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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819456/therapeutic-effect-of-astroglia-like-mesenchymal-stem-cells-expressing-glutamate-transporter-in-a-genetic-rat-model-of-depression
#1
Amit Shwartz, Oshra Betzer, Noam Kronfeld, Gila Kazimirsky, Simona Cazacu, Susan Finniss, Hae Kyung Lee, Menachem Motiei, Shani Yael Dagan, Rachela Popovtzer, Chaya Brodie, Gal Yadid
Recent studies have proposed that abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission and glial pathology play an important role in the etiology and manifestation of depression. It was postulated that restoration of normal glutamatergic transmission, by enhancing glutamate uptake, may have a beneficial effect on depression. We examined this hypothesis using unique human glial-like mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which in addition to inherent properties of migration to regions of injury and secretion of neurotrophic factors, were differentiated to express high levels of functional glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters; EAAT)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816935/perimesencephalic-nonaneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-caused-by-transverse-sinus-thrombosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#2
Fang-Wang Fu, Jie Rao, Yuan-Yuan Zheng, Liang Song, Wei Chen, Qi-Hui Zhou, Jian-Guang Yang, Jiang-Qiong Ke, Guo-Qing Zheng
RATIONALE: Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PNSAH) is characterized by a pattern of extravasated blood restricted to the perimesencephalic cisterns, normal angiographic findings, and an excellent prognosis with an uneventful course and low risks of complication. The precise etiology of bleeding in patients with PNSAH has not yet been established. The most common hypothesis is that PNSAH is venous in origin. Intracranial venous hypertension has been considered as the pivotal factor in the pathogenesis of PNSAH...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814492/influence-of-arterial-stiffness-on-cardiovascular-outcome-in-patients-without-high-blood-pressure
#3
Keishi Ichikawa, Satoru Sakuragi, Takahiro Nishihara, Masahiro Tsuji, Atsushi Mori, Fumi Yokohama, Tadashi Wada, Daiji Hasegawa, Kenji Kawamoto, Machiko Tanakaya, Yusuke Katayama, Hiroshi Ito
OBJECTIVE: Although blood pressure (BP) is a major determinant of arterial stiffness, whether high pulse wave velocity (PWV) adversely influences cardiac parameters and cardiovascular (CV) outcome in patients without high BP remains unclear. METHODS: Outpatients without high BP (n=320), defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg, were enrolled in this retrospective study. At baseline, all patients underwent echocardiography and multidetector CT to determine the coronary artery calcification (CAC) score...
August 16, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811137/influence-of-guidelines-on-management-of-paediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-ct-assessment-and-admission-policy
#4
J J Lenstra, A R A Pikstra, J M Fock, Z Metting, J van der Naalt
BACKGROUND: The annual number of paediatric injury-related emergency visits and application of computed tomography (CT) has substantially increased, with associated higher risk of malignancies. In 2010, a guideline for CT-assessment based on risk factors for patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) became effective in all Emergency Departments (ED) in the Netherlands. This study evaluated the influence of this guideline on the frequency of CT-assessments, hospital admissions and factors that are related to guideline adherence...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811087/real-time-qrt-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-mirnas-using-bi-directional-extension-sequences
#5
Kyung Jin Kim, Jiwon Kwak, Jae-Hoon Lee, Soo Suk Lee
Highly specific detection of miRNAs was performed using a novel bi-directional extension (BDE) assay. After reverse transcription, the cDNA was hybridized to a uniquely designed specific BDE sequence; this cDNA-BDE hybrid forms the PCR template. The PCR template was amplified in a SYBR Green-based quantitative real-time PCR. The miR-145 in human brain total RNA could be detected quantitatively in the range of seven orders of magnitude with high linearity and reproducibility. This innovative BDE assay has several performance advantages over the poly(A) tailing method that include lower CT values, clear gel electrophoresis images, and distinct nucleotide peaks in sequencing chromatograms...
August 12, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810558/functional-assessment-of-prefrontal-lobes-in-patients-with-major-depression-disorder-using-a-dual-mode-technique-of-3d-arterial-spin-labeling-and-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#6
Chang Fu, Dapeng Shi, Yongju Gao, Junling Xu
The aim of this study was to explore the functions of cerebral blood perfusion and glucose metabolism in the prefrontal lobe of patients with major depression disorder (MDD), and to analyze the correlations between these functional changes and depressive symptoms. 3D-arterial spin labeling (ASL) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were successfully performed in 17 patients with MDD and 16 healthy controls in a resting state. The depressive symptoms of the patients were classified into seven factors and scored with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810555/evaluation-of-rat-c6-malignant-glioma-using-spectral-computed-tomography
#7
Jianli Liu, Junlin Zhou, Jie Li, Lingyan Zhang, Peili Zhang, Bin Liu
To investigate the use of multi-parameter spectral computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of rat C6 glioma, 15 male Wistar rats were seeded with C6 glioma cells into the right basal ganglia and scanned 12 days later using spectral CT. Brain sections corresponding to scanned regions were immunostained for proliferation marker protein Ki67 (Ki67). Pearson's correlation coefficients between spectral CT parameters and Ki67 expression were determined. Thirteen rats survived 12 days and developed tumors. Optimal contrast-to-noise ratio achieved was 65 keV...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809584/risk-of-meningioma-after-ct-of-the-head
#8
Arvid C Nordenskjöld, Robert Bujila, Peter Aspelin, Olof Flodmark, Magnus Kaijser
Purpose To investigate the association between exposure to head computed tomography (CT) and subsequent risk of meningioma. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the local ethics committee. A cohort of 26 370 subjects was retrospectively collected from a radiology archive of CT examinations of the head performed from 1973 through 1992. For comparison, an age- and sex-matched cohort of 96 940 subjects who were not exposed to CT (unexposed cohort) was gathered. The risk of meningioma was assessed by using data from the Swedish Cancer Registry; however, one-third of patients with meningioma had to be excluded because they either had a prevalent meningioma or other brain tumor at the first CT examination or had undergone radiation treatment to the head...
August 14, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808288/in-vivo-evaluation-of-radiotracers-targeting-the-melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptor-1-11-c-snap-7941-and-18-f-fe-snap-reveal-specific-uptake-in-the-ventricular-system
#9
Markus Zeilinger, Monika Dumanic, Florian Pichler, Lubos Budinsky, Wolfgang Wadsak, Katharina Pallitsch, Helmut Spreitzer, Rupert Lanzenberger, Marcus Hacker, Markus Mitterhauser, Cécile Philippe
The MCHR1 is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and changes of the expression are linked to a variety of associated diseases, such as diabetes and adiposity. The study aimed at the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [(11)C]SNAP-7941 and [(18)F]FE@SNAP as potential PET-tracers for the MCHR1. Competitive binding studies with non-radioactive derivatives and small-animal PET/CT and MRI brain studies were performed under baseline conditions and tracer displacement with the unlabelled MCHR1 antagonist (±)-SNAP-7941...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806629/aseptic-meningitis-in-adults-and-children-diagnostic-and-management-challenges
#10
Bhavarth Shukla, Elizabeth A Aguilera, Lucrecia Salazar, Susan H Wootton, Quanhathai Kaewpoowat, Rodrigo Hasbun
BACKGROUND: Aseptic meningitis represents a common diagnostic and management dilemma to clinicians. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical epidemiology, diagnostic evaluations, management, and outcomes between adults and children with aseptic meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 through September 2010 at 9 Memorial Hermann Hospitals in Houston, TX. Patients age≥2months who presented with community-acquired aseptic meningitis with a CSF white blood cell count >5cells/mm(3) and a negative Gram stain and cultures were enrolled...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804758/brain-calcifications-and-pcdh12-variants
#11
Gaël Nicolas, Monica Sanchez-Contreras, Eliana Marisa Ramos, Roberta R Lemos, Joana Ferreira, Denis Moura, Maria J Sobrido, Anne-Claire Richard, Alma Rosa Lopez, Andrea Legati, Jean-François Deleuze, Anne Boland, Olivier Quenez, Pierre Krystkowiak, Pascal Favrole, Daniel H Geschwind, Adi Aran, Reeval Segel, Ephrat Levy-Lahad, Dennis W Dickson, Giovanni Coppola, Rosa Rademakers, João R M de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential connection between PCDH12 and brain calcifications in a patient carrying a homozygous nonsense variant in PCDH12 and in adult patients with brain calcifications. METHODS: We performed a CT scan in 1 child with a homozygous PCDH12 nonsense variant. We screened DNA samples from 53 patients with primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) and 26 patients with brain calcification of unknown cause (BCUC). RESULTS: We identified brain calcifications in subcortical and perithalamic regions in the patient with a homozygous PCDH12 nonsense variant...
August 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802782/a-case-of-galen-vein-thrombosis-occurring-after-bilateral-acetabular-fractures-in-the-tibet-plateau-what-can-we-learn
#12
Dong-Ping Ye, Shun-Li Zhang, Quan-Hong Xu, Lin-Jie Wei
Hypoxia leads to increased red blood cells and blood viscosity at high altitude while moderate trauma increases coagulation in blood. Under the above-mentioned conditions, venous sinus thrombosis is more likely to occur. A patient suffering bilateral acetabular fractures together with the gradual disturbance of consciousness was admitted to our hospital. Though computed tomography arteriogram (CTA) of the brain displayed normal blood vessels; bilateral thalamus and brainstem infarction were found on head computed tomography (CT) and Galen vein thrombosis on cerebral computed tomography venography (CTV)...
July 3, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802548/optic-nerve-glioblastoma-detected-by-11-c-methionine-brain-pet-ct
#13
V Rizzo, M V Mattoli, G Trevisi, A Coli, M L Calcagni, N Montano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801417/optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-sonography-for-the-diagnosis-of-increased-intracranial-pressure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#14
Alex Koziarz, Niv Sne, Fraser Kegel, Waleed Alhazzani, Siddharth Nath, Jetan H Badhiwala, Timothy Rice, Paul Engels, Faidi Samir, Andrew Healey, Kamyar Kahnamoui, Laura Banfield, Sunjay Sharma, Kesava Reddy, Gregory W J Hawryluk, Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Saleh A Almenawer
INTRODUCTION: Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a significant neurological issue that may lead to permanent neurological sequelae. When evaluating patients with traumatic brain injury, it is crucial to identify those with high ICP in order to expedite ICP lowering measures and maintain adequate cerebral perfusion. Several measures are used to recognise patients with increased ICP including CT scan, MRI, ICP monitor, and lumbar puncture (LP). However, these tests can be invasive, associated with radiation exposure, contraindicated, or not readily available...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801336/isolated-clival-metastasis-a-rare-presentation-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#15
Anil Mani, Priyank Yadav, Vimal Kumar Paliwal, Hira Lal
Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3% of all adult malignancies. Usual sites of metastasis are lymph nodes, lungs, bone, liver and brain. We describe a patient who presented with complaints of holocranial headache and diplopia. MRI of the head showed a clival-based lesion with associated bony erosion. With suspicion of a metastatic lesion, an ultrasonogram of the abdomen was done which showed a left renal mass that enhanced on contrast-enhanced CT. There were no other metastatic foci. Patient underwent radiotherapy for the clival lesion...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801174/the-cerebral-collateral-circulation-relevance-to-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-stroke
#16
REVIEW
Myron D Ginsberg
The brain's collateral circulation consists of arterial anastomotic channels capable of providing nutrient perfusion to brain regions whose normal sources of flow have become compromised, as occurs in acute ischemic stroke. Modern CT-based neuroimaging is capable of providing detailed information as to collateral extent and sufficiency and is complemented by magnetic resonance-based methods. In the present era of standard-of-care IV thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, and following the recent therapeutic successes of randomized clinical trials of acute endovascular intervention, the sufficiency of the collateral circulation has been convincingly established as a key factor influencing the likelihood of successful reperfusion and favorable clinical outcome...
August 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799299/a-comparative-study-of-csf-viral-rna-loads-between-hiv-positive-patients-with-neurological-manifestations-and-neurologically-asymptomatic-hiv-patients
#17
A D Mathur, S Devesh
INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting reports in literature about correlation of CSF viral RNA levels with neurological manifestations in HIV positive patients. Many studies in animals and human subjects have shown that CSF HIV-1 RNA can be useful as a specific marker of HIV induced neuropathology. To the contrary there are studies which show that neurological disease states can occur in absence of significant increase of CSF HIV RNA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at Base hospital Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, a tertiary care hospitals for HIV patients...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794859/case-report-multiple-hemorrhagic-metastases-to-the-brain-from-primary-lung-choriocarcinoma
#18
Sunil Munakomi
Herein we report a very rare entity of multiple hemorrhagic metastases to the brain from a primary lung choriocarcinoma in a young woman. The patient presented with recent onset of progressive headache, decreased level of consciousness and multiple episodes of vomiting. CT of the head revealed multiple hemorrhagic lesions within the brain. The patient's serum B-human chorionic gonadotrophin was increased.  A chest X-ray revealed a right lung mass. The patient urgently underwent operative excision of the lesion in the posterior fossa, so as to prevent impending tonsillar herniation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792163/auramine-o-synthetic-yellow-cow-dung-powder-poisoning-rare-but-fatal
#19
Shubhangi Dhadke, Vitthal Dhadke, Abhijit Giram
INTRODUCTION: Cow dung known since long ago for its germicidal properties, used by Indian villagers to clean the house premises. As cow dung is not available easily, nowadays people have started using synthetic yellow coloured powder (Auramine-o) available easily in grocery shops locally known as "Morechap powder" in districts of Maharashtra. As the poisoning is rare, very few literatures are available mentioning the detailed mechanism of action, clinical presentation and complications...
July 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791520/external-ventricular-drain-causes-brain-tissue-damage-an-imaging-study
#20
Fabrizio Ortolano, Marco Carbonara, Antonella Stanco, Vittorio Civelli, Giorgio Carrabba, Tommaso Zoerle, Nino Stocchetti
BACKGROUND: An external ventricular drain (EVD) is used to measure intracranial pressure (ICP) and to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The procedure is generally safe, but parenchymal sequelae are reported as a possible side effect, with variable incidence. We investigated the mechanical sequelae of EVD insertion and their clinical significance in acute brain-injured patients, with a special focus on hemorrhagic lesions. METHODS: Mechanical sequelae of EVD insertion were detected in patients by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed for clinical purposes...
August 8, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
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