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Chemical Weapon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889970/what-s-in-a-rash-viral-exanthem-versus-cbrne-exposure-teleconsultation-support-for-two-special-forces-soldiers-with-diffuse-rash-in-an-austere-environment
#1
Howard D Lee, Samuel Butterfield, Joseph Maddry, Douglas Powell, William N Vasios, Heather Yun, David Ferraro, Jeremy C Pamplin
Review clinical thought process and key principles for diagnosing weaponized chemical and biologic injuries. Clinical Context: Special Operation Forces (SOF) team deployed in an undisclosed, austere environment. Organic Expertise: Two SOF Soldiers with civilian EMT-Basic certification. Closest Medical Support: Mobile Forward Surgical Team (2 hours away); medical consults available by e-mail, phone, or video-teleconsultation. Earliest Evacuation: Earliest military evacuation from country 12-24 hours. With teleconsultation, patients departed to Germany as originally scheduled without need for Medical Evacuation...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887839/isolation-characterization-and-application-of-bacteriophage-lpse1-against-salmonella-enterica-in-ready-to-eat-rte-foods
#2
Chenxi Huang, Safiullah M Virk, Jianchun Shi, Yang Zhou, Stephan P Willias, Mohamed K Morsy, Hazem E Abdelnabby, Jie Liu, Xiaohong Wang, Jinquan Li
Salmonella infection is an important foodborne consumer health concern that can be mitigated during food processing. Bacteriophage therapy imparts many advantages over conventional chemical preservatives including pathogen specificity, natural derivation, potency, and providing a high degree of safety. The objective of this study aimed to isolate and characterize a phage that effectively control Salmonella food contamination. Out of 35 isolated phages, LPSE1 demonstrated a broad Salmonella host range, robust lytic ability, extensive pH tolerance, and prolonged thermal stability...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758635/invasion-waves-in-the-biochemical-warfare-between-living-organisms
#3
S A Carvalho, M L Martins
Microorganisms and plants very commonly release toxic secondary chemical compounds (allelochemicals) that inhibit or kill sensitive strains or individuals from their own or other species. In this work we study a model that describes two species interacting through allelopathic suppression and competing for resources. Employing linear stability analysis, the conditions for coexistence or extinction of species in spatially homogeneous systems were determined. We found that the borders between the regimes of bistability, coexistence, and the extinction of the weaker by the stronger competitor, are altered by allelopathic interactions...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753153/efficient-derivatization-of-methylphosphonic-and-aminoethylsulfonic-acids-related-to-nerve-agents-simultaneously-in-soils-using-trimethyloxonium-tetrafluoroborate-for-their-enhanced-qualitative-detection-and-identification-by-ei-gc-ms-and-gc-fpd
#4
Carlos A Valdez, Mira K Marchioretto, Roald N Leif, Saphon Hok
Trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4 ) has been used in the simultaneous derivatization of phosphonic and 2-aminoethylsulfonic acids related to nerve agents in different soils for their enhanced detection and identification by electron ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (EI-GC-MS). The panel of acids consisted of five Schedule 2 phosphonic acids (methyl methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid and cyclohexyl methylphosphonic acid) along with two sulfonic acids, N,N-diethyl-2-aminoethylsulfonic acid and N,N-diisopropyl-2-aminoethylsulfonic acid...
April 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750861/determining-the-relative-binding-affinity-of-ricin-toxin-a-rta-inhibitors-by-using-molecular-docking-and-non-equilibrium-work
#5
Elton Chaves, Itácio Queiroz de Mello Padilha, Demetrius Antônio Machado Araújo, Gerd Bruno Rocha
Ricin is a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP-type2) consisting of two subunits, Ricin Toxin A (RTA) and Ricin Toxin B (RTB). Due to its cytotoxicity, ricin has worried world authorities for its potential use as a chemical weapon; therefore, its inhibition is of great biotechnological interest. RTA is the target for inhibitor synthesis and pterin derivatives are promising candidates to inhibit it. In this study, we used a combination of molecular docking approach and fast steered molecular dynamics in order to assess the correlation between non-equilibrium work, 〈W〉, and IC50 of six RTA inhibitors...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749980/delayed-complications-and-long-term-management-of-sulfur-mustard-poisoning-recent-advances-by-iranian-researchers-part-i-of-ii
#6
REVIEW
Emadodin Darchini-Maragheh, Mahdi Balali-Mood
Chemical warfare agents are the most brutal weapons among the weapons of mass destruction. Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent toxic alkylating agent known as "the King of the Battle Gases". SM has been the most widely used chemical weapon during the wars. It was widely used in World War I. Thereafter, it was extensively employed by the Iraqi troops against the Iranian military personnel and even civilians in the border cities of Iran and Iraq in the period between 1983 and 1988. Long-term incapacitating properties, significant environmental persistence, lack of an effective antidote, and relative ease of manufacturing have kept SM a potential agent for both terrorist and military uses...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736597/differential-mobility-spectrometry-mass-spectrometry-dms-ms-in-radiation-biodosimetry-rapid-and-high-throughput-quantitation-of-multiple-radiation-biomarkers-in-nonhuman-primate-urine
#7
Zhidan Chen, Stephen L Coy, Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Albert J Fornace, Paul Vouros
High-throughput methods to assess radiation exposure are a priority due to concerns that include nuclear power accidents, the spread of nuclear weapon capability, and the risk of terrorist attacks. Metabolomics, the assessment of small molecules in an easily accessible sample, is the most recent method to be applied for the identification of biomarkers of the biological radiation response with a useful dose-response profile. Profiling for biomarker identification is frequently done using an LC-MS platform which has limited throughput due to the time-consuming nature of chromatography...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695159/polymeric-sorbent-with-controlled-surface-polarity-an-alternate-for-solid-phase-extraction-of-nerve-agents-and-their-markers-from-organic-matrix
#8
Kanchan Sinha Roy, Ajay Kumar Purohit, Buddhadeb Chandra, D Raghavender Goud, Deepak Kumar Pardasani, Devendra K Dubey
Extraction and identification of lethal nerve agents and their markers in complex organic background have prime im-portance from the forensic & verification view point of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile and commercially available solid phase silica cartridges are extensively used for this purpose. Silica car-tridges exhibit limited applicability for relatively polar analytes and acetonitrile extraction shows limited efficacy towards relatively nonpolar analytes...
April 26, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694809/toxidrome-recognition-in-chemical-weapons-attacks
#9
REVIEW
Gregory R Ciottone
Terrorist attacks are increasing in both frequency and complexity around the world. In 2016 alone, there were more than 13,400 terrorist attacks globally, killing more than 34,000 people. Of equal concern, chemical-warfare agents that were developed for the battlefield are being used on civilians..
April 26, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686727/epidemiological-findings-of-major-chemical-attacks-in-the-syrian-war-are-consistent-with-civilian-targeting-a-short-report
#10
Jose M Rodriguez-Llanes, Debarati Guha-Sapir, Benjamin-Samuel Schlüter, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks
Evidence of use of toxic gas chemical weapons in the Syrian war has been reported by governmental and non-governmental international organizations since the war started in March 2011. To date, the profiles of victims of the largest chemical attacks in Syria remain unknown. In this study, we used descriptive epidemiological analysis to describe demographic characteristics of victims of the largest chemical weapons attacks in the Syrian war. We analysed conflict-related, direct deaths from chemical weapons recorded in non-government-controlled areas by the Violation Documentation Center, occurring from March 18, 2011 to April 10, 2017, with complete information on the victim's date and place of death, cause and demographic group...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664277/nerve-agents-what-they-are-how-they-work-how-to-counter-them
#11
Stefano Costanzi, John-Hanson Machado, Moriah Mitchell
Nerve agents are organophosphorus chemical warfare agents that exert their action through the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, with a consequent overstimulation of cholinergic transmission followed by its shutdown. Beyond warfare, they have notoriously been employed in acts of terrorism as well as high profile assassinations. After a brief historical introduction on the development and deployment of nerve agents, this review provides a survey of their chemistry, the way they affect cholinergic transmission, the available treatment options, and the current directions for their improvement...
May 16, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648477/acute-intensive-care-unit-management-of-mustard-gas-victims-the-turkish-experience
#12
Ertugrul Kilic, Mesut Ortatatli, Sermet Sezigen, Rusen Koray Eyison, Levent Kenar
PURPOSE: Sulphur mustard (SM) is an highly toxic and vesicant chemical weapon that was used in various military conflicts several times in the history. The severity of ocular, dermal, and pulmonary symptoms that may appear following a characteristic asymptomatic period are depending on the SM concentration and exposure duration. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features and share the intensive care unit (ICU) experiences for the medical management of mustard gas victims...
May 7, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572262/doctors-can-take-blood-from-skripals-for-chemical-weapons-testing-rules-judge
#13
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547971/potential-targets-for-next-generation-anti-microbial-glycoconjugate-vaccines
#14
Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533075/analysis-of-the-precursors-simulants-and-degradation-products-of-chemical-warfare-agents
#15
REVIEW
Zygfryd Witkiewicz, Slawomir Neffe, Ewa Sliwka, Javier Quagliano
Recent advances in analysis of precursors, simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWA) are reviewed. Fast and reliable analysis of precursors, simulants and CWA degradation products is extremely important at a time, when more and more terrorist groups and radical non-state organizations use or plan to use chemical weapons to achieve their own psychological, political and military goals. The review covers the open source literature analysis after the time, when the chemical weapons convention had come into force (1997)...
September 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481528/the-past-informs-the-future-an-overview-of-the-million-worker-study-and-the-mallinckrodt-chemical-works-cohort
#16
John D Boice, Elizabeth D Ellis, Ashley P Golden, David J Girardi, Sarah S Cohen, Heidi Chen, Michael T Mumma, Roy E Shore, Richard W Leggett
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of ongoing work on the Million Worker Study (MWS), highlighting some of the key methods and progress so far as exemplified by the study of workers at the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (MCW). The MWS began nearly 25 y ago and continues in a stepwise fashion, evaluating one study cohort at a time. It includes workers from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manhattan Project facilities, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulated nuclear power plants, industrial radiographers, U...
April 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479374/responding-to-chemical-weapons-violations-in-syria-legal-health-and-humanitarian-recommendations
#17
REVIEW
Julia Brooks, Timothy B Erickson, Stephanie Kayden, Raul Ruiz, Stephen Wilkinson, Frederick M Burkle
Background: The repeated use of prohibited chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict poses serious health, humanitarian, and security threats to civilians, healthcare personnel, and first responders. Moreover, the use of chemical weapons constitutes a clear and egregious violation of international law-likely amounting to a war crime-for which continued impunity is setting a dangerous precedent in relation to current and future conflicts. This debate article calls upon concerned states, organizations, and individuals to respond urgently and unequivocally to this serious breach of international legal and humanitarian norms...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433753/a-glutathione-responsive-sulfur-dioxide-polymer-prodrug-as-a-nanocarrier-for-combating-drug-resistance-in-cancer-chemotherapy
#18
Wei Shen, Wanguo Liu, Huailin Yang, Peng Zhang, Chunsheng Xiao, Xuesi Chen
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer remains a significant challenge for curing cancer by chemotherapy. In this work, a kind of glutathione (GSH)-responsive polymer prodrug of SO2 was designed and synthesized, which presented synergistic effect with doxorubicin (DOX) for combating MCF-7 ADR human breast cancer cell. Firstly, a small molecular prodrug of SO2 , N-(3-azidopropyl)-2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (AP-DNs), was chemically conjugated onto the side chain of methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (γ-propargyl-l-glutamate) (mPEG-PPLG) block copolymer to generate an amphiphilic polymer prodrug of SO2 , mPEG-PLG (DNs)...
February 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426144/influence-of-environmental-changes-on-the-biogeochemistry-of-arsenic-in-a-soil-polluted-by-the-destruction-of-chemical-weapons-a-mesocosm-study
#19
Hugues Thouin, Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet, Marie-Paule Norini, Lydie Le Forestier, Mickael Charron, Sébastien Dupraz, Pascale Gautret
Thermal destruction of chemical munitions from World War I led to the formation of a heavily contaminated residue that contains an unexpected mineral association in which a microbial As transformation has been observed. A mesocosm study was conducted to assess the impact of water saturation episodes and input of bioavailable organic matter (OM) on pollutant behavior in relation to biogeochemical parameters. Over a period of about eight (8) months, the contaminated soil was subjected to cycles of dry and wet periods corresponding to water table level variations...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409903/cholinesterases-and-the-fine-line-between-poison-and-remedy
#20
REVIEW
Carey N Pope, Stephen Brimijoin
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) are related enzymes found across the animal kingdom. The critical role of acetylcholinesterase in neurotransmission has been known for almost a century, but a physiological role for butyrylcholinesterase is just now emerging. The cholinesterases have been deliberately targeted for both therapy and toxicity, with cholinesterase inhibitors being used in the clinic for a variety of disorders and conversely for their toxic potential as pesticides and chemical weapons...
January 31, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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