, Rebecca Macallum, Kim J Burchiel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intraoperative imaging allows near-real-time assessment of stereotactic accuracy during implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. Such technology can be used to examine factors impacting stereotactic error. METHODS: Intraoperative CT imaging was reviewed in patients undergoing DBS placement at Oregon Health and Sciences University. Coordinates of the target electrode were compared to the operative plan to characterize the magnitude and direction of stereotactic error with respect to side of implantation, target, and electrode approach angles...
September 9, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887599/uptake-of-av-1451-in-meningiomas
#10
Tyler J Bruinsma, Derek R Johnson, Ping Fang, Matthew Senjem, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell, Bradley F Boeve, Mukesh K Pandey, Kejal Kantarci, David T Jones, Prashanthi Vemuri, Melissa Murray, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Christopher G Schwarz, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Val J Lowe
AIM: AV-1451 is an imaging agent labeled with the positron-emitting radiolabel Fluorine-18. 18F-AV-1451 binds paired helical filament tau (PHF-tau), a pathology related to Alzheimer's disease. In our study of AV-1451 uptake in the brains of cognitively normal subjects, we noted a case of a meningioma with visually significant uptake of AV-1451. OBJECTIVE: We initiated the present retrospective study to further examine cases of meningioma that underwent AV-1451 imaging...
September 8, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874317/generalized-paroxysmal-fast-activity-in-eeg-an-unrecognized-finding-in-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#11
Vishwanath Sagi, Inyup Kim, Amar B Bhatt, Hasan Sonmezturk, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Amir M Arain
OBJECTIVE: To study generalized paroxysmal fast activity (GPFA) in patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). INTRODUCTION: GPFA is an electroencephalographic (EEG) finding in patients with symptomatic generalized epilepsy consisting of 15-25Hz bifrontally predominant generalized fast activity seen predominantly in sleep. Historically GPFA is linked to epileptic encephalopathy with drug resistant epilepsy and intellectual disability. However, GPFA has been rarely described as an atypical finding in patients with GGE without negative prognostic implication...
September 2, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855921/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-and-its-implications-for-paediatric-endocrinology
#12
REVIEW
Huseyin Demirbilek, Sofia A Rahman, Gonul Gulal Buyukyilmaz, Khalid Hussain
Glucose homeostasis requires appropriate and synchronous coordination of metabolic events and hormonal activities to keep plasma glucose concentrations in a narrow range of 3.5-5.5 mmol/L. Insulin, the only glucose lowering hormone secreted from pancreatic β-cells, plays the key role in glucose homeostasis. Insulin release from pancreatic β-cells is mainly regulated by intracellular ATP-generating metabolic pathways. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH), the most common cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children, is the inappropriate secretion of insulin which occurs despite low plasma glucose levels leading to severe and persistent hypoketotic hypoglycaemia...
2017: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831542/-importance-of-imaging-diagnostics-and-eeg-for-differential-diagnosis-of-epileptic-seizures
#13
REVIEW
C Vollmar, S Noachtar
Electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging are the two most crucial diagnostic methods for epilepsy. The EEG represents the only specific method to detect epileptogenicity of a brain lesion. The EEG shows some syndrome-specific alterations, helps to make therapeutic decisions and allows prognosis about the disease. Neuroimaging in epilepsy includes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Neuroimaging is crucial to clarify the underlying etiology and to localize the epileptogenic zone and has contributed to expanding the spectrum of patients where epilepsy surgery can be provided...
August 22, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821516/a-retrospective-review-of-paediatric-head-injuries-in-asia-a-pan-asian-trauma-outcomes-study-patos-collaboration
#14
Shu-Ling Chong, Uzma Rahim Khan, Indumathy Santhanam, Jun Seok Seo, Quan Wang, Sabariah Faizah Jamaluddin, Quoc Ai Hoang Trong, Su Yah Chew, Marcus Eng Hock Ong
OBJECTIVE: We aim to examine the mechanisms of head-injured children presenting to participating centres in the Pan Asian Trauma Outcomes Study (PATOS) and to evaluate the association between mechanism of injury and severe outcomes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a retrospective review of medical records among emergency departments (EDs) of eight PATOS centres, from September 2014 - August 2015. PARTICIPANTS: We included children <16 years old who presented within 24 hours of head injury and were admitted for observation or required a computed tomography (CT) of the brain from the ED...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816935/perimesencephalic-nonaneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-caused-by-transverse-sinus-thrombosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#15
Fang-Wang Fu, Jie Rao, Yuan-Yuan Zheng, Liang Song, Wei Chen, Qi-Hui Zhou, Jian-Guang Yang, Jiang-Qiong Ke, Guo-Qing Zheng
RATIONALE: Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PNSAH) is characterized by a pattern of extravasated blood restricted to the perimesencephalic cisterns, normal angiographic findings, and an excellent prognosis with an uneventful course and low risks of complication. The precise etiology of bleeding in patients with PNSAH has not yet been established. The most common hypothesis is that PNSAH is venous in origin. Intracranial venous hypertension has been considered as the pivotal factor in the pathogenesis of PNSAH...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801417/optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-sonography-for-the-diagnosis-of-increased-intracranial-pressure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#16
Alex Koziarz, Niv Sne, Fraser Kegel, Waleed Alhazzani, Siddharth Nath, Jetan H Badhiwala, Timothy Rice, Paul Engels, Faidi Samir, Andrew Healey, Kamyar Kahnamoui, Laura Banfield, Sunjay Sharma, Kesava Reddy, Gregory W J Hawryluk, Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Saleh A Almenawer
INTRODUCTION: Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a significant neurological issue that may lead to permanent neurological sequelae. When evaluating patients with traumatic brain injury, it is crucial to identify those with high ICP in order to expedite ICP lowering measures and maintain adequate cerebral perfusion. Several measures are used to recognise patients with increased ICP including CT scan, MRI, ICP monitor, and lumbar puncture (LP). However, these tests can be invasive, associated with radiation exposure, contraindicated, or not readily available...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801174/the-cerebral-collateral-circulation-relevance-to-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Myron D Ginsberg
The brain's collateral circulation consists of arterial anastomotic channels capable of providing nutrient perfusion to brain regions whose normal sources of flow have become compromised, as occurs in acute ischemic stroke. Modern CT-based neuroimaging is capable of providing detailed information as to collateral extent and sufficiency and is complemented by magnetic resonance-based methods. In the present era of standard-of-care IV thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, and following the recent therapeutic successes of randomized clinical trials of acute endovascular intervention, the sufficiency of the collateral circulation has been convincingly established as a key factor influencing the likelihood of successful reperfusion and favorable clinical outcome...
August 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781057/multiple-lacunar-infarcts-in-paroxysmal-nocturnal-hemoglobinuria
#18
Alex Tiburtino Meira, Gabriel Sampaio Froehner, André Petean Trindade, Silméia Garcia Zanati Bazan, Gabriel Pereira Braga, Rodrigo Bazan
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disease characterized by clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder, with increased mortality and morbidity. Venous thrombosis is the most common cause of mortality in PNH. The relationship between PNH and cerebrovascular disease is unclear; few cases are reported in the literature, most of them related to cerebral venous thrombosis; In PNH the involvement of intracranial and extracranial arterial sites is very rare. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who has a medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and PNH and presented multiple lacunar strokes in a routine consultation with a hematologist...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780552/a-surveillance-study-to-determine-the-accuracy-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-diagnosis-in-an-emergency-department-protocol-for-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Ilaria Pozzato, Ian D Cameron, Susanne Meares, Annette Kifley, Kim Van Vu, Anthony Liang, Mark Gillett, Ashley Craig, Bamini Gopinath
INTRODUCTION: Previous literature confirms that a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may result in long-term emotional impacts and, in vulnerable subgroups, cognitive deficits. The accurate diagnosis of mTBI and its written documentation is an important first step towards providing appropriate and timely clinical care. Surveillance studies involving emergency department (ED) and hospital-based data need to be prioritised as these provide incident mTBI estimates. This project will advance existing research findings by estimating the occurrence of mTBI among those attending an ED and quantifying the accuracy of mTBI diagnoses recorded by ED staff through a comprehensive audit of ED records...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776270/infarct-fogging-on-immediate-postinterventional-ct-a-not-infrequent-occurrence
#20
Sven Dekeyzer, Arno Reich, Ahmed E Othman, Martin Wiesmann, Omid Nikoubashman
PURPOSE: A pseudo-normalization of infarcted brain parenchyma, similar to the "fogging effect" which usually occurs after 2-3 weeks, can be observed on CT performed immediately after endovascular stroke treatment (EST). Goal of this study was to analyze the incidence of this phenomenon and its evolution on follow-up imaging. METHODS: One hundred fifty-two patients in our database of 949 patients, who were treated for acute stroke between January 2010 and January 2015, fulfilled the inclusion criteria of (a) EST for an acute stroke in the anterior circulation, (b) an ASPECT-score < 10 on pre-interventional CT, and (c) postinterventional CT imaging within 4...
August 3, 2017: Neuroradiology
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