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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088230/relationship-between-the-uptake-of-18-f-borono-l-phenylalanine-and-l-methyl-11-c-methionine-in-head-and-neck-tumors-and-normal-organs
#1
Yoshiaki Watanabe, Hiroaki Kurihara, Jun Itami, Ryohei Sasaki, Yasuaki Arai, Kazuro Sugimura
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of 4-borono-2-(18)F-fluoro-phenylalanine ((18)F-BPA) and L-[methyl-(11)C] methionine ((11)C-Met) in normal organs and tumors and to evaluate the usefulness of (11)C-Met/PET in screening potential candidates for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). MATERIAL METHODS: Seven patients who had at least one histologically confirmed head and neck tumor were included in this study. They underwent both whole-body (18)F-BPA-PET/CT and (11)C-Met-PET/CT within a span of 6 months...
January 14, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048113/su-f-i-44-using-the-air-signal-to-characterize-image-noise-in-ct
#2
T Szczykutowicz, A Malkus
PURPOSE: With increasing emphasis on CT image quality and low dose, quality activities analyzing noise levels in images will need to be increasingly automated. This work describes a new automated method for characterizing noise in CT. To obviate the need to segment out anatomical structure, this work introduces the use of noise statistics of air to understand the noise in the scanned object. METHODS: Scans of a uniform water phantom were acquired at four dose levels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048043/su-f-j-212-enabling-conventional-cone-beam-ct-with-the-capability-of-dual-energy-imaging-using-a-simple-add-on-beam-modifier
#3
R Vinke, S Takao, K Umegaki, H Shirato, H Peng, L Xing
PURPOSE: In searching for a robust, efficient and cost-effective dual energy cone beam CT (DECBCT) solution for various radiation oncology applications, in particularly for improved proton dose planning/replanning accuracy and DE-CBCT guided radiation therapy, we investigate a novel energy modulation scheme using a beam modifier placed between the source and patient and optimize its geometric configuration for routine clinical use. METHODS: The study was performed using a Hitachi CBCT scanner and the tube voltage was set at 125 kVp...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047381/su-f-j-213-feasibility-study-of-using-a-dual-energy-cone-beam-ct-decbct-in-proton-therapy-treatment-planning
#4
H Peng, T Kanehira, S Takao, T Matsuura, K Umegaki, H Shirato, L Xing
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a dual-energy CBCT (DECBCT) in proton therapy treatment planning to allow for accurate electron density estimation. METHODS: For direct comparison, two scenarios were selected: a dual-energy fan-beam CT (high: 140 kVp, low: 80 kVp) and a DECBCT (high: 125 kVp, low: 80 kVp). A Gammex 467 tissue characterization phantom was used, including the rods of air, water, bone (B2-30% mineral), cortical bone (SB3), lung (LN-300), brain, liver and adipose...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046654/mo-fg-campus-jep1-04-evaluating-dect-vs-sect-range-differences-in-proton-therapy-using-clinical-data
#5
N Hudobivnik, F Schwarz, T Johnson, G Dedes, T Tessonnier, F Verhaegen, C Thieke, C Belka, W Sommer, K Parodi, G Landry
PURPOSE: Range uncertainty from X-ray CT number conversion to stopping power ratio (SPR) is one of the key factors limiting the potential of proton therapy. The large margins required for deep seated tumors degrade the organ sparing achievable with the technology. Of interest is the application of dual energy CT (DECT) to SPR estimation. In this planning study proton range differences between SECT and DECT have been quantified for brain cases. METHODS: A last generation dual source DECT scanner was used to acquire SECT (150 kVp with Sn filtration) and DECT (additionally 90 kVp) scans of phantoms and 5 head trauma patients, acting as surrogate cancer patients...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003608/the-effects-of-misalignment-between-pet-and-ct-scans-on-brain-pet-study-using-ct-based-attenuation-correction-a-phantom-study
#6
Akihide Shimizu, Yusuke Terakawa, Naomi Morita, Kazuhiro Koshino, Hidehiro Iida
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inaccurate attenuation correction due to the misalignment between the computed tomography (CT)-based μ-map and the positron emission tomography (PET) data on a brain PET. METHODS: CT and PET scans were performed on a 3-dimension (3D) brain phantom, in which the grey matter region was filled with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG), and the skull region was filled with/without the bone-equivalent solution...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979380/central-administration-of-neuropeptide-y-differentially-regulates-monoamines-and-corticosterone-in-heat-exposed-fed-and-fasted-chicks
#7
Mohammad A Bahry, Vishwajit S Chowdhury, Hui Yang, Phuong V Tran, Phong H Do, Guofeng Han, Hiromi Ikeda, John F Cockrem, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Recently, we demonstrated that brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression was increased in heat exposed chicks. However, the functions of brain NPY during heat stress are unknown. This study was conducted to investigate whether centrally administered NPY affects food intake, rectal temperature, monoamines, stress hormones and plasma metabolites in chicks under high ambient temperatures (HT). Five or six-day-old chicks were centrally injected with 0, 188 or 375pmol of NPY and exposed to either HT (35±1°C) or a control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30±1°C) for 3h whilst fed or fasted...
December 6, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941226/estimating-head-and-neck-tissue-dose-from-x-ray-scatter-to-physicians-performing-x-ray-guided-cardiovascular-procedures-a-phantom-study
#8
Kenneth A Fetterly, Beth A Schueler, Michael P Grams, Glenn M Sturchio
Physicians performing x-ray guided interventional procedures have a keen interest in radiation safety. Radiation dose to tissues and organs of the head and neck are of particular interest because they are not routinely protected by wearable radiation safety devices. This study was conducted to facilitate estimation of radiation dose to tissues of the head and neck of interventional physicians based on the dose recorded by a personal dosimeter worn on the left collar. Scatter beam qualities maximum energy and HVL were measured for 40 scatter beams emitting from an anthropomorphic patient phantom...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856651/flat-detector-computed-tomography-pbv-map-in-the-evaluation-of-presurgical-embolization-for-hypervascular-brain-tumors
#9
Li-Li Wen, Xin Zhang, Qing-Rong Zhang, Qi Wu, Shu-Juan Chen, Jin-Long Deng, Kaiyi Huang, Han-Dong Wang
BACKGROUND: Preoperative embolization of hypervascular brain tumors is frequently used to minimize intraoperative bleeding. OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy of embolization using flat-detector CT (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) maps before and after the intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with hypervascular brain tumors prospectively received pre- and postprocedural FDCT PBV scans using a biplane system under a protocol approved by the institutional research ethics committee...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833318/intracranial-meningioma-mimicking-brain-metastasis-on-18-f-sodium-fluoride-bone-scan-in-a-case-of-carcinoma-cervix
#10
Rollapeta Ramya Priya, Ranadheer Gupta Manthri, Amancharla Yadagiri Lakshmi, Tekchand Kalawat
Bone scintigraphy (BS) is a well--established commonly used imaging modality for staging and follow--up evaluation of cancer patients. Occasionally, BS may show asymptomatic unusual extraosseous lesions in the body which may or may not be related to primary disease. We here present an interesting case of carcinoma cervix in whom (18)F sodium fluoride positron emission tomography-computerized tomography (PET-CT) bone scan detected an intracranial lesion. Initially, this lesion was suspected as brain metastasis; however, later on, combined PET--CT images and contrast-enhanced CT confirmed this lesion as calcified falcine meningioma in the right posterior parietal region...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826238/age-dependent-cortical-thinning-of-peripheral-visual-field-representations-in-primary-visual-cortex
#11
Joseph C Griffis, Wesley K Burge, Kristina M Visscher
The cerebral cortex changes throughout the lifespan, and the cortical gray matter in many brain regions becomes thinner with advancing age. Effects of aging on cortical thickness (CT) have been observed in many brain regions, including areas involved in basic perceptual functions such as processing visual inputs. An important property of early visual cortices is their topographic organization-the cortical structure of early visual areas forms a topographic map of retinal inputs. Primary visual cortex (V1) is considered to be the most basic cortical area in the visual processing hierarchy, and is topographically organized from posterior (central visual representation) to anterior (peripheral visual representation) along the calcarine sulcus...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818357/the-role-of-neuropathological-markers-in-the-interpretation-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-focus-on-fetal-and-perinatal-programming
#12
REVIEW
Fanni Daniela, Gerosa Clara, Rais Monica, Ravarino Alberto, Van Eyken Peter, Fanos Vassilios, Faa Gavino
The study of neuropathological markers in patients affected by mental/psychiatric disorders is relevant for the comprehension of the pathogenesis and the correlation with the clinical symptomatology. The neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizes intraneuronal and extracellular neurofibrillary formation responsible for neuronal degeneration. Immunohistochemical studies discovered many interesting results for a better interpretation of the AD pathogenesis, while the "metal hypothesis" supports that metal ions might differentially influence the formation of amyloid aggregates...
November 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807831/quantitative-clinical-imaging-methods-for-monitoring-intratumoral-evolution
#13
Joo Yeun Kim, Robert A Gatenby
Solid tumors are multiscale, open, complex, dynamic systems: complex because they have many interacting components, dynamic because both the components and their interactions can change with time, and open because the tumor freely communicates with surrounding and even distant host tissue. Thus, it is not surprising that striking intratumoral variations are commonly observed in clinical imaging such as MRI and CT and that several recent studies found striking regional variations in the molecular properties of cancer cells from the same tumor...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769824/a-study-of-the-feasibility-of-fdg-pet-ct-to-systematically-detect-and-quantify-differential-metabolic-effects-of-chronic-tobacco-use-in-organs-of-the-whole-body-a-prospective-pilot-study
#14
Drew A Torigian, Judith Green-McKenzie, Xianling Liu, Frances S Shofer, Thomas Werner, Catherine E Smith, Andrew A Strasser, Mateen C Moghbel, Ami H Parekh, Grace Choi, Marcus D Goncalves, Natalie Spaccarelli, Saied Gholami, Prithvi S Kumar, Yubing Tong, Jayaram K Udupa, Clementina Mesaros, Abass Alavi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to systematically detect and quantify differential effects of chronic tobacco use in organs of the whole body. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy male subjects (10 nonsmokers and 10 chronic heavy smokers) were enrolled. Subjects underwent whole-body FDG-PET/CT, diagnostic unenhanced chest CT, mini-mental state examination, urine testing for oxidative stress, and serum testing...
October 18, 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753725/shortened-mean-transit-time-in-ct-perfusion-with-singular-value-decomposition-analysis-in-acute-cerebral-infarction-quantitative-evaluation-and-comparison-with-various-ct-perfusion-parameters
#15
Kazuhiro Murayama, Kazuhiro Katada, Motoharu Hayakawa, Hiroshi Toyama
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to clarify the cause of shortened mean transit time (MTT) in acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease and examined its relationship with reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease underwent whole-brain computed tomography perfusion (CTP). The maximum MTT (MTTmax), minimum MTT (MTTmin), ratio of maximum and minimum MTT (MTTmin/max), and minimum cerebral blood volume (CBV) (CBVmin) were measured by automatic region of interest analysis...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686551/-preliminary-study-on-assessment-of-lexiscan-induced-blood-brain-barrier-opening-and-its-level-by-ct-perfusion-imaging
#16
Y Duan, B Q Yang, C C Chang, J Zhou, H Y Li, Z H Xu, Z W Wang, D Y Li
Objective: To evaluate the level of lexiscan-induced blood-brain barrier opening of healthy rabbits via CT perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) scan. Methods: Between November 2014 and May 2015, thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: the experimental group A1 which received one injection of lexiscan(1 ml/kg); the experimental group A2 which received three times injection of lexiscan(total dose: 1.5 ml/kg), finished within 15 minutes; the control group B which was injected the same volume normal saline(1 ml/kg), after 30 minutes, CT PWI scan was performed...
September 20, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660145/biodistribution-and-radiation-dosimetry-of-c-11-nicotine-from-whole-body-pet-imaging-in-humans
#17
Pradeep K Garg, Stephen J Lokitz, Rachid Nazih, Sudha Garg
: The main focus of this study was to assess the in vivo distribution and radiation absorbed dose of (11)C-nicotine derived from the whole body Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in humans. METHODS: After an initial Computed tomography (CT) attenuation scan, (11)C-nicotine was administered via an intravenous injection, and dynamic whole body PET scans were acquired in a 3-D mode on 11 normal healthy (5 male, 6 female) subjects. The first scan was acquired in a dynamic acquisition mode for 90 s with the brain in the field of view, followed by a series of whole body PET scans acquired over a 90 min time period...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569917/gray-matter-white-matter-de-differentiation-on-brain-computed-tomography-predicts-brain-death-occurrence
#18
C Vigneron, V Labeye, M Cour, S Hannoun, A Grember, F Rampon, F Cotton
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that a loss of distinction between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) on unenhanced CT scans was predictive of poor outcome after cardiac arrest. The aim of this study was to identify a marker/predictor of imminent brain death. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 15 brain-dead patients after anoxia and cardiac arrest were included. Patients were paired (1:1) with normal control subjects. Only patients' unenhanced CT scans performed before brain death and during the 24 hours after initial signs were analyzed...
July 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564785/the-application-of-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-models-in-a-pediatric-cohort
#19
Adam M H Young, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Helen Fernandes, Matthew R Garnett, Shruti Agrawal, Peter J Hutchinson
OBJECTIVE There is increasing interest in the use of predictive models of outcome in adult head injury. Two international models have been identified to be reliable modalities for predicting outcome: the Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury (CRASH) model, and the International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of randomized Controlled Trials in TBI (IMPACT) model. However, these models are designed only to identify outcomes in adult populations. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed on pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Addenbrooke's Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013...
November 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557149/time-dependent-changes-in-dural-enhancement-associated-with-spontaneous-intracranial-hypotension
#20
Peter G Kranz, Timothy J Amrhein, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Teerath Peter Tanpitukpongse, Linda Gray
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine whether the presence of individual imaging signs of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is correlated with increasing duration of headache symptoms. Of particular interest is the relationship of symptom duration to dural enhancement because it is the most commonly identified imaging sign in patients with SIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with SIH who underwent pretreatment brain MRI and total-spine CT myelography and whose medical record included data on the duration of clinical symptoms were included in this cross-sectional retrospective study...
December 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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