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Writers cramp

Alberto Albanese
Literary reports on dystonia date back to post-Medieval times. Medical reports are instead more recent. We review here the early descriptions and the historical establishment of a consensus on the clinical phenomenology and the diagnostic features of dystonia syndromes. Lumping and splitting exercises have characterized this area of knowledge, and it remains largely unclear how many dystonia types we are to count. This review describes the history leading to recognize that focal dystonia syndromes are a coherent clinical set encompassing cranial dystonia (including blepharospasm), oromandibular dystonia, spasmodic torticollis, truncal dystonia, writer's cramp, and other occupational dystonias...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Seyed Farokh Atashzar, Mahya Shahbazi, Christopher Ward, Olivia Samotus, Mehdi Delrobaei, Fariborz Rahimi, Jack Lee, Mallory Jackman, Mandar Jog, Rajni Patel
Abnormality of sensorimotor integration in the basal ganglia and cortex has been reported in the literature for patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD). In this study, we investigate the effect of manipulation of kinesthetic input in people living with writer's cramp disorder (a major form of FHD). For this purpose, severity of dystonia is studied for 11 participants while the symptoms of 7 participants have been tracked during 5 sessions of assessment and Botulinum toxin injection (BoNT-A) therapy (one of the current suggested therapies for dystonia)...
August 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Vasileios Siokas, Efthimios Dardiotis, Evangelia E Tsironi, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Dimitrios Rikos, Maria Sokratous, Stylianos Koutsias, Konstantinos Paterakis, Georgia Deretzi, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou
IMPORTANCE: A number of genetic loci were found to be associated with dystonia. Quite a few studies have been contacted to examine possible contribution of TOR1A variants to the risk of dystonia, but their results remain conflicting. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the effect of TOR1A gene SNPs on dystonia and its phenotypic subtypes regarding the body distribution. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of Pubmed database to identify all available studies that reported genotype frequencies of TOR1A SNPs in dystonia...
2017: PloS One
Takashi Asahi, Takaomi Taira, Kiyonobu Ikeda, Jiro Yamamoto, Shuji Sato
BACKGROUND: Task-specific focal dystonia, such as writer's cramp and musician's cramp, is a type of dystonia that affects performance of particular tasks. Such movement disorders have been treated with stereotactic ventro-oral (Vo) thalamotomy with excellent outcomes. However, there has been no previous report of treatment of sport-related or athlete's dystonia by means of stereotactic surgery. We treated a patient with table tennis-related dystonia with Vo thalamotomy, and evaluated the outcome...
March 2017: World Neurosurgery
Christine M Stahl, Steven J Frucht
In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the etiology, risk factors and pathophysiology of focal task specific dystonia (FTSD), movement disorders characterized by abnormal motor activation during the performance of specific, repetitive actions. We focus on two common FTSD, musician's dystonia and writer's cramp. FTSD may pose a threat to the patient's livelihood, and improved therapeutic treatments are needed.
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Prachaya Srivanitchapoom, Ejaz A Shamim, Pierre Diomi, Takaaki Hattori, Sanjay Pandey, Sherry Vorbach, Jung E Park, Tianxia Wu, Sungyoung Auh, Mark Hallett
STUDY DESIGN: Exploratory case-control study. INTRODUCTION: Writer's cramp (WC) is a type of focal hand dystonia. The central nervous system plays a role in its pathophysiology, but abnormalities in the affected musculoskeletal components may also be relevant. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: We compared the active range of motion (ROM) in patients with WC and healthy volunteers (HVs) and correlated the findings with disease duration and severity. METHODS: Affected limb joints were measured with goniometers...
October 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Paulo José Lorenzoni, Cláudia Suemi Kamoi Kay, Cristiane Cavalet, Raquel C Arndt, Lineu Cesar Werneck, Rosana Herminia Scola
The spectrum of clinical and electrophysiological features in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is broad. We analyze a series of Brazilian patients with HNPP. Correlations between clinical manifestations, laboratory features, electrophysiological analyze, histological and molecular findings were done. In five cases, more than one episode occurred before diagnosis. Median nerve in the carpal tunnel at the wrist, ulnar nerve in its groove at the elbow, fibular nerve in the head of the fibula at the knee, radial nerve in its groove of the humerus and suprascapular nerve in its notch at the supraspinous fossa were found as focal neuropathies...
September 30, 2016: Neurology International
Kirsten E Zeuner, Albert Acewicz, Arne Knutzen, Dirk Dressler, Katja Lohmann, Karsten Witt
Writers' cramp is a movement disorder with dystonic co-contraction of fingers and hand during writing and is part of the clinical spectrum of focal dystonias. Previous studies showed reduced striatal dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) availability in dystonia. The expression of D2 receptors is modulated by a DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1A polymorphism (rs1800497). This study addresses the question of whether the DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1A polymorphism is a risk factor for writer's cramp. We determined the DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1A polymorphism 34 patients with writer's cramp compared to 67 age matched controls...
September 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
Geeta Anjum Khwaja, Abhilekh Srivastava, Vijay Vishwanath Ghuge, Neera Chaudhry
Dystonia can be encountered in a small subset of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), but task specific dystonia is extremely rare. We report a case of a 48-year-old male with confirmed SCA Type 1 (SCA1) with mild progressive cerebellar ataxia and a prominent and disabling Writer's cramp. This case highlights the ever-expanding phenotypic heterogeneity of the SCA's in general and SCA1 in particular.
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Roberto Erro, Stephanie T Hirschbichler, Lucia Ricciardi, Agata Ryterska, Elena Antelmi, Christos Ganos, Carla Cordivari, Michele Tinazzi, Mark J Edwards, Kailash P Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Mental rotation of body parts engages cortical-subcortical areas that are actually involved in the execution of a movement. Musicians' dystonia is a type of focal hand dystonia that is grouped together with writer's cramp under the rubric of "occupational dystonia", but it is unclear to which extent these two disorders share common pathophysiological mechanisms. Previous research has demonstrated patients with writer's cramp to have deficits in mental rotation of body parts...
September 28, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Mallory Jackman, Mehdi Delrobaei, Fariborz Rahimi, S Farokh Atashzar, Mahya Shahbazi, Rajni Patel, Mandar Jog
INTRODUCTION: Writer's cramp is a specific focal hand dystonia causing abnormal posturing and tremor in the upper limb. The most popular medical intervention, botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) therapy, is variably effective for 50-70% of patients. BoNT-A non-responders undergo ineffective treatment and may experience significant side effects. Various assessments have been used to determine response prediction to BoNT-A, but not in the same population of patients. METHODS: A comprehensive assessment was employed to measure various symptom aspects...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Seyed Farokh Atashzar, Mahya Shahbazi, Christopher Ward, Olivia Samotus, Mehdi Delrobaei, Fariborz Rahimi, Jack Lee, Mallory Jackman, Mandar S Jog, Rajni V Patel
Abnormality of sensorimotor integration in the basal ganglia and cortex has been reported in the literature for patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD). In this study, we investigate the effect of manipulation of kinesthetic input in people living with writer's cramp disorder (a major form of FHD). For this purpose, severity of dystonia is studied for 11 participants while the symptoms of seven participants have been tracked during five sessions of assessment and Botulinum toxin injection (BoNT-A) therapy (one of the current suggested therapies for dystonia)...
October 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Cecile Gallea, Silvina G Horovitz, Muslimah 'Ali Najee-Ullah, Mark Hallett
Handwriting with the dominant hand is a highly skilled task singularly acquired in humans. This skill is the isolated deficit in patients with writer's cramp (WC), a form of dystonia with maladaptive plasticity, acquired through intensive and repetitive motor practice. When a skill is highly trained, a motor program is created in the brain to execute the same movement kinematics regardless of the effector used for the task. The task- and effector-specific symptoms in WC suggest that a problem particularly occurs in the brain when the writing motor program is carried out by the dominant hand...
December 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Shiro Horisawa, Shinichi Goto, Nobuhiko Takeda, Yuki Takano, Takakazu Kawamata, Takaomi Taira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although many reports have confirmed the effects of stereotactic thalamotomy for writer's cramp, pallidotomy for writer's cramp is yet to be investigated. METHODS: After a 22-year-old woman with writer's cramp had undergone stereotactic thalamotomy twice, symptomatic relief was only temporary. Because her dystonic symptoms spread around the proximal part of the upper limb, she underwent unilateral pallidotomy 21 months after the second thalamotomy...
2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
N Langbour, V Michel, B Dilharreguy, D Guehl, M Allard, P Burbaud
Evidence for pre-existing abnormalities in the sensory and motor systems has been previously reported in writer's cramp (WC). However, the processing of somatosensory information during motor planning has received little attention. We hypothesized that sensorimotor integration processes might be impaired partly due to a disruption in the parieto-premotor network. To test this assumption, we designed 2 nonwriting motor tasks in which subjects had to perform a 4-finger motor sequence either on the basis of sensory stimuli previously memorized (SM task) or freely generated (SG task)...
April 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
S A Likhachev, T N Chernukha, G V Zabrodets, O V Gleb
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of patients with dystonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Authors treated 66 patients with segmental and generalized forms of dystonia, writer's cramp and oromandibular dystonia. The degree of dystonia severity was assessed using the Burke--Fahn--Marsden scale. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: rTMS treatment of the motor cortex region decreased dystonic hyperkinesis severity...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
C J Bernstein, D R Ellard, G Davies, E Hertenstein, N K Y Tang, M Underwood, H Sandhu
BACKGROUND: Primary dystonia is a chronic neurological movement disorder that causes abnormal muscle movements. Pain and emotional distress may accompany these physical symptoms. Behavioural interventions are used to help people with long term conditions improve their quality of life. Little is known about behavioural interventions applied to Dystonia. We report a systematic review of studies reporting current evidence of behavioural interventions for people with primary dystonia. METHODS: We did systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, AHMED and CINAHL...
2016: BMC Neurology
Tobias Bäumer, Alexander Schmidt, Marcus Heldmann, Moritz Landwehr, Anna Simmer, Diana Tönniges, Thomas Münte, Katja Lohmann, Eckart Altenmüller, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
INTRODUCTION: A clustering of relatives with dystonia has been reported in families with musician's dystonia suggesting a genetic contribution to this disease. The aim of the present study was to determine whether interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation is impaired in healthy family members rendering it a suitable endophenotypic marker for musician's dystonia. METHODS: Patients with musician's hand dystonia (n = 21), patients with sporadic writer's cramp (n = 15), their healthy family members (n = 27), healthy musicians (n = 12) and healthy non-musicians (n = 12) were included...
April 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Mehdi Delrobaei, Fariborz Rahimi, Mallory E Jackman, S Farokh Atashzar, Mahya Shahbazi, Rajni Patel, Mandar Jog
BACKGROUND: The assessment and treatment of writer's cramp is complicated due to the variations in the forces and angles of involved joints. Additionally, in some cases compensatory movements for cramp relief further complicates assessment. Currently these variables are subjectively measured with clinical scales and visual assessments. This subjectivity makes it difficult to successfully administer interventions such as Botulinum toxin injection or orthotics resulting in poor efficacy and significant side effects...
February 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Yi-Jhan Tseng, Rou-Shayn Chen, Yung-Yang Lin
BACKGROUND: The involvement of motor cortex and sensorimotor integration in patients with writer's cramp (WC) has been well documented. However, the exact neurophysiological profile within the somatosensory system, including primary somatosensory cortex (SI), contralateral (SIIc), and ipsilateral (SIIi) secondary somatosensory areas remains less understood. METHODS: This study investigated the neuromagnetic cortical activities of median nerve stimulation in 10 patients with WC and 10 healthy controls (HC)...
March 2016: Brain and Behavior
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