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motor associative plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#1
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540422/loss-and-remodeling-of-striatal-dendritic-spines-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-homeostasis-to-maladaptive-plasticity
#2
REVIEW
Rosa M Villalba, Yoland Smith
In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of PD, the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection leads to two major changes in the morphology of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), i.e., a profound loss of dendritic spines and the remodeling of axospinous glutamatergic synapses. Striatal spine loss is an early event tightly associated with the extent of striatal DA denervation, but not the severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms, suggesting that striatal spine pruning might be a form of homeostatic plasticity that compensates for the loss of striatal DA innervation and the resulting dysregulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539421/sound-making-actions-lead-to-immediate-plastic-changes-of-neuromagnetic-evoked-responses-and-induced-beta-band-oscillations-during-perception
#3
Bernhard Ross, Masihullah Barat, Takako Fujioka
Auditory and sensorimotor brain areas interact during the action-perception cycle of sound making. Neurophysiological evidence of a feedforward model of the action and its outcome has been associated with attenuation of the N1 wave of auditory evoked responses elicited by self-generated sounds, such as vocalization or playing a musical instrument. Moreover, neural oscillations at beta-band frequencies have been related to predicting the sound outcome after action initiation. We hypothesized that a newly learned action-perception association would immediately modify interpretation of the sound during subsequent listening...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526578/barrel-cortex-what-is-it-good-for
#4
REVIEW
Maik C Stüttgen, Cornelius Schwarz
The rodent whisker system, with barrel cortex as its most prominent structure, has evolved into a powerful model system to study sensory processing. However, despite the vast amount of data collected on barrel cortex neural activity patterns, as well as its circuitry and plasticity, the precise behavioral and cognitive operations for which this structure is needed are still elusive. Proposed functions of barrel cortex include detection, discrimination, coordination of whisker movements during exploratory locomotion or active touch, and associative learning...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515706/research-priorities-in-limb-and-task-specific-dystonias
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Pirio Richardson, Eckart Altenmüller, Katharine Alter, Ron L Alterman, Robert Chen, Steven Frucht, Shinichi Furuya, Joseph Jankovic, H A Jinnah, Teresa J Kimberley, Codrin Lungu, Joel S Perlmutter, Cecília N Prudente, Mark Hallett
Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer's cramp, runner's dystonia, or musician's dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506878/pain-motor-integration-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
A Suppa, C Leone, F Di Stasio, L Marsili, A Di Santo, A Biasiotta, S La Cesa, A Truini, G Cruccu, A Berardelli
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), the influence of chronic pain on motor features has never been investigated. We have recently designed a technique that combines nociceptive system activation by laser stimuli and primary motor cortex (M1) activation through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), in a laser-paired associative stimulation design (Laser-PAS). In controls, Laser-PAS induces long-term changes in motor evoked potentials reflecting M1 long-term potentiation-like plasticity, arising from pain-motor integration...
April 30, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505229/oligodendrocyte-and-neuron-specific-nogo-a-restrict-dendritic-branching-and-spine-density-in-the-adult-mouse-motor-cortex
#7
Ajmal Zemmar, Chia-Chien Chen, Oliver Weinmann, Brigitt Kast, Flora Vajda, James Bozeman, Noel Isaad, Yi Zuo, Martin E Schwab
Nogo-A has been well described as a myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite outgrowth and functional neuroregeneration after central nervous system (CNS) injury. Recently, a new role of Nogo-A has been identified as a negative regulator of synaptic plasticity in the uninjured adult CNS. Nogo-A is present in neurons and oligodendrocytes. However, it is yet unclear which of these two pools regulate synaptic plasticity. To address this question we used newly generated mouse lines in which Nogo-A is specifically knocked out in (1) oligodendrocytes (oligoNogo-A KO) or (2) neurons (neuroNogo-A KO)...
May 15, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504723/cx3cr1-monocytes-modulate-learning-and-learning-dependent-dendritic-spine-remodeling-via-tnf-%C3%AE
#8
Juan Mauricio Garré, Hernandez Moura Silva, Juan J Lafaille, Guang Yang
Impaired learning and cognitive function often occurs during systemic infection or inflammation. Although activation of the innate immune system has been linked to the behavioral and cognitive effects that are associated with infection, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we mimicked viral immune activation with poly(I:C), a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA, and longitudinally imaged postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer V pyramidal neurons in the mouse primary motor cortex using two-photon microscopy...
May 15, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483975/developmental-disruption-of-recurrent-inhibitory-feedback-results-in-compensatory-adaptation-in-the-renshaw-cell-motor-neuron-circuit
#9
Anders Enjin, Sharn Perry, Markus M Hilscher, Chetan Nagaraja, Martin Larhammar, Henrik Gezelius, Anders Eriksson, Katarina E Leão, Klas Kullander
When activating muscles, motor neurons in the spinal cord also activate Renshaw cells, which provide recurrent inhibitory feedback to the motor neurons. The tight coupling with motor neurons suggests that Renshaw cells have an integral role in movement, a role that is yet to be elucidated. Here we used the selective expression of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor alpha 2 (Chrna2) in mice to genetically target the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) in Renshaw cells. Loss of VIAAT from Chrna2(Cre) expressing Renshaw cells did not impact any aspect of drug-induced fictive locomotion in the neonatal mouse, nor did it change gait, motor coordination or grip strength in adult mice of both sexes...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483586/what-can-tiny-mushrooms-in-fruit-flies-tell-us-about-learning-and-memory
#10
REVIEW
Toshihide Hige
Nervous systems have evolved to translate external stimuli into appropriate behavioral responses. In an ever-changing environment, flexible adjustment of behavioral choice by experience-dependent learning is essential for the animal's survival. Associative learning is a simple form of learning that is widely observed from worms to humans. To understand the whole process of learning, we need to know how sensory information is represented and transformed in the brain, how it is changed by experience, and how the changes are reflected on motor output...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473764/paired-associative-stimulation-targeting-the-tibialis-anterior-muscle-using-either-mono-or-biphasic-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#11
Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, Andrew J T Stevenson
Paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocols induce plastic changes within the motor cortex. The objectives of this study were to investigate PAS effects targeting the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle using a biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse form and, to determine whether a reduced intensity of this pulse would lead to significant changes as has been reported for hand muscles using a monophasic TMS pulse. Three interventions were investigated: (1) suprathreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 11); (2) suprathreshold PAmono-PAS (n = 11) where PAS was applied using a biphasic or monophasic pulse form at 120% resting motor threshold (RMT); (3) subthreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 10) where PAS was applied as for (1) at 95% active motor threshold (AMT)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469204/compromised-neuroplasticity-in-cigarette-smokers-under-nicotine-withdrawal-is-restituted-by-the-nicotinic-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-receptor-partial-agonist-varenicline
#12
G Batsikadze, W Paulus, A Hasan, J Grundey, M-F Kuo, M A Nitsche
Nicotine modulates neuroplasticity and improves cognitive functions in animals and humans. In the brain of smoking individuals, calcium-dependent plasticity induced by non-invasive brain stimulation methods such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and paired associative stimulation (PAS) is impaired by nicotine withdrawal, but partially re-established after nicotine re-administration. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism further, we tested the impact of the α4β2-nicotinic receptor partial agonist varenicline on focal and non-focal plasticity in smokers during nicotine withdrawal, induced by PAS and tDCS, respectively...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457971/double-dissociation-of-the-anterior-and-posterior-dorsomedial-caudate-putamen-in-the-acquisition-and-expression-of-associative-learning-with-the-nicotine-stimulus
#13
Sergios Charntikov, Steven T Pittenger, Natashia Swalve, Ming Li, Rick A Bevins
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. This habit is not only debilitating to individual users but also to those around them (second-hand smoking). Nicotine is the main addictive component of tobacco products and is a moderate stimulant and a mild reinforcer. Importantly, besides its unconditional effects, nicotine also has conditioned stimulus effects that may contribute to the tenacity of the smoking habit. Because the neurobiological substrates underlying these processes are virtually unexplored, the present study investigated the functional involvement of the dorsomedial caudate putamen (dmCPu) in learning processes with nicotine as an interoceptive stimulus...
April 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457485/motor-activity-markers-of-circadian-timekeeping-are-related-to-ketamine-s-rapid-antidepressant-properties
#14
Wallace C Duncan, Elizabeth Slonena, Nadia S Hejazi, Nancy Brutsche, Kevin C Yu, Lawrence Park, Elizabeth D Ballard, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: The rapid clinical antidepressant effects of the glutamatergic modulator ketamine may be due to its ability to restore synaptic plasticity and related effects on sleep-wake and circadian systems. Preclinical studies indicate that ketamine alters expression of circadian clock-associated molecules, and clinical studies of ketamine on plasticity-related biomarkers further suggest an association with sleep slow waves and sleep homeostasis. METHODS: Wrist-activity monitors were used to examine the pharmacologic and rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine on markers of circadian timekeeping (amplitude and timing) in mood disorders...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457060/complications-of-post-burn-tissue-expansion-reconstruction-9-years-experience-with-42-pediatric-and-26-adult-patients
#15
Alexander Margulis, Allan Billig, Jhonatan Elia, Yair Shachar, Neta Adler
BACKGROUND: Burn scar reconstruction is extremely challenging, even for the most proficient reconstructive surgeon. Within the arsenal of tools at the plastic surgeon's disposal, tissue expansion provides an efficient modality for reconstruction despite the reported complication rates. OBJECTIVES: To critically review our experience with tissue expansion for burn scar reconstruction, comparing particularly the adult and pediatric populations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of the outcomes of patients who underwent burn scar reconstruction with tissue expansion at Hadassah Medical Center between January 2003 and July 2012...
February 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450301/neuron-specific-caveolin-1-overexpression-improves-motor-function-and-preserves-memory-in-mice-subjected-to-brain-trauma
#16
Junji Egawa, Jan M Schilling, Weihua Cui, Edmund Posadas, Atsushi Sawada, Basheer Alas, Alice E Zemljic-Harpf, McKenzie J Fannon-Pavlich, Chitra D Mandyam, David M Roth, Hemal H Patel, Piyush M Patel, Brian P Head
Studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that membrane/lipid rafts and caveolin (Cav) organize progrowth receptors, and, when overexpressed specifically in neurons, Cav-1 augments neuronal signaling and growth and improves cognitive function in adult and aged mice; however, whether neuronal Cav-1 overexpression can preserve motor and cognitive function in the brain trauma setting is unknown. Here, we generated a neuron-targeted Cav-1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse [synapsin-driven Cav-1 (SynCav1 Tg)] and subjected it to a controlled cortical impact model of brain trauma and measured biochemical, anatomic, and behavioral changes...
April 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440001/treating-low-back-pain-with-combined-cerebral-and-peripheral-electrical-stimulation-a-randomized-double-blind-factorial-clinical-trial
#17
F A Hazime, A F Baptista, D G de Freitas, R L Monteiro, R L Maretto, R H Hasue, S M A João
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that chronic low back pain is associated with plastic changes in the brain that can be modified by neuromodulation strategies. This study investigated the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined simultaneously with peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) for pain relief, disability and global perception in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: Ninety-two patients with CLBP were randomized to receive 12 sessions on nonconsecutive days of anodal tDCS (primary motor cortex, M1), 100 Hz sensory PES (lumbar spine), tDCS + PES or sham tDCS + PES...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435044/expertise-dependent-motor-somatotopy-of-music-perception
#18
Yuta Furukawa, Kazumasa Uehara, Shinichi Furuya
Precise mapping between sound and motion underlies successful communication and information transmission in speech and musical performance. Formation of the map typically undergoes plastic changes in the neuronal network between auditory and motor regions through training. However, to what extent the map is somatotopically-tuned so that auditory information can specifically modulate the corticospinal system responsible for the relevant motor action has not been elucidated. Here we addressed this issue by assessing the excitability of corticospinal system including the primary motor cortex (M1) innervating the hand intrinsic muscles by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation while trained pianists and musically-untrained individuals (non-musicians) were listening to either piano tones or noise...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421528/postnatal-lps-challenge-impacts-escape-learning-and-expression-of-plasticity-factors-mmp9-and-timp1-in-rats-effects-of-repeated-training
#19
Alexander Trofimov, Tatyana Strekalova, Niall Mortimer, Olga Zubareva, Alexander Schwarz, Evgeniy Svirin, Aleksei Umriukhin, Andrei Svistunov, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Victor Klimenko
Bacterial intoxication associated with inflammatory conditions during development can impair brain functions, in particular evolutionarily novel forms of memory, such as explicit learning. Little is known about the dangers of early-life inflammation on more basic forms of learning, for example, the acquisition of motor escape abilities, which are generally better preserved under pathological conditions. To address this limitation in knowledge, an inflammatory response was elicited in Wistar pups by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections (25 μg/kg) on postnatal days P15, P18 and P21...
April 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396282/serotonergic-projections-to-lumbar-levels-and-its-plasticity-following-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Yongzhi Xia, Dan Chen, Haijian Xia, Zhengbu Liao, Wenyuan Tang, Yi Yan
The descending serotonergic pathway, which originates in various populations of brainstem neurons, plays an important role in generating the rhythmic motor pattern associated with locomotor movement. Although the development of its innervation has been studied in rodent spinal cord, it has not been clearly identified how the projection of serotonergic pathway is related to its function. Here, we evaluated the pattern of serotonergic innervation on the lumbar spinal cord from embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) to adulthood...
April 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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