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Chemical Weapon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881621/unusual-case-of-drug-facilitated-sexual-assault-using-chloroform
#1
Camille Richeval, Delphine Allorge, Vincent Lopez, Baptiste Boyer, Jean-Michel Gaulier
Despite its well-known sedative properties, chloroform is rarely used for drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) as its administration cannot be achieved without the victim's knowledge: we report an unusual case of DFSA using this solvent. A 26-year-old woman declared that her partner get her to sleep using chloroform the previous night. When she waked up at 3 am, her hands were tied. She immediately suspected violence and sexual penetration. Toxicological blood screening using a liquid chromatography-electrospray coupled tandem mass spectrometry method highlighted the presence of bamifylline and theophylline, two therapeutics of asthma...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878916/can-the-outcomes-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-myocardial-infarction-be-improved-providing-weapons-and-armour-to-cells
#2
REVIEW
Andrey A Karpov, Daria V Udalova, Michael G Pliss, Michael M Galagudza
Use of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation after myocardial infarction (MI) has been found to have infarct-limiting effects in numerous experimental and clinical studies. However, recent meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials on MSC-based MI therapy have highlighted the need for improving its efficacy. There are two principal approaches for increasing therapeutic effect of MSCs: (i) preventing massive MSC death in ischaemic tissue and (ii) increasing production of cardioreparative growth factors and cytokines with transplanted MSCs...
November 23, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863218/discovery-of-ibomycin-a-potent-antifungal-weapon
#3
J Andrew Alspaugh
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Robbins et al. (2016) identify ibomycin, a unique compound with antifungal activity. Microbial physiological and genetic studies suggest that endocytic trafficking might be the site of action for this lead antifungal compound.
November 17, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849500/the-u-s-army-occupational-and-environmental-medicine-residency-at-aberdeen-proving-ground-maryland-1960-1996
#4
Joel C Gaydos, Timothy M Mallon, William A Rice
BACKGROUND: Reorganization of the Army and critical assessment of Army Graduate Medical Education programs prompted the Occupational and Environmental Medicine (OEM) Consultant to the Army Surgeon General to initiate a review of current Army OEM residency training. Available information indicated the Army OEM residency at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was the first and longest operating Army OEM residency. Describing this residency was identified as the first step in the review, with the objectives of determining why the residency was started and sustained and its relevance to the needs of the Army...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845442/harnessing-nature-s-diversity-discovering-organophosphate-bioscavenger-characteristics-among-low-molecular-weight-proteins
#5
Reed B Jacob, Kenan C Michaels, Cathy J Anderson, James M Fay, Nikolay V Dokholyan
Organophosphate poisoning can occur from exposure to agricultural pesticides or chemical weapons. This exposure inhibits acetylcholinesterase resulting in increased acetylcholine levels within the synaptic cleft causing loss of muscle control, seizures, and death. Mitigating the effects of organophosphates in our bodies is critical and yet an unsolved challenge. Here, we present a computational strategy that integrates structure mining and modeling approaches, using which we identify novel candidates capable of interacting with a serine hydrolase probe (with equilibrium binding constants ranging from 4 to 120 μM)...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830420/organophosphate-hydrolyzing-enzymes-as-first-line-of-defence-against-nerve-agent-poisoning-perspectives-and-the-road-ahead
#6
REVIEW
A R Satvik Iyengar, Abhay H Pande
Nerve agents (NAs) are extremely neurotoxic synthetic organophosphate (OP) compounds exploited as weapons of mass destruction in terrorist attacks and chemical warfare. Considering the current world scenario, there is a persistent threat of NA-exposure to military personals and civilians. Various prophylactic and post-exposure treatments (such as atropine and oximes) available currently for NA-poisoning are inadequate and unsatisfactory and suffer from severe limitations. Hence, developing safe and effective treatment(s) against NA-poisoning is a critical necessity...
November 9, 2016: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762064/ccnd1-bcl2-gene-network-a-direct-target-of-amifostine-in-human-acute-megakaryocytic-leukemia-cells
#7
Feng Zhang, Bo Yang, Kailiang Zhang, Mei-Ling Hou, Xue-Chun Lu, Yu-Xin Li
Amifostine (AMF), 2-(3-Aminopropyl) aminoethyl phosphorothioate is a broad-spectrum cytoprotective agent used to treat nuclear radiation and chemical weapon injuries. Recently, amifostine has been shown to have a profound biological influence on tumor cells. In order to examine the effects and mechanisms underlying the effects of amifostine on human acute megakaryocytic leukemia, we evaluated the efficacy of amifostine against Dami cells and observed a cell cycle arrest in G2 /M phase. Amifostine treatment also induced cell apoptosis of Dami cells which corresponds to formal studies...
October 19, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752663/the-combined-action-of-methanolysis-and-heterogeneous-photocatalysis-in-the-decomposition-of-chemical-warfare-agents
#8
Nicoleta Petrea, Răzvan Petre, Gabriel Epure, Vasile Şomoghi, Liviu C Tănase, Cristian M Teodorescu, Ştefan Neaţu
We report the applicability of a hybrid system comprising a La(3+)-based catalyst and an Au/TiO2 photocatalyst in the decomposition of chemical weapons. This system is able to perform complete degradation of soman, sarin and VX in less than 1 minute under low basic conditions and visible light irradiation.
October 18, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731616/benzimidazolium-based-self-assembled-fluorescent-aggregates-for-sensing-and-catalytic-degradation-of-diethylchlorophosphate
#9
Amanpreet Singh, Pushap Raj, Narinder Singh
The unregulated use of chemical weapons has aroused researchers to develop sensors for chemical warfare agents (CWA) and likewise to abolish their harmful effects, the degradation through catalysis has great advantage. Chemically, the CWAs are versatile; however, mostly they contain organophosphates that act on inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. In this work, we have designed and synthesized some novel benzimidazolium based fluorescent cations and their fluorescent aggregates were fabricated using anionic surfactants (SDS and SDBS) in aqueous medium...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725709/defining-cutaneous-molecular-pathobiology-of-arsenicals-using-phenylarsine-oxide-as-a-prototype
#10
Ritesh K Srivastava, Changzhao Li, Zhiping Weng, Anupam Agarwal, Craig A Elmets, Farrukh Afaq, Mohammad Athar
Arsenicals are painful, inflammatory and blistering causing agents developed as chemical weapons in World War I/II. However, their large stockpiles still exist posing threat to public health. Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a strong oxidant and a prototype arsenical is tested for its suitability to defining molecular mechanisms underlying arsenicals-mediated tissue injury. Topically applied PAO induces cutaneous erythema, edema and micro-blisters. These gross inflammatory responses were accompanied by the enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, ROS and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling activation...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704643/fragmentation-pathways-and-structural-characterization-of-organophosphorus-compounds-related-to-cwc-by-electron-ionization-and-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Seyed Esmaeil Hosseini, Hamid Saeidian, Ali Amozadeh, Mohammad Taghi Naseri, Mehran Babri
RATIONALE: For unambiguous identification of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)-related chemicals in environmental samples, the availability of mass spectra, interpretation skills and rapid microsynthesis of suspected chemicals are essential requirements. For the first time, the electron-ionization single quadrupole and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectra of a series of O-alkyl N-[bis(dimethylamino)methylidene]-P-methylphosphonamidates (Scheme 1, cpd 4) were studied for CWC verification purposes...
October 5, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673432/l-%C3%AE-phosphatidylglycerol-chlorohydrins-as-potential-biomarkers-for-chlorine-gas-exposure
#12
Petrus Hemström, Andreas Larsson, Linda Elfsmark, Crister Åstot
Chlorine is a widely available toxic chemical that has been repeatedly used in armed conflict globally. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) have on numerous occasions found "compelling confirmation" that chlorine gas has been used against civilians in northern Syria. However, currently, there are no analytical methods available to unambiguously prove chlorine gas exposure. In this study, we describe the screening for chlorinated biomolecules by the use of mass isotope ratio filters followed by the identification of two biomarkers present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from chlorine gas exposed mice...
October 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668271/respiratory-complications-due-to-sulfur-mustard-exposure
#13
Hossein Rahmani, Iraj Javadi, Saeed Shirali
Sulfur mustard (SM) or bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide is a vesicant and alkylating chemical weapon. SM was used in the 1980s against Iran by Iraqi forces. After exposure to SM in initial acute phase the greatest damage is incurred by the eyes, skin and lungs and the highest damage is caused to the lungs. This injury not only in the acute phase but also in the long-term has the highest prevalence among these patients. Clinical symptoms of people after exposure to SM start with irritation of the nose and sinuses in the mild doses to the runny nose and pain at higher doses and even irritation of the airways and bronchial engagement in very high doses...
June 2016: International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636894/biological-and-environmental-hazards-associated-with-exposure-to-chemical-warfare-agents-arsenicals
#14
Changzhao Li, Ritesh K Srivastava, Mohammad Athar
Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. On the basis of these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the best-known agent that was synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye...
August 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636675/colorimetric-sensor-arrays-for-the-detection-and-identification-of-chemical-weapons-and-explosives
#15
Michael J Kangas, Raychelle M Burks, Jordyn Atwater, Rachel M Lukowicz, Pat Williams, Andrea E Holmes
There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes...
September 16, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613213/chemical-weapons-exposures-in-iraq-challenges-of-a-public-health-response-a-decade-later
#16
Coleen Baird, Raul Mirza, Jessica M Sharkey, Ron Teichman, Romarius Longmire, Deanna Harkins, Joseph Llanos, Joseph Abraham, Charles McCannon, Jack Heller, Carole Tinklepaugh, William Rice
An October 14, 2014 article in The New York Times reported that the US Department of Defense (DoD) concealed, for nearly a decade, circumstances surrounding service members' exposure to chemical warfare agents (CWA) while deployed to Iraq in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn from March 13, 2003, to December 31, 2011, and alleged failure of the DoD to provide expedient and adequate medical care. This report prompted the DoD to devise a public health investigation, with the Army Public Health Center (Provisional) as the lead agency to identify, evaluate, document, and track CWA casualties of the Iraq war...
October 2016: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572107/a-high-throughput-uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantification-of-five-aged-butyrylcholinesterase-biomarkers-from-human-exposure-to-organophosphorus-nerve-agents
#17
Leigh Ann Graham, Darryl Johnson, Melissa D Carter, Emily G Stout, Huseyin A Erol, Samantha L Isenberg, Thomas P Mathews, Jerry D Thomas, Rudolph C Johnson
Organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) are toxic compounds that are classified as prohibited Schedule 1 chemical weapons. In the body, OPNAs bind to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) to form nerve agent adducts (OPNA-BChE). OPNA-BChE adducts can provide a reliable, long-term protein biomarker for assessing human exposure. A major challenge facing OPNA-BChE detection is hydrolysis (aging), which can continue to occur after a clinical specimen has been collected. During aging, the o-alkyl phosphoester bond hydrolyzes, and the specific identity of the nerve agent is lost...
August 29, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548999/fate-of-plutonium-at-a-former-nuclear-testing-site-in-australia
#18
Atsushi Ikeda-Ohno, Lida Mokhber Shahin, Daryl L Howard, Richard N Collins, Timothy E Payne, Mathew P Johansen
A series of the British nuclear tests conducted on mainland Australia between 1953 and 1963 dispersed long-lived radioactivity and nuclear weapons debris including plutonium (Pu), the legacy of which is a long-lasting source of radioactive contamination to the surrounding biosphere. A reliable assessment of the environmental impact of Pu contaminants and their implications for human health requires an understanding of their physical/chemical characteristics at the molecular scale. In this study, we identify the chemical form of the Pu remaining in the local soils at the Taranaki site, one of the former nuclear testing sites at Maralinga, South Australia...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501038/-chocolate-silver-nanoparticles-synthesis-antibacterial-activity-and-cytotoxicity
#19
Neelika Roy Chowdhury, Melanie MacGregor-Ramiasa, Peter Zilm, Peter Majewski, Krasimir Vasilev
HYPOTHESIS: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a powerful weapon against antibiotic resistant microorganisms. However, most conventional AgNPs syntheses require the use of hazardous chemicals and generate toxic organic waste. Hence, in recent year's, plant derived and biomolecule based synthetics have has gained much attention. Cacao has been used for years for its medicinal benefits and contains a powerful reducing agent - oxalic acid. We hypothesized that, due to the presence of oxalic acid, cacao extract is capable of reducing silver nitrate (AgNO3) to produce AgNPs...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497006/effective-methylation-of-phosphonic-acids-related-to-chemical-warfare-agents-mediated-by-trimethyloxonium-tetrafluoroborate-for-their-qualitative-detection-and-identification-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#20
Carlos A Valdez, Roald N Leif, Armando Alcaraz
The effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) employing trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4) for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is presented. The methylation occurs in rapid fashion (1 h) and can be conveniently carried out at ambient temperature, thus providing a safer alternative to the universally employed diazomethane-based methylation protocols. Optimization of the methylation parameters led us to conclude that methylene chloride was the ideal solvent to carry out the derivatization, and that even though methylated products can be observed surfacing after only 1 h, additional time was not found to be detrimental but beneficial to the process particularly when dealing with analytes at low concentrations (∼10 μg mL(-1))...
August 24, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
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