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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214641/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-causing-vision-loss-following-endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-pituitary-adenoma-a-case-report
#1
Nicolas W Villelli, Daniel M Prevedello, Daniel S Ikeda, Alaa S Montaser, Bradley A Otto, Ricardo L Carrau
BACKGROUND: Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is characterized by headache, altered mental status, visual changes, and seizure combined with brain imaging consistent with cerebral edema without infarction. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of PRES following an endoscopic endonasal resection of a pituitary macroadenoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 59-year-old female was diagnosed with a pituitary macroadenoma, for which she underwent endoscopic endonasal extracapsular resection...
February 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213195/blunt-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-a-role-for-ct-angiography-of-the-head-to-evaluate-non-traumatic-etiologies
#2
REVIEW
Ha Nguyen, Ninh Doan, Michael Gelsomino, Saman Shabani
BACKGROUND: In the setting of trauma, the etiology of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is frequently attributed to the physical, traumatic event. Caution should still be directed towards non-traumatic (or spontaneous) etiologies responsible for the trauma, such as hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, aneurysms, vascular malformation, and hemorrhagic infarcts. The role for immediate CT angiography (CTA) remains controversial to evaluate for non-traumatic etiologies. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature in Medline PubMed database...
February 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211963/a-parametric-model-of-the-brain-vascular-system-for-estimation-of-the-arterial-input-function-aif-at-the-tissue-level
#3
Siamak P Nejad-Davarani, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian, James R Ewing, Douglas C Noll, Tom Mikkelsen, Michael Chopp, Quan Jiang
In this paper, we introduce a novel model of the brain vascular system, which is developed based on laws of fluid dynamics and vascular morphology. This model is used to address dispersion and delay of the arterial input function (AIF) at different levels of the vascular structure and to estimate the local AIF in DCE images. We developed a method based on the simplex algorithm and Akaike information criterion to estimate the likelihood of the contrast agent concentration signal sampled in DCE images belonging to different layers of the vascular tree or being a combination of different signal levels from different nodes of this structure...
February 17, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211896/profound-seasonal-shrinking-and-regrowth-of-the-ossified-braincase-in-phylogenetically-distant-mammals-with-similar-life-histories
#4
Dina K N Dechmann, Scott LaPoint, Christian Dullin, Moritz Hertel, Jan R E Taylor, Karol Zub, Martin Wikelski
Ontogenetic changes in skull shape and size are ubiquitous in altricial vertebrates, but typically unidirectional and minimal in full-grown animals. Red-toothed shrews exhibit a rare exception, where the shape, mass and size of the skull, brain, and several major organs, show significant bidirectional seasonal changes. We now show a similar but male-biased shrinking (16%) and regrowth (8%) in the standardized braincase depth of least weasels (Mustela nivalis). Juvenile weasels also exhibit a growth overshoot, followed by a shrinkage period lasting until the end of their first winter...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210405/titanium-clamps-for-a-simple-low-profile-autologous-osteosynthesis-in-the-reconstruction-of-posttraumatic-craniofacial-convexital-skeletal-disruption
#5
Amos Olufemi Adeleye, Toluyemi Adefolarin Malomo
Attempts at reconstruction of posttraumatic craniofacial defects (PTCDs) can be a challenge in low-resource practice areas of the world where the needed biomaterials are logistically beyond reach. A simple low-profile technique of autologous osteosynthesis for PTCD using the titanium clamps is presented in this report. In addition, a 6-year prospective database on a consecutive cohort of patients who underwent this procedure was analyzed for clinical, functional, and aesthetic outcomes, both in-hospital and at midterm follow-up...
March 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209905/diagnostic-value-of-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-versus-mri-in-the-setting-of-antibody-specific-autoimmune-encephalitis
#6
Lilja B Solnes, Krystyna M Jones, Steven P Rowe, Puskar Pattanayak, Abhinav Nalluri, Arun Venkatesan, John C Probasco, Mehrbod Som Javadi
Introduction: Diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis presents some challenges in the clinical setting due to varied clinical presentations and delay in obtaining antibody panel results. We examined the role of neuroimaging in the setting of autoimmune encephalitides comparing the utility (18)F-FDG PET/CT versus conventional brain imaging with MRI. Methods: A retrospective study was performed assessing the positivity rate of MRI versus (18)F-FDG PET/CT during the initial work-up of 23 patients proven to have antibody positive autoimmune encephalitis...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209646/rete-mirabile-associated-with-pial-arteriovenous-fistula-imaging-features-with-literature-review
#7
Prabath Kumar Mondel, Rashmi Saraf, Uday S Limaye
A rete mirabile is a vascular network of intercommunicating small arteries or arterioles that replace the definitive adult artery supplying the brain. It supplies the brain in lower mammals but is not seen in normal human embryological development. A 26-year-old man presented with worsening tinnitus that was interfering with his sleep. On CT and digital subtraction angiography he was found to have a temporal lobe pial arteriovenous fistula with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile. The patient was offered open surgical and endovascular treatment options for pial arteriovenous fistula but he refused both and opted for conservative medical management...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209577/feasibility-of-flat-panel-detector-ct-in-perfusion-assessment-of-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-initial-clinical-experience
#8
M Garcia, T W Okell, M Gloor, M A Chappell, P Jezzard, O Bieri, J V Byrne
The different results from flat panel detector CT in various pathologies have provoked some discussion. Our aim was to assess the role of flat panel detector CT in brain arteriovenous malformations, which has not yet been assessed. Five patients with brain arteriovenous malformations were studied with flat panel detector CT, DSC-MR imaging, and vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling. In glomerular brain arteriovenous malformations, perfusion was highest next to the brain arteriovenous malformation with decreasing values with increasing distance from the lesion...
February 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209450/the-effect-of-tranexamic-acid-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Abolfazl Jokar, Koorosh Ahmadi, Tayyebeh Salehi, Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) secondary to TBI is associated with a high risk of coagulopathy which leads to increasing risk of hemorrhage growth and higher mortality rate. Therefore, antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid (TA) might reduce traumatic ICH. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of ICH growth after TA administration in TBI patients. METHODS: This single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on patients with traumatic ICH (with less than 30 ml) referring to the emergency department of Vali-Asr Hospital, Arak, Iran in 2014...
January 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208975/solid-cystic-hypoglossal-nerve-schwannoma-with-fluid-fluid-level-a-rare-case-report
#10
Kulamani Sahoo, Pramod Ramchand Shaha, Rahul Khetawat, Mohd Abbas Ilyas, Gaurav Rajendra Khairnar
Schwannomas (neurinoma, neurilemmoma) are benign slow-growing encapsulated tumours originating from well-differentiated myelin-producing Schwann cells or nerve fiber sheet cells at the glial-Schwann cell junction. Hypoglossal nerve schwannoma mostly develops in the intracranial and extra-cranial segment or in both intracranial and extra-cranial segment forming a dumbbell shape tumour. The peripheral hypoglossal schwannomas are very rare. We present a case of right hypoglossal nerve schwannoma in a 46-year-old female who presented with headache and neck pain since 2 weeks with deviation of tongue to right side since 1 week...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208906/association-of-serum-uric-acid-level-with-the-severity-of-brain-injury-and-patient-s-outcome-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Masoud Hatefi, Masoud Moghadas Dastjerdi, Bahareh Ghiasi, Asghar Rahmani
INTRODUCTION: The prognostic value of serum Uric Acid (UA) levels in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is unclear. AIM: To investigate the relationship between serum UA levels and prognosis of patients with TBI when in hospital and at six months after discharge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients attended our emergency department during July 2014 and December 2015 and were consecutively entered into the study and among 890 evaluated candidates based on inclusion criteria we finally investigated the serum UA levels of 725 TBI patients...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208150/acute-and-subacute-presentations-of-cerebral-edema-following-deep-brain-stimulation-lead-implantation
#12
Albert J Fenoy, Sebastian J Villarreal, Mya C Schiess
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Postoperative cerebral edema around a deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode is an uncommon reported complication. The goal of this study was to identify instances of postoperative edema based on clinical presentation, and to remark on their management. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent DBS electrode implantation over a 3-year period. Routine CT imaging on postoperative day (POD) 1 was negative. Patients were identified based on clinical neurological changes, leading to imaging and subsequent diagnosis...
February 17, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199398/a-segmentation-based-volumetric-approach-to-localize-and-quantify-cerebral-vasospasm-based-on-tomographic-imaging-data
#13
Axel Neulen, Tobias Pantel, Michael Kosterhon, Stefanie Kirschner, Marc A Brockmann, Sven R Kantelhardt, Alf Giese, Serge C Thal
INTRODUCTION: Quantification of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is crucial in animal studies as well as clinical routine. We have developed a method for computer-based volumetric assessment of intracranial blood vessels from cross-sectional imaging data. Here we demonstrate the quantification of vasospasm from micro computed tomography (micro-CT) data in a rodent SAH model and the transferability of the volumetric approach to clinical data. METHODS: We obtained rodent data by performing an ex vivo micro-CT of murine brains after sham surgery or SAH by endovascular filament perforation on day 3 post hemorrhage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196306/effects-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-and-intravenous-morphine-self-administration-on-regional-glucose-metabolism-18-f-fdg-pet-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#14
Thomas Y Park, Kevin S Nishida, Colin M Wilson, Shalini Jaiswal, Jessica Scott, Andrew R Hoy, Reed G Selwyn, Bernard J Dardzinski, Kwang H Choi
Although certain drugs of abuse are known to disrupt brain glucose metabolism (BGluM), the effects of opiates on BGluM are not well characterized. Moreover, preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) studies anesthetize animals during the scan, which limits clinical applications. We investigated the effects of 1) isoflurane anesthesia and 2) intravenous morphine self-administration (MSA) on BGluM in rats. Jugular vein cannulated adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered either saline (SSA) or morphine (0...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195914/ictal-pet-in-ohtahara-syndrome-with-hemimegalencephaly
#15
Shambo Guha Roy, Madhavi Tripathi, Manjari Tripathi, Bhargavi Ramanujam, Abhinav Singhal, Chandrasekhar Bal
Ohtahara syndrome is one of the causes of infantile epilepsies, which presents with refractory seizures and characteristic EEG changes. It is often associated with structural anomalies in the brain. We report a case of 5-month-old girl with Ohtahara syndrome with hemimegalencephaly who presented with refractory seizures and ictal FDG PET/CT helped in localizing the seizure focus.
February 13, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192888/computed-tomography-morphologic-features-of-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-with-brain-bone-metastasis
#16
Ki-Eun Hwang, Su-Jin Oh, Chul Park, Se-Jeong Jeon, Jeong-Mi Lee, Byong-Ki Cha, Kwon-Ha Yoon, Eun-Taik Jeong, Hak-Ryul Kim
Background/Aims: Brain and bone metastases are common in patients with lung cancer. The development of metastasis is associated with poor survival in lung cancer patients. Although tumor morphologic features on radiographs are routinely assessed for differentiation between benign and malignant lung nodules, they are not used to predict metastasis. We assessed morphologic features of pulmonary adenocarcinomas with brain/bone metastasis on computed tomography (CT) to identify related factors for metastasis...
February 15, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192877/effect-of-hyperglycemia-on-brain-and-liver-18-f-fdg-standardized-uptake-value-fdg-suv-measured-by-quantitative-positron-emission-tomography-pet-imaging
#17
Benjamin L Viglianti, Ka Kit Wong, Stephanie M Wimer, Aishwarya Paraeswaran, Bin Nan, Christy Ky, Danyelle M Townsend, Domenico Rubello, Kirk A Frey, Milton D Gross
PURPOSE: Blood glucose is routinely measured prior to (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) administration in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to identify hyperglycemia that may affect image quality. In this study we explore the effects of blood glucose levels upon semi-quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements of target organs and tissues of interest and in particular address the relationship of blood glucose to FDG accumulation in the brain and liver. METHODS: 436 FDG PET/CT consecutive studies performed for oncology staging in 229 patients (226 male) at the Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Healthcare System were reviewed...
February 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192624/mr-based-synthetic-ct-generation-using-a-deep-convolutional-neural-network-method
#18
Xiao Han
PURPOSE: Interests have been rapidly growing in the field of radiotherapy to replace CT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to superior soft tissue contrast offered by MRI and the desire to reduce unnecessary radiation dose. MR-only radiotherapy also simplifies clinical workflow and avoids uncertainties in aligning MR with CT. Methods, however, are needed to derive CT-equivalent representations, often known as synthetic CT (sCT), from patient MR images for the purpose of dose calculation and DRR-based patient positioning...
February 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190518/brain-computed-tomography-compared-with-facial-3-dimensional-computed-tomography-for-diagnosis-of-facial-fractures
#19
Sun Hwa Lee, Seong Jong Yun, Seokyong Ryu, Seoung Won Choi, Hye Jin Kim, Tae Kyug Kang, Sung Chan Oh, Suk Jin Cho
OBJECTIVES: To compare the detection of facial fractures and radiation dose between brain computed tomography (CT) and facial 3-dimensional (3D) CT in pediatric patients who have experienced a trauma. STUDY DESIGN: Four hundred pediatric patients who experienced a trauma and underwent immediate brain CT and facial 3D CT between January 2016 and June 2016 were included in this retrospective study. Two reviewers independently analyzed and determined the presence of the facial fractures of 8 anatomic regions based on brain CT and facial 3D CT over a 1-week interval...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185976/effects-of-oral-glibenclamide-on-brain-contusion-volume-and-functional-outcome-of-patients-with-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Hosseinali Khalili, Nima Derakhshan, Amin Niakan, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand, Mohammad Salehi, Hamed Eshraghian, Alireza Shakibafard, Bita Zahabi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of oral glibenclamide on brain contusion volume and functional outcome of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: This was randomized clinical trial being conducted during a 16-month period from May 2015 and August 2016 in a level I trauma center in Southern Iran. We included 66 patients with moderate (GCS: 9-13) to severe (GCS: 5-8) TBI who had brain contusions of less than 30cc volume...
February 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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