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motor associative plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197197/fine-motor-skill-training-enhances-functional-plasticity-of-the-corticospinal-tract-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Jian Liu, Xiao-Yu Yang, Wei-Wei Xia, Jian Dong, Mao-Guang Yang, Jian-Hang Jiao
Following central nervous system injury, axonal sprouts form distal to the injury site and extend into the denervated area, reconstructing neural circuits through neural plasticity. How to facilitate this plasticity has become the key to the success of central nervous system repair. It remains controversial whether fine motor skill training contributes to the recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury. Therefore, we established a rat model of unilateral corticospinal tract injury using a pyramidal tract cutting method...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190576/field-portable-xrf-reveals-the-ubiquity-of-antimony-in-plastic-consumer-products
#2
Andrew Turner, Montserrat Filella
Very little systematic information exists on the occurrence and concentrations of antimony (Sb) in consumer products. In this study, a Niton XL3t field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer was deployed in situ and in the laboratory to provide quantitative information on Sb dissipated in plastic items and fixtures (including rubber, textile and foamed materials) from the domestic, school, vehicular and office settings. The metalloid was detected in 18% of over 800 measurements performed, with concentrations ranging from about 60 to 60,000μgg(-1)...
February 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179558/cell-specific-pkm-isoforms-contribute-to-the-maintenance-of-different-forms-of-persistent-long-term-synaptic-plasticity
#3
Jiangyuan Hu, Kerry Adler, Carole Abi Farah, Margaret H Hastings, Wayne S Sossin, Samuel Schacher
Multiple kinase activations contribute to long-term synaptic plasticity, a cellular mechanism mediating long-term memory. The sensorimotor synapse of Aplysia expresses different forms of long-term facilitation (LTF) - non-associative and associative LTF - that require the timely activation of kinases, including PKC. It is not known which PKC isoforms in the sensory neuron or motor neuron L7 are required to sustain each form of LTF. We show that different PKMs, the constitutively active isoforms of PKCs generated by calpain cleavage, in the sensory neuron and L7 are required to maintain each form of LTF...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168839/histamine-h3-receptor-antagonist-prevents-memory-deficits-and-synaptic-plasticity-disruption-following-isoflurane-exposure
#4
Tao Luo, Ying Wang, Jian Qin, Zhi-Gang Liu, Min Liu
BACKGROUND: Exposure to pharmacological concentration of inhaled anesthetics such as isoflurane can cause short- or long-term cognitive impairments in preclinical studies. The selective antagonists of the histamine H3 receptors are considered as a promising group of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of cognitive disorders. In this study, we investigated whether ciproxifan, a nonimidazole antagonist of H3 histamine receptors, could overcome the functional and electrophysiological sequela associated with isoflurane anesthesia...
February 6, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168061/right-hemisphere-remapping-of-naming-functions-depends-on-lesion-size-and-location-in-poststroke-aphasia
#5
Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Elizabeth H Lacey, Shihui Xing, Peter E Turkeltaub
The study of language network plasticity following left hemisphere stroke is foundational to the understanding of aphasia recovery and neural plasticity in general. Damage in different language nodes may influence whether local plasticity is possible and whether right hemisphere recruitment is beneficial. However, the relationships of both lesion size and location to patterns of remapping are poorly understood. In the context of a picture naming fMRI task, we tested whether lesion size and location relate to activity in surviving left hemisphere language nodes, as well as homotopic activity in the right hemisphere during covert name retrieval and overt name production...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143961/motor-learning-enhances-use-dependent-plasticity
#6
Firas Mawase, Shintaro Uehara, Amy Bastian, Pablo Celnik
: Motor behaviors are shaped not only by current sensory signals but also by the history of recent experiences. For instance, repeated movements toward a particular target bias the subsequent movements toward that target direction. This process, called use-dependent plasticity (UDP), is considered a basic and goal-independent way of forming motor memories. Most studies consider movement history as the critical component that leads to UDP (Classen et al., 1998, Verstynen and Sabes, 2011)...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137969/cerebellar-m1-connectivity-changes-associated-to-motor-learning-are-somatotopic-specific
#7
D Spampinato, H J Block, P Celnik
: One of the functions of the cerebellum in motor learning is to predict and account for systematic changes to the body or environment. This form of adaptive learning is mediated by plastic changes occurring within the cerebellar cortex. The strength of cerebellar-to- cerebral pathways for a given muscle may reflect aspects of cerebellum-dependent motor adaptation. These connections with motor cortex (M1) can be estimated as cerebellar inhibition (CBI): a conditioning pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered to the cerebellum prior to a test pulse over motor cortex...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131769/suppression-of-inhibitory-g-protein-signaling-in-forebrain-pyramidal-neurons-triggers-plasticity-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#8
Ezequiel Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Nicholas Carlblom, Zhilian Xia, Kevin Wickman
Cocaine and other drugs of abuse trigger long-lasting adaptations in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic system, and this plasticity has been implicated in several key facets of drug addiction. For example, glutamatergic neurotransmission mediated by AMPA receptors (AMPAR) is strengthened in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc core and shell during withdrawal following repeated in vivo cocaine administration. Repeated cocaine administration also suppresses inhibitory signaling mediated by G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels in pyramidal neurons of the prelimbic cortex, an important source of glutamatergic input to the NAc core that has been implicated in cocaine-seeking and behavioral sensitization...
January 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124436/normal-sensorimotor-plasticity-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-with-fixed-posture-of-the-hand
#9
Francesca Morgante, Antonino Naro, Carmen Terranova, Margherita Russo, Vincenzo Rizzo, Giovanni Risitano, Paolo Girlanda, Angelo Quartarone
BACKGROUND: Movement disorders associated with complex regional pain syndrome type I have been a subject of controversy over the last 10 years regarding their nature and pathophysiology, with an intense debate about the functional (psychogenic) nature of this disorder. The aim of this study was to test sensorimotor plasticity and cortical excitability in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I who developed a fixed posture of the hand. METHODS: Ten patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I in the right upper limb and a fixed posture of the hand (disease duration less than 24 months) and 10 age-matched healthy subjects were enrolled...
January 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088670/fibrin-hydrogels-induce-mixed-dorsal-ventral-spinal-neuron-identities-during-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
John M Edgar, Meghan Robinson, Stephanie M Willerth
: We hypothesized that generating spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neural aggregates (NAs) using a chemically-defined differentiation protocol would be more effective inside of 3D fibrin hydrogels compared to 2D poly-L-ornithine(PLO)/laminin-coated tissue culture plastic surfaces. We performed targeted RNA-Seq using next generation sequencing to determine the substrate-specific differences in gene expression that regulate cell phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064022/stimulus-uncertainty-enhances-long-term-potentiation-like-plasticity-in-human-motor-cortex
#11
Martin V Sale, Abbey S Nydam, Jason B Mattingley
Plasticity can be induced in human cortex using paired associative stimulation (PAS), which repeatedly and predictably pairs a peripheral electrical stimulus with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the contralateral motor region. Many studies have reported small or inconsistent effects of PAS. Given that uncertain stimuli can promote learning, the predictable nature of the stimulation in conventional PAS paradigms might serve to attenuate plasticity induction. Here, we introduced stimulus uncertainty into the PAS paradigm to investigate if it can boost plasticity induction...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007646/assessments-of-sensory-plasticity-after-spinal-cord-injury-across-species
#12
REVIEW
Jenny Haefeli, J Russell Huie, Kazuhito Morioka, Adam R Ferguson
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a multifaceted phenomenon associated with alterations in both motor function and sensory function. A majority of patients with SCI report sensory disturbances, including not only loss of sensation, but in many cases enhanced abnormal sensation, dysesthesia and pain. Development of therapeutics to treat these abnormal sensory changes require common measurement tools that can enable cross-species translation from animal models to human patients. We review the current literature on translational nociception/pain measurement in SCI and discuss areas for further development...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005989/action-video-game-playing-is-reflected-in-enhanced-visuomotor-performance-and-increased-corticospinal-excitability
#13
Olivier Morin-Moncet, Jean-Marc Therrien-Blanchet, Marie C Ferland, Hugo Théoret, Greg L West
Action video game playing is associated with improved visuomotor performance; however, the underlying neural mechanisms associated with this increased performance are not well understood. Using the Serial Reaction Time Task in conjunction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we investigated if improved visuomotor performance displayed in action video game players (actionVGPs) was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1) compared to non-video game players (nonVGPs). Further, we assessed if actionVGPs and nonVGPs displayed differences in procedural motor learning as measured by the SRTT...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003105/motor-cortex-plasticity-can-indicate-vulnerability-to-motor-fluctuation-and-high-l-dopa-need-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Asha Kishore, Praveen James, Syam Krishnan, Lydia Yahia-Cherif, Sabine Meunier, Traian Popa
INTRODUCTION: Motor cortex plasticity is reported to be decreased in Parkinson's disease in studies which pooled patients in various stages of the disease. Whether the early decrease in plasticity is related to the motor signs or is linked to the future development of motor complications of treatment is unclear. The aim of the study was to test if motor cortex plasticity and its cerebellar modulation are impaired in treatment-naïve Parkinson's disease, are related to the motor signs of the disease and predict occurrence of motor complications of treatment...
February 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992103/resting-state-functional-connectivity-measures-correlate-with-the-response-to-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#15
Brenton Hordacre, Bahar Moezzi, Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Nigel C Rogasch, Lynton J Graetz, Michael C Ridding
Responses to non-invasive brain stimulation are highly variable between subjects. Resting state functional connectivity was investigated as a marker of plasticity induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Twenty-six healthy adults (15 male, 26.4 ± 6.5 years) were tested. Experiment 1 investigated whether functional connectivity could predict modulation of corticospinal excitability following anodal tDCS. Experiment 2 determined test-retest reliability of connectivity measures. Three minutes of electroencephalography was recorded and connectivity was quantified with the debiased weighted phase lag index...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955948/array-focal-cortical-stimulation-enhances-motor-function-recovery-and-brain-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemia
#16
Jing Yang, Lu Liu, Tao Li, Chengyan Li
OBJECTIVE: Using a new microelectrode array implanted into the cranial window employing a new stimulation protocol, we investigated the effects of the implanted electrode arrays on both motor map plasticity and neural regeneration in a rodent model of stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were pretrained on single-pellet retrieval task, then received focal ischemic infarction and microelectrode arrays implantation. Rats in the cortical stimulation (CS) group received daily electrical stimulation (1 hour each day) for 14 days whereas animals in the no stimulation (NS) group did not receive electrical stimulation and only underwent motor mapping...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933018/a-study-of-the-coupling-of-fet-temperament-traits-with-major-depression
#17
Irina N Trofimova, William Sulis
Objective: Temperament and mental illness have been linked to the same systems of behavioral regulation. A temperament model, carefully structured to respond to subtle differences within systems of behavior regulation, should exhibit distinct temperament patterns in the presence of mental illness. Previous comparisons of temperament profiles in mental disorders used mostly emotionality-related traits. In contrast, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, verbal, and mental aspects of behavior and maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to temperament traits as well as to symptoms of mental illnesses...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927784/adenosine-dependent-phrenic-motor-facilitation-is-inflammation-resistant
#18
Ibis M Agosto-Marlin, Nicole L Nichols, Gordon S Mitchell
Phrenic motor facilitation (pMF) can be elicited by acute intermittent hypoxia (ie. phrenic long-term facilitation, or pLTF), or direct application of pharmacological agonists to the cervical spinal cord. Moderate acute intermittent hypoxia (mAIH, 3X5 min episodes of 35-50 mmHg arterial PO2, 5 min normoxic intervals) induces pLTF by a serotonin-dependent mechanism; mAIH-induced pLTF is abolished by even low levels of systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100ug/kg i.p.). In contrast, severe AIH (sAIH, 3X5 min episodes of 25-30mmHg arterial PO2, 5 min intervals) elicits pLTF by a distinct, adenosine-dependent mechanism...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915477/treadmill-exercise-improves-memory-function-depending-on-circadian-rhythm-changes-in-mice
#19
Dong Sup Hwang, Hyo Bum Kwak, Il Gyu Ko, Sung Eun Kim, Jun Jang Jin, Eun Sang Ji, Hyun Hee Choi, Oh Young Kwon
PURPOSE: Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. METHODS: The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used to assess neurogenesis...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913408/neurophysiological-mechanisms-of-cortical-plasticity-impairments-in-schizophrenia-and-modulation-by-the-nmda-receptor-agonist-d-serine
#20
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Michael L Epstein, Odeta Beggel, Stephanie Rohrig, Jonathan M Lehrfeld, Nadine Revheim, Nayla P Lehrfeld, Jacob Reep, Emily Parker, Gail Silipo, Merav Ahissar, Daniel C Javitt
Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in cortical plasticity that affect sensory brain regions and lead to impaired cognitive performance. Here we examined underlying neural mechanisms of auditory plasticity deficits using combined behavioural and neurophysiological assessment, along with neuropharmacological manipulation targeted at the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR). Cortical plasticity was assessed in a cohort of 40 schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients relative to 42 healthy control subjects using a fixed reference tone auditory plasticity task...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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