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motor associative plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813785/a-pilot-study-on-the-optimal-speeds-for-passive-wrist-movements-by-a-rehabilitation-robot-of-stroke-patients-a-functional-nirs-study
#1
Sung Jin Bae, Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo, Pyung Hun Chang
The optimal conditions inducing proper brain activation during performance of rehabilitation robots should be examined to enhance the efficiency of robot rehabilitation based on the concept of brain plasticity. In this study, we attempted to investigate differences in cortical activation according to the speeds of passive wrist movements performed by a rehabilitation robot for stroke patients. 9 stroke patients with right hemiparesis participated in this study. Passive movements of the affected wrist were performed by the rehabilitation robot at three different speeds: 0...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769784/cortical-surface-thickness-in-the-middle-aged-brain-with-white-matter-hyperintense-lesions
#2
Ying Zhuang, Xianjun Zeng, Bo Wang, Muhua Huang, Honghan Gong, Fuqing Zhou
Background and purpose: Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have suggested that cortical atrophy is regionally distributed in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH) lesions. However, few studies have assessed cortical thickness in middle-aged WMH subjects. In this study, we examined cortical thickness as well as cortical morphometry associated with the presence of WMH lesion load in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Thirty-six middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group) and without clinical cognitive impairment, and 34 demographically matched healthy control subjects (HCS group) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767698/brain-plasticity-and-sensorimotor-deterioration-as-a-function-of-70-days-head-down-tilt-bed-rest
#3
Vincent Koppelmans, Jacob J Bloomberg, Yiri E De Dios, Scott J Wood, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Igor S Kofman, Roy Riascos, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of spaceflight on sensorimotor function have been linked to altered somatosensory and vestibular inputs in the microgravity environment. Whether these spaceflight sequelae have a central nervous system component is unknown. However, experimental studies have shown spaceflight-induced brain structural changes in rodents' sensorimotor brain regions. Understanding the neural correlates of spaceflight-related motor performance changes is important to ultimately develop tailored countermeasures that ensure mission success and astronauts' health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758946/hippocampal-proteome-of-rats-subjected-to-the-li-pilocarpine-epilepsy-model-and-the-effect-of-carisbamate-treatment
#4
José Eduardo Marques-Carneiro, Daniele Suzete Persike, Julia Julie Litzahn, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Astrid Nehlig, Maria José da Silva Fernandes
In adult rats, the administration of lithium-pilocarpine (LiPilo) reproduces most clinical and neuropathological features of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Carisbamate (CRS) possesses the property of modifying epileptogenesis in this model. Indeed, about 50% of rats subjected to LiPilo status epilepticus (SE) develop non-convulsive seizures (NCS) instead of motor seizures when treated with CRS. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The aim of this study was to perform a proteomic analysis in the hippocampus of rats receiving LiPilo and developing motor seizures or NCS following CRS treatment...
July 30, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757258/bdnf-over-expression-induces-striatal-serotonin-fiber-sprouting-and-increases-the-susceptibility-to-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-6-ohda-lesioned-rats
#5
Elisabetta Tronci, Francesco Napolitano, Ana Muñoz, Camino Fidalgo, Francesca Rossi, Anders Björklund, Alessandro Usiello, Manolo Carta
In addition to its role in neuronal survival, the brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to influence serotonin transmission and synaptic plasticity, events strongly implicated in the appearance of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), a motor complication occurring in parkinsonian patients after long-term treatment with the dopamine precursor. In order to evaluate a possible influence of BDNF in the appearance of LID, 6-OHDA-lesioned rats received a striatal injection of different concentrations of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector over-expressing either BDNF or GFP, as control vector...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754595/mapping-the-consequences-of-impaired-synaptic-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-through-development-an-integrative-model-for-diverse-clinical-features
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer K Forsyth, David A Lewis
Schizophrenia is associated with alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions that emerge before psychosis onset; identifying pathogenic processes that can account for this multi-faceted phenotype remains a challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia. Given the role of synaptic plasticity in learning, memory, and neural circuit maturation, impaired plasticity may underlie many features of the schizophrenia syndrome. Here, we summarize the neurobiology of synaptic plasticity, review evidence that plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia, and explore a framework in which impaired synaptic plasticity interacts with brain maturation to yield the emergence of sensory, motor, cognitive, and psychotic features at different times during development in schizophrenia...
July 25, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751456/intermittent-hypoxia-enhances-functional-connectivity-of-mid-cervical-spinal-interneurons
#7
K A Streeter, M D Sunshine, S Patel, E J Gonzalez-Rothi, P J Reier, D M Baekey, D D Fuller
Brief, intermittent oxygen reductions (acute intermittent hypoxia, AIH) evokes spinal plasticity. Models of AIH-induced neuroplasticity have focused on motoneurons; however, most mid-cervical interneurons (C-INs) also respond to hypoxia. We hypothesized that AIH would alter the functional connectivity between C-INs and induce persistent changes in discharge. Bilateral phrenic nerve activity was recorded in anesthetized and ventilated adult male rats and a multi-electrode array was used to record C4/5 spinal discharge before (baseline, BL), during, and 15 min after 3, 5-min hypoxic episodes (11% O2, H1-H3)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734834/dynein-binds-and-stimulates-axonal-motility-of-the-endosome-adaptor-and-neep21-family-member-calcyon
#8
Liang Shi, Nagendran Muthusamy, Deanna Smith, Clare Bergson
The neuron-enriched, endosomal protein Calcyon (Caly) regulates endocytosis and vesicle sorting, and is important for synaptic plasticity and brain development. In the current investigation of Caly interacting proteins in brain, the microtubule retrograde motor subunit, cytoplasmic dynein 1 heavy chain (DYNC1H), and microtubule structural proteins, α and β tubulin, were identified as Caly associated proteins by MALDI-ToF/ToF. Direct interaction of the Caly-C terminus with dynein and tubulin was further confirmed in in vitro studies...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734458/rett-like-severe-encephalopathy-caused-by-a-de%C3%A2-novo-grin2b-mutation-is-attenuated-by-d-serine-dietary-supplement
#9
David Soto, Mireia Olivella, Cristina Grau, Judith Armstrong, Clara Alcon, Xavier Gasull, Macarena Gómez de Salazar, Esther Gratacòs-Batlle, David Ramos-Vicente, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Francisco Ciruela, Àlex Bayés, Carlos Sindreu, Anna López-Sala, Àngels García-Cazorla, Xavier Altafaj
BACKGROUND: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play pivotal roles in synaptic development, plasticity, neural survival, and cognition. Despite recent reports describing the genetic association between de novo mutations of NMDAR subunits and severe psychiatric diseases, little is known about their pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a case study of a 4-year-old Rett-like patient with severe encephalopathy carrying a missense de novo mutation in GRIN2B(p...
June 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733355/erk-mapk-signaling-is-required-for-pathway-specific-striatal-motor-functions
#10
Scott R Hutton, James M Otis, Erin M Kim, Yashna Lamsal, Garret D Stuber, William D Snider
The ERK/MAPK intracellular signaling pathway is hypothesized to be a key regulator of striatal activity via modulation of synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. However, prior investigations into striatal ERK/MAPK functions have yielded conflicting results. Further, these studies have not delineated the cell type-specific roles of ERK/MAPK signaling due to the reliance on globally-administered pharmacological ERK/MAPK inhibitors and the use of genetic models that only partially reduce total ERK/MAPK activity...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720981/cerebral-reorganization-in-subacute-stroke-survivors-after-virtual-reality-based-training-a-preliminary-study
#11
Xiang Xiao, Qiang Lin, Wai-Leung Lo, Yu-Rong Mao, Xin-Chong Shi, Ryan S Cates, Shu-Feng Zhou, Dong-Feng Huang, Le Li
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. METHODS: Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activity of selected brain regions when the subject performed ankle dorsiflexion...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713263/the-frequency-dependent-aerobic-exercise-effects-of-hypothalamic-gabaergic-expression-and-cardiovascular-functions-in-aged-rats
#12
Yan Li, Ziqi Zhao, Jiajia Cai, Boya Gu, Yuanyuan Lv, Li Zhao
A decline in cardiovascular modulation is a feature of the normal aging process and associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as hypertension and stroke. Exercise training is known to promote cardiovascular adaptation in young animals and positive effects on motor and cognitive capabilities, as well as on brain plasticity for all ages in mice. Here, we examine the question of whether aerobic exercise interventions may impact the GABAergic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in aged rats which have been observed to have a decline in cardiovascular integration function...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706475/focal-stroke-in-the-developing-rat-motor-cortex-induces-age-and-experience-dependent-maladaptive-plasticity-of-corticospinal-system
#13
Mariangela Gennaro, Alessandro Mattiello, Raffaele Mazziotti, Camilla Antonelli, Lisa Gherardini, Andrea Guzzetta, Nicoletta Berardi, Giovanni Cioni, Tommaso Pizzorusso
Motor system development is characterized by an activity-dependent competition between ipsilateral and contralateral corticospinal tracts (CST). Clinical evidence suggests that age is crucial for developmental stroke outcome, with early lesions inducing a "maladaptive" strengthening of ipsilateral projections from the healthy hemisphere and worse motor impairment. Here, we investigated in developing rats the relation between lesion timing, motor outcome and CST remodeling pattern. We induced a focal ischemia into forelimb motor cortex (fM1) at two distinct pre-weaning ages: P14 and P21...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705495/glial-associated-changes-in-the-cerebral-cortex-after-collagenase-induced-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-the-rat-striatum
#14
J D Neves, D Aristimunha, A F Vizuete, F Nicola, C Vanzella, L Petenuzzo, R G Mestriner, E F Sanches, C A Gonçalves, C A Netto
Striatum and the cerebral cortex are regions susceptible to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and glial cells in tissue adjacent to the hematoma may modulate cellular vulnerability after brain damage. Nonetheless, while the glial- associated changes occurring in the cerebral cortex after ICH may be important in maximizing brain recovery, they are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal profile of glial-associated changes in the cerebral cortex after ICH. First, the motor consequences of ICH and its relation to the lesion volume were analyzed...
July 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701927/activation-of-the-creb-c-fos-pathway-during-long-term-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cerebellum-granular-layer
#15
Daniela Gandolfi, Silvia Cerri, Jonathan Mapelli, Mariarosa Polimeni, Simona Tritto, Marie-Therese Fuzzati-Armentero, Albertino Bigiani, Fabio Blandini, Lisa Mapelli, Egidio D'Angelo
The induction of long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD) is thought to trigger gene expression and protein synthesis, leading to consolidation of synaptic and neuronal changes. However, while LTP and LTD have been proposed to play important roles for sensori-motor learning in the cerebellum granular layer, their association with these mechanisms remained unclear. Here, we have investigated phosphorylation of the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and activation of the immediate early gene c-Fos pathway following the induction of synaptic plasticity by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in acute cerebellar slices...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697581/altered-gray-matter-volume-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-motor-network-in%C3%A2-young%C3%A2-divers
#16
Xia Liu, Liansheng Liu, Fen Hou, Zhifeng Zhou, Qingying Wu, Hengguo Li
BACKGROUND: Motor learning and professional sports training can induce plastic changes in brain structures that are associated with distinct training demands. OBJECTIVE: To testify the hypothesis of that regional gray matter structures in the motor-related cortex and its functional connectivity (FC) are altered in young divers. METHODS: We undertook T1-voxel-based morphometry (VBM) structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in groups of diving athletes (DAs) and demographically-matched healthy controls...
July 7, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694153/caffeinated-energy-drink-intake-modulates-motor-circuits-at-rest-before-and-after-a-movement
#17
Carmen Concerto, Carmenrita Infortuna, Eileen Chusid, Diego Coira, Jacqueline Babayev, Rowan Metwaly, Hesam Naenifard, Eugenio Aguglia, Fortunato Battaglia
Energy drinks are thought to improve certain aspects of athletic and cognitive performances. Moreover, less is understood about physiological mechanisms that might underlie these effects. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of sugar-free energy drink (SFED) ingestion on corticomotor excitability and plasticity. Fourteen college students consumed a commercially available SFED or a "dummy" drink. By using Transcranial magnetic Stimulation (TMS) we investigated resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and cortical silent period (CSP)...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677413/high-intensity-chronic-stroke-motor-imagery-neurofeedback-training-at-home-three-case-reports
#18
Catharina Zich, Stefan Debener, Clara Schweinitz, Annette Sterr, Joost Meekes, Cornelia Kranczioch
Motor imagery (MI) with neurofeedback has been suggested as promising for motor recovery after stroke. Evidence suggests that regular training facilitates compensatory plasticity, but frequent training is difficult to integrate into everyday life. Using a wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system, we implemented a frequent and efficient neurofeedback training at the patients' home. Aiming to overcome maladaptive changes in cortical lateralization patterns we presented a visual feedback, representing the degree of contralateral sensorimotor cortical activity and the degree of sensorimotor cortex lateralization...
July 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676743/differential-alteration-in-expression-of-striatal-gabaar-subunits-in-mouse-models-of-huntington-s-disease
#19
Zhuowei Du, Margot Tertrais, Gilles Courtand, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Laura Cardoit, Frédérique Masmejean, Christophe Halgand, Yoon H Cho, Maurice Garret
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor symptoms that are preceded by cognitive deficits and is considered as a disorder that primarily affects forebrain striatal neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with disease progression, we analyzed the expression of proteins involved in GABAergic neurotransmission in the striatum of the R6/1 transgenic mouse model. Western blot, quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on male R6/1 mice and age-matched wild type littermates...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671694/reorganization-of-corticospinal-output-during-motor-learning
#20
Andrew J Peters, Jun Lee, Nathan G Hedrick, Keelin O'Neil, Takaki Komiyama
Motor learning is accompanied by widespread changes within the motor cortex, but it is unknown whether these changes are ultimately funneled through a stable corticospinal output channel or whether the corticospinal output itself is plastic. We investigated the consistency of the relationship between corticospinal neuron activity and movement through in vivo two-photon calcium imaging in mice learning a lever-press task. Corticospinal neurons exhibited heterogeneous correlations with movement, with the majority of movement-modulated neurons decreasing activity during movement...
August 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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