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Chlorine toxicity in drinking water

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211324/aqueous-chlorination-of-fenamic-acids-kinetic-study-transformation-products-identification-and-toxicity-prediction
#1
Liyun Ma, Jian Li, Li Xu
Fenamic acids, one important type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are ubiquitous in environmental matrices. Thus it is of high significance to know the fate of them during chlorination disinfection considering their potential toxicity to the environment and humans. In the present study, the chlorination kinetics of three fenamic acids, i.e. mefenamic acid (MEF), tolfenamic acid (TOL) and clofenamic acid (CLO), were examined at different pHs, which followed second-order reaction under studied conditions...
February 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199792/removal-of-intermediate-aromatic-halogenated-dbps-by-activated-carbon-adsorption-a-new-approach-to-controlling-halogenated-dbps-in-chlorinated-drinking-water
#2
Jingyi Jiang, Xiangru Zhang, Xiaohu Zhu, Yu Li
During chlorine disinfection of drinking water, chlorine may react with natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide ion in raw water to generate halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). To mitigate adverse effects from DBP exposure, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption has been considered as one of the best available technologies for removing NOM (DBP precursor) in drinking water treatment. Recently, we have found that many aromatic halogenated DBPs form in chlorination, and they act as intermediate DBPs to decompose and form commonly known DBPs including trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153699/detection-formation-and-occurrence-of-13-new-polar-phenolic-chlorinated-and-brominated-disinfection-byproducts-in-drinking-water
#3
Yang Pan, Ying Wang, Aimin Li, Bin Xu, Qiming Xian, Chendong Shuang, Peng Shi, Qing Zhou
Recently, 13 new polar phenolic chlorinated and brominated disinfection byproducts (Cl- and Br-DBPs) were identified and quantified in simulated chlorinated drinking water by adopting product ion scan, precursor ion scan, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analyses using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-tqMS). The 13 new DBPs have been drawing increasing concern not only because they possess significantly higher growth inhibition, developmental toxicity, and chronic cytotoxicity than commonly known aliphatic DBPs, but also because they act as intermediate DBPs that can decompose to form the U...
January 24, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118976/analysis-of-haloacetic-acids-bromate-and-dalapon-in-natural-waters-by-ion-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Shimin Wu, Tarun Anumol, Jay Gandhi, Shane A Snyder
The addition of oxidants for disinfecting water can lead to the formation of potentially carcinogenic compounds referred to as disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are one of the most widely detected DBPs in US water utilities and some of them are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The present study developed a method to analyze all the compounds in the USEPA method 557 (nine HAAs, bromate and dalapon) plus four potentially more toxic iodinated HAAs in water by coupling ion chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS)...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098448/new-insights-into-trihalomethane-and-haloacetic-acid-formation-potentials-correlation-with-the-molecular-composition-of-natural-organic-matter-in-source-water
#5
Xin Wang, Haifeng Zhang, Yahe Zhang, Quan Shi, Juan Wang, Jianwei Yu, Min Yang
Natural organic matter (NOM) represents the major source of precursors for disinfection byproducts (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), formed during disinfection of drinking water, but the molecular composition and reactivity of NOM remain not well understood. In this study, electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize the molecular composition of NOM of 20 source waters taken across China for the purpose of determining the major precursors of THMs and HAAs at molecular level...
February 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787813/the-influence-of-fluorine-on-the-disturbances-of-homeostasis-in-the-central-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
K Dec, A Łukomska, D Maciejewska, K Jakubczyk, I Baranowska-Bosiacka, D Chlubek, A Wąsik, I Gutowska
Fluorides occur naturally in the environment, the daily exposure of human organism to fluorine mainly depends on the intake of this element with drinking water and it is connected with the geographical region. In some countries, we can observe the endemic fluorosis-the damage of hard and soft tissues caused by the excessive intake of fluorine. Recent studies showed that fluorine is toxic to the central nervous system (CNS). There are several known mechanisms which lead to structural brain damage caused by the excessive intake of fluorine...
October 27, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648669/dissolved-organic-matter-or-salts-change-the-bioavailability-processes-and-toxicity-of-the-nanoscale-tetravalent-lead-corrosion-product-pbo2-to-medaka-fish
#7
Chun-Wei Chiang, Ding-Quan Ng, Yi-Pin Lin, Pei-Jen Chen
Nanoscale lead dioxide (nPbO2(s)) is a corrosion product formed from the chlorination of lead-containing plumbing materials. This metal oxide nanoparticle (NP) plays a key role in determining lead pollution in drinking water and receiving water bodies. This study uses nPbO2(s) and medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) as surrogates to investigate the aqueous fate and toxicological risk of metal oxide NPs associated with water matrices. The larvae of medaka were treated with solutions containing nPbO2(s) or Pb(II)aq in different water matrices for 7-14 days to investigate the in vivo toxic effects of NPs...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606064/drinking-and-recreational-water-related-diseases-a-bibliometric-analysis-1980-2015
#8
Waleed M Sweileh, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Naser Y Shraim
BACKGROUND: Water - related diseases are worldwide health concern. Microbial contamination and contaminant products in water are a source of disease outbreaks and development of cumulative toxic effects. Ensuring safe water is one of the goals to be achieved at the global level. The aim of this study was to assess publications on drinking and recreational water from a health point of view to understand current problems and future research trends in this field. METHODS: Scopus, the largest scientific electronic database, was used to retrieve related articles and present the results as bibliometric tables and maps...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589240/impact-of-prechlorination-on-organophosphorus-pesticides-during-drinking-water-treatment-removal-and-transformation-to-toxic-oxon-byproducts
#9
Wei Li, Ruiqing Wu, Jinming Duan, Christopher P Saint, John van Leeuwen
Prechlorination is commonly used to minimize operational problems associated with biological growth as well as taste and odor control during drinking water treatment. However, prechlorination can also oxidise micropollutants into intermediate byproducts. This could impose profound effects on the safety of the finished water if the transformed byproducts are more toxic and less removable. This study investigated the effect of prechlorination on decomposition and subsequent removal of the four organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs): chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and tolclofos-methyl using a simulated conventional water treatment process of powdered activated carbon assisted coagulation-sedimentation-filtration (PAC-CSF) and postchlorination...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567153/identifying-unknown-by-products-in-drinking-water-using-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-and-in-silico-toxicity-assessment
#10
Chunmei Li, Donghong Wang, Na Li, Qian Luo, Xiong Xu, Zijian Wang
Improvements in extraction and detection technologies have increased our abilities to identify new disinfection by-products (DBPs) over the last 40 years. However, most previous studies combined DBP identification and measurement efforts with toxicology to address concerns on a few expected DBPs, making it difficult to better define the health risk from the individual DBPs. In this study, a nontargeted screening method involving comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC × GC-qMS) combined with OECD QSAR Toolbox Ver...
November 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557432/selection-and-applicability-of-quenching-agents-for-the-analysis-of-polar-iodinated-disinfection-byproducts
#11
Tingting Gong, Yuxian Tao, Qiming Xian
Iodide is widely present in drinking water sources as well as wastewater effluents. Chlorination and chloramination are the most commonly used disinfection methods. During chlorination or chloramination of drinking water/wastewater effluents, iodide may be oxidized to hypoiodous acid, which may further react with organic matter to form iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Recently, several new polar iodinated DBPs have been identified in drinking water as well as chlorinated wastewater effluents, and they have drawn increasing concerns due to their high toxicity...
November 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523603/formation-of-nitrogenous-disinfection-by-products-in-10-chlorinated-and-chloraminated-drinking-water-supply-systems
#12
Deborah Liew, Kathryn L Linge, Cynthia A Joll
The presence of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) in drinking water supplies is a public health concern, particularly since some N-DBPs have been reported to be more toxic than the regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation of the presence of N-DBPs in 10 drinking water supply systems in Western Australia is presented. A suite of 28 N-DBPs, including N-nitrosamines, haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloacetamides (HAAms) and halonitromethanes (HNMs), were measured and evaluated for relationships with bulk parameters in the waters before disinfection...
September 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479356/formation-and-fates-of-nitrosamines-and-their-formation-potentials-from-a-surface-water-source-to-drinking-water-treatment-plants-in-southern-taiwan
#13
Wei-Hsiang Chen, Chung-Ya Wang, Tsung-Hsien Huang
Nitrosamines are toxic and emerging disinfection byproducts. In this study, three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in southern Taiwan treating the same source water in Gaoping River with comparable technologies were selected. The objective was to evaluate the formation and fates of six nitrosamines and their formation potentials (FPs) from a surface water source to drinking water. Albeit decreased further downstream in the river, four nitrosamine-FPs were observed in the source water due to anthropogenic pollution in the upstream areas...
October 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393964/impact-of-chlorine-on-the-cell-integrity-and-toxin-release-and-degradation-of-colonial-microcystis
#14
Jiajia Fan, La Rao, Yi-Ting Chiu, Tsair-Fuh Lin
The occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria in drinking water sources is problematic for water authorities as they can impair drinking water quality. Chlorine as a commonly used oxidant in water treatment plants has shown the potential to lyse cyanobacterial cells, resulting in the release of secondary metabolites which are hard to be removed during conventional water treatment processes. The majority of cyanobacterial species such as Microcystis, often occur in colonial forms under natural conditions. However, previous studies have mainly focused on the influence of chlorination on individual cyanobacterial cells due to technique limitations...
October 1, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179497/graphene-oxide-and-adsorption-of-chloroform-a-density-functional-study
#15
Elena Kuisma, C Fredrik Hansson, Th Benjamin Lindberg, Christoffer A Gillberg, Sebastian Idh, Elsebeth Schröder
Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are of environmental concerns, since they are toxic to humans and other mammals, and are widespread, and exposure is hard to avoid. Understanding and improving methods to reduce the amount of the substances are important. We present an atomic-scale calculational study of the adsorption of chlorine-based substance chloroform (CHCl3) on graphene oxide, as a step in estimating the capacity of graphene oxide for filtering out such substances, e.g., from drinking water. The calculations are based on density functional theory, and the recently developed consistent-exchange functional for the van der Waals density-functional method is employed...
May 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105403/effect-of-increasing-bromide-concentration-on-toxicity-in-treated-drinking-water
#16
Emma Sawade, Rolando Fabris, Andrew Humpage, Mary Drikas
Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources...
April 2016: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090718/nontargeted-identification-of-peptides-and-disinfection-byproducts-in-water
#17
Yanan Tang, Ying Xu, Feng Li, Lindsay Jmaiff, Steve E Hrudey, Xing-Fang Li
A broad range of organic compounds are known to exist in drinking water sources and serve as precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Epidemiological findings of an association of increased risk of bladder cancer with the consumption of chlorinated water has resulted in health concerns about DBPs. Peptides are thought to be an important category of DBP precursors in water. However, little is known about the actual presence of peptides and their DBPs in drinking water because of their high sample complexity and low concentrations...
April 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085067/chlorination-of-oxybenzone-kinetics-transformation-disinfection-byproducts-formation-and-genotoxicity-changes
#18
Shujuan Zhang, Xiaomao Wang, Hongwei Yang, Yuefeng F Xie
UV filters are a kind of emerging contaminant, and their transformation behavior in water treatment processes has aroused great concern. In particular, toxic products might be produced during reaction with disinfectants during the disinfection process. As one of the most widely used UV filters, oxybenzone has received significant attention, because its transformation and toxicity changes during chlorine oxidation are a concern. In our study, the reaction between oxybenzone and chlorine followed pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics...
July 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038586/modeling-the-formation-of-tocl-tobr-and-toi-during-chlor-am-ination-of-drinking-water
#19
Xiaohu Zhu, Xiangru Zhang
The use of chlorine and chloramines in drinking water disinfection may produce innumerable halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Because of the impossibility of measuring the concentration and evaluating the toxicity of each individual halogenated DBP in a water sample, total organic halogen (TOX) as a collective parameter and a toxicity indicator for all the halogenated DBPs has been gaining popularity in recent years. TOX can be divided into total organic chlorine (TOCl), total organic bromine (TOBr), and total organic iodine (TOI)...
June 1, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27035274/transformation-of-benzophenone-type-uv-filters-by-chlorine-kinetics-products-identification-and-toxicity-assessments
#20
Jian Li, Li-yun Ma, Li Xu
The present study focused on the kinetics, transformation pathways and toxicity of several benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters (BPs) during the water chlorination disinfection process. The transformation kinetics of the studied three BPs was found to be second-order reaction, which was dependent on the concentration of BPs and chlorine. The second-order rate constants increased from 86.7 to 975 M(-1) s(-1) for oxybenzone, 49.6-261.7 M(-1) s(-1) for 4-hydroxybenzophenone and 51.7-540 M(-1) s(-1) for 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid with the increasing pH value from 6 to 8 of the chlorination disinfection condition...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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