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Medicine surgery animal

Marina V Mavromatis, Mauricio Solano, Michael Y Thelen
There are clear differences in the normal radiographic appearance of the abdominal organs between a left lateral vs. a right lateral view. While a few veterinary academic institutions have transitioned to a three-view abdominal radiographic study protocol, obtaining only two views of the canine abdomen remains the current standard in veterinary medicine. In this combined retrospective and prospective, case-controlled study, 48 canine patients presenting with signs of acute abdomen were recruited. Four board-certified veterinary radiologists and four general practice veterinarians with greater than 3 years of experience in small animal practice were asked to determine if 10 predetermined findings were present within the set of images and if surgery was recommended based on those findings...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Luís Belo, Isa Serrano, Eva Cunha, Carla Carneiro, Luis Tavares, L Miguel Carreira, Manuela Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Most of surgical site infections (SSI) are caused by commensal and pathogenic agents from the patient's microbiota, which may include antibiotic resistant strains. Pre-surgical asepsis of the skin is one of the preventive measures performed to reduce SSI incidence and also antibiotic resistance dissemination. However, in veterinary medicine there is no agreement on which biocide is the most effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two pre-surgical skin asepsis protocols in dogs...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Murat Ozle, Dilek A Uğar Çankal, Mert Ilhan, Hikmet Keleş, Esra Küpeli Akkol
OBJECTIVES: Ankaferd BloodStopper® (ABS) is an herbal extract which has been used historically as a hemostatic agent in traditional Turkish medicine. ABS comprises of standardized mixture of herbs Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. In addition to its hemostatic effects, the herb ABS contains some other biological effects including antioxidant and antitumoral properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the chemopreventive effects of ABS in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral epithelial dysplasia...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Mahboobeh Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar, Bahareh Amin, Soghra Mehri, Seyed Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the potential prophylactic and curative effects of rosmarinic acid, one of the main constituents of rosemary, on the neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCI was used to induce peripheral neuropathic pain. In prophylactic groups, rosmarinic acid (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered from the day of surgery (day 0) for 14 days. In treatment group, rosmarinic acid (40 mg/kg) was given from day 5 (after the pain was established), for 7 days...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ying Zhu, Bing Feng, Songmin He, Zuqing Su, Guangjuan Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To explore the preventive and therapeutic effects of Resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn, compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines, on the endothelial cells injury after artery bypass graft surgery. METHODS: The animal model of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was prepared by transplanting a segment of autologous jugular vein onto the transected common carotid artery in rabbits. After CABG surgery, the rabbits were administrated with saline (model group), aspirin (Aspirin group), resveratrol (Res group), total flavones of hawthorn (Haw group) and resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn (Res+Haw group) once a day for eight weeks, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Glauber Cruz Lima, Yuri de Abreu Gomes Vasconcelos, Marilia Trindade de Santana Souza, Alan Santos Oliveira, Rangel Rodrigues Bomfim, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Júnior, Enilton Aparecido Camargo, Viviane Gomes Portella, Andrelina Noronha Coelho-de-Souza, Lúcio Ricardo Leite Diniz
No specific therapeutics are available for the treatment of sepsis-induced liver dysfunction, a clinical complication strongly associated with the high mortality rate of septic patients. This study investigated the effect of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata (EOHc), a lamiaceae plant used to treat liver disturbances in Brazilian folk medicine, on liver function during early sepsis. Sepsis was induced by the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Rats were divided into four groups: Sham, Sham+EOHc, CLP, and CLP+EOHc...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Suresh Subramanian, K V Vimalnath, Ashutosh Dash
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver cancer is an increasingly prevalent and highly morbid disease with critical significance in the Asian and African sub-continents. Among the various therapies currently employed in the clinic to combat the global menace of HCC, radio-embolization with suitable therapeutic isotopes is an effective targeted approach. In the Indian context, the significant cost and logistical disadvantage of imported radio-embolic formulations for HCC therapy make it essential to develop more feasible indigenous alternatives - using locally available radioisotopes and microspheric carriers - that can serve the nuclear medicine community...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Reza Khorramirouz, Seyede Maryam Kameli, Behnam Nabavizadeh
End-stage renal disease is becoming a contemporary global concern with increasing prevalence. The available treatment strategies are limited to dialysis and renal transplantation. However, limited organ supply and autoimmune rejection are the shortcomings that limit widespread application of transplantation. Favorably, regenerative medicine is able to provide acellular natural scaffolds for renal transplantation. Experimental surgeries in animal models are a fundamental step in transplantation research. This video presents a practical method for transplantation of bilateral acellular kidneys in a rat model, which could serve as a key step for further research...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Donald J Johann, Mathew Steliga, Ik J Shin, Donghoon Yoon, Konstantinos Arnaoutakis, Laura Hutchins, Meeiyueh Liu, Jason Liem, Karl Walker, Andy Pereira, Mary Yang, Susanne K Jeffus, Erich Peterson, Joshua Xu
Liquid biopsy methodologies, for the purpose of plasma genotyping of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of solid tumors, are a new class of novel molecular assays. Such assays are rapidly entering the clinical sphere of research-based monitoring in translational oncology, especially for thoracic malignancies. Potential applications for these blood-based cfDNA assays include: (i) initial diagnosis, (ii) response to therapy and follow-up, (iii) tumor evolution, and (iv) minimal residual disease evaluation. Precision medicine will benefit from cutting-edge molecular diagnostics, especially regarding treatment decisions in the adjuvant setting, where avoiding over-treatment and unnecessary toxicity are paramount...
February 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Han Yuan, Linyan Xiao, Wen Min, Wenchao Yuan, Shengfeng Lu, Guicheng Huang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gathering three ancient formulas, traditional Chinese medicine Bu-Shen-Tong-Luo decoction (BSTLD) has been used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) at the Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine for decades. However, the effect of BSTLD on angiogenesis and bone resorption as well as its possible mechanism are still unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive effect of BSTLD on ovariectomy-induced bone loss and vasculature disorder, and to investigate the possible bone protection mechanism of BSTLD in inhibiting bone resorption by enhancing angiogenesis signaling in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis of rats...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Wakako Tsuji, Jolene E Valentin, Kacey G Marra, Albert D Donnenberg, Vera S Donnenberg, J Peter Rubin
Autologous fat grafting after breast cancer surgery is commonly performed, but concerns about oncologic risk remain. To model the interaction between fat grafting and breast cancer cells, two approaches were employed. In the first approach, graded numbers of viable MDA-MB-231 or BT-474 cells were admixed directly into human fat grafts and injected subcutaneously into immune-deficient mice to determine if the healing graft is a supportive environment for the tumor. In the second approach, graded doses of MDA-MB-231 cells were suspended in Matrigel and injected into the mammary fat pads of mice...
January 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Oğuz Kadir Eğilmez, Numan Kökten, Mustafa Baran, M Tayyar Kalcıoğlu, Işın Doğan Ekici, Muhammet Tekin
OBJECTIVE: Sodium-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA) is widely used in medicine because of its antioxidant and mucolytic effects. In recent years, it has been used in otologic surgery. Because it cleaves disulfide bonds, it is used to easily dissect the epithelial matrix in cholesteatoma and atelectasis. In this study, we hypothesized that MESNA does not have any toxic effect on the facial nerve, and the effects of MESNA on the facial nerve were examined histologically and electrophysiologically...
December 14, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Jeffrey D MacLellan, Susan A Arnold, Aditya C Dave, Matthew A Hunt, G Elizabeth Pluhar
OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between preoperative volume of primary intracranial gliomas in dogs as determined via MRI and survival time after surgical debulking and adjunctive immunotherapy. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 47 client-owned dogs enrolled in clinical trials regarding glioma treatments. PROCEDURES Medical records of all dogs undergoing craniotomy at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medicine Center with histologically confirmed glioma between 2008 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed, and outcome data were collected...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Sandra K Kabagambe, Chelsey J Lee, Laura F Goodman, Y Julia Chen, Melissa A Vanover, Diana L Farmer
The International Fetal Medicine and Surgery Society was created in 1982 and proposed guidelines for fetal interventions that required demonstrations of the safety and feasibility of intended interventions in animal models prior to application in humans. Because of their short gestation and low cost, small animal models are useful in early investigation of fetal strategies. However, owing to the anatomic and physiologic differences between small animals and humans, repeated studies in large animal models are usually needed to facilitate translation to humans...
December 13, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
F Rossignol, O Brandenberger, J D Perkins, J-P Marie, C Mespoulhès-Rivière, N G Ducharme
BACKGROUND: In horses, the only established method for reinnervation of the larynx is the nerve-muscle pedicle implantation, whereas in human medicine, direct nerve implantation is a standard surgical technique for selective laryngeal reinnervation in human patients suffering from bilateral vocal fold paralysis. OBJECTIVES: (1) To describe a modified first or second cervical nerve transplantation technique for the treatment of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) in horses and (2) evaluate the outcomes of reinnervation using direct nerve needle-stimulation of the first cervical nerve and exercising endoscopy before and after surgery...
November 28, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Petra Henrich-Noack, Elena G Sergeeva, Bernhard A Sabel
Non-invasive brain current stimulation (NIBS) is a promising and versatile tool for inducing neuroplasticity, protection and functional rehabilitation of damaged neuronal systems. It is technically simple, requires no surgery, and has significant beneficial effects. However, there are various technical approaches for NIBS which influence neuronal networks in significantly different ways. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), alternating current stimulation (ACS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) all have been applied to modulate brain activity in animal experiments under normal and pathological conditions...
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Laurence C Cheung, Minh Nguyen, Edith Tang, Britta S von Ungern Sternberg, Sam Salman, Catherine Tuleu, Abeer H A Mohamed Ahmed, Jessica Soto, Lee Yong Lim
Harmonized methodologies are urgently required for the taste evaluation of novel pediatric medicines. This study utilized in vitro, in vivo and clinical data to evaluate the palatability of a novel midazolam chocolate tablet. In vitro dissolution experiments showed the crushed tablet to release within 5 min 1.68 mg of midazolam into simulated saliva. This translated to a drug level of 0.84 mg/ml in the oral cavity, which would be higher than the midazolam bitterness detection threshold concentration of 0...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Sung-Min Moon, Seul Ah Lee, Seul Hee Han, Bo-Ram Park, Mi Suk Choi, Jae-Sung Kim, Su-Gwan Kim, Heung-Joong Kim, Hong Sung Chun, Do Kyung Kim, Chun Sung Kim
BACKGROUND: Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot has been used as a potential remedy in traditional medicine because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Osteoarthritis is a chronic progressive joint disease, characterized by complex mechanisms related to inflammation and degeneration of articular cartilage. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cartilage protective effect of an aqueous extract of Codium fragile (AECF) using rat primary chondrocytes and the osteoarthritis animal model induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)...
October 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Susan Gibbs, Ilona Kosten, Rosalien Veldhuizen, Sander Spiekstra, Emanuela Corsini, Erwin Roggen, Thomas Rustemeyer, Albert J Feilzer, Cees J Kleverlaan
According to the new EU Medical Devices (MDR) legislation coming into effect in 2017, manufactures will have to comply with higher standards of quality and safety for medical devices in order to meet common safety concerns regarding such products. Metal alloys are extensively used in dentistry and medicine (e.g. orthopedic surgery and cardiology) even though clinical experience suggests that many metals are sensitizers. The aim of this study was to further test the applicability domain of the in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) IL-18 assay developed to identify contact allergens and in doing so: i) determine whether different metal salts, representing leachables from metal alloys used in medical devices, could be correctly labelled and classified; and ii) assess the ability of different salts for the same metal to penetrate the skin stratum corneum...
January 15, 2018: Toxicology
Kai Jiang, Hui Tang, Prasanna K Mishra, Slobodan I Macura, Lilach O Lerman
PURPOSE: To develop and validate a method for measuring murine single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. A fast longitudinal relaxation time (T1 ) measurement method was implemented to capture gadolinium dynamics (1 s/scan), and a modified two-compartment model was developed to quantify GFR as well as renal perfusion using 16...
October 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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