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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213195/blunt-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-a-role-for-ct-angiography-of-the-head-to-evaluate-non-traumatic-etiologies
#1
REVIEW
Ha Nguyen, Ninh Doan, Michael Gelsomino, Saman Shabani
BACKGROUND: In the setting of trauma, the etiology of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is frequently attributed to the physical, traumatic event. Caution should still be directed towards non-traumatic (or spontaneous) etiologies responsible for the trauma, such as hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, aneurysms, vascular malformation, and hemorrhagic infarcts. The role for immediate CT angiography (CTA) remains controversial to evaluate for non-traumatic etiologies. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature in Medline PubMed database...
February 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209646/rete-mirabile-associated-with-pial-arteriovenous-fistula-imaging-features-with-literature-review
#2
Prabath Kumar Mondel, Rashmi Saraf, Uday S Limaye
A rete mirabile is a vascular network of intercommunicating small arteries or arterioles that replace the definitive adult artery supplying the brain. It supplies the brain in lower mammals but is not seen in normal human embryological development. A 26-year-old man presented with worsening tinnitus that was interfering with his sleep. On CT and digital subtraction angiography he was found to have a temporal lobe pial arteriovenous fistula with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile. The patient was offered open surgical and endovascular treatment options for pial arteriovenous fistula but he refused both and opted for conservative medical management...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208150/acute-and-subacute-presentations-of-cerebral-edema-following-deep-brain-stimulation-lead-implantation
#3
Albert J Fenoy, Sebastian J Villarreal, Mya C Schiess
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Postoperative cerebral edema around a deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode is an uncommon reported complication. The goal of this study was to identify instances of postoperative edema based on clinical presentation, and to remark on their management. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent DBS electrode implantation over a 3-year period. Routine CT imaging on postoperative day (POD) 1 was negative. Patients were identified based on clinical neurological changes, leading to imaging and subsequent diagnosis...
February 17, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192877/effect-of-hyperglycemia-on-brain-and-liver-18-f-fdg-standardized-uptake-value-fdg-suv-measured-by-quantitative-positron-emission-tomography-pet-imaging
#4
Benjamin L Viglianti, Ka Kit Wong, Stephanie M Wimer, Aishwarya Paraeswaran, Bin Nan, Christy Ky, Danyelle M Townsend, Domenico Rubello, Kirk A Frey, Milton D Gross
PURPOSE: Blood glucose is routinely measured prior to (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) administration in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to identify hyperglycemia that may affect image quality. In this study we explore the effects of blood glucose levels upon semi-quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements of target organs and tissues of interest and in particular address the relationship of blood glucose to FDG accumulation in the brain and liver. METHODS: 436 FDG PET/CT consecutive studies performed for oncology staging in 229 patients (226 male) at the Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Healthcare System were reviewed...
February 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190518/brain-computed-tomography-compared-with-facial-3-dimensional-computed-tomography-for-diagnosis-of-facial-fractures
#5
Sun Hwa Lee, Seong Jong Yun, Seokyong Ryu, Seoung Won Choi, Hye Jin Kim, Tae Kyug Kang, Sung Chan Oh, Suk Jin Cho
OBJECTIVES: To compare the detection of facial fractures and radiation dose between brain computed tomography (CT) and facial 3-dimensional (3D) CT in pediatric patients who have experienced a trauma. STUDY DESIGN: Four hundred pediatric patients who experienced a trauma and underwent immediate brain CT and facial 3D CT between January 2016 and June 2016 were included in this retrospective study. Two reviewers independently analyzed and determined the presence of the facial fractures of 8 anatomic regions based on brain CT and facial 3D CT over a 1-week interval...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185967/intraoperative-ct-and-nexframe-guided-placement-of-bilateral-hippocampal-based-responsive-neurostimulation-a-technical-note
#6
Kunal Gupta, Jeffrey S Raskin, Ahmed M Raslan
INTRODUCTION: Surgical resection of a lesion that correlates with seizure onset in patients with epilepsy can dramatically improve seizure burden and quality of life. For bilateral hippocampal lesions, bilateral resection comes with a risk of severe cognitive deficits. Responsive neurostimulation (RNS) devices offers a new modality to treat multifocal lesions in a reversible manner, including bilateral hippocampal stimulation. We describe technical aspects of Nexframe-assisted placement of bilateral NeuroPace mesial temporal electrodes, and case examples...
February 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183837/diagnostic-performance-of-ultrafast-brain-mri-for-evaluation-of-abusive-head-trauma
#7
S F Kralik, M Yasrebi, N Supakul, C Lin, L G Netter, R A Hicks, R A Hibbard, L L Ackerman, M L Harris, C Y Ho
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging with sedation is commonly used to detect intracranial traumatic pathology in the pediatric population. Our purpose was to compare nonsedated ultrafast MR imaging, noncontrast head CT, and standard MR imaging for the detection of intracranial trauma in patients with potential abusive head trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed in 24 pediatric patients who were evaluated for potential abusive head trauma...
February 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169856/postinterventional-critical-care-management-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#8
Sudhir Datar, Alejandro A Rabinstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm (aSAH) is a complex disorder with the potential to have devastating effects on the brain as well as other organ systems. After more than 3 decades of research, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms remain incompletely understood and important questions remain regarding the evaluation and management of these patients. The purpose of this review is to analyze the recent literature and improve our understanding of certain key clinical aspects...
February 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157745/diagnosis-and-management-of-transient-ischemic-attack
#9
Shelagh B Coutts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the diagnosis, investigation, and recommended management after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and discusses how to make an accurate diagnosis, including the diagnosis of mimics of TIAs. RECENT FINDINGS: Up to a 10% risk of recurrent stroke exists after a TIA, and up to 80% of this risk is preventable with urgent assessment and treatment. Imaging of the brain and intracranial and extracranial blood vessels using CT, CT angiography, carotid Doppler ultrasound, and MRI is an important part of the diagnostic assessment...
February 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155808/using-electrical-stimulation-to-enhance-the-efficacy-of-cell-transplantation-therapies-for-neurodegenerative-retinal-diseases-concepts-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#10
Abby Leigh Manthey, Wei Liu, Zhi Xin Jiang, Marcus Hiu Kong Lee, Jian Ji, Kwok-Fai So, Jimmy Shiu Ming Lai, Vincent Wing Hong Lee, Kin Chiu
Disease or trauma-induced loss or dysfunction of neurons in any central nervous system (CNS) tissue will have a significant impact on the health of the affected patient. The retina is a multilayered tissue that originates from the neuroectoderm, much like the brain and spinal cord. While sight is not required for life, neurodegeneration-related loss of vision not only affects the quality of life for the patient, but also has societal implications in terms of health care expenditure. Thus, it is essential to develop effective strategies to repair the retina and prevent disease symptoms...
February 3, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126030/a-review-of-substitute-ct-generation-for-mri-only-radiation-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Jens M Edmund, Tufve Nyholm
Radiotherapy based on magnetic resonance imaging as the sole modality (MRI-only RT) is an area of growing scientific interest due to the increasing use of MRI for both target and normal tissue delineation and the development of MR based delivery systems. One major issue in MRI-only RT is the assignment of electron densities (ED) to MRI scans for dose calculation and a similar need for attenuation correction can be found for hybrid PET/MR systems. The ED assigned MRI scan is here named a substitute CT (sCT)...
January 26, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125024/interstitial-photodynamic-therapy-a-focused-review
#12
REVIEW
Gal Shafirstein, David Bellnier, Emily Oakley, Sasheen Hamilton, Mary Potasek, Karl Beeson, Evgueni Parilov
Multiple clinical studies have shown that interstitial photodynamic therapy (I-PDT) is a promising modality in the treatment of locally-advanced cancerous tumors. However, the utilization of I-PDT has been limited to several centers. The objective of this focused review is to highlight the different approaches employed to administer I-PDT with photosensitizers that are either approved or in clinical studies for the treatment of prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, head and neck cancer, and brain cancer. Our review suggests that I-PDT is a promising treatment in patients with large-volume or thick tumors...
January 24, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121927/primary-cerebral-malignant-melanoma-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Kai Tang, Xiangyi Kong, Gengsheng Mao, Ming Qiu, Haibo Zhu, Lei Zhou, Qingbin Nie, Yi Xu, Shiwei Du
Primary intracranial melanomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 1% of all melanoma cases and 0.07% of all brain tumors. In nature, these primary melanomas are very aggressive and can spread to other organs.We report an uncommon case of primary cerebral malignant melanoma-a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological features, and surgical biopsy results, aiming to emphasize the importance of considering primary melanoma when making differential diagnoses of intracranial lesions...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105096/nocardiosis-in-ectopic-acth-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-11-cases-from-the-literature
#14
Lichen Xu, Qiaomai Xu, Meifang Yang, Hainv Gao, Mingzhi Xu, Weihang Ma
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome (EAS) associated with nocardiosis is rare, and little information is available regarding its clinical characteristics. In this study, the case of a 35-year-old male patient who showed significant cushingoid features and had a cough with yellow phlegm for 1 month is described. Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scanning and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with CT identified two different lesions in the mediastinum and pulmonary region, respectively...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104300/challenges-and-opportunities-in-primary-cns-lymphoma-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Mariana N Kerbauy, Fabio Y Moraes, Benjamin H Lok, Jennifer Ma, Lucila N Kerbauy, Daniel E Spratt, Fabio P S Santos, Guilherme F Perini, Alejandro Berlin, Caroline Chung, Nelson Hamerschlak, Joachim Yahalom
BACKGROUND: Historically, high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) plus consolidation chemotherapy and/or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been the gold standard on Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL) management. We sought to examine and summarize the data, on clinical trial (CT) setting, investigating multi-modality treatment to PCNSL. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Database and clinicaltrials...
January 16, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095387/mri-of-cerebellar-infarction
#16
Laurens J L De Cocker, Karl-Olof Lövblad, Jeroen Hendrikse
BACKGROUND: MRI is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing brain infarction. Because of few or atypical clinical symptoms and a relatively low sensitivity of CT scans, many cerebellar infarctions may be detected only with MRI. With adequate recognition of cerebellar infarction on MRI and prompt initiation or optimisation of preventive therapeutic measures, more dramatic strokes may be avoided in selected cases. SUMMARY: We first briefly review the clinical presentation of cerebellar infarctions, followed by a short refresher on cerebellar anatomy and pathophysiological mechanisms of cerebellar infarcts...
January 18, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091809/a-review-of-penetrating-brain-trauma-epidemiology-pathophysiology-imaging-assessment-complications-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Mona T Vakil, Ajay K Singh
Gunshot injuries are the most common cause of penetrating brain injury (PBI) and carry a high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of PBI has increased over the last decade with an estimated 35,000 civilian deaths annually. Patients that survive to reach the hospital require rapid triage and imaging evaluation. CT findings in conjunction with the Glasgow Coma Scale are typically used to determine which patients are surgical candidates. Radiologists should be familiar with the various injury patterns and imaging findings which are poor prognostic indicators, notably brainstem, bilateral hemispheric, multilobar, or transventricular injuries...
January 14, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060192/imaging-of-the-lungs-in-organ-donors-and-its-clinical-relevance-a-retrospective-analysis
#18
Gracijela Bozovic, Catharina Adlercreutz, Peter Höglund, Isabella Björkman-Burtscher, Peter Reinstrup, Richard Ingemansson, Cornelia Schaefer-Prokop, Roger Siemund, Mats Geijer
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic imaging that potential lung donors undergo, the reader variability of image interpretation and its relevance for donation, and the potential information gained from imaging studies not primarily intended for lung evaluation but partially including them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bedside chest radiography and computed tomography (CT), completely or incompletely including the lungs, of 110 brain-dead potential organ donors in a single institution during 2007 to 2014 were reviewed from a donation perspective...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048545/we-de-207a-04-advances-in-radiological-neuro-endovascular-interventional-imaging
#19
S Rudin
: 1. Parallels in the evolution of x-ray angiographic systems and devices used for minimally invasive endovascular therapy Charles Strother - DSA, invented by Dr. Charles Mistretta at UW-Madison, was the technology which enabled the development of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. As DSA became widely available and the potential benefits for accessing the cerebral vasculature from an endovascular approach began to be apparent, industry began efforts to develop tools for use in these procedures...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048528/we-h-206-01-photoacoustic-tomography-multiscale-imaging-from-organelles-to-patients-by-ultrasonically-beating-the-optical-diffusion-limit
#20
L Wang
: Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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