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motor associative plasticity

Yin Yuan, Xiu-Yue Xu, Jie Lao, Xin Zhao
Nerve transfer is the most common treatment for total brachial plexus avulsion injury. After nerve transfer, the movement of the injured limb may be activated by certain movements of the healthy limb at the early stage of recovery, i.e., trans-hemispheric reorganization. Previous studies have focused on functional magnetic resonance imaging and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and growth associated protein 43, but there have been no proteomics studies. In this study, we designed a rat model of total brachial plexus avulsion injury involving contralateral C7 nerve transfer...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
N I Martínez-Torres, D González-Tapia, M Flores-Soto, N Vázquez-Hernández, H Salgado-Ceballos, I González-Burgos
INTRODUCTION: Motor function is impaired in multiple neurological diseases associated with corticospinal tract degeneration. Motor impairment has been linked to plastic changes at both the presynaptic and postsynaptic levels. However, there is no evidence of changes in information transmission from the cortex to spinal motor neurons. METHODS: We used kainic acid to induce stereotactic lesions to the primary motor cortex of female adult rats. Fifteen days later, we evaluated motor function with the BBB scale and the rotarod and determined the density of thin, stubby, and mushroom spines of motor neurons from a thoracolumbar segment of the spinal cord...
March 16, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Jacqueline A Palmer, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
BACKGROUND: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) combining repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) can induce neuroplastic adaptations in the human brain and enhance motor learning in neurologically-intact individuals. However, the extent to which PAS is an effective technique for inducing associative plasticity and improving motor function in individuals post-stroke is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of a single session of PAS to modulate corticomotor excitability and motor skill performance in individuals post-stroke...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
M Ceccanti, E Onesti, A Rubino, C Cambieri, G Tartaglia, A Miscioscia, V Frasca, M Inghilleri
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes an impairment in both the upper and lower motor neurons. The recent description of numerous non-motor signs points to an involvement of the neocortex networks that is more complex than was previously believed. Paired associative stimulation (PAS), a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation, can enhance motor output in the contralateral hand through an NMDA-mediated sensorimotor mechanism...
February 7, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Yue Li, Lei Zhang, Kehong Long, Hui Gong, Hao Lei
A growing body of literature has suggested that video game playing can induce functional and structural plasticity of the brain. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to record prefrontal activities in 24 experienced game players when they played a massively multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) video game, League of Legends (LOL), under naturalistic conditions. It was observed that game onset was associated with significant activations in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and concomitant deactivations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and frontal pole area (FPA)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Ricardo A Maselli, Jessica Vázquez, Leah Schrumpf, Juan Arredondo, Marian Lara, Jonathan B Strober, Peter Pytel, Robert L Wollmann, Michael Ferns
BACKGROUND: Monogenic defects of synaptic vesicle (SV) homeostasis have been implicated in many neurologic diseases, including autism, epilepsy, and movement disorders. In addition, abnormal vesicle exocytosis has been associated with several endocrine dysfunctions. METHODS: We report an 11 year old girl with learning disabilities, tremors, ataxia, transient hyperglycemia, and muscle fatigability responsive to albuterol sulfate. Failure of neuromuscular transmission was confirmed by single fiber electromyography...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Anthony J Hannan
Accumulating evidence suggests that many classes of DNA repeats exhibit attributes that distinguish them from other genetic variants, including the fact that they are more liable to mutation; this enables them to mediate genetic plasticity. The expansion of tandem repeats, particularly of short tandem repeats, can cause a range of disorders (including Huntington disease, various ataxias, motor neuron disease, frontotemporal dementia, fragile X syndrome and other neurological disorders), and emerging data suggest that tandem repeat polymorphisms (TRPs) can also regulate gene expression in healthy individuals...
February 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
T Popa, C Hubsch, P James, A Richard, M Russo, S Pradeep, S Krishan, E Roze, S Meunier, A Kishore
The cerebellum can influence the responsiveness of the primary motor cortex (M1) to undergo spike timing-dependent plastic changes through a complex mechanism involving multiple relays in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway. Previous TMS studies showed that cerebellar cortex excitation can block the increase in M1 excitability induced by a paired-associative stimulation (PAS), while cerebellar cortex inhibition would enhance it. Since cerebellum is known to be affected in many types of dystonia, this bidirectional modulation was assessed in 22 patients with cervical dystonia and 23 healthy controls...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fuqing Zhou, Muhua Huang, Lin Wu, Yongming Tan, Jianqiang Guo, Yong Zhang, Laichang He, Honghan Gong
Objective: Advanced magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown functional plasticity or reorganization and metabolite alterations of N-acetyl aspartate in the sensorimotor cortex (SMC), a hallmark region and key brain network, in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, the nature of perfusion in the SMC and the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), motor function scores, and structural damage of the cervical cord in patients with CSM are not fully understood...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Kristina Kraus, Ralf Kleene, Melad Henis, Ingke Braren, Hardeep Kataria, Ahmed Sharaf, Gabriele Loers, Melitta Schachner, David Lutz
Proteolytic cleavage of the neuronal isoform of the murine cell adhesion molecule L1, triggered by stimulation of the cognate L1-dependent signaling pathways, results in the generation and nuclear import of an L1 fragment that contains the intracellular domain, the transmembrane domain, and part of the extracellular domain. Here, we show that the LXXLL and FXXLF motifs in the extracellular and transmembrane domain of this L1 fragment mediate the interaction with the nuclear estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and retinoid X receptor β (RXRβ)...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Zhen Ni, Sang Jin Kim, Nicolas Phielipp, Soumya Ghosh, Kaviraja Udupa, Carolyn A Gunraj, Utpal Saha, Mojgan Hodaie, Suneil K Kalia, Andres M Lozano, Darrin J Lee, Elena Moro, Alfonso Fasano, Mark Hallett, Anthony E Lang, Robert Chen
OBJECTIVE: Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) relieves symptoms in dystonia patients. However, the physiological effects produced by GPi DBS are not fully understood. In particular, how a single-pulse GPi DBS changes cortical circuits has never been investigated. We studied the modulation of motor cortical excitability and plasticity with single-pulse GPi DBS in dystonia patients with bilateral implantation of GPi DBS. METHODS: The cortical evoked potentials from DBS were recorded with electroencephalography...
January 25, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Anne Barz, Anika Noack, Peter Baumgarten, Volker Seifert, Marie-Therese Forster
OBJECTIVE: Evidence for cerebral reorganization after resection of low-grade glioma has mainly been obtained by serial intraoperative cerebral mapping. Non-invasively collected data on cortical plasticity in tumor patients over a surgery-free period are still scarce. The present study therefore aimed at evaluating motor cortex reorganization by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) in patients after perirolandic glioma surgery. METHODS: nTMS was performed pre- and postoperatively in 20 patients, separated by 26...
January 19, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Kayla Ryan, Sandy Goncalves, Robert Bartha, Neil Duggal
OBJECTIVE The authors used functional MRI to assess cortical reorganization of the motor network after chronic spinal cord compression and to characterize the plasticity that occurs following surgical intervention. METHODS A 3-T MRI scanner was used to acquire functional images of the brain in 22 patients with reversible cervical spinal cord compression and 10 control subjects. Controls performed a finger-tapping task on 3 different occasions (baseline, 6-week follow-up, and 6-month follow-up), whereas patients performed the identical task before surgery and again 6 weeks and 6 months after spinal decompression surgery...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Rochellys Diaz Heijtz, Rita Almeida, Ann Christin Eliasson, Hans Forssberg
BACKGROUND: There is large variation in treatment responses in children with cerebral palsy. Experimental and clinical results suggest that dopamine neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling are involved in motor learning and plasticity, which are key factors in modern habilitation success. We examined whether naturally occurring variations in dopamine and BDNF genes influenced the treatment outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-three children (18-60months of age) with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy were enrolled in the study...
January 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
Dominic Kraus, Georgios Naros, Robert Guggenberger, Maria Teresa Leão, Ulf Ziemann, Alireza Gharabaghi
Standard brain stimulation protocols modify human motor cortex excitability by modulating the gain of the activated corticospinal pathways. However, the restoration of motor function following lesions of the corticospinal tract requires also the recruitment of additional neurons to increase the net corticospinal output. For this purpose, we investigated a novel protocol based on brain state-dependent paired associative stimulation.Motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography was recorded in healthy males and females for brain state-dependent control of both cortical and peripheral stimulation in a brain-machine interface environment...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Andrés Molero-Chamizo, José R Alameda Bailén, Tamara Garrido Béjar, Macarena García López, Inmaculada Jaén Rodríguez, Carolina Gutiérrez Lérida, Silvia Pérez Panal, Gloria González Ángel, Laura Lemus Corchero, María J Ruiz Vega, Michael A Nitsche, Guadalupe N Rivera-Urbina
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces long-term potentiation-like plasticity, which is associated with long-lasting effects on different cognitive, emotional, and motor performances. Specifically, tDCS applied over the motor cortex is considered to improve reaction time in simple and complex tasks. The timing of tDCS relative to task performance could determine the efficacy of tDCS to modulate performance. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a single session of anodal tDCS (1...
February 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Aparna Wagle Shukla, Jill L Ostrem, David E Vaillancourt, Robert Chen, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) surgery is clinically effective for treatment of cervical dystonia; however, the underlying physiology has not been examined. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effects of STN DBS on sensorimotor integration, sensorimotor plasticity and motor cortex excitability, which are identified as the key pathophysiological features underlying dystonia. METHODS: TMS paradigms of short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and long latency afferent inhibition (LAI) were used to examine the sensorimotor integration...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Yu Pan, Wei-Bei Dou, Yue-Heng Wang, Hui-Wen Luo, Yun-Xiang Ge, Shu-Yu Yan, Quan Xu, Yuan-Yuan Tu, Yan-Qing Xiao, Qiong Wu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hong-Liang Zhao
Brain plasticity, including anatomical changes and functional reorganization, is the physiological basis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The correlation between brain anatomical changes and functional reorganization after SCI is unclear. This study aimed to explore whether alterations of cortical structure and network function are concomitant in sensorimotor areas after incomplete SCI. Eighteen patients with incomplete SCI (mean age 40.94 ± 14.10 years old; male:female, 7:11) and 18 healthy subjects (37...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Yasutake Nakano, Fuyuki Karube, Yasuharu Hirai, Kenta Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Hioki, Shinichiro Okamoto, Hiroshi Kameda, Fumino Fujiyama
In rodents, the dorsolateral striatum regulates voluntary movement by integrating excitatory inputs from the motor-related cerebral cortex and thalamus to produce contingent inhibitory output to other basal ganglia nuclei. Striatal parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons receiving this excitatory input then inhibit medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and modify their outputs. To understand basal ganglia function in motor control, it is important to reveal the precise synaptic organization of motor-related cortical and thalamic inputs to striatal PV interneurons...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Valentin Benzing, Noëmi Eggenberger, Janine Spitzhüttl, Valerie Siegwart, Manuela Pastore-Wapp, Claus Kiefer, Nedelina Slavova, Michael Grotzer, Theda Heinks, Mirko Schmidt, Achim Conzelmann, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts, Kurt Leibundgut
BACKGROUND: Cancer survival comes at a price: pediatric cancer survivors bear a high risk for a wide range of cognitive difficulties. Therefore, interventions targeting these difficulties are required. The aim of the present clinical trial is to extend empirical evidence about efficacy of cognitive and physical training in pediatric cancer survivors. It is hypothesized that early cognitive and physical interventions affect the remediation of pediatric cancer survivors in terms of improved executive functions (primary outcome)...
January 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
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