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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901055/mediboost-a-patient-stratification-tool-for-interpretable-decision-making-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#1
Gilmer Valdes, José Marcio Luna, Eric Eaton, Charles B Simone, Lyle H Ungar, Timothy D Solberg
Machine learning algorithms that are both interpretable and accurate are essential in applications such as medicine where errors can have a dire consequence. Unfortunately, there is currently a tradeoff between accuracy and interpretability among state-of-the-art methods. Decision trees are interpretable and are therefore used extensively throughout medicine for stratifying patients. Current decision tree algorithms, however, are consistently outperformed in accuracy by other, less-interpretable machine learning models, such as ensemble methods...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846852/a-systematic-review-of-physician-retirement-planning
#2
Michelle Pannor Silver, Angela D Hamilton, Aviroop Biswas, Natalie Irene Warrick
BACKGROUND: Physician retirement planning and timing have important implications for patients, hospitals, and healthcare systems. Unplanned early or late physician retirement can have dire consequences in terms of both patient safety and human resource allocations. This systematic review examined existing evidence on the timing and process of retirement of physicians. Four questions were addressed: (1) When do physicians retire? (2) Why do some physicians retire early? (3) Why do some physicians delay their retirement? (4) What strategies facilitate physician retention and/or retirement planning? METHODS: English-language studies were searched in electronic databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, AgeLine, Embase, HealthSTAR, ASSA, and PsycINFO, from inception up to and including March 2016...
November 15, 2016: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843818/the-dire-need-for-primary-care-specialization-in-india-concerns-and-challenges
#3
Nafis Faizi, Najam Khalique, Anees Ahmad, Mohammad Salman Shah
Primary health care is an evidence-based priority, but it is still inadequately supported in many countries. Ironically, on one hand, India is a popular destination for medical tourism due to the affordability of high quality of health care and, on the other hand, ill health and health care are the main reasons for becoming poor through medical poverty traps. Surprisingly, this is despite the fact that India was committed to 'Health for All by 2000' in the past, and is committed to 'Universal Health Coverage' by 2022! Clearly, these commitments are destined to fail unless something is done to improve the present state of affairs...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831476/the-antimicrobial-resistance-crisis-management-through-gene-monitoring
#4
Carolyn A Michael, Ashley E Franks, Maurizio Labbate
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an acknowledged crisis for humanity. Its genetic origins and dire potential outcomes are increasingly well understood. However, diagnostic techniques for monitoring the crisis are currently largely limited to enumerating the increasing incidence of resistant pathogens. Being the end-stage of the evolutionary process that produces antimicrobial resistant pathogens, these measurements, while diagnostic, are not prognostic, and so are not optimal in managing this crisis. A better test is required...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822296/risk-assessment-for-job-burnout-with-a-mobile-health-web-application-using-questionnaire-data-a-proof-of-concept-study
#5
Roland von Känel, Marc van Nuffel, Walther J Fuchs
BACKGROUND: Job burnout has become a rampant epidemic in working societies, causing high productivity loss and healthcare costs. An easy accessible tool to detect clinically relevant risk may bear the potential to timely avert the dire sequelae of burnout. As a start, we performed a proof of concept study to test the utilization of a mobile health web application for a free and anonymous burnout risk assessment with established questionnaires. METHODS: We designed a client-side javascript web application for users who filled out demographic and psychometric data forms over the internet...
2016: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806067/middle-stone-age-ochre-processing-and-behavioural-complexity-in-the-horn-of-africa-evidence-from-porc-epic-cave-dire-dawa-ethiopia
#6
Daniela Eugenia Rosso, Africa Pitarch Martí, Francesco d'Errico
Ochre is a common feature at Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites and has often been interpreted as a proxy for the origin of modern behaviour. However, few ochre processing tools, ochre containers, and ochre-stained artefacts from MSA contexts have been studied in detail within a theoretical framework aimed at inferring the technical steps involved in the acquisition, production and use of these artefacts. Here we analyse 21 ochre processing tools, i.e. upper and lower grindstones, and two ochre-stained artefacts from the MSA layers of Porc-Epic Cave, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, dated to ca...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693907/an-infrared-diagnostic-system-to-detect-causal-agents-of-grapevine-trunk-diseases
#7
Cecile Levasseur-Garcia, Hugo Malaurie, Nathalie Mailhac
In most vineyards worldwide, agents of grapevine trunk diseases represent a real threat for viticulture and are responsible for significant economic loss to the wine industry. The conventional microbiological isolation technique used to diagnose this disease is tedious and frequently leads to false negatives. Thus, a dire need exists for an alternative method to detect this disease. One possible way involves infrared spectroscopy, which is a rapid, nondestructive analytical tool that is commonly used for quality control of feed stuffs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521261/bacteriophage-driven-inhibition-of-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-strains-from-patients-attending-a-romanian-reference-center-for-infectious-diseases
#8
Alina Cristina Neguț, Mariana-Carmen Chifiriuc, Oana Săndulescu, Anca Streinu-Cercel, Mihaela Oprea, Elena Carmina Drăgulescu, Irina Gheorghe, Ioana Berciu, Coralia Bleotu, Marcela Popa, Dan Oțelea, Daniela Tălăpan, Olga Dorobăț, Irina Codiță, Mircea Ioan Popa, Adrian Streinu-Cercel
The increasing burden of invasive biofilm-related staphylococcal infections led to a dire need for new agents to prevent biofilm formation. Bacteriophages may hypothetically alter biofilm through several mechanisms, including induction of depolymerizing enzymes, and lysis of persistent bacteria. We have assessed the influence of commercially-available bacteriophage cocktails on Staphylococcus spp. clinical strains viability and biofilm formation. We analyzed 83 staphylococcal strains from patients consecutively admitted to a Romanian infection reference center from October 2014 through May 2015; the strains were characterized by phenotypic and genetic tools for their resistance and virulence features and for their phyliation...
August 11, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221074/stem-cells-and-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-from-pathology-to-therapy
#9
Mingfei Liu, Han Chen, Jun Jiang, Zhaocai Zhang, Chen Wang, Na Zhang, Liang Dong, Xinyang Hu, Wei Zhu, Hong Yu, Jian'an Wang
The worldwide increase trend in the prevalence of diabetes has highlighted the need for increased research efforts into treatment options for both the disease itself and its associated complications. Diabetes has been widely recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease and hypertension. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a main complication of diabetes, contributing to specific forms of heart failure independent from ischemia or hypertension. Without considerably effective approaches, a dire need exists to further explore the mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse the progression of DCM...
May 24, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058865/opioid-risk-assessment-in-palliative-medicine
#10
Rebecca Dale, Jeremy Edwards, Jane Ballantyne
Pain management with opioids is an integral part of palliative medicine. As the doses and durations of opioid therapy increase, the inherent risks of opioid therapy rise. Although opioids are effective analgesics, they bring with them complex medical and psychological side effects. Aberrant behavior is dangerous and can be difficult to identify as it results in a splitting in the goals of treatment between the patient and providers. One effective strategy in preventing that situation is through the early identification of at-risk patients...
March 2016: Journal of Community and Supportive Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26796880/plant-pathogen-interactions-toward-development-of-next-generation-disease-resistant-plants
#11
Naghmeh Nejat, James Rookes, Nitin L Mantri, David M Cahill
Briskly evolving phytopathogens are dire threats to our food supplies and threaten global food security. From the recent advances made toward high-throughput sequencing technologies, understanding of pathogenesis and effector biology, and plant innate immunity, translation of these means into new control tools is being introduced to develop durable disease resistance. Effectoromics as a powerful genetic tool for uncovering effector-target genes, both susceptibility genes and executor resistance genes in effector-assisted breeding, open up new avenues to improve resistance...
January 22, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26666665/stem-cells-in-neurotoxicology-developmental-neurotoxicology-current-scenario-and-future-prospects
#12
REVIEW
S Singh, A Srivastava, V Kumar, A Pandey, D Kumar, C S Rajpurohit, V K Khanna, S Yadav, A B Pant
Stem cell biology has played a pivotal role in the field of disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The scope of stem cell research has been further extended to address the issues associated with toxicity and biosafety. However, its role in the field of neurotoxicity (NT) and the emerging field of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is somewhat underrepresented and needs thorough investigation. Several challenges have hindered the progress of NT and DNT studies, and there is a dire need for human-specific high-throughput in vitro system(s) as a tool with better predictivity, reliability, and reproducibility...
December 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512033/building-a-katalogue-of-acetyllysine-targeting-and-function
#13
Michael Downey, Kristin Baetz
Acetylation is a dynamic post-translational modification that is attached to protein substrates by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and removed by lysine deacetylases (KDACs). While these enzymes are best characterized as histone modifiers and regulators of gene transcription, work in a number of systems highlights that acetylation is a pervasive modification and suggests a broad scope for KAT and KDAC functions in the cell. As we move beyond generating lists of acetylated proteins, the acetylation field is in dire need of robust tools to connect acetylation and deacetylation machineries to their respective substrates and to dissect the function of individual sites...
March 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26415855/chemically-modified-rna-activated-matrices-enhance-bone-regeneration
#14
Satheesh Elangovan, Behnoush Khorsand, Anh-Vu Do, Liu Hong, Alexander Dewerth, Michael Kormann, Ryan D Ross, D Rick Sumner, Chantal Allamargot, Aliasger K Salem
There exists a dire need for improved therapeutics to achieve predictable bone regeneration. Gene therapy using non-viral vectors that are safe and efficient at transfecting target cells is a promising approach to overcoming the drawbacks of protein delivery of growth factors. Here, we investigated the transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity, osteogenic potential and in vivo bone regenerative capacity of chemically modified ribonucleic acid (cmRNA) (encoding BMP-2) complexed with polyethylenimine (PEI) and made comparisons with PEI complexed with conventional plasmid DNA (encoding BMP-2)...
November 28, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26351386/a-matrix-based-model-predicts-primary-response-to-infliximab-in-crohn-s-disease
#15
Thomas Billiet, Konstantinos Papamichael, Magali de Bruyn, Bram Verstockt, Isabelle Cleynen, Fred Princen, Sharat Singh, Marc Ferrante, Gert Van Assche, Severine Vermeire
BACKGROUND: Prediction of primary non-response [PNR] to anti-tumour necrosis factors [TNFs] in inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is direly needed to select the optimal therapeutic class for a given patient. We developed a matrix-based prediction tool to predict response to infliximab [IFX] in Crohn's disease [CD] patients. METHODS: This retrospective single-centre study included 201 anti-TNF naïve CD patients who started with IFX induction therapy. PNR occurred in 16 [8%] patients...
December 2015: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26190057/social-roles-prestige-and-health-risk-social-niche-specialization-as-a-risk-buffering-strategy
#16
Lawrence Scott Sugiyama, Michelle Scalise Sugiyama
Selection pressure from health risk is hypothesized to have shaped adaptations motivating individuals to attempt to become valued by other individuals by generously and recurrently providing beneficial goods and/or services to them because this strategy encouraged beneficiaries to provide costly health care to their benefactors when the latter were sick or injured. Additionally, adaptations are hypothesized to have co-evolved that motivate individuals to attend to and value those who recurrently provide them with important benefits so they are willing in turn to provide costly care when a valued person is disabled or in dire need...
June 2003: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26142533/review-new-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-avenues-for-mesothelioma
#17
REVIEW
Usman Zafar Paracha, Khezar Hayat, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Imran Qadir
Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer affecting the mesothelium lining. It is usually caused by asbestos exposure or exposure to nanofibers. Median survival is less than one year in the mesothelioma patients. Due to its severity, there is a dire necessity to find out new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Some recent strategies could help us in fighting against mesothelioma. Diagnostic tools include a range of biomarkers or biotechnological procedure. Therapeutic tools include chemotherapeutic strategies along with immunotherapy, gene therapy and alternative therapy...
July 2015: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26123278/-1-h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-nmr-as-a-tool-to-measure-dehydration-in-mice
#18
Matthew Li, Christophoros C Vassiliou, Lina A Colucci, Michael J Cima
Dehydration is a prevalent pathology, where loss of bodily water can result in variable symptoms. Symptoms can range from simple thirst to dire scenarios involving loss of consciousness. Clinical methods exist that assess dehydration from qualitative weight changes to more quantitative osmolality measurements. These methods are imprecise, invasive, and/or easily confounded, despite being practiced clinically. We investigate a non-invasive, non-imaging (1)H NMR method of assessing dehydration that attempts to address issues with existing clinical methods...
August 2015: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25859320/shifting-ranges-and-conservation-challenges-for-lemurs-in-the-face-of-climate-change
#19
Jason L Brown, Anne D Yoder
Geospatial modeling is one of the most powerful tools available to conservation biologists for estimating current species ranges of Earth's biodiversity. Now, with the advantage of predictive climate models, these methods can be deployed for understanding future impacts on threatened biota. Here, we employ predictive modeling under a conservative estimate of future climate change to examine impacts on the future abundance and geographic distributions of Malagasy lemurs. Using distribution data from the primary literature, we employed ensemble species distribution models and geospatial analyses to predict future changes in species distributions...
March 2015: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25657896/cartilage-oligomeric-matrix-protein-in-monitoring-and-prognostication-of-osteoarthritis-and-its-utility-in-drug-development
#20
REVIEW
Bibhu R Das, Arnab Roy, Faisal R Khan
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major public concern as it is one of the leading causes of morbidity and lays a huge medical and economic burden on health resources. Early detection of OA has been a clinical challenge as early signs of joint inflammation are often not evidently identifiable on routine radiographic images. This presents a dire unmet medical need for a biomarker, which could detect early signs of joint inflammation much before irreversible joint damage and radiographic changes set in. Besides, the treatment of OA has remained mainly symptomatic...
January 2015: Perspectives in Clinical Research
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