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Chemical Weapon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148211/chemical-defense-by-erythrolactones-in-the-euryhaline-ciliated-protist-pseudokeronopsis-erythrina
#1
Federico Buonanno, Andrea Anesi, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Graziano Guella, Claudio Ortenzi
Pseudokeronopsis erythrina produces three new secondary metabolites, erythrolactones A2, B2 and C2, and their respective sulfate esters (A1, B1, C1), the structures of which have been recently elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data coupled to high resolution mass measurements (HR-MALDI-TOF). An analysis of the discharge of the protozoan pigment granules revealed that the non-sulfonated erythrolactones are exclusively stored in these cortical organelles, which are commonly used by a number of ciliates as chemical weapons in offense/defense interactions with prey and predators...
February 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120037/long-term-accumulation-of-diphenylarsinic-acid-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-cynomolgus-monkeys
#2
Tomoyuki Masuda, Kazuhiro Ishii, Yasuo Seto, Tomoko Hosoya, Ryuta Tanaka, Tomohiro Nakayama, Nobuaki Iwasaki, Yasuyuki Shibata, Akira Tamaoka
Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is an organic arsenic compound used for the synthesis of chemical weapons. We previously found that the residents of Kamisu city in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, were exposed to DPAA through contaminated well water in 2003. Although mounting evidence strongly suggests that their neurological symptoms were caused by DPAA, the dynamics of DPAA distribution and metabolism after ingestion by humans remain to be elucidated. To accurately predict the distribution of DPAA in the human body, we administrated DPAA (1...
January 25, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109985/the-synthetic-neuroactive-steroid-sge-516-reduces-status-epilepticus-and-neuronal-cell-death-in-a-rat-model-of-soman-intoxication
#3
Alison L Althaus, Hilary S McCarren, Aymen Alqazzaz, Cecelia Jackson, John H McDonough, Carl D Smith, Ethan Hoffman, Rebecca S Hammond, Albert J Robichaud, James J Doherty
Organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) are irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase that pose a serious threat to public health because of their use as chemical weapons. Exposure to high doses of OPNAs can dramatically potentiate cholinergic synaptic activity and cause status epilepticus (SE). Current standard of care for OPNA exposure involves treatment with cholinergic antagonists, oxime cholinesterase reactivators, and benzodiazepines. However, data from pre-clinical models suggest that OPNA-induced SE rapidly becomes refractory to benzodiazepines...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105916/gpcrs-from-fusarium-graminearum-detection-modeling-and-virtual-screening-the-search-for-new-routes-to-control-head-blight-disease
#4
Emmanuel Bresso, Roberto Togawa, Kim Hammond-Kosack, Martin Urban, Bernard Maigret, Natalia Florencio Martins
BACKGOUND: Fusarium graminearum (FG) is one of the major cereal infecting pathogens causing high economic losses worldwide and resulting in adverse effects on human and animal health. Therefore, the development of new fungicides against FG is an important issue to reduce cereal infection and economic impact. In the strategy for developing new fungicides, a critical step is the identification of new targets against which innovative chemicals weapons can be designed. As several G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are implicated in signaling pathways critical for the fungi development and survival, such proteins could be valuable efficient targets to reduce Fusarium growth and therefore to prevent food contamination...
December 15, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102531/a-systems-dynamics-approach-to-the-efficacy-of-oxime-therapy-for-mild-exposure-to-sarin-gas
#5
Daniel J Droste, Michael L Shelley, Jeffery M Gearhart, David M Kempisty
The use of nerve agents such as sarin is as much a threat today as any other time in our history. The events in Syria in 2013 are proof of this. "The Obama administration asserted Sunday for the first time that the Syrian government used the nerve gas sarin to kill more than 1,400 people (August 21, 2013) in the world's gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years." With these recent events clear in our mind, we must focus on the horrific nature of these chemical agents to devise a strategy that will enable first responders to counteract these insidious chemicals...
April 2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087322/cutaneous-exposure-to-vesicant-phosgene-oxime-acute-effects-on-the-skin-and-systemic-toxicity
#6
Neera Tewari-Singh, Dinesh G Goswami, Rama Kant, Claire R Croutch, Robert P Casillas, David J Orlicky, Rajesh Agarwal
Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model...
January 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074207/plutonium-segregation-in-glassy-aerodynamic-fallout-from-a-nuclear-weapon-test
#7
K S Holliday, J M Dierken, M L Monroe, M A Fitzgerald, N E Marks, R C Gostic, K B Knight, K R Czerwinski, I D Hutcheon, J W McClory
This study combines electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy to probe major element composition and autoradiography to map plutonium in order to examine the spatial relationships between plutonium and fallout composition in aerodynamic glassy fallout from a nuclear weapon test. A sample set of 48 individual fallout specimens were interrogated to reveal that the significant chemical heterogeneity of this sample set could be described compositionally with a relatively small number of compositional endmembers...
January 11, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935238/identification-of-novel-disulfide-adducts-between-the-thiol-containing-leaving-group-of-the-nerve-agent-vx-and-cysteine-containing-tripeptides-derived-from-human-serum-albumin
#8
Andreas Kranawetvogl, Jim Küppers, Michael Gütschow, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Paul W Elsinghorst, Harald John
Chemical warfare agents represent a continuous and considerable threat to military personnel and the civilian population. Such compounds are prohibited by the Chemical Weapons Convention, to which adherence by the member states is strictly controlled. Therefore, reliable analytical methods for verification of an alleged use of banned substances are required. Accordingly, current research focuses on long-term biomarkers derived from covalent adducts with biomolecules such as proteins. Recently, we have introduced a microbore liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method allowing for the investigation of two different classes of adducts of the nerve agent VX with human serum albumin (HSA)...
December 9, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881621/unusual-case-of-drug-facilitated-sexual-assault-using-chloroform
#9
Camille Richeval, Delphine Allorge, Vincent Lopez, Baptiste Boyer, Jean-Michel Gaulier
Despite its well-known sedative properties, chloroform is rarely used for drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) as its administration cannot be achieved without the victim's knowledge: we report an unusual case of DFSA using this solvent. A 26-year-old woman declared that her partner get her to sleep using chloroform the previous night. When she waked up at 3 am, her hands were tied. She immediately suspected violence and sexual penetration. Toxicological blood screening using a liquid chromatography-electrospray coupled tandem mass spectrometry method highlighted the presence of bamifylline and theophylline, two therapeutics of asthma...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878916/can-the-outcomes-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-myocardial-infarction-be-improved-providing-weapons-and-armour-to-cells
#10
REVIEW
Andrey A Karpov, Daria V Udalova, Michael G Pliss, Michael M Galagudza
Use of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation after myocardial infarction (MI) has been found to have infarct-limiting effects in numerous experimental and clinical studies. However, recent meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials on MSC-based MI therapy have highlighted the need for improving its efficacy. There are two principal approaches for increasing therapeutic effect of MSCs: (i) preventing massive MSC death in ischaemic tissue and (ii) increasing production of cardioreparative growth factors and cytokines with transplanted MSCs...
November 23, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863218/discovery-of-ibomycin-a-potent-antifungal-weapon
#11
J Andrew Alspaugh
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Robbins et al. (2016) identify ibomycin, a unique compound with antifungal activity. Microbial physiological and genetic studies suggest that endocytic trafficking might be the site of action for this lead antifungal compound.
November 17, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849500/the-u-s-army-occupational-and-environmental-medicine-residency-at-aberdeen-proving-ground-maryland-1960-1996
#12
Joel C Gaydos, Timothy M Mallon, William A Rice
BACKGROUND: Reorganization of the Army and critical assessment of Army Graduate Medical Education programs prompted the Occupational and Environmental Medicine (OEM) Consultant to the Army Surgeon General to initiate a review of current Army OEM residency training. Available information indicated the Army OEM residency at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was the first and longest operating Army OEM residency. Describing this residency was identified as the first step in the review, with the objectives of determining why the residency was started and sustained and its relevance to the needs of the Army...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845442/harnessing-nature-s-diversity-discovering-organophosphate-bioscavenger-characteristics-among-low-molecular-weight-proteins
#13
Reed B Jacob, Kenan C Michaels, Cathy J Anderson, James M Fay, Nikolay V Dokholyan
Organophosphate poisoning can occur from exposure to agricultural pesticides or chemical weapons. This exposure inhibits acetylcholinesterase resulting in increased acetylcholine levels within the synaptic cleft causing loss of muscle control, seizures, and death. Mitigating the effects of organophosphates in our bodies is critical and yet an unsolved challenge. Here, we present a computational strategy that integrates structure mining and modeling approaches, using which we identify novel candidates capable of interacting with a serine hydrolase probe (with equilibrium binding constants ranging from 4 to 120 μM)...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830420/organophosphate-hydrolyzing-enzymes-as-first-line-of-defence-against-nerve-agent-poisoning-perspectives-and-the-road-ahead
#14
REVIEW
A R Satvik Iyengar, Abhay H Pande
Nerve agents (NAs) are extremely neurotoxic synthetic organophosphate (OP) compounds exploited as weapons of mass destruction in terrorist attacks and chemical warfare. Considering the current world scenario, there is a persistent threat of NA-exposure to military personals and civilians. Various prophylactic and post-exposure treatments (such as atropine and oximes) available currently for NA-poisoning are inadequate and unsatisfactory and suffer from severe limitations. Hence, developing safe and effective treatment(s) against NA-poisoning is a critical necessity...
December 2016: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762064/ccnd1-bcl2-gene-network-a-direct-target-of-amifostine-in-human-acute-megakaryocytic-leukemia-cells
#15
Feng Zhang, Bo Yang, Kailiang Zhang, Mei-Ling Hou, Xue-Chun Lu, Yu-Xin Li
Amifostine, 2-(3-aminopropyl) aminoethyl phosphorothioate, is a broad-spectrum cytoprotective agent used to treat nuclear radiation and chemical weapon injuries. Recently, amifostine has been shown to have a profound biological influence on tumor cells. To examine the effects and mechanisms underlying the effects of amifostine on human acute megakaryocytic leukemia, we evaluated the efficacy of amifostine against Dami cells and observed a cell cycle arrest in G2 /M phase. Amifostine treatment also induced cell apoptosis of Dami cells which corresponds to formal studies...
October 19, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752663/the-combined-action-of-methanolysis-and-heterogeneous-photocatalysis-in-the-decomposition-of-chemical-warfare-agents
#16
Nicoleta Petrea, Răzvan Petre, Gabriel Epure, Vasile Şomoghi, Liviu C Tănase, Cristian M Teodorescu, Ştefan Neaţu
We report the applicability of a hybrid system comprising a La(3+)-based catalyst and an Au/TiO2 photocatalyst in the decomposition of chemical weapons. This system is able to perform complete degradation of soman, sarin and VX in less than 1 minute under low basic conditions and visible light irradiation.
October 18, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731616/benzimidazolium-based-self-assembled-fluorescent-aggregates-for-sensing-and-catalytic-degradation-of-diethylchlorophosphate
#17
Amanpreet Singh, Pushap Raj, Narinder Singh
The unregulated use of chemical weapons has aroused researchers to develop sensors for chemical warfare agents (CWA) and likewise to abolish their harmful effects, the degradation through catalysis has great advantage. Chemically, the CWAs are versatile; however, mostly they contain organophosphates that act on inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. In this work, we have designed and synthesized some novel benzimidazolium based fluorescent cations and their fluorescent aggregates were fabricated using anionic surfactants (SDS and SDBS) in aqueous medium...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725709/defining-cutaneous-molecular-pathobiology-of-arsenicals-using-phenylarsine-oxide-as-a-prototype
#18
Ritesh K Srivastava, Changzhao Li, Zhiping Weng, Anupam Agarwal, Craig A Elmets, Farrukh Afaq, Mohammad Athar
Arsenicals are painful, inflammatory and blistering causing agents developed as chemical weapons in World War I/II. However, their large stockpiles still exist posing threat to public health. Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a strong oxidant and a prototype arsenical is tested for its suitability to defining molecular mechanisms underlying arsenicals-mediated tissue injury. Topically applied PAO induces cutaneous erythema, edema and micro-blisters. These gross inflammatory responses were accompanied by the enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, ROS and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling activation...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704643/fragmentation-pathways-and-structural-characterization-of-organophosphorus-compounds-related-to-cwc-by-electron-ionization-and-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#19
Seyed Esmaeil Hosseini, Hamid Saeidian, Ali Amozadeh, Mohammad Taghi Naseri, Mehran Babri
RATIONALE: For unambiguous identification of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)-related chemicals in environmental samples, the availability of mass spectra, interpretation skills and rapid microsynthesis of suspected chemicals are essential requirements. For the first time, the electron-ionization single quadrupole and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectra of a series of O-alkyl N-[bis(dimethylamino)methylidene]-P-methylphosphonamidates (Scheme 1, cpd 4) were studied for CWC verification purposes...
October 5, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673432/l-%C3%AE-phosphatidylglycerol-chlorohydrins-as-potential-biomarkers-for-chlorine-gas-exposure
#20
Petrus Hemström, Andreas Larsson, Linda Elfsmark, Crister Åstot
Chlorine is a widely available toxic chemical that has been repeatedly used in armed conflict globally. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) have on numerous occasions found "compelling confirmation" that chlorine gas has been used against civilians in northern Syria. However, currently, there are no analytical methods available to unambiguously prove chlorine gas exposure. In this study, we describe the screening for chlorinated biomolecules by the use of mass isotope ratio filters followed by the identification of two biomarkers present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from chlorine gas exposed mice...
October 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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