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motor associative plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#1
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917666/hippocampal-neurophysiology-is-modified-by-a-disease-associated-c-terminal-fragment-of-tau-protein
#2
Francesco Tamagnini, Darren A Walsh, Jon T Brown, Marie K Bondulich, Diane P Hanger, Andrew D Randall
The accumulation of cleaved tau fragments in the brain is associated with several tauopathies. For this reason, we recently developed a transgenic mouse that selectively accumulates a C-Terminal 35 kDa human tau fragment (Tau35). These animals develop progressive motor and spatial memory impairment, paralleled by increased hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity. In this neurophysiological study, we focused on the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory encoding. The accumulation of Tau35 results in a significant increase of short-term facilitation of the synaptic response in the theta frequency range (10 Hz), without affecting basal synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity...
July 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900413/impaired-cerebellum-to-primary-motor-cortex-associative-plasticity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#3
Ming-Kuei Lu, Jui-Cheng Chen, Chun-Ming Chen, Jeng-Ren Duann, Ulf Ziemann, Chon-Haw Tsai
BACKGROUND: Functional perturbation of the cerebellum (CB)-motor cortex (M1) interactions may underlie pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Recently, M1 motor excitability can be bidirectionally modulated in young subjects by corticocortical paired associative stimulation (PAS) on CB and contralateral M1 with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), probably through the cerebello-dentato-thalamo-cortical (CDTC) circuit...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899819/information-content-of-dendritic-spines-after-motor-learning
#4
Davide Viggiano, Luisa Speranza, Marianna Crispino, Gian Carlo Bellenchi, Umberto di Porzio, Attilio Iemolo, Elvira De Leonibus, Floriana Volpicelli, Carla Perrone-Capano
Dendritic spines, small protrusions emerging from the dendrites of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, are highly dynamic structures and their shape and number is continuously modulated by memory formation and other adaptive changes of the brain. In this study, using a behavioral paradigm of motor learning, we applied the non-linear analysis of dendritic spines to study spine complexity along dendrites of cortical and subcortical neural systems, such as the basal ganglia, that sustain important motor learning processes...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882693/different-effects-of-running-wheel-exercise-and-skilled-reaching-training-on-corticofugal-tract-plasticity-in-hypertensive-rats-with-cortical-infarctions
#5
ChanJuan Zhang, Yan Zou, Kui Li, Chao Li, YingPing Jiang, Ju Sun, Ruifang Sun, HongMei Wen
The approaches that facilitate white matter plasticity may prompt functional recovery after a stroke. The effects of different exercise methods on motor recovery in stroke rats have been investigated. However, it is not clear whether their effects on axonal plasticity different. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the forced running wheel exercise (RWE) and skilled reaching training (SRT) on axonal plasticity and motor recovery. Cortical infarctions were generated in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats...
September 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880414/levodopa-treatment-and-dendritic-spine-pathology
#6
REVIEW
Haruo Nishijima, Tatsuya Ueno, Yukihisa Funamizu, Shinya Ueno, Masahiko Tomiyama
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Levodopa is the most effective treatment for the motor symptoms of PD. However, chronic oral levodopa treatment can lead to various motor and nonmotor complications because of nonphysiological pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation in the brain. Examinations of autopsy cases with PD have revealed a decreased number of dendritic spines of striatal neurons. Animal models of PD have revealed altered density and morphology of dendritic spines of neurons in various brain regions after dopaminergic denervation or dopaminergic denervation plus levodopa treatment, indicating altered synaptic transmission...
September 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878322/altered-topology-of-structural-brain-networks-in-patients-with-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#7
E Schlemm, B Cheng, F Fischer, C Hilgetag, C Gerloff, G Thomalla
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics. Abnormal neuronal circuits in a wide-spread structural and functional network involved in planning, execution and control of motor functions are thought to represent the underlying pathology. We therefore studied changes of structural brain networks in 13 adult GTS patients reconstructed by diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography. Structural connectivity and network topology were characterized by graph theoretical measures and compared to 13 age-matched controls...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874746/rgma-inhibition-with-human-monoclonal-antibodies-promotes-regeneration-plasticity-and-repair-and-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Andrea J Mothe, Nardos G Tassew, Alirezha P Shabanzadeh, Romeo Penheiro, Robin J Vigouroux, Lili Huang, Christine Grinnell, Yi-Fang Cui, Emma Fung, Philippe P Monnier, Bernhard K Mueller, Charles H Tator
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a cascade of degenerative events including cell death, axonal damage, and the upregulation of inhibitory molecules which prevent regeneration and limit recovery. Repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) is a potent neurite growth inhibitor in the central nervous system, exerting its repulsive activity by binding the Neogenin receptor. Here, we show for the first time that inhibitory RGMa is markedly upregulated in multiple cell types after clinically relevant impact-compression SCI in rats, and importantly, also in the injured human spinal cord...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859916/the-effect-of-type-of-afferent-feedback-timed-with-motor-imagery-on-the-induction-of-cortical-plasticity
#9
N Mrachacz-Kersting, M Voigt, Ajt Stevenson, S Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, N Jiang, K Dremstrup, D Farina
A peripherally generated afferent volley that arrives at the peak negative (PN) phase during the movement related cortical potential (MRCP) induces significant plasticity at the cortical level in healthy individuals and chronic stroke patients. Transferring this type of associative brain-computer interface (BCI) intervention into the clinical setting requires that the proprioceptive input is comparable to the techniques implemented during the rehabilitation process. These consist mainly of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive movement induced by an actuated orthosis...
August 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858700/modulation-of-motor-cortex-excitability-by-paired-peripheral-and-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#10
Hatice Kumru, Sergiu Albu, John Rothwell, Daniel Leon, Cecilia Flores, Eloy Opisso, Josep Maria Tormos, Josep Valls-Sole
OBJECTIVE: Repetitive application of peripheral electrical stimuli paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of M1 cortex at low frequency, known as paired associative stimulation (PAS), is an effective method to induce motor cortex plasticity in humans. Here we investigated the effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) combined with low frequency rTMS ('magnetic-PAS') on intracortical and corticospinal excitability and whether those changes were widespread or circumscribed to the cortical area controlling the stimulated muscle...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843131/left-hemispheric-breakdown-of-ltp-like-cortico-cortical-plasticity-in-schizophrenic-patients
#11
Michele Ribolsi, Giulia Lisi, Viviana Ponzo, Alberto Siracusano, Carlo Caltagirone, Cinzia Niolu, Giacomo Koch
OBJECTIVE: Altered cortical connectivity and plasticity seems to be asymmetrical between the hemispheres in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). We evaluated long-term potentiation (LTP) in parietal-frontal circuits of both hemispheres using a cortico-cortical Paired Associative Stimulation (cc-PAS) protocol testing the rules of Hebbian-like spike timing dependent plasticity (SPTD). METHODS: 12 SCZ and 12 healthy subjects (HS) underwent a cc-PAS protocol to activate, by means of paired pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the short-latency connection between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and primary motor cortex (M1) of both hemispheres...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839226/provision-of-somatosensory-inputs-during-motor-imagery-enhances-learning-induced-plasticity-in-human-motor-cortex
#12
Gaia Bonassi, Monica Biggio, Ambra Bisio, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove, Laura Avanzino
Motor learning via physical practice leads to long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in motor cortex (M1) and temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. Motor learning can be achieved through simulation of movement, namely motor imagery (MI). When combined with electrical stimulation, MI influenced M1 excitability to a larger extent than MI itself. We explored whether a training based on the combination of MI and peripheral nerve stimulation (ESMI) modulates M1 LTP-like plasticity inducing retention of a new acquired skill...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839217/re-stepping-into-the-same-river-competition-problem-rather-than-a-reconsolidation-failure-in-an-established-motor-skill
#13
Ella Gabitov, Arnaud Boutin, Basile Pinsard, Nitzan Censor, Stuart M Fogel, Geneviève Albouy, Bradley R King, Habib Benali, Julie Carrier, Leonardo G Cohen, Avi Karni, Julien Doyon
Animal models suggest that consolidated memories return to their labile state when reactivated and need to be restabilized through reconsolidation processes to persist. Consistent with this notion, post-reactivation pharmacological protein synthesis blockage results in mnemonic failure in hippocampus-dependent memories. It has been proposed that, in humans, post-reactivation experience with a competitive task can also interfere with memory restabilization. However, several studies failed to induce performance deficit implementing this approach...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838129/reduced-tolerance-to-night-shift-in-chronic-shift-workers-insight-from-fractal-regulation
#14
Peng Li, Christopher J Morris, Melissa Patxot, Tatiana Yugay, Joseph Mistretta, Taylor E Purvis, Frank A J L Scheer, Kun Hu
Study Objectives: Healthy physiology is characterized by fractal regulation (FR) that generates similar structures in the fluctuations of physiological outputs at different time scales. Perturbed FR is associated with aging and age-related pathological conditions. Shift work, involving repeated and chronic exposure to misaligned environmental and behavioral cycles, disrupts circadian coordination. We tested whether night shifts perturb FR in motor activity and whether night shifts affect FR in chronic shift workers and non-shift workers differently...
July 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833921/recovery-related-indicators-of-motor-network-plasticity-according-to-impairment-severity-after-stroke
#15
J Lee, E Park, A Lee, W H Chang, D-S Kim, Y-H Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain connectivity analysis has been widely used to investigate brain plasticity and recovery-related indicators of patients with stroke. However, results remain controversial because of interindividual variability of initial impairment and subsequent recovery of function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the differences in network plasticity and motor recovery-related indicators according to initial severity. METHODS: We divided participants (16 males and 14 females, aged 54...
August 18, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822654/polarity-independent-effects-of-tdcs-on-paired-associative-stimulation-induced-plasticity
#16
Hanna Faber, Alexander Opitz, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can polarize the cortex of the human brain. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to verify the hypothesis that posterior-anterior (PA) but not anterior-posterior (AP) tDCS of primary motor cortex (M1) produces cooperative effects with corticospinal plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) to M1 projection (PASSMA→M1) in a highly controlled experimental design...
July 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813785/a-pilot-study-on-the-optimal-speeds-for-passive-wrist-movements-by-a-rehabilitation-robot-of-stroke-patients-a-functional-nirs-study
#17
Sung Jin Bae, Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo, Pyung Hun Chang
The optimal conditions inducing proper brain activation during performance of rehabilitation robots should be examined to enhance the efficiency of robot rehabilitation based on the concept of brain plasticity. In this study, we attempted to investigate differences in cortical activation according to the speeds of passive wrist movements performed by a rehabilitation robot for stroke patients. 9 stroke patients with right hemiparesis participated in this study. Passive movements of the affected wrist were performed by the rehabilitation robot at three different speeds: 0...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769784/cortical-surface-thickness-in-the-middle-aged-brain-with-white-matter-hyperintense-lesions
#18
Ying Zhuang, Xianjun Zeng, Bo Wang, Muhua Huang, Honghan Gong, Fuqing Zhou
Background and purpose: Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have suggested that cortical atrophy is regionally distributed in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH) lesions. However, few studies have assessed cortical thickness in middle-aged WMH subjects. In this study, we examined cortical thickness as well as cortical morphometry associated with the presence of WMH lesion load in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Thirty-six middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group) and without clinical cognitive impairment, and 34 demographically matched healthy control subjects (HCS group) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767698/brain-plasticity-and-sensorimotor-deterioration-as-a-function-of-70-days-head-down-tilt-bed-rest
#19
Vincent Koppelmans, Jacob J Bloomberg, Yiri E De Dios, Scott J Wood, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Igor S Kofman, Roy Riascos, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of spaceflight on sensorimotor function have been linked to altered somatosensory and vestibular inputs in the microgravity environment. Whether these spaceflight sequelae have a central nervous system component is unknown. However, experimental studies have shown spaceflight-induced brain structural changes in rodents' sensorimotor brain regions. Understanding the neural correlates of spaceflight-related motor performance changes is important to ultimately develop tailored countermeasures that ensure mission success and astronauts' health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758946/hippocampal-proteome-of-rats-subjected-to-the-li-pilocarpine-epilepsy-model-and-the-effect-of-carisbamate-treatment
#20
José Eduardo Marques-Carneiro, Daniele Suzete Persike, Julia Julie Litzahn, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Astrid Nehlig, Maria José da Silva Fernandes
In adult rats, the administration of lithium-pilocarpine (LiPilo) reproduces most clinical and neuropathological features of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Carisbamate (CRS) possesses the property of modifying epileptogenesis in this model. Indeed, about 50% of rats subjected to LiPilo status epilepticus (SE) develop non-convulsive seizures (NCS) instead of motor seizures when treated with CRS. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The aim of this study was to perform a proteomic analysis in the hippocampus of rats receiving LiPilo and developing motor seizures or NCS following CRS treatment...
July 30, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
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