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Interesting CT brain

Kazuhiro Murayama, Kazuhiro Katada, Motoharu Hayakawa, Hiroshi Toyama
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to clarify the cause of shortened mean transit time (MTT) in acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease and examined its relationship with reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease underwent whole-brain computed tomography perfusion (CTP). The maximum MTT (MTTmax), minimum MTT (MTTmin), ratio of maximum and minimum MTT (MTTmin/max), and minimum cerebral blood volume (CBV) (CBVmin) were measured by automatic region of interest analysis...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Y Duan, B Q Yang, C C Chang, J Zhou, H Y Li, Z H Xu, Z W Wang, D Y Li
Objective: To evaluate the level of lexiscan-induced blood-brain barrier opening of healthy rabbits via CT perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) scan. Methods: Between November 2014 and May 2015, thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: the experimental group A1 which received one injection of lexiscan(1 ml/kg); the experimental group A2 which received three times injection of lexiscan(total dose: 1.5 ml/kg), finished within 15 minutes; the control group B which was injected the same volume normal saline(1 ml/kg), after 30 minutes, CT PWI scan was performed...
September 20, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Pradeep K Garg, Stephen J Lokitz, Rachid Nazih, Sudha Garg
: The main focus of this study was to assess the in vivo distribution and radiation absorbed dose of (11)C-nicotine derived from the whole body Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in humans. METHODS: After an initial Computed tomography (CT) attenuation scan, (11)C-nicotine was administered via an intravenous injection, and dynamic whole body PET scans were acquired in a 3-D mode on 11 normal healthy (5 male, 6 female) subjects. The first scan was acquired in a dynamic acquisition mode for 90 s with the brain in the field of view, followed by a series of whole body PET scans acquired over a 90 min time period...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
C Vigneron, V Labeye, M Cour, S Hannoun, A Grember, F Rampon, F Cotton
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that a loss of distinction between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) on unenhanced CT scans was predictive of poor outcome after cardiac arrest. The aim of this study was to identify a marker/predictor of imminent brain death. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 15 brain-dead patients after anoxia and cardiac arrest were included. Patients were paired (1:1) with normal control subjects. Only patients' unenhanced CT scans performed before brain death and during the 24 hours after initial signs were analyzed...
July 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Adam M H Young, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Helen Fernandes, Matthew R Garnett, Shruti Agrawal, Peter J Hutchinson
OBJECTIVE There is increasing interest in the use of predictive models of outcome in adult head injury. Two international models have been identified to be reliable modalities for predicting outcome: the Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury (CRASH) model, and the International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of randomized Controlled Trials in TBI (IMPACT) model. However, these models are designed only to identify outcomes in adult populations. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed on pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Addenbrooke's Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Peter G Kranz, Timothy J Amrhein, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Teerath Peter Tanpitukpongse, Linda Gray
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine whether the presence of individual imaging signs of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is correlated with increasing duration of headache symptoms. Of particular interest is the relationship of symptom duration to dural enhancement because it is the most commonly identified imaging sign in patients with SIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with SIH who underwent pretreatment brain MRI and total-spine CT myelography and whose medical record included data on the duration of clinical symptoms were included in this cross-sectional retrospective study...
August 24, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
SangDon Kwon, KyungAh Chun, EunJung Kong, IhnHo Cho
PURPOSE: (18)F-FP-CIT [(18)F-fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane] has been well established and used for the differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian disorders. Recently, combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) was proposed as a viable alternative to PET/computed tomography (CT). The aim of this study was to compare the performances of conventional (18)F-FP-CIT brain PET/CT and simultaneous PET/MR by visual inspection and quantitative analysis...
September 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Caroline Arbour, Andrée-Ann Baril, Harrison J Westwick, Marie-Julie Potvin, Danielle Gilbert, Jean-François Giguère, Gilles J Lavigne, Alex Desautels, Francis Bernard, Steven Laureys, Nadia Gosselin
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic amnesia is superior to the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score for predicting traumatic brain injury recovery, but it takes days/weeks to assess. Here, we examined whether return of visual fixation-a potential marker of higher cognitive function-within 24 hours of ICU admission could be used as an early predictor of traumatic brain injury recovery. DESIGN: Two-phase cohort study. SETTING: Level-I trauma ICU. PATIENTS: Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury discharged alive between 2010 and 2013...
August 5, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Ha Nguyen, Karl Janich, Ashish Sharma, Mohit Patel, Wade Mueller
INTRODUCTION: The fate of the bone flap is a significant decision during surgical treatment of acute subdural hematoma (SDH). A general guideline revolves around the surgeon's concern for brain edema. However, limited studies have focused on the factors that contribute to perioperative brain edema. We proposed that assessment of brain volume via CT imaging in patients without bone flaps is a reasonable model to study brain edema. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 38 patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy for acute SDH were reviewed...
July 28, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Akihide Kondo, Hisato Ishii, Shigeki Aoki, Masaru Suzuki, Hidekazu Nagasawa, Kazuo Kubota, Ryogo Minamimoto, Atsushi Arakawa, Masato Tominaga, Hajime Arai
OBJECTIVE: [(18)F]Fluciclovine (anti-[(18)F]FACBC) has demonstrated diagnostic efficacy for cancers of the brain where [(18)F]fludeoxyglucose has limitations. We conducted a phase IIa study of anti-[(18)F]FACBC to assess its accumulation pattern and safety in patients with malignant glioma. METHODS: Five patients with glioma scheduled for brain tumor resection received anti-[(18)F]FACBC. Brain positron emission tomography (PET) was performed following intravenous administration of anti-[(18)F]FACBC, and subsequently, preoperative gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CE-T1W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for surgery...
July 14, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Akira Maebatake, Ayaka Imamura, Yui Kodera, Yasuo Yamashita, Kazuhiko Himuro, Shingo Baba, Kenta Miwa, Masayuki Sasaki
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal reconstruction parameters for iterative reconstruction in different devices and collimators for dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The results were compared between filtered back projection (FBP) and different attenuation correction (AC) methods. METHODS: An anthropomorphic striatal phantom was filled with (123)I solutions at different striatum-to-background radioactivity ratios...
2016: Asia Ocean J Nucl Med Biol
Timothy G Dyster, Yagna Pathak, Elliot Smith, Sameer A Sheth
INTRODUCTION: Patients with medically refractory epilepsy often require intracranial electrode implantation for seizure localization. As the use of these procedures continues to increase, the demand for simpler and more efficient methods of electrode localization methods has grown. We developed a semiautomated pipeline to localize electrode contacts using multimodal neuroimaging data. METHODS: Our pipeline coregisters the preoperative MRI and the postoperative CT for each patient using a rigid body transformation and scaling to align electrodes in patient-specific anatomy...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Jo Ee Sam, Teak Sheng Gee, Abdul Wahab Nasser
INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever is a global pandemic threat with increasing incidence. To date, there are no cures and the effectiveness of dengue vaccines is still uncertain. World Heath Organization introduced expanded dengue syndrome to include unusual presentations of dengue fever including severe neurologic complications. One of the deadly complications is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). METHODOLOGY: We collected data of patients with ICH diagnosed via a plain computed tomography of the brain (CT brain) with thrombocytopenia and positive Dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein (NS1) antigen test or positive dengue serology IgM from January 2014 till June 2015 at our center...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
F Hauler, H Furtado, M Jurisic, S H Polanec, C Spick, A Laprie, U Nestle, U Sabatini, W Birkfellner
In radiotherapy, the use of multi-modal images can improve tumor and target volume delineation. Images acquired at different times by different modalities need to be aligned into a single coordinate system by 3D/3D registration. State of the art methods for validation of registration are visual inspection by experts and fiducial-based evaluation. Visual inspection is a qualitative, subjective measure, while fiducial markers sometimes suffer from limited clinical acceptance. In this paper we present an automatic, non-invasive method for assessing the quality of intensity-based multi-modal rigid registration using feature detectors...
July 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
X Zhang, G D Newport, R Callicott, S Liu, J Thompson, M S Berridge, S M Apana, W Slikker, C Wang, M G Paule
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant commonly used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Since the long-term effects of this drug on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood, we conducted microPET/CT scans on young adult male rhesus monkeys (n=4/group) to gather information on brain metabolism using the uptake of [(18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose (FDG) as a marker. Approximately two-year old, male rhesus monkeys were treated orally with MPH twice per day, five days per week (M-F) over a 6-year period...
July 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Chung-Jung Lin, Wan-Yuo Guo, Feng-Chi Chang, Sheng-Che Hung, Ko-Kung Chen, Deuerling-Zheng Yu, Chun-Hsien Frank Wu, Jy-Kang Adrian Liou
Flat-detector CT perfusion (FD-CTP) imaging has demonstrated efficacy in qualitatively accessing the penumbra in acute stroke equivalent to that of magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP). The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of quantifying oligemia in the brain in patients with carotid stenosis.Ten patients with unilateral carotid stenosis of >70% were included. All MRPs and FD-CTPs were performed before stenting. Region-of-interests (ROIs) including middle cerebral artery territory at basal ganglia level on both stenotic and contralateral sides were used for quantitative analysis...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Roland Hustinx, Pacôme Fosse
Evaluating gliomas, either at diagnosis or at recurrence, is among the historical indications of FDG positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. There is a clear relationship between the tumor grade, patient prognosis, and intensity of uptake. Yet the exact role of FDG PET imaging remains debated. PET and methionine labeled with the short-lived C11 also have been proposed, with the significant advantage of high tumor-to-cortex contrast and distinct bological properties that lead to specific indications. Clinical use of this tracer is hampered by the need for an on-site cyclotron, however...
April 2010: PET Clinics
Atsushi Sasahara, Kazufumi Suzuki, Yuichi Takahashi, Hirokazu Koseki, Kengo Hirota, Hidenori Ohbuchi, Hidetoshi Kasuya
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) depends on their condition on arrival at the hospital. However, a small number of patients recover from an initially poor condition. We investigated the correlation between quantitative measures of computed tomography (CT) perfusion (CTP) on arrival and the outcomes of patients with World Federation of Neurosurgical Society (WFNS) grade V aSAH. METHODS: We performed plain CT, CTP, and CT angiography (CTA) in all patients with aSAH on arrival...
August 2016: World Neurosurgery
Miguel Bardon, Noel Young, Poppy Sindhusake, Theresa Lee, Ken Le
BACKGROUND: Multitrauma patients represent a difficult cohort of patients from a diagnostic standpoint. Current trauma recommendations do not advise whole-body computed tomography (CT) in hemodynamically stable patients. OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of abnormal CT findings in areas other than the prime area of clinical interest in multitrauma patients. METHOD: The records of 462 consecutive adult patients who underwent whole-body CT scans between 2004 and 2005 at Westmead Hospital, a Level 1 trauma center, were assessed...
2012: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
Romain Tonnelet, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Gioia Mione, Sébastien Richard, Hervé Bouaziz, Gérard Audibert, René Anxionnat, Serge Bracard, Marc Braun
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a well-known, but under- or misdiagnosed, condition caused by cerebrospinal fluid leak resulting from idiopathic dural breach. Blind lumbar epidural blood patch is an effective treatment in most cases, but occasionally, even targeted epidural blood patch fails to lead to improvement. In these cases, the cerebrospinal fluid leak is usually repaired surgically, especially for large dural breaches (>5 mm), once the site has been identified by imaging techniques (magnetic resonance myelography/computed tomography [CT] myelography/isotopic transit)...
July 2016: World Neurosurgery
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