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Chemical Weapon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052530/health-impacts-of-chemical-irritants-used-for-crowd-control-a-systematic-review-of-the-injuries-and-deaths-caused-by-tear-gas-and-pepper-spray
#1
Rohini J Haar, Vincent Iacopino, Nikhil Ranadive, Sheri D Weiser, Madhavi Dandu
BACKGROUND: Chemical irritants used in crowd control, such as tear gases and pepper sprays, are generally considered to be safe and to cause only transient pain and lacrimation. However, there are numerous reports that use and misuse of these chemicals may cause serious injuries. We aimed to review documented injuries from chemical irritants to better understand the morbidity and mortality associated with these weapons. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review using PRISMA guidelines to identify injuries, permanent disabilities, and deaths from chemical irritants worldwide between January 1, 1990 and March 15, 2015...
October 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018892/novel-treatment-opportunities-for-sulfur-mustard-related-cancers-genetic-and-epigenetic-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Soheila Rahmani, Mohammad Abdollahi
Sulfur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, is a chemical weapon which by now has been used in many wars. The most concerning SM toxic effect is probable carcinogenicity. In this study, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of SM carcinogenicity, by focusing on treatment of SM-associated malignancies, particularly gene therapeutics, cancer vaccines, and epigenetic medications, have been criticized. The required data were collected through an organized search on valid scientific databases. For SM carcinogenicity due to acute or chronic exposure, the entire original and review articles were evaluated...
October 10, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973427/histopathological-and-molecular-changes-in-the-rabbit-cornea-from-arsenical-vesicant-lewisite-exposure
#3
Neera Tewari-Singh, Dinesh G Goswami, Rama Kant, David A Ammar, Dileep Kumar, Robert W Enzenauer, Robert P Casillas, Claire R Croutch, J Mark Petrash, Rajesh Agarwal
Lewisite (LEW), a potent arsenical vesicating chemical warfare agent, poses a continuous risk of accidental exposure in addition to its feared use as a terrorist weapon. Ocular tissue is exquisitely sensitive to LEW and exposure can cause devastating corneal lesions. However, detailed pathogenesis of corneal injury and related mechanisms from LEW exposure that could help identify targeted therapies are not available. Using an established consistent and efficient exposure system, we evaluated the pathophysiology of the corneal injury in New-Zealand white rabbits following LEW vapor exposure (at 0...
September 18, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955764/the-delayed-effect-of-mustard-gas-on-housekeeping-gene-expression-in-lung-biopsy-of-chemical-injuries
#4
Marzieh Eghtedardoost, Zuhair Mohammad Hassan, Nayereh Askari, Alireza Sadeghipour, Mohammad Mahdi Naghizadeh, Sara Ghafarpour, Tooba Ghazanfari
OBJECTIVE: Sulfur mustard (SM) was used as a chemical weapon in Iraq-Iran war. Exposed people have major complications in important organs such as pulmonary system. Some studies have shown that SM could affect the expression of endogenous genes and non-housekeeping genes, time dependently. To understand the accurate molecular mechanism of the delayed effect of SM, the identification of the gene expression pattern in these patients is essential. Hence, we have evaluated mRNA expression of four common housekeeping genes (ACTIN, PGK1, β2m, GAPDH) in SM-exposed and non-exposed (control) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human lung tissues...
September 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927535/potentiation-of-hydrogen-peroxide-toxicity-from-catalase-inhibition-to-stable-dna-iron-complexes
#5
REVIEW
Tulip Mahaseth, Andrei Kuzminov
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is unique among general toxins, because it is stable in abiotic environments at ambient temperature and neutral pH, yet rapidly kills any type of cells by producing highly-reactive hydroxyl radicals. This life-specific reactivity follows the distribution of soluble iron, Fe(II) (which combines with H2O2 to form the famous Fenton's reagent),Fe(II) is concentrated inside cells, but is virtually absent outside them. Because of the immediate danger of H2O2, all cells have powerful H2O2 scavengers, the equally famous catalases, which enable cells to survive thousand-fold higher concentrations of H2O2 and, in combination with adequate movement of H2O2 across membranes, make the killing H2O2 concentrations virtually impractical to generate in vivo...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926810/revisiting-the-biogeochemistry-of-arsenic-in-the-baltic-sea-impact-of-anthropogenic-activity
#6
Lei Li, Christa Pohl, Jing-Ling Ren, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Xiu-Hong Cao, Günther Nausch, Jing Zhang
With the increase in anthropogenic environmental disruption, the behavior of arsenic in the Baltic Sea has received more scientific attention because of its complex forms and toxicity, and was re-visited to determine if there have been measurable changes recently. A cruise was conducted in 10-19 May 2011 to investigate the species and distribution of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs: [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) revealing links between the hydrographic dynamics and biological/chemical reactions in the Baltic Sea...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894261/unique-diversity-of-radioactive-particles-found-in-the-yenisei-river-floodplain
#7
Alexander Bolsunovsky, Mikhail Melgunov, Alexey Chuguevskii, Ole Christian Lind, Brit Salbu
The long-term operation of three reactors and the radiochemical plant of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC), Russia's largest producer of weapons-grade plutonium, has resulted in radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River floodplain. From 1995 to 2016, we found more than 200 radioactive particles (RP) in the Yenisei floodplain, downstream of the MCC. Analytical characterization showed that most of the RP were fuel particles, which were carried into the river after incidents at the MCC reactors. Having compared the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratios in the particles, we determined three time intervals when the RP were formed...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876574/holding-the-torch-up-high-a-medical-historical-evaluation-of-surgical-advances-during-the-great-war-1914-1918-in-memory-of-those-that-served-and-fell
#8
G Scharf
"How wide and varied is the experience of the battlefield and how fertile the blood of warriors in raising good surgeons" Sir Clifford Allbutt (1898). With these sentiments of the medical lessons learned in war and conflict, with the background of the poem of "In Flanders Field", written by a doctor who had South African War connections, reasons (the Somme and third Ypres battles) will be given that this was indeed a "GREAT WAR" as the world history, weapons, strategy, tactics and wounding patterns had changed dramatically...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875359/volatile-chemical-emission-as-a-weapon-of-rearguard-action-a-game-theoretic-model-of-contest-behavior
#9
Mike Mesterton-Gibbons, Yao Dai, Marlène Goubault, Ian C W Hardy
We use a game-theoretic model to explore whether volatile chemical (spiroacetal) emissions can serve as a weapon of rearguard action. Our basic model explores whether such emissions serve as a means of temporary withdrawal, preventing the winner of the current round of a contest from translating its victory into permanent possession of a contested resource. A variant of this model explores an alternative possibility, namely, that such emissions serve as a means of permanent retreat, attempting to prevent a winner from inflicting costs on a fleeing loser...
September 5, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846437/oxygen-administration-improves-survival-but-worsens-cardiopulmonary-functions-in-chlorine-exposed-rats
#10
Obiefuna C Okponyia, Matthew D McGraw, Marilyn M Dysart, Rhonda B Garlick, Jacqueline S Rioux, Angela L Murphy, Gates B Roe, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
RATIONALE: Chlorine is a highly reactive gas that can cause significant injury when inhaled. Unfortunately, its use as a chemical weapon has increased in recent years. Massive chlorine inhalation can cause death within 4h of exposure. Survivors usually require hospitalization after massive exposure. No countermeasures exist for massive chlorine exposure, and supportive care measures lack controlled trials. METHODS: Adult rats were exposed to chlorine gas (LD58-67) in a whole-body exposure chamber, and given oxygen (0...
August 28, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814242/antimicrobial-peptides-a-promising-therapeutic-strategy-in-tackling-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
Ramya Nuti, Sridhar Goud, A Prasanth Saraswati, Ravi Alvala, Mallika Alvala
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has posed a serious threat to global public health and it requires immediate action, preferably long term. Current drug therapies have failed to curb this menace due to the ability of microbes to circumvent the mechanisms through which the drugs act. From the drug discovery point of view, the majority of drugs currently employed for antimicrobial therapy are small molecules. Recent trends reveal a surge in the use of peptides as drug candidates as they offer remarkable advantages over small molecules...
August 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748326/the-factor-structure-of-the-spiritual-well-being-scale-in-veterans-experienced-chemical-weapon-exposure
#12
Hamid Sharif Nia, Saeed Pahlevan Sharif, Christopher Boyle, Ameneh Yaghoobzadeh, Bahram Tahmasbi, G Hussein Rassool, Mozhgan Taebei, Mohammad Ali Soleimani
This study aimed to determine the factor structure of the spiritual well-being among a sample of the Iranian veterans. In this methodological research, 211 male veterans of Iran-Iraq warfare completed the Paloutzian and Ellison spiritual well-being scale. Maximum likelihood (ML) with oblique rotation was used to assess domain structure of the spiritual well-being. The construct validity of the scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha, Theta (θ), and McDonald Omega (Ω) coefficients, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and construct reliability (CR)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743565/cognitive-and-emotional-impairments-after-cutaneous-intoxication-by-cees-a-sulfur-mustard-analog-in-mice
#13
Fanny Gros-Désormeaux, Daniel Béracochéa, Frédéric Dorandeu, Christophe Piérard
Cognitive and emotional disorders have been reported in veterans intoxicated with sulfur mustard (SM) a chemical weapon belonging to the category of vesicating agents. However, the intense stress associated with the SM intoxication may render difficult determining the exact role played by SM intoxication itself on the emergence and maintaining of cognitive disorders. Animal's model would allow overcoming this issue. So far, we presently investigated the cognitive and emotional impact of an acute cutaneous intoxication with CEES (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide), a SM analog in C57/Bl6 mice...
July 22, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738583/application-of-headspace-and-direct-immersion-solid-phase-microextraction-in-the-analysis-of-organothiophosphates-related-to-the-chemical-weapons-convention-from-water-and-complex-matrices
#14
Marc André Althoff, Andreas Bertsch, Manfred Metzulat, Thomas M Klapötke, Konstantin L Karaghiosoff
The successful application of headspace (HS) and direct immersion (DI) solid phase microextraction (SPME) for the unambiguous identification and characterization of a series of toxic thiophosphate esters, such as Amiton (I), from aqueous phases and complex matrices (e.g. grass and foliage) has been demonstrated. A Thermo Scientific gas chromatograph (GC) - tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) system with a TriPlus RSH® autosampler and a SPME tool was used to investigate the effect of different parameters that influence the extraction efficiency: e...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659904/antimicrobial-potential-of-bacteria-associated-with-marine-sea-slugs-from-north-sulawesi-indonesia
#15
Nils Böhringer, Katja M Fisch, Dorothee Schillo, Robert Bara, Cora Hertzer, Fabian Grein, Jan-Hendrik Eisenbarth, Fontje Kaligis, Tanja Schneider, Heike Wägele, Gabriele M König, Till F Schäberle
Nudibranchia, marine soft-bodied organisms, developed, due to the absence of a protective shell, different strategies to protect themselves against putative predators and fouling organisms. One strategy is to use chemical weapons to distract predators, as well as pathogenic microorganisms. Hence, these gastropods take advantage of the incorporation of chemical molecules. Thereby the original source of these natural products varies; it might be the food source, de novo synthesis from the sea slug, or biosynthesis by associated bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657650/a-review-on-symptoms-treatments-protocols-and-proteomic-profile-in-sulfur-mustard-exposed-victims
#16
Yunes Panahi, Amir H Abdolghaffari, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Sulfur mustard (SM) as an alkylating and vesicating agent was used for 100 years as a chemical weapon. SM as bi-functional mustard can attacks and alkylates lots of biomolecules. Different cellular mechanism and molecular pathways are responsible for damages to body tissues. Such as DNA damages, oxidative stress, Apoptosis, and inflammation. Sulfur mustard penetrated body organs and induces long term eye, skin, lung, gastrointestinal, urogenital damages and can cause carcinogenic and mutagenic consequences...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603700/the-type-ix-secretion-system-t9ss-highlights-and-recent-insights-into-its-structure-and-function
#17
REVIEW
Anna M Lasica, Miroslaw Ksiazek, Mariusz Madej, Jan Potempa
Protein secretion systems are vital for prokaryotic life, as they enable bacteria to acquire nutrients, communicate with other species, defend against biological and chemical agents, and facilitate disease through the delivery of virulence factors. In this review, we will focus on the recently discovered type IX secretion system (T9SS), a complex translocon found only in some species of the Bacteroidetes phylum. T9SS plays two roles, depending on the lifestyle of the bacteria. It provides either a means of movement (called gliding motility) for peace-loving environmental bacteria or a weapon for pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574731/why-gene-editors-like-crispr-cas-may-be-a-game-changer-for-neuroweapons
#18
Diane DiEuliis, James Giordano
This year marks the Eighth Review Conference (RevCon) of the Biological Toxins and Weapons Convention (BWC). At the same time, ongoing international efforts to further and more deeply investigate the brain's complex neuronal circuitry are creating unprecedented capabilities to both understand and control neurological processes of thought, emotion, and behavior. These advances have tremendous promise for human health, but the potential for their misuse has also been noted, with most discussions centering on research and development of agents that are addressed by existing BWC and Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) proscriptions...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569332/mixed-cu-i-au-i-coordination-polymers-as-reversible-turn-on-vapoluminescent-sensors-for-volatile-thioethers
#19
Bryton R Varju, Jeffrey S Ovens, Daniel B Leznoff
Vapour-phase thioethers play an important role in a wide number of fields, including plant biology, chemical weapon disposal, and brewing but few sensor materials are known. The emissive coordination polymer Cu1/2Au1/2CN does not react with vapour phase dimethyl sulphide (DMS) or diethyl sulphide (DES) despite the independent synthesis of emissive [Cu1/2Au1/2CN]2(DMS) and [Cu1/2Au1/2CN]2(DES) from their constituent components in solution. However, the doped Cu2/3Au1/3CN rapidly reacts in the solid state with both of these vapour phase thioethers reversibly, with a change in emission from 380/560 nm to 460 nm (DMS) or 420 nm (DES), illustrating that doping the inactive parent Cu1/2Au1/2CN with Cu(i) generates an active sensor material...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531942/target-signalling-pathways-of-natural-plant-derived-radioprotective-agents-from-treatment-to-potential-candidates-a-reverse-thought-on-anti-tumour-drugs
#20
REVIEW
Ke-Li Yun, Zhen Yu Wang
Radiation damage can occur in nuclear power plant workers when physical protections fail, which results in nuclear leakage through the protective layers. Alternatively, workers may be unable to use physical protection in time (in the case of a sudden nuclear weapons attack). In addition, patients who receive local radiotherapy and are not allowed to adopt local physical protection may experience radiation damage. Thus, protection against chemical radiation has become indispensable. In view of the side effects caused by synthetic radioprotective agents (such as amisfostine), searching for radioprotective agents from plant sources is an alternative strategy...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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