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Chemical Weapon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814242/antimicrobial-peptides-a-promising-therapeutic-strategy-in-tackling-antimicrobial-resistance
#1
Ramya Nuti, Sridhar Goud, A Prasanth Saraswati, Ravi Alvala, Mallika Alvala
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has posed a serious threat to global public health and it requires immediate action, preferably long term. Current drug therapies have failed to curb this menace due to the ability of microbes to circumvent the mechanisms through which the drugs act. From the drug discovery point of view, the majority of drugs currently employed for antimicrobial therapy are small molecules. Recent trends reveal a surge in the use of peptides as drug candidates as they offer remarkable advantages over small molecules...
August 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748326/the-factor-structure-of-the-spiritual-well-being-scale-in-veterans-experienced-chemical-weapon-exposure
#2
Hamid Sharif Nia, Saeed Pahlevan Sharif, Christopher Boyle, Ameneh Yaghoobzadeh, Bahram Tahmasbi, G Hussein Rassool, Mozhgan Taebei, Mohammad Ali Soleimani
This study aimed to determine the factor structure of the spiritual well-being among a sample of the Iranian veterans. In this methodological research, 211 male veterans of Iran-Iraq warfare completed the Paloutzian and Ellison spiritual well-being scale. Maximum likelihood (ML) with oblique rotation was used to assess domain structure of the spiritual well-being. The construct validity of the scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha, Theta (θ), and McDonald Omega (Ω) coefficients, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and construct reliability (CR)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743565/cognitive-and-emotional-impairments-after-cutaneous-intoxication-by-cees-a-sulfur-mustard-analog-in-mice
#3
Fanny Gros-Désormeaux, Daniel Béracochéa, Frédéric Dorandeu, Christophe Piérard
Cognitive and emotional disorders have been reported in veterans intoxicated with sulfur mustard (SM) a chemical weapon belonging to the category of vesicating agents. However, the intense stress associated with the SM intoxication may render difficult determining the exact role played by SM intoxication itself on the emergence and maintaining of cognitive disorders. Animal's model would allow overcoming this issue. So far, we presently investigated the cognitive and emotional impact of an acute cutaneous intoxication with CEES (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide), a SM analog in C57/Bl6 mice...
July 22, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738583/application-of-headspace-and-direct-immersion-solid-phase-microextraction-in-the-analysis-of-organothiophosphates-related-to-the-chemical-weapons-convention-from-water-and-complex-matrices
#4
Marc André Althoff, Andreas Bertsch, Manfred Metzulat, Thomas M Klapötke, Konstantin L Karaghiosoff
The successful application of headspace (HS) and direct immersion (DI) solid phase microextraction (SPME) for the unambiguous identification and characterization of a series of toxic thiophosphate esters, such as Amiton (I), from aqueous phases and complex matrices (e.g. grass and foliage) has been demonstrated. A Thermo Scientific gas chromatograph (GC) - tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) system with a TriPlus RSH® autosampler and a SPME tool was used to investigate the effect of different parameters that influence the extraction efficiency: e...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659904/antimicrobial-potential-of-bacteria-associated-with-marine-sea-slugs-from-north-sulawesi-indonesia
#5
Nils Böhringer, Katja M Fisch, Dorothee Schillo, Robert Bara, Cora Hertzer, Fabian Grein, Jan-Hendrik Eisenbarth, Fontje Kaligis, Tanja Schneider, Heike Wägele, Gabriele M König, Till F Schäberle
Nudibranchia, marine soft-bodied organisms, developed, due to the absence of a protective shell, different strategies to protect themselves against putative predators and fouling organisms. One strategy is to use chemical weapons to distract predators, as well as pathogenic microorganisms. Hence, these gastropods take advantage of the incorporation of chemical molecules. Thereby the original source of these natural products varies; it might be the food source, de novo synthesis from the sea slug, or biosynthesis by associated bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657650/a-review-on-symptoms-treatments-protocols-and-proteomic-profile-in-sulfur-mustard-exposed-victims
#6
Yunes Panahi, Amir H Abdolghaffari, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Sulfur mustard (SM) as an alkylating and vesicating agent was used for 100 years as a chemical weapon. SM as bi-functional mustard can attacks and alkylates lots of biomolecules. Different cellular mechanism and molecular pathways are responsible for damages to body tissues. Such as DNA damages, oxidative stress, Apoptosis, and inflammation. Sulfur mustard penetrated body organs and induces long term eye, skin, lung, gastrointestinal, urogenital damages and can cause carcinogenic and mutagenic consequences...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603700/the-type-ix-secretion-system-t9ss-highlights-and-recent-insights-into-its-structure-and-function
#7
REVIEW
Anna M Lasica, Miroslaw Ksiazek, Mariusz Madej, Jan Potempa
Protein secretion systems are vital for prokaryotic life, as they enable bacteria to acquire nutrients, communicate with other species, defend against biological and chemical agents, and facilitate disease through the delivery of virulence factors. In this review, we will focus on the recently discovered type IX secretion system (T9SS), a complex translocon found only in some species of the Bacteroidetes phylum. T9SS plays two roles, depending on the lifestyle of the bacteria. It provides either a means of movement (called gliding motility) for peace-loving environmental bacteria or a weapon for pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574731/why-gene-editors-like-crispr-cas-may-be-a-game-changer-for-neuroweapons
#8
Diane DiEuliis, James Giordano
This year marks the Eighth Review Conference (RevCon) of the Biological Toxins and Weapons Convention (BWC). At the same time, ongoing international efforts to further and more deeply investigate the brain's complex neuronal circuitry are creating unprecedented capabilities to both understand and control neurological processes of thought, emotion, and behavior. These advances have tremendous promise for human health, but the potential for their misuse has also been noted, with most discussions centering on research and development of agents that are addressed by existing BWC and Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) proscriptions...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569332/mixed-cu-i-au-i-coordination-polymers-as-reversible-turn-on-vapoluminescent-sensors-for-volatile-thioethers
#9
Bryton R Varju, Jeffrey S Ovens, Daniel B Leznoff
Vapour-phase thioethers play an important role in a wide number of fields, including plant biology, chemical weapon disposal, and brewing but few sensor materials are known. The emissive coordination polymer Cu1/2Au1/2CN does not react with vapour phase dimethyl sulphide (DMS) or diethyl sulphide (DES) despite the independent synthesis of emissive [Cu1/2Au1/2CN]2(DMS) and [Cu1/2Au1/2CN]2(DES) from their constituent components in solution. However, the doped Cu2/3Au1/3CN rapidly reacts in the solid state with both of these vapour phase thioethers reversibly, with a change in emission from 380/560 nm to 460 nm (DMS) or 420 nm (DES), illustrating that doping the inactive parent Cu1/2Au1/2CN with Cu(i) generates an active sensor material...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531942/target-signalling-pathways-of-natural-plant-derived-radioprotective-agents-from-treatment-to-potential-candidates-a-reverse-thought-on-anti-tumour-drugs
#10
REVIEW
Ke-Li Yun, Zhen Yu Wang
Radiation damage can occur in nuclear power plant workers when physical protections fail, which results in nuclear leakage through the protective layers. Alternatively, workers may be unable to use physical protection in time (in the case of a sudden nuclear weapons attack). In addition, patients who receive local radiotherapy and are not allowed to adopt local physical protection may experience radiation damage. Thus, protection against chemical radiation has become indispensable. In view of the side effects caused by synthetic radioprotective agents (such as amisfostine), searching for radioprotective agents from plant sources is an alternative strategy...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514981/essential-lessons-in-a-potential-sarin-attack-disaster-plan-for-a-resource-constrained-environment
#11
Matthew John Watermeyer, Nicole Dippenaar, Nelly Clotildea Tchouambou Simo, Sean Buchanan, Abdullah Ebrahim Laher
Sarin is a potent nerve agent chemical weapon that was originally designed for military purposes as a fast-acting anti-personnel weapon that would kill or disable large numbers of enemy troops. Its potent toxicity, ease of deployment, and rapid degradation allow for rapid deployment by an attacking force, who can safely enter the area of deployment a short while after its release. Sarin has been produced and stockpiled by a number of countries, and large quantities of it still exist despite collective agreements to cease manufacture and destroy stockpiles...
May 18, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510081/qt-prolongation-as-an-isolated-long-term-cardiac-manifestation-of-dichlorvos-organophosphate-poisoning-in-rats
#12
Arthur Shiyovich, Ran Matot, Sigal Elyagon, Noah Liel-Cohen, Yossi Rosman, Shai Shrot, Michael Kassirer, Amos Katz, Yoram Etzion
Organophosphates (OP) are used extensively as pesticides and as chemical weapons. Cardiotoxicity is a major concern in survivors of the acute poisoning. To characterize the delayed cardiac effects of OP, rats were poisoned by intraperitoneal administration of dichlorvos. In group I, poisoning (0.25-, 0.75-, 1.4-LD50) was followed by application of atropine and obidoxime. In group II, poisoning (0.35-, 0.5-LD50) was done without antidotes. Cardiac evaluation included electrocardiography and echocardiography 2- and 6-week post-exposure, arrhythmia susceptibility following administration of Isoproterenol (150 mcg/kg), and histological evaluation...
May 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455880/nmr-chemical-shift-and-j-coupling-parameterization-and-quantum-mechanical-reference-spectrum-simulation-for-selected-nerve-agent-degradation-products-in-aqueous-conditions
#13
Harri Koskela, Boban Anđelković
The spectral parameters of selected nerve agent degradation products relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention, namely, ethyl methylphosphonate, isopropyl methylphosphonate, pinacolyl methylphosphonate and methylphosphonic acid, were studied in wide range of pH conditions and selected temperatures. The pH and temperature dependence of chemical shifts and J couplings was parameterized using Henderson-Hasselbalch-based functions. The obtained parameters allowed calculation of precise chemical shifts and J coupling constants in arbitrary pH conditions and typical measurement temperatures, thus facilitating quantum mechanical simulation of reference spectra in the chosen magnetic field strength for chemical verification...
April 28, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404565/who-condemns-suspected-use-of-chemical-weapons
#14
Anne Gulland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396636/enhancing-drug-efficacy-and-therapeutic-index-through-cheminformatics-based-selection-of-small-molecule-binary-weapons-that-improve-transporter-mediated-targeting-a-cytotoxicity-system-based-on-gemcitabine
#15
Justine M Grixti, Steve O'Hagan, Philip J Day, Douglas B Kell
The transport of drug molecules is mainly determined by the distribution of influx and efflux transporters for which they are substrates. To enable tissue targeting, we sought to develop the idea that we might affect the transporter-mediated disposition of small-molecule drugs via the addition of a second small molecule that of itself had no inhibitory pharmacological effect but that influenced the expression of transporters for the primary drug. We refer to this as a "binary weapon" strategy. The experimental system tested the ability of a molecule that on its own had no cytotoxic effect to increase the toxicity of the nucleoside analog gemcitabine to Panc1 pancreatic cancer cells...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388218/the-department-of-defense-chemical-and-biological-defense-program-an-enabler-of-the-third-offset-strategy
#16
Jason Roos, Calvin Chue, Diane DiEuliis, Peter Emanuel
The US Department of Defense (DOD) established programs to defend against chemical and biological weapons 100 years ago because military leaders understood that the operational capability of the US military is diminished when service member health is compromised. These threats to operational readiness can be from an overt attack using chemical and biological threats but may also arise from natural exposures. In the current era of rapidly emerging technologies, adversaries are not only rediscovering chemical and biological weapons; they are also displaying an increased propensity to employ them to cause strategic instability among deployed forces or nations undergoing conflict...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384583/effect-of-water-table-variations-and-input-of-natural-organic-matter-on-the-cycles-of-c-and-n-and-mobility-of-as-zn-and-cu-from-a-soil-impacted-by-the-burning-of-chemical-warfare-agents-a-mesocosm-study
#17
Hugues Thouin, Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet, Pascale Gautret, Lydie Le Forestier, Dominique Breeze, Fabienne Séby, Marie-Paule Norini, Sebastien Dupraz
A mesocosm study was conducted to assess the impact of water saturation episodes and of the input of bioavailable organic matter on the biogeochemical cycles of C and N, and on the behavior of metal(loid)s in a soil highly contaminated by the destruction of arsenical shells. An instrumented mesocosm was filled with contaminated soil taken from the "Place-à-Gaz" site. Four cycles of dry and wet periods of about one month were simulated for 276days. After two dry/wet cycles, organic litter sampled on the site was added above the topsoil...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368216/an-overview-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-the-latest-advances-in-their-development
#18
Josep M Sierra, Ester Fusté, Francesc Rabanal, Teresa Vinuesa, Miguel Viñas
The recent dramatic increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance has been recognized by organizations such as the United Nations and World Health Organization as well as the governments of the USA and several European countries. A relatively new weapon in the fight against severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These include colistin, currently regarded as the last line of antimicrobial therapy against multi-drug resistant microorganisms. Areas covered: Here, the authors provide an overview of the current research on AMPs...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363762/an-integrated-network-analysis-reveals-that-nitric-oxide-reductase-prevents-metabolic-cycling-of-nitric-oxide-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Jonathan L Robinson, Jacob M Jaslove, Allison M Murawski, Christopher H Fazen, Mark P Brynildsen
Nitric oxide (NO) is a chemical weapon within the arsenal of immune cells, but is also generated endogenously by different bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa are pathogens that contain an NO-generating nitrite (NO2(-)) reductase (NirS), and NO has been shown to influence their virulence. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa also contain NO dioxygenase (Fhp) and nitrate (NO3(-)) reductases, which together with NirS provide the potential for NO to be metabolically cycled (NO→NO3(-)→NO2(-)→NO). Deeper understanding of NO metabolism in P...
March 29, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345710/desktop-nmr-for-structure-elucidation-and-identification-of-strychnine-adulteration
#20
Kawarpal Singh, Bernhard Blümich
Elucidating the structure of complex molecules is difficult at low magnetic fields due to the overlap of different peak multiplets and second-order coupling effects. This is even more challenging for rigid molecules with small chemical shift differences and with prochiral centers. Since low-field NMR spectroscopy is sometimes presumed as restricted to the analysis of only small and simple molecules, this paper aims at countering this misconception: it demonstrates the use of low-field NMR spectroscopy in chemical forensics for identifying strychnine and its counterions by exploring the chemical shift as a signature in different 1D (1)H and (13)C experiments...
May 2, 2017: Analyst
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