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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122037/grey-matter-volume-and-thickness-abnormalities-in-young-people-with-a-history-of-childhood-abuse
#1
L Lim, H Hart, M Mehta, A Worker, A Simmons, K Mirza, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is associated with abnormalities in brain structure and function. Few studies have investigated abuse-related brain abnormalities in medication-naïve, drug-free youth that also controlled for psychiatric comorbidities by inclusion of a psychiatric control group, which is crucial to disentangle the effects of abuse from those associated with the psychiatric conditions. METHODS: Cortical volume (CV), cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) were measured in 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve youth (aged 13-20) exposed to childhood abuse, 19 psychiatric controls matched for psychiatric diagnoses and 27 healthy controls...
November 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094783/surface-based-electrode-localization-and-standardized-regions-of-interest-for-intracranial-eeg
#2
Michael S Trotta, John Cocjin, Emily Whitehead, Srikanth Damera, John H Wittig, Ziad S Saad, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
Intracranial recordings captured from subdural electrodes in patients with drug resistant epilepsy offer clinicians and researchers a powerful tool for examining neural activity in the human brain with high spatial and temporal precision. There are two major challenges, however, to interpreting these signals both within and across individuals. Anatomical distortions following implantation make accurately identifying the electrode locations difficult. In addition, because each implant involves a unique configuration, comparing neural activity across individuals in a standardized manner has been limited to broad anatomical regions such as cortical lobes or gyri...
November 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058091/disturbance-of-ct-perfusion-within-24%C3%A2-h-after-onset-is-associated-with-wfns-grade-but-not-development-of-dci-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-sah
#3
Yuichi Takahashi, Atsushi Sasahara, Kei Yamazaki, Mayuko Inazuka, Hidetoshi Kasuya
BACKGROUND: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a serious complication following aneurysmal SAH (aSAH) and remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether data from CT perfusion (CTP) within 24 h after onset are associated with DCI and its outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively examined plain CT, CTP, and CT angiography (CTA) of aSAH patients on arrival. We measured the average mean transit time (aMTT) and compared it with several clinical factors, such as the age, WFNS grade, Fisher group, delayed cerebral infarction, cerebral vasospasm, and modified Rankin scale (mRS), at 1 month...
October 23, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050158/-ct-perfusion-analysis-on-the-association-of-permeability-surface-with-hematoma-and-edema-volume-in-acute-spontaneous-putaminal-and-thalamic-hematoma
#4
H L Xu, J C Wang, Y Zhang, S L Liu, W W He, X T Qin, G Q Cao, Y J Yang, Q C Zhuge, W J Chen
Objective: To discuss the correlation of permeability surface (PS) with hematoma and edema volume in acute spontaneous putaminal and thalamic hematoma using CT perfusion imaging. Methods: A total of 48 acute spontaneous putaminal and thalamic hemorrhage patients were enrolled in this study during October 2015 and December 2016 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. At the image slice with maximum size of hematoma, PS was measured by drawing various regions of interest (ROI) including"hot spots", perihematomal regions, outward regions, hemisphere regions and contralateral mirror regions...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044653/morphological-changes-of-the-optic-lobe-from-late-embryonic-to-adult-stages-in-oval-squids-sepioteuthis-lessoniana
#5
Yung-Chieh Liu, Wen-Sung Chung, Chun-Chieh Yu, Su-Ting Hsu, Fung-Lan Chan, Tsung-Han Liu, Chia-Hao Su, Yeukuang Hwu, N Justin Marshall, Chuan-Chin Chiao
The optic lobe is the largest brain area within the central nervous system of cephalopods and it plays important roles in the processing of visual information, the regulation of body patterning, and locomotive behavior. The oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana has relatively large optic lobes that are responsible for visual communication via dynamic body patterning. It has been observed that the visual behaviors of oval squids change as the animals mature, yet little is known about how the structure of the optic lobes changes during development...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994465/impact-of-pet-ct-system-reconstruction-protocol-data-analysis-method-and-repositioning-on-pet-ct-precision-an-experimental-evaluation-using-an-oncology-and-brain-phantom
#6
Syahir Mansor, Elisabeth Pfaehler, Dennis Heijtel, Martin A Lodge, Ronald Boellaard, Maqsood Yaqub
PURPOSE: In longitudinal oncological and brain PET/CT studies it is important to understand the repeatability of quantitative PET metrics in order to assess change in tracer uptake. The present studies were performed in order to assess precision as function of PET/CT system, reconstruction protocol, analysis method, scan duration (or image noise) and repositioning in the field of view. METHODS: Multiple (repeated) scans have been performed using a NEMA image quality (IQ) phantom and a 3D Hoffman brain phantom filled with (18) F solutions on two systems...
October 10, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986929/evolution-of-brain-region-volumes-during-artificial-selection-for-relative-brain-size
#7
Alexander Kotrschal, Hong-Li Zeng, Wouter van der Bijl, Caroline Öhman-Mägi, Kurt Kotrschal, Kristiaan Pelckmans, Niclas Kolm
The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size...
October 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983441/high-value-care-in-the-evaluation-of-stroke
#8
Prakrity Urja, Eric H Nippoldt, Virginia Barak, Carrie Valenta
Value-based care emphasizes achieving the greatest overall health benefit for every dollar spent. We present an interesting case of stroke, which made us consider how frequently health care providers are utilizing value-based care. A 73-year-old Caucasian, who was initially admitted for a hypertensive emergency, was transferred to our facility for worsening slurring of speech and left-sided weakness. The patient had an extensive chronic cerebrovascular disease, including multiple embolic type strokes, mainly in the distribution of the right temporal-occipital cerebral artery and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)...
August 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967295/predictive-value-of-leakage-signs-for-pure-brain-contusional-hematoma-expansion
#9
Kimihiko Orito, Masaru Hirohata, Yukihiko Nakamura, Masafumi Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Takeshige, Takachika Aoki, Gohsuke Hattori, Kiyohiko Sakata, Yasuharu Takeuchi, Hideaki Uzu, Osamu Takasu, Toshi Abe, Yusuke Uchiyama, Motohiro Morioka
BACKGROUND: Hematoma expansion is an important consideration in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, no precise methods are available for predicting the expansion of TBI-related hematoma. We aimed to establish a more sensitive predictor for contusional hematoma expansion based on the presence of leakage signs on computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: Thirty-three patients with pure contusion were included in the analysis (age: 64.1 ± 20...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934363/sex-related-differences-in-the-risk-factors-for-in-hospital-mortality-and-outcomes-of-ischemic-stroke-patients-in-rural-areas-of-taiwan
#10
Cheung-Ter Ong, Yi-Sin Wong, Sheng-Feng Sung, Chi-Shun Wu, Yung-Chu Hsu, Yu-Hsiang Su, Ling-Chien Hung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sex-related differences in the clinical presentation and outcomes of stroke patients are issues that have attracted increased interest from the scientific community. The present study aimed to investigate sex-related differences in the risk factors for in-hospital mortality and outcome in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: A total of 4278 acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to a stroke unit between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2014 were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913731/inter-and-intra-observer-reproducibility-of-quantitative-analysis-for-fp-cit-spect-in-patients-with-dlb
#11
Atsutaka Okizaki, Michihiro Nakayama, Kaori Nakajima, Takayuki Katayama, Takahiro Uno, Fumiyoshi Morikawa, Juichiro Naoe, Koji Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Dopamine transporter single photon emission CT (DAT-SPECT) is useful in the evaluation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The specific binding ratio (SBR) is an index to measure DAT density. However, poorly reproducible cases are occasionally experienced in clinical practice. We hypothesized that distance-weighted histogram (DWH) may be useful to improve the reproducibility of SBR. The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of SBR with conventional and DWH methods, and to visually evaluate the precision in reference voxel of interest (VOI) definition using these methods...
September 14, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840133/whole-body-distribution-of-donepezil-as-an-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-after-oral-administration-in-normal-human-subjects-a-11-c-donepezil-pet-study
#12
Ikuko Mochida, Eku Shimosegawa, Yasukazu Kanai, Sadahiro Naka, Keiko Matsunaga, Kayako Isohashi, Genki Horitsugi, Tadashi Watabe, Hiroki Kato, Jun Hatazawa
OBJECTIVES: It is difficult to investigate the whole-body distribution of an orally administered drug by means of positron emission tomography (PET), owing to the short physical half-life of radionuclides, especially when (11)C-labeled compounds are tested. Therefore, we aimed to examine the whole-body distribution of donepezil (DNP) as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor by means of (11)C-DNP PET imaging, combined with the oral administration of pharmacological doses of DNP. METHODS: We studied 14 healthy volunteers, divided into group A (n=4) and group B (n=10)...
2017: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837829/precuneus-abnormalities-in-middle-aged-to-older-adults-with-depressive-symptoms-an-analysis-of-bdi-ii-symptom-dimensions
#13
Sarah M Szymkowicz, Vonetta M Dotson, Molly E McLaren, Liselotte De Wit, Deirdre M O'Shea, Francis T Talty, Andrew O'Shea, Eric C Porges, Ronald A Cohen, Adam J Woods
We recently reported age-related increases in left precuneus cortical thickness (CT) in older adults with elevated total depressive symptoms. However, it is unclear whether abnormalities in precuneus surface area (SA) are also evident and whether specific symptom dimensions of depression moderated age effects on these measurements. Seventy-three adults completed the Beck Depression Inventory - 2nd edition (BDI-II) and underwent structural neuroimaging. Measures of CT and SA were extracted from the right and left precuneus via FreeSurfer...
October 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780827/-imaging-diagnosis-of-95-cases-of-moderate-and-severe-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#14
N N Hao, C Tian, K X Lian, T Han, S Jin
Objective: To explore the difference of radiological imaging features of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning (DECMP) and acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) , and the correlation between the imaging findings and clinical prognosis of the disease. Methods: The correlation between imaging findings and clinical manifestations and prognosis of 95 patients with moderate and severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning were retrospectively analyzed. In the above 95 cases, there were 62 cases of ACMP and 33 cases of DEACMP...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766885/technical-note-construction-of-heterogeneous-head-phantom-for-quality-control-in-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#15
Mohsen Najafi, Javad Teimouri, Alireza Shirazi, Ghazale Geraily, Mahbod Esfahani, Mostafa Shafaei
PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery is a high precision modality for conformally delivering high doses of radiation to the brain lesion with a large dose volume. Several studies for the quality control of this technique were performed to measure the dose delivered to the target with a homogenous head phantom and some dosimeters. Some studies were also performed with one or two instances of heterogeneity in the head phantom to measure the dose delivered to the target. But these studies assumed the head as a sphere and simple shape heterogeneity...
October 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745443/discrimination-between-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-and-healthy-subjects-based-on-cerebral-blood-flow-images-of-the-lateral-views-in-xenon-enhanced-computed-tomography
#16
Shigeru Sase, Homaro Yamamoto, Ena Kawashima, Xin Tan, Yutaka Sawa
BACKGROUND: Quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement is expected to help early detection of functional abnormalities caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) and enable AD treatment to begin in its early stages. Recently, a technique of layer analysis was reported that allowed CBF to be analyzed from the outer to inner layers of the brain. The aim of this work was to develop methods for discriminating between patients with mild AD and healthy subjects based on CBF images of the lateral views created with the layer analysis technique in xenon-enhanced computed tomography...
July 26, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705930/influence-of-attenuation-correction-by-brain-perfusion-spect-ct-simulated-abnormal-bone-structure-comparison-between-chang-and-ct-methods
#17
Takayuki Shibutani, Masahisa Onoguchi, Nanako Miyamoto, Yasushi Yamamoto, Seigo Kinuya
Introduction: Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has physical phenomena such as attenuation, scatter, and degradation of resolution that impair accuracy on data acquisition. Chang and computed tomography (CT) methods have spread application for attenuation correction (AC) and indicate the utility of AC using a brain phantom without a bone or with a normal bone structure. However, non-uniform AC of an abnormal bone structure such as postoperative bone defect following burr-hole surgery has not yet evaluated...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671660/acute-and-chronic-models-of-hyperglycemia-in-zebrafish-a-method-to-assess-the-impact-of-hyperglycemia-on-neurogenesis-and-the-biodistribution-of-radiolabeled-molecules
#18
Anne-Claire Dorsemans, Christian Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Imade Ait-Arsa, Emmanuelle Jestin, Olivier Meilhac, Nicolas Diotel
Hyperglycemia is a major health issue that leads to cardiovascular and cerebral dysfunction. For instance, it is associated with increased neurological problems after stroke and is shown to impair neurogenic processes. Interestingly, the adult zebrafish has recently emerged as a relevant and useful model to mimic hyperglycemia/diabetes and to investigate constitutive and regenerative neurogenesis. This work provides methods to develop zebrafish models of hyperglycemia to explore the impact of hyperglycemia on brain cell proliferation under homeostatic and brain repair conditions...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581364/positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-features-of-monomorphic-epitheliotropic-intestinal-t-cell-lymphoma
#19
Thomas S Y Chan, Elaine Lee, Pek-Lan Khong, Eric W C Tse, Yok-Lam Kwong
OBJECTIVE: To define the positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) features of monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL), a rare malignancy in European and North American populations and the most common form of primary intestinal T-cell lymphoma in Asian populations. METHODS: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT findings of a cohort of MEITL patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Eight men and four women with MEITL investigated by PET/CT at diagnosis and relapse were retrospectively analyzed...
June 5, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523582/first-in-human-radiation-dosimetry-of-68-ga-nodaga-rgdyk
#20
Silvano Gnesin, Periklis Mitsakis, Francesco Cicone, Emmanuel Deshayes, Vincent Dunet, Augusto F Gallino, Marek Kosinski, Sébastien Baechler, Franz Buchegger, David Viertl, John O Prior
BACKGROUND: Integrin-targeting radiopharmaceuticals have potential broad applications, spanning from cancer theranostics to cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported preclinical dosimetry results of (68)Ga-NODAGA-RGDyK in mice. This study presents the first human dosimetry of (68)Ga-NODAGA-RGDyK in the five consecutive patients included in a clinical imaging protocol of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Five male patients underwent whole-body time-of-flight (TOF) PET/CT scans 10, 60 and 120 min after tracer injection (200 MBq)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
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