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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184409/nanomaterials-for-alternative-antibacterial-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Hassan A Hemeg
Despite an array of cogent antibiotics, bacterial infections, notably those produced by nosocomial pathogens, still remain a leading factor of morbidity and mortality around the globe. They target the severely ill, hospitalized and immunocompromised patients with incapacitated immune system, who are prone to infections. The choice of antimicrobial therapy is largely empirical and not devoid of toxicity, hypersensitivity, teratogenicity and/or mutagenicity. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria further intensifies the clinical predicament as it directly impacts public health due to diminished potency of current antibiotics...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176967/reporter-based-assays-for-high-throughput-drug-screening-against-mycobacterium-abscessus
#2
Rashmi Gupta, Mandy Netherton, Thomas F Byrd, Kyle H Rohde
Mycobacterium abscessus is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium that causes pulmonary and non-pulmonary infections. M. abscessus is resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents and the current treatment options show poor clinical outcomes. Thus, there is a dire need to find new antimicrobials effective at killing M. abscessus. Screening drug libraries to identify potential antimicrobials has been impeded by the lack of validated HTS assays for M. abscessus. In this study, we developed two 384-well high-throughput screening assays using fluorescent and bioluminescent reporter strains of M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057146/light-scattering-spectroscopy-identifies-the-malignant-potential-of-pancreatic-cysts-during-endoscopy
#3
Lei Zhang, Douglas K Pleskow, Vladimir Turzhitsky, Eric U Yee, Tyler M Berzin, Mandeep Sawhney, Shweta Shinagare, Edward Vitkin, Yuri Zakharov, Umar Khan, Fen Wang, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Saveli Goldberg, Ram Chuttani, Irving Itzkan, Le Qiu, Lev T Perelman
Pancreatic cancers are usually detected at an advanced stage and have poor prognosis. About one fifth of these arise from pancreatic cystic lesions. Yet not all lesions are precancerous, and imaging tools lack adequate accuracy for distinguishing precancerous from benign cysts. Therefore, decisions on surgical resection usually rely on endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Unfortunately, cyst fluid often contains few cells, and fluid chemical analysis lacks accuracy, resulting in dire consequences, including unnecessary pancreatic surgery for benign cysts and the development of cancer...
2017: Nature Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050979/comparison-of-3-risk-estimators-to-guide-initiation-of-statin-therapy-for-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#4
Sandra Ofori, Sotonye Dodiyi-Manuel, Maclean R Akpa
BACKGROUND: Among high-risk individuals, statins are beneficial for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In Nigeria, currently, there are no CVD prevention guidelines, so the use of CVD risk estimation to guide statin therapy is left to the discretion of the physician. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare 3 CVD risk estimation tools in the evaluation of patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 295 patients with any CVD risk factors but not taking statins...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936120/knowledge-beliefs-and-practices-regarding-osteoporosis-among-female-medical-school-entrants-in-pakistan
#5
Muhammad Bilal, Abdul Haseeb, Aleena Zehra Merchant, Abdur Rehman, Mohammad Hussham Arshad, Maarij Malik, Asad Hammad Ur Rehman, Pallavi Rani, Emaan Farhan, Taha S Rehman, Umer Sultan Shamsi, Sadia Aminah
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a growing health problem around the world. The increasing incidence of osteoporotic fractures coupled with the lack of knowledge about the disease in the general community means that the disease is continuously increasing the burden on health sector and the general population. The purpose of the study is to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices about osteoporosis among female medical school entrants in Karachi. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted amongst 400 female medical school entrants of DOW University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Jinnah Sindh Medical University (JSMU)...
2017: Asia Pacific Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933049/pragmatic-combination-of-available-diagnostic-tools-for-optimal-detection-of-intestinal-microsporidia
#6
Stuti Kaushik, Rumpa Saha, Shukla Das, V G Ramachandran, Ashish Goel
Diarrhea is a debilitating condition in HIV infected individuals and with the finding that almost 1/4 cases of diarrhea in HIV are due to microsporidia, there is a dire need to institute measures for its detection on a regular basis. Keeping this in mind the study aims to determine the burden of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV seropositive patients presenting with and without diarrhea and to compare the ability of microscopy and PCR in its detection.The study group consisted of 120 patients divided into four groups HIV seropositive with/without diarrhea, and HIV seronegative with/without diarrhea...
September 13, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892365/recent-developments-in-antimicrobial-peptide-conjugated-gold-nanoparticles
#7
Urawadee Rajchakit, Vijayalekshmi Sarojini
The escalation of multidrug-resistant pathogens has created a dire need to develop novel ways of addressing this global therapeutic challenge. Because of their antimicrobial activities, the combination of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and nanoparticles is a promising tool with which to kill drug-resistant pathogens. In recent years, several studies using AMP-nanoparticle conjugates, especially metallic nanoparticles, as potential antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant pathogens have been published. Among these, antimicrobial-peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AMP-AuNPs) are particularly attractive because of the nontoxic nature of gold and the possibility of fine-tuning the AMP-NP conjugation chemistry...
September 26, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474751/a-willingness-to-go-there-nurses-and-spiritual-care
#8
Mary E Minton, Mary J Isaacson, Brandon Michael Varilek, Jessica L Stadick, Shannon O'Connell-Persaud
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Describe rural and urban palliative/hospice care nurses' communication strategies while providing spiritual care for patients and families at end-of-life. BACKGROUND: Nurses aim to provide holistic care consisting of physical, psychological, and spiritual components. However, it is well documented that spiritual care is largely missing from nursing care. Internationally, spiritual care is a growing topic of interest, yet many nurses feel unprepared to deliver spiritual care...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445954/a-clinically-feasible-multiplex-proteomic-immunoassay-as-a-novel-functional-diagnostic-for-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#9
Kian-Huat Lim, Emma Langley, Feng Gao, Jingqin Luo, Lin Li, Gary Meyer, Phillip Kim, Sharat Singh, Vladamir M Kushnir, Dayna S Early, Daniel K Mullady, Steven A Edmundowicz, Sachin Wani, Faris M Murad, Dengfeng Cao, Riad R Azar, Andrea Wang-Gillam
To date, targeted therapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains largely unsuccessful in the clinic. Current genomics-based technologies are unable to reflect the quantitative, dynamic signaling changes in the tumor, and require larger tumor samples that are difficult to obtain in PDAC patients. Therefore, a highly sensitive functional tool that can reliably and comprehensively inform intra-tumoral signaling events is direly needed to guide treatment decision. We tested the utility of a highly sensitive proteomics-based functional diagnostic platform, Collaborative Enzyme Enhanced Reactive-immunoassay (CEERTM), on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples obtained from 102 patients with radiographically-evident pancreatic tumors...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365293/a-unified-inter-host-and-in-host-model-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-infection-spread-in-a-hospital-ward
#10
Lester Caudill, Barry Lawson
As the battle continues against hospital-acquired infections and the concurrent rise in antibiotic resistance among many of the major causative pathogens, there is a dire need to conduct controlled experiments, in order to compare proposed control strategies. However, cost, time, and ethical considerations make this evaluation strategy either impractical or impossible to implement with living patients. This paper presents a multi-scale model that offers promise as the basis for a tool to simulate these (and other) controlled experiments...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262174/a-review-of-indian-research-on-cognitive-remediation-for-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
Shantala Hegde
Cognitive deficits play a central role in recovery from Schizophrenia (SZ). Cognitive remediation (CR) is increasingly being examined to improve cognitive functions in SZ. It is becoming an inevitable component of treatment for this debilitating illness. This review article presents the current status of research on CR for SZ in India. In contrast to the numerous studies reported from across the globe, there are only five studies on CR for SZ published from India. Of the five, only two are randomized controlled trials, two are non-randomized studies and one is a series of case reports...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079199/structural-influence-of-proteins-upon-adsorption-to-mos2-nanomaterials-comparison-of-mos2-force-field-parameters
#12
Zonglin Gu, Phil De Luna, Zaixing Yang, Ruhong Zhou
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently emerged as a promising nanomaterial in a wide range of applications due to its unique and impressive properties. For example, MoS2 has gained attention in the biomedical field because of its ability to act as an antibacterial and anticancer agent. However, the potential influence of this exciting nanomaterial on biomolecules is yet to be extensively studied. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are invaluable tools in the examination of protein interactions with nanomaterials such as MoS2...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061428/phytoremediation-strategies-for-soils-contaminated-with-heavy-metals-modifications-and-future-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Nadeem Sarwar, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Wajid Ishaque, Muhammad Asif Kamran, Amar Matloob, Abdur Rehim, Saddam Hussain
Presence of heavy metals in agricultural soils is of major environmental concern and a great threat to life on the earth. A number of human health risks are associated with heavy metals regarding their entry into food chain. Various physical, chemical and biological techniques are being used to remove heavy metals and metalloids from soils. Among them, phytoremediation is a good strategy to harvest heavy metals from soils and have been proven as an effective and economical technique. In present review, we discussed various sources and harmful effects of some important heavy metals and metalloids, traditional phytoremediation strategies, mechanisms involved in phytoremediation of these metals, limitations and some recent advances in phytoremediation approaches...
March 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989627/development-of-bioluminescence-imaging-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-in-virus-infected-live-mice-and-its-use-for-evaluation-of-therapeutics-and-vaccines
#14
Sandra Fuentes, Diego Arenas, Martin M Moore, Hana Golding, Surender Khurana
Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of pneumonia among infants with no human vaccine or efficient curative treatments. Efforts are underway to develop new RSV vaccines and therapeutics. There is a dire need for animal models for preclinical evaluation and selection of products against RSV. Herein, we developed a whole body bioluminescence imaging to follow replication of RSV A2 virus strain expressing firefly luciferase (RSVA2-line19-FFL) in live BALB/c mice that can be used as an extremely sensitive readout for studying effects of antiviral and vaccines in living mice...
December 15, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901055/mediboost-a-patient-stratification-tool-for-interpretable-decision-making-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#15
Gilmer Valdes, José Marcio Luna, Eric Eaton, Charles B Simone, Lyle H Ungar, Timothy D Solberg
Machine learning algorithms that are both interpretable and accurate are essential in applications such as medicine where errors can have a dire consequence. Unfortunately, there is currently a tradeoff between accuracy and interpretability among state-of-the-art methods. Decision trees are interpretable and are therefore used extensively throughout medicine for stratifying patients. Current decision tree algorithms, however, are consistently outperformed in accuracy by other, less-interpretable machine learning models, such as ensemble methods...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846852/a-systematic-review-of-physician-retirement-planning
#16
REVIEW
Michelle Pannor Silver, Angela D Hamilton, Aviroop Biswas, Natalie Irene Warrick
BACKGROUND: Physician retirement planning and timing have important implications for patients, hospitals, and healthcare systems. Unplanned early or late physician retirement can have dire consequences in terms of both patient safety and human resource allocations. This systematic review examined existing evidence on the timing and process of retirement of physicians. Four questions were addressed: (1) When do physicians retire? (2) Why do some physicians retire early? (3) Why do some physicians delay their retirement? (4) What strategies facilitate physician retention and/or retirement planning? METHODS: English-language studies were searched in electronic databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, AgeLine, Embase, HealthSTAR, ASSA, and PsycINFO, from inception up to and including March 2016...
November 15, 2016: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843818/the-dire-need-for-primary-care-specialization-in-india-concerns-and-challenges
#17
Nafis Faizi, Najam Khalique, Anees Ahmad, Mohammad Salman Shah
Primary health care is an evidence-based priority, but it is still inadequately supported in many countries. Ironically, on one hand, India is a popular destination for medical tourism due to the affordability of high quality of health care and, on the other hand, ill health and health care are the main reasons for becoming poor through medical poverty traps. Surprisingly, this is despite the fact that India was committed to 'Health for All by 2000' in the past, and is committed to 'Universal Health Coverage' by 2022! Clearly, these commitments are destined to fail unless something is done to improve the present state of affairs...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831476/the-antimicrobial-resistance-crisis-management-through-gene-monitoring
#18
Carolyn A Michael, Ashley E Franks, Maurizio Labbate
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an acknowledged crisis for humanity. Its genetic origins and dire potential outcomes are increasingly well understood. However, diagnostic techniques for monitoring the crisis are currently largely limited to enumerating the increasing incidence of resistant pathogens. Being the end-stage of the evolutionary process that produces antimicrobial resistant pathogens, these measurements, while diagnostic, are not prognostic, and so are not optimal in managing this crisis. A better test is required...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822296/risk-assessment-for-job-burnout-with-a-mobile-health-web-application-using-questionnaire-data-a-proof-of-concept-study
#19
Roland von Känel, Marc van Nuffel, Walther J Fuchs
BACKGROUND: Job burnout has become a rampant epidemic in working societies, causing high productivity loss and healthcare costs. An easy accessible tool to detect clinically relevant risk may bear the potential to timely avert the dire sequelae of burnout. As a start, we performed a proof of concept study to test the utilization of a mobile health web application for a free and anonymous burnout risk assessment with established questionnaires. METHODS: We designed a client-side javascript web application for users who filled out demographic and psychometric data forms over the internet...
2016: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806067/middle-stone-age-ochre-processing-and-behavioural-complexity-in-the-horn-of-africa-evidence-from-porc-epic-cave-dire-dawa-ethiopia
#20
Daniela Eugenia Rosso, Africa Pitarch Martí, Francesco d'Errico
Ochre is a common feature at Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites and has often been interpreted as a proxy for the origin of modern behaviour. However, few ochre processing tools, ochre containers, and ochre-stained artefacts from MSA contexts have been studied in detail within a theoretical framework aimed at inferring the technical steps involved in the acquisition, production and use of these artefacts. Here we analyse 21 ochre processing tools, i.e. upper and lower grindstones, and two ochre-stained artefacts from the MSA layers of Porc-Epic Cave, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, dated to ca...
2016: PloS One
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