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Chemical Weapon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404565/who-condemns-suspected-use-of-chemical-weapons
#1
Anne Gulland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396636/enhancing-drug-efficacy-and-therapeutic-index-through-cheminformatics-based-selection-of-small-molecule-binary-weapons-that-improve-transporter-mediated-targeting-a-cytotoxicity-system-based-on-gemcitabine
#2
Justine M Grixti, Steve O'Hagan, Philip J Day, Douglas B Kell
The transport of drug molecules is mainly determined by the distribution of influx and efflux transporters for which they are substrates. To enable tissue targeting, we sought to develop the idea that we might affect the transporter-mediated disposition of small-molecule drugs via the addition of a second small molecule that of itself had no inhibitory pharmacological effect but that influenced the expression of transporters for the primary drug. We refer to this as a "binary weapon" strategy. The experimental system tested the ability of a molecule that on its own had no cytotoxic effect to increase the toxicity of the nucleoside analog gemcitabine to Panc1 pancreatic cancer cells...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388218/the-department-of-defense-chemical-and-biological-defense-program-an-enabler-of-the-third-offset-strategy
#3
Jason Roos, Calvin Chue, Diane DiEuliis, Peter Emanuel
The US Department of Defense (DOD) established programs to defend against chemical and biological weapons 100 years ago because military leaders understood that the operational capability of the US military is diminished when service member health is compromised. These threats to operational readiness can be from an overt attack using chemical and biological threats but may also arise from natural exposures. In the current era of rapidly emerging technologies, adversaries are not only rediscovering chemical and biological weapons; they are also displaying an increased propensity to employ them to cause strategic instability among deployed forces or nations undergoing conflict...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384583/effect-of-water-table-variations-and-input-of-natural-organic-matter-on-the-cycles-of-c-and-n-and-mobility-of-as-zn-and-cu-from-a-soil-impacted-by-the-burning-of-chemical-warfare-agents-a-mesocosm-study
#4
Hugues Thouin, Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet, Pascale Gautret, Lydie Le Forestier, Dominique Breeze, Fabienne Séby, Marie-Paule Norini, Sebastien Dupraz
A mesocosm study was conducted to assess the impact of water saturation episodes and of the input of bioavailable organic matter on the biogeochemical cycles of C and N, and on the behavior of metal(loid)s in a soil highly contaminated by the destruction of arsenical shells. An instrumented mesocosm was filled with contaminated soil taken from the "Place-à-Gaz" site. Four cycles of dry and wet periods of about one month were simulated for 276days. After two dry/wet cycles, organic litter sampled on the site was added above the topsoil...
April 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368216/an-overview-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-the-latest-advances-in-their-development
#5
Josep M Sierra, Ester Fusté, Francesc Rabanal, Teresa Vinuesa, Miguel Viñas
The recent dramatic increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance has been recognized by organizations such as the United Nations and World Health Organization as well as the governments of the USA and several European countries. A relatively new weapon in the fight against severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These include colistin, currently regarded as the last line of antimicrobial therapy against multi-drug resistant microorganisms. Areas covered: Here, the authors provide an overview of the current research on AMPs...
April 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363762/an-integrated-network-analysis-reveals-that-nitric-oxide-reductase-prevents-metabolic-cycling-of-nitric-oxide-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Jonathan L Robinson, Jacob M Jaslove, Allison M Murawski, Christopher H Fazen, Mark P Brynildsen
Nitric oxide (NO) is a chemical weapon within the arsenal of immune cells, but is also generated endogenously by different bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa are pathogens that contain an NO-generating nitrite (NO2(-)) reductase (NirS), and NO has been shown to influence their virulence. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa also contain NO dioxygenase (Fhp) and nitrate (NO3(-)) reductases, which together with NirS provide the potential for NO to be metabolically cycled (NO→NO3(-)→NO2(-)→NO). Deeper understanding of NO metabolism in P...
March 29, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345710/desktop-nmr-for-structure-elucidation-and-identification-of-strychnine-adulteration
#7
Kawarpal Singh, Bernhard Blümich
Elucidating the structure of complex molecules is difficult at low magnetic fields due to the overlap of different peak multiplets and second-order coupling effects. This is even more challenging for rigid molecules with small chemical shift differences and with prochiral centers. Since low-field NMR spectroscopy is sometimes presumed as restricted to the analysis of only small and simple molecules, this paper aims at countering this misconception: it demonstrates the use of low-field NMR spectroscopy in chemical forensics for identifying strychnine and its counterions by exploring the chemical shift as a signature in different 1D (1)H and (13)C experiments...
March 27, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340486/review-of-current-nuclear-fallout-codes
#8
REVIEW
Jerrad P Auxier, John D Auxier, Howard L Hall
The importance of developing a robust nuclear forensics program to combat the illicit use of nuclear material that may be used as an improvised nuclear device is widely accepted. In order to decrease the threat to public safety and improve governmental response, government agencies have developed fallout-analysis codes to predict the fallout particle size, dose, and dispersion and dispersion following a detonation. This paper will review the different codes that have been developed for predicting fallout from both chemical and nuclear weapons...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340392/-237-np-analytical-method-using-239-np-tracers-and-application-to-a-contaminated-nuclear-disposal-facility
#9
Mathew S Snow, Samuel S Morrison, Sue B Clark, John E Olson, Matthew G Watrous
Environmental (237)Np analyses are challenged by low (237)Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive (237)Np analytical approach employing the short lived (239)Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by (237)Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. (239)Np tracer is obtained via separation from a (243)Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 W "Walmart" microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317515/howard-wilcox-haggard-and-the-institutionalization-of-modern-alcohol-studies
#10
Nicholas Allred, William Bejarano, Judit Ward
OBJECTIVE: This biographical sketch and accompanying bibliography provide a new look at Howard Wilcox Haggard, M.D., Ph.D., whose career highlights the consolidation of alcohol studies as a field in twentieth-century America. METHOD: The article relies in large part on the works of Haggard assembled for the bibliography project, supplemented by published and unpublished documents and records from collections at Rutgers University. RESULTS: Haggard began his career in respiratory physiology, influenced by his work on chemical weapons for the Army during the First World War...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289233/volatile-secondary-metabolites-as-aposematic-olfactory-signals-and-defensive-weapons-in-aquatic-environments
#11
Giuseppe Giordano, Marianna Carbone, Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Eleonora Silvano, Margherita Gavagnin, Mary J Garson, Karen L Cheney, I Wayan Mudianta, Giovanni Fulvio Russo, Guido Villani, Laura Magliozzi, Gianluca Polese, Christian Zidorn, Adele Cutignano, Angelo Fontana, Michael T Ghiselin, Ernesto Mollo
Olfaction is considered a distance sense; hence, aquatic olfaction is thought to be mediated only by molecules dissolved in water. Here, we challenge this view by showing that shrimp and fish can recognize the presence of hydrophobic olfactory cues by a "tactile" form of chemoreception. We found that odiferous furanosesquiterpenes protect both the Mediterranean octocoral Maasella edwardsi and its specialist predator, the nudibranch gastropod Tritonia striata, from potential predators. Food treated with the terpenes elicited avoidance responses in the cooccurring shrimp Palaemon elegans Rejection was also induced in the shrimp by the memory recall of postingestive aversive effects (vomiting), evoked by repeatedly touching the food with chemosensory mouthparts...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281759/application-of-the-transpiration-method-to-determine-the-vapor-pressure-and-related-physico-chemical-data-of-low-volatile-thermolabile-and-toxic-organo-thio-phosphates
#12
Marc A Althoff, Kathrin Grieger, Martin A C Härtel, Konstantin L Karaghiosoff, Thomas M Klapötke, Manfred Metzulat
The present work represents the most recent study on the physico-chemical properties of the organophosphate compound class being directly related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). This compound class is of great importance in the ongoing conflict in Syria. Here, the vapor pressure of the deadly organo(thio)phosphate Amiton and seven of its derivatives was investigated. These medium to low volatile analytes pose a potential threat toward human life by inhalation or direct contact with the skin at very low doses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278066/characterization-of-exposure-to-byproducts-from-firing-lead-free-frangible-ammunition-in-an-enclosed-ventilated-firing-range
#13
Christin M Grabinski, Mark M Methner, Jerimiah M Jackson, Alexander L Moore, Laura E Flory, Trevor Tilly, Saber M Hussain, Darrin K Ott
U.S. Air Force small arms firing ranges began using copper-based, lead-free frangible ammunition in the early 2000s due to environmental and health concerns related to the use of lead-based ammunition. Exposure assessments at these firing ranges have routinely detected chemicals and metals in amounts much lower than their mass-based occupational exposure limits, yet, instructors report work-related health concerns including respiratory distress, nausea, and headache. The objective of this study at one firing range was to characterize the aerosol emissions produced by weapons during firing events and evaluate the ventilation system's effectiveness in controlling instructor exposure to these emissions...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270072/topical-ingenol-mebutate-a-new-treatment-modality-for-multiple-actinic-keratoses-and-field-cancerization
#14
Kresimir Kostovic, Sandra Jerkovic Gulin, Zrinka Bukvic Mokos, Romana Ceovic
BACKGROUND: Ingenol mebutate gel is a recent stirring weapon recommended for the treatment of multiple actinic keratoses (AKs) and field cancerization. This review brings a summary of recent data on the treatment of AKs with ingenol mebutate (IM) providing critical commentary with regard to drug's characteristics, drug's safety profile, treatment regimen, treatment outcome, patient compliance, AK recurrence, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility, as well as guidelines for the management of the treatment of AK...
February 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221786/chemical-trends-in-solid-alkali-pertechnetates
#15
Jamie Weaver, Chuck Z Soderquist, Nancy M Washton, Andrew S Lipton, Paul L Gassman, Wayne W Lukens, Albert A Kruger, Nathalie A Wall, John S McCloy
Insight into the solid-state chemistry of pure technetium-99 ((99)Tc) oxides is required in the development of a robust immobilization and disposal system for nuclear waste stemming from the radiopharmaceutical industry, from the production of nuclear weapons, and from spent nuclear fuel. However, because of its radiotoxicity and the subsequent requirement of special facilities and handling procedures for research, only a few studies have been completed, many of which are over 20 years old. In this study, we report the synthesis of pure alkali pertechnetates (sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium) and analysis of these compounds by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (static and magic angle spinning), and neutron diffraction...
February 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148211/chemical-defense-by-erythrolactones-in-the-euryhaline-ciliated-protist-pseudokeronopsis-erythrina
#16
Federico Buonanno, Andrea Anesi, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Graziano Guella, Claudio Ortenzi
Pseudokeronopsis erythrina produces three new secondary metabolites, erythrolactones A2, B2 and C2, and their respective sulfate esters (A1, B1, C1), the structures of which have been recently elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data coupled to high resolution mass measurements (HR-MALDI-TOF). An analysis of the discharge of the protozoan pigment granules revealed that the non-sulfonated erythrolactones are exclusively stored in these cortical organelles, which are commonly used by a number of ciliates as chemical weapons in offense/defense interactions with prey and predators...
February 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120037/long-term-accumulation-of-diphenylarsinic-acid-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-cynomolgus-monkeys
#17
Tomoyuki Masuda, Kazuhiro Ishii, Yasuo Seto, Tomoko Hosoya, Ryuta Tanaka, Tomohiro Nakayama, Nobuaki Iwasaki, Yasuyuki Shibata, Akira Tamaoka
Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is an organic arsenic compound used for the synthesis of chemical weapons. We previously found that the residents of Kamisu city in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, were exposed to DPAA through contaminated well water in 2003. Although mounting evidence strongly suggests that their neurological symptoms were caused by DPAA, the dynamics of DPAA distribution and metabolism after ingestion by humans remain to be elucidated. To accurately predict the distribution of DPAA in the human body, we administrated DPAA (1...
January 25, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109985/the-synthetic-neuroactive-steroid-sge-516-reduces-status-epilepticus-and-neuronal-cell-death-in-a-rat-model-of-soman-intoxication
#18
Alison L Althaus, Hilary S McCarren, Aymen Alqazzaz, Cecelia Jackson, John H McDonough, Carl D Smith, Ethan Hoffman, Rebecca S Hammond, Albert J Robichaud, James J Doherty
Organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) are irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase that pose a serious threat to public health because of their use as chemical weapons. Exposure to high doses of OPNAs can dramatically potentiate cholinergic synaptic activity and cause status epilepticus (SE). Current standard of care for OPNA exposure involves treatment with cholinergic antagonists, oxime cholinesterase reactivators, and benzodiazepines. However, data from pre-clinical models suggest that OPNA-induced SE rapidly becomes refractory to benzodiazepines...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105916/gpcrs-from-fusarium-graminearum-detection-modeling-and-virtual-screening-the-search-for-new-routes-to-control-head-blight-disease
#19
Emmanuel Bresso, Roberto Togawa, Kim Hammond-Kosack, Martin Urban, Bernard Maigret, Natalia Florencio Martins
BACKGOUND: Fusarium graminearum (FG) is one of the major cereal infecting pathogens causing high economic losses worldwide and resulting in adverse effects on human and animal health. Therefore, the development of new fungicides against FG is an important issue to reduce cereal infection and economic impact. In the strategy for developing new fungicides, a critical step is the identification of new targets against which innovative chemicals weapons can be designed. As several G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are implicated in signaling pathways critical for the fungi development and survival, such proteins could be valuable efficient targets to reduce Fusarium growth and therefore to prevent food contamination...
December 15, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102531/a-systems-dynamics-approach-to-the-efficacy-of-oxime-therapy-for-mild-exposure-to-sarin-gas
#20
Daniel J Droste, Michael L Shelley, Jeffery M Gearhart, David M Kempisty
The use of nerve agents such as sarin is as much a threat today as any other time in our history. The events in Syria in 2013 are proof of this. "The Obama administration asserted Sunday for the first time that the Syrian government used the nerve gas sarin to kill more than 1,400 people (August 21, 2013) in the world's gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years." With these recent events clear in our mind, we must focus on the horrific nature of these chemical agents to devise a strategy that will enable first responders to counteract these insidious chemicals...
April 2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
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