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Cecile Levasseur-Garcia, Hugo Malaurie, Nathalie Mailhac
In most vineyards worldwide, agents of grapevine trunk diseases represent a real threat for viticulture and are responsible for significant economic loss to the wine industry. The conventional microbiological isolation technique used to diagnose this disease is tedious and frequently leads to false negatives. Thus, a dire need exists for an alternative method to detect this disease. One possible way involves infrared spectroscopy, which is a rapid, nondestructive analytical tool that is commonly used for quality control of feed stuffs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Alina Cristina Neguț, Mariana-Carmen Chifiriuc, Oana Săndulescu, Anca Streinu-Cercel, Mihaela Oprea, Elena Carmina Drăgulescu, Irina Gheorghe, Ioana Berciu, Coralia Bleotu, Marcela Popa, Dan Oțelea, Daniela Tălăpan, Olga Dorobăț, Irina Codiță, Mircea Ioan Popa, Adrian Streinu-Cercel
The increasing burden of invasive biofilm-related staphylococcal infections led to a dire need for new agents to prevent biofilm formation. Bacteriophages may hypothetically alter biofilm through several mechanisms, including induction of depolymerizing enzymes, and lysis of persistent bacteria. We have assessed the influence of commercially-available bacteriophage cocktails on Staphylococcus spp. clinical strains viability and biofilm formation. We analyzed 83 staphylococcal strains from patients consecutively admitted to a Romanian infection reference center from October 2014 through May 2015; the strains were characterized by phenotypic and genetic tools for their resistance and virulence features and for their phyliation...
August 11, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Mingfei Liu, Han Chen, Jun Jiang, Zhaocai Zhang, Chen Wang, Na Zhang, Liang Dong, Xinyang Hu, Wei Zhu, Hong Yu, Jian'an Wang
The worldwide increase trend in the prevalence of diabetes has highlighted the need for increased research efforts into treatment options for both the disease itself and its associated complications. Diabetes has been widely recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease and hypertension. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a main complication of diabetes, contributing to specific forms of heart failure independent from ischemia or hypertension. Without considerably effective approaches, a dire need exists to further explore the mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse the progression of DCM...
May 24, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Rebecca Dale, Jeremy Edwards, Jane Ballantyne
Pain management with opioids is an integral part of palliative medicine. As the doses and durations of opioid therapy increase, the inherent risks of opioid therapy rise. Although opioids are effective analgesics, they bring with them complex medical and psychological side effects. Aberrant behavior is dangerous and can be difficult to identify as it results in a splitting in the goals of treatment between the patient and providers. One effective strategy in preventing that situation is through the early identification of at-risk patients...
March 2016: Journal of Community and Supportive Oncology
Naghmeh Nejat, James Rookes, Nitin L Mantri, David M Cahill
Briskly evolving phytopathogens are dire threats to our food supplies and threaten global food security. From the recent advances made toward high-throughput sequencing technologies, understanding of pathogenesis and effector biology, and plant innate immunity, translation of these means into new control tools is being introduced to develop durable disease resistance. Effectoromics as a powerful genetic tool for uncovering effector-target genes, both susceptibility genes and executor resistance genes in effector-assisted breeding, open up new avenues to improve resistance...
January 22, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
S Singh, A Srivastava, V Kumar, A Pandey, D Kumar, C S Rajpurohit, V K Khanna, S Yadav, A B Pant
Stem cell biology has played a pivotal role in the field of disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The scope of stem cell research has been further extended to address the issues associated with toxicity and biosafety. However, its role in the field of neurotoxicity (NT) and the emerging field of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is somewhat underrepresented and needs thorough investigation. Several challenges have hindered the progress of NT and DNT studies, and there is a dire need for human-specific high-throughput in vitro system(s) as a tool with better predictivity, reliability, and reproducibility...
December 14, 2015: Molecular Neurobiology
Michael Downey, Kristin Baetz
Acetylation is a dynamic post-translational modification that is attached to protein substrates by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and removed by lysine deacetylases (KDACs). While these enzymes are best characterized as histone modifiers and regulators of gene transcription, work in a number of systems highlights that acetylation is a pervasive modification and suggests a broad scope for KAT and KDAC functions in the cell. As we move beyond generating lists of acetylated proteins, the acetylation field is in dire need of robust tools to connect acetylation and deacetylation machineries to their respective substrates and to dissect the function of individual sites...
March 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Satheesh Elangovan, Behnoush Khorsand, Anh-Vu Do, Liu Hong, Alexander Dewerth, Michael Kormann, Ryan D Ross, D Rick Sumner, Chantal Allamargot, Aliasger K Salem
There exists a dire need for improved therapeutics to achieve predictable bone regeneration. Gene therapy using non-viral vectors that are safe and efficient at transfecting target cells is a promising approach to overcoming the drawbacks of protein delivery of growth factors. Here, we investigated the transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity, osteogenic potential and in vivo bone regenerative capacity of chemically modified ribonucleic acid (cmRNA) (encoding BMP-2) complexed with polyethylenimine (PEI) and made comparisons with PEI complexed with conventional plasmid DNA (encoding BMP-2)...
November 28, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Thomas Billiet, Konstantinos Papamichael, Magali de Bruyn, Bram Verstockt, Isabelle Cleynen, Fred Princen, Sharat Singh, Marc Ferrante, Gert Van Assche, Severine Vermeire
BACKGROUND: Prediction of primary non-response [PNR] to anti-tumour necrosis factors [TNFs] in inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is direly needed to select the optimal therapeutic class for a given patient. We developed a matrix-based prediction tool to predict response to infliximab [IFX] in Crohn's disease [CD] patients. METHODS: This retrospective single-centre study included 201 anti-TNF naïve CD patients who started with IFX induction therapy. PNR occurred in 16 [8%] patients...
December 2015: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Lawrence Scott Sugiyama, Michelle Scalise Sugiyama
Selection pressure from health risk is hypothesized to have shaped adaptations motivating individuals to attempt to become valued by other individuals by generously and recurrently providing beneficial goods and/or services to them because this strategy encouraged beneficiaries to provide costly health care to their benefactors when the latter were sick or injured. Additionally, adaptations are hypothesized to have co-evolved that motivate individuals to attend to and value those who recurrently provide them with important benefits so they are willing in turn to provide costly care when a valued person is disabled or in dire need...
June 2003: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Usman Zafar Paracha, Khezar Hayat, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Imran Qadir
Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer affecting the mesothelium lining. It is usually caused by asbestos exposure or exposure to nanofibers. Median survival is less than one year in the mesothelioma patients. Due to its severity, there is a dire necessity to find out new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Some recent strategies could help us in fighting against mesothelioma. Diagnostic tools include a range of biomarkers or biotechnological procedure. Therapeutic tools include chemotherapeutic strategies along with immunotherapy, gene therapy and alternative therapy...
July 2015: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Matthew Li, Christophoros C Vassiliou, Lina A Colucci, Michael J Cima
Dehydration is a prevalent pathology, where loss of bodily water can result in variable symptoms. Symptoms can range from simple thirst to dire scenarios involving loss of consciousness. Clinical methods exist that assess dehydration from qualitative weight changes to more quantitative osmolality measurements. These methods are imprecise, invasive, and/or easily confounded, despite being practiced clinically. We investigate a non-invasive, non-imaging (1)H NMR method of assessing dehydration that attempts to address issues with existing clinical methods...
August 2015: NMR in Biomedicine
Jason L Brown, Anne D Yoder
Geospatial modeling is one of the most powerful tools available to conservation biologists for estimating current species ranges of Earth's biodiversity. Now, with the advantage of predictive climate models, these methods can be deployed for understanding future impacts on threatened biota. Here, we employ predictive modeling under a conservative estimate of future climate change to examine impacts on the future abundance and geographic distributions of Malagasy lemurs. Using distribution data from the primary literature, we employed ensemble species distribution models and geospatial analyses to predict future changes in species distributions...
March 2015: Ecology and Evolution
Bibhu R Das, Arnab Roy, Faisal R Khan
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major public concern as it is one of the leading causes of morbidity and lays a huge medical and economic burden on health resources. Early detection of OA has been a clinical challenge as early signs of joint inflammation are often not evidently identifiable on routine radiographic images. This presents a dire unmet medical need for a biomarker, which could detect early signs of joint inflammation much before irreversible joint damage and radiographic changes set in. Besides, the treatment of OA has remained mainly symptomatic...
January 2015: Perspectives in Clinical Research
Yun Chen, Hui Yang
The rapid advancements of biomedical instrumentation and healthcare technology have resulted in data-rich environments in hospitals. However, the meaningful information extracted from rich datasets is limited. There is a dire need to go beyond current medical practices, and develop data-driven methods and tools that will enable and help (i) the handling of big data, (ii) the extraction of data-driven knowledge, (iii) the exploitation of acquired knowledge for optimizing clinical decisions. This present study focuses on the prediction of mortality rates in Intensive Care Units (ICU) using patient-specific healthcare recordings...
2014: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Fenglin Chen
Since their introduction into the clinical practices in 1980s, techniques of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) have been rapidly developing and are now in widespread use in gastrointestinal oncology. Evolving from the classical option, EUS today has been much innovated with addition of a variety of novel ideation which makes it a powerful tool with encouraging duality for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. There is a dire need for physicians in this field to understand the status quo of EUS as related to the management and detection of gastrointestinal tumors, which is globally reviewed in this paper...
December 2014: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
T R McClanahan, N A J Graham, M A MacNeil, J E Cinner
The failure of fisheries management among multispecies coral reef fisheries is well documented and has dire implications for the 100 million people engaged in these small-scale operations. Weak or missing management institutions, a lack of research capacity, and the complex nature of these ecosystems have heralded a call for ecosystem-based management approaches. However, ecosystem-based management of coral reef fisheries has proved challenging due to the multispecies nature of catches and the diversity of fish functional roles...
April 2015: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Francesco Negro
The advent of potent and safe direct-acting antivirals against the hepatitis C virus has the potential of fulfilling the dream of eliminating this infection and its impact on global public health. However, even if effective drugs are at hand, most patients remain unaware of their infection, which may be recognized only in late stages when dire complications have occurred. Europe is not spared by this scourge, with its estimated 19,000,000 persons infected, and knowledge of the epidemiology of HCV and its drivers is a critical tool in fighting this virus...
December 15, 2014: Digestive and Liver Disease
Enrique Calvo-Ayala, Babar Khan
Delirium among critically ill patients is common. Presence of delirium imparts a poorer prognosis to patients, including longer ICU and hospital length of stay, increased risk of institutionalization, higher health related costs, and elevated mortality. Even with such grave consequences, the rates of delirium diagnosis are dire. The importance of early recognition through validated tools and appropriate management of this life-threatening condition cannot be over emphasized. This article provides an overview of delirium pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management with a focus on critically ill patients...
2013: Journal of Symptoms and Signs
Henri Azaïs, Lucie Bresson, Alfred Bassil, Ninad Katdare, Benjamin Merlot, Jean-Louis Houpeau, Sophie El Bedoui, Jean-Pierre Meurant, Emmanuelle Tresch, Fabrice Narducci
PURPOSE: Totally implantable venous access port systems (TIVAPS) are a widely used and an essential tool in the efficient delivery of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drug extravasation (CDE) can have dire consequences and will delay treatment. The purpose of this study is to both clarify the management of CDE and show the effectiveness of early surgical lavage (ESL). METHODS: Patients who had presented to the Cancer Center of Lille (France) with TIVAPS inserted between January 2004 and April 2013 and CDE had their medical records reviewed retrospectively...
January 2015: Journal of Vascular Access
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