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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789034/pharmacological-properties-of-cannabidiol-in-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders-a-critical-overview
#1
G M Mandolini, M Lazzaretti, A Pigoni, L Oldani, G Delvecchio, P Brambilla
Cannabidiol (CBD) represents a new promising drug due to a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions. In order to relate CBD clinical efficacy to its pharmacological mechanisms of action, we performed a bibliographic search on PUBMED about all clinical studies investigating the use of CBD as a treatment of psychiatric symptoms. Findings to date suggest that (a) CBD may exert antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia mainly through facilitation of endocannabinoid signalling and cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonism; (b) CBD administration may exhibit acute anxiolytic effects in patients with generalised social anxiety disorder through modification of cerebral blood flow in specific brain sites and serotonin 1A receptor agonism; (c) CBD may reduce withdrawal symptoms and cannabis/tobacco dependence through modulation of endocannabinoid, serotoninergic and glutamatergic systems; (d) the preclinical pro-cognitive effects of CBD still lack significant results in psychiatric disorders...
May 23, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660457/a-lectin-fraction-from-green-seaweed-caulerpa-cupressoides-inhibits-inflammatory-nociception-in-the-temporomandibular-joint-of-rats-dependent-from-peripheral-mechanisms
#2
Renata Line da Conceição Rivanor, Danielle Rocha Do Val, Natássia Albuquerque Ribeiro, Felipe Dantas Silveira, Ellen Lima de Assis, Álvaro Xavier Franco, Lorena Vasconcelos Vieira, Ismael Nilo Lino de Queiroz, Hellíada Vasconcelos Chaves, Mirna Marques Bezerra, Norma Maria Barros Benevides
Temporomandibular disorders are the second most common cause of orofacial pain mediated by inflammatory compounds, which in many cases leads to chronic orofacial pain. This study assessed the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of a lectin from the green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides (CcL) on hypernociception inflammatory in TMJ of rats and investigated the involvement of different mechanisms. Rats received i.v. CcL 30 min prior to injection of flogistic agentes or 0.9% saline into the left TMJ...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560069/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-public-health-implications-and-a-novel-model-treatment-guideline
#3
Jeff Lapoint, Seth Meyer, Charles K Yu, Kristi L Koenig, Roneet Lev, Sayone Thihalolipavan, Katherine Staats, Christopher A Kahn
Introduction: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is an entity associated with cannabinoid overuse. CHS typically presents with cyclical vomiting, diffuse abdominal pain, and relief with hot showers. Patients often present to the emergency department (ED) repeatedly and undergo extensive evaluations including laboratory examination, advanced imaging, and in some cases unnecessary procedures. They are exposed to an array of pharmacologic interventions including opioids that not only lack evidence, but may also be harmful...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546501/cannabinoid-receptors-mental-pain-and-suicidal-behavior-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Laura Colino, Javier Herranz-Herrer, Elena Gil-Benito, Teresa Ponte-Lopez, Pablo Del Sol-Calderon, Maria Rodrigo-Yanguas, María Gil-Ligero, Antonio J Sánchez-López, Jose de Leon, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current serotonin-based biological model of suicidal behavior (SB) may be too simplistic. There is emerging evidence that other biomarkers and biological systems may be involved in SB pathophysiology. The literature on the endocannabinoid (EC) systems and SB is limited. The objective of the present article is to review all available information on the relationship between cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 receptors), and SB and/or psychological pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Our review is limited by the small number and heterogeneity of studies identified: (1) an autopsy study describing elevated levels of CB1 receptor activity in the prefrontal cortex and suicide in both depression and alcoholism and (2) studies supporting the involvement of both CB1 and CB2 receptors in the regulation of neuropathic pain and stress-induced analgesia...
March 15, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467619/cannabidiol-regulates-long-term-potentiation-following-status-epilepticus-mediation-by-calcium-stores-and-serotonin
#5
Nicola Maggio, Efrat Shavit Stein, Menahem Segal
Epilepsy is a devastating disease, with cognitive and emotional consequences that are not curable. In recent years, it became apparent that cannabinoids help patients to cope with epilepsy. We have studied the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the ability to produce long term potentiation (LTP) in stratum radiatum of CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. Exposure to seizure-producing pilocarpine reduced the ability to generate LTP in the slice. Pre-exposure to CBD prevented this effect of pilocarpine. Furthermore, CBD caused a marked increase in ability to generate LTP, an effect that was blocked by calcium store antagonists as well as by a reduction in serotonin tone...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437028/changes-in-the-peripheral-endocannabinoid-system-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-eating-disorders
#6
Anna Capasso, Walter Milano, Omar Cauli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Eating Disorder (ED) is characterized by persistently and severely disturbed eating behaviours. They arise from a combination of long-standing behavioural, emotional, psychological, interpersonal, and social factors and result in insufficient nutrient ingestion and/or adsorption. The three main EDs are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We review the role of peripheral endocannabinoids in eating behaviour. DISCUSSION: The neuronal pathways involved in feeding behaviours are closely related to catecholaminergic, serotoninergic and peptidergic systems...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424035/involvement-of-spinal-cannabinoid-receptors-in-the-antipruritic-effects-of-win-55-212-2-a-cannabinoid-receptor-agonist
#7
K A Bilir, G Anli, E Ozkan, O Gunduz, A Ulugol
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids have been used for their analgesic and euphoric effects for millennia, but recently the antipruritic effects of cannabis have been discovered. Considering the similarities between pain and itch sensations, we hypothesized that cannabinoid receptors may play a role in the antipruritic effects of cannabinoids. AIM: To analyse the role of the spinal cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, in the antipruritic effects of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2...
February 9, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411704/-genetic-association-analyses-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-on-anxious-phenotype
#8
Judit Lazary, Nora Eszlari, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
BACKGROUND: Accumulating data confirmed that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the regulation of stress response and emotional processes, therefore ECS became an important pharmacological target as a potential anxiolytic. Although unequivocal data from animal studies confirmed the relevancy of the ECS in anxious phenotype, human genetic data are poorly available in the literature in this field. In the presented studies we tested possible associations between anxious phenotype and the cannabinoid receptor 1 and the fatty acid amide hydrolase gene polymorphisms...
December 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406831/contribution-of-spinal-5-ht5a-receptors-to-the-antinociceptive-effects-of-systemically-administered-cannabinoid-agonist-win-55-212-2-and-morphine
#9
Ahmet Goktan Aksu, Ozgur Gunduz, Ahmet Ulugol
The antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids and opioids have been known for centuries. Serotonin and its receptors are also known to play important roles in nociception. However, the contribution of spinal 5-HT5A receptors in antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids and opioids has not been studied. We conducted this study to clarify spinal mechanisms of the actions of the antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids and opioids. Hot-plate and tail-flick tests were used to assess the antinociceptive activity in Balb/c mice...
February 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388323/effects-of-repeated-long-term-psychosocial-stress-and-acute-cannabinoid-exposure-on-mouse-corticostriatal-circuitries-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#10
Jordi Tomas-Roig, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vanesa Gil, Ester Quintana, Lluís L Ramió-Torrentà, Jose Antonio Del Río, Timothy Patrick Moore, Hope Agbemenyah, Gabriela Salinas, Claudia Pommerenke, Stephan Lorenzen, Tim Beißbarth, Sigrid Hoyer-Fender, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke
INTRODUCTION: Vulnerability to psychiatric manifestations is achieved by the influence of genetic and environment including stress and cannabis consumption. Here, we used a psychosocial stress model based on resident-intruder confrontations to study the brain corticostriatal-function, since deregulation of corticostriatal circuitries has been reported in many psychiatric disorders. CB1 receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system and particularly, in both cortex and striatum brain structures...
January 31, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385930/pro-psychotic-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-interactions-with-central-dopamine-serotonin-and-glutamate-systems
#11
William E Fantegrossi, Catheryn D Wilson, Michael D Berquist
An association between marijuana use and schizophrenia has been noted for decades, and the recent emergence of high-efficacy synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) as drugs of abuse has lead to a growing number of clinical reports of persistent psychotic effects in users of these substances. The mechanisms underlying SCB-elicited pro-psychotic effects is unknown, but given the ubiquitous neuromodulatory functions of the endocannabinoid system, it seems likely that agonist actions at cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB1Rs) might modulate the functions of other neurotransmitter systems known to be involved in schizophrenia...
February 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138154/pharmacologic-management-of-chronic-neuropathic-pain-review-of-the-canadian-pain-society-consensus-statement
#12
REVIEW
Alex Mu, Erica Weinberg, Dwight E Moulin, Hance Clarke
OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with a practical clinical summary of the Canadian Pain Society (CPS) revised consensus statement on the pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A multidisciplinary interest group within the CPS conducted a systematic review of the literature on the current treatments of neuropathic pain in drafting the revised consensus statement. MAIN MESSAGE: Gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are the first-line agents for treating neuropathic pain...
November 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128806/emotional-disorders-induced-by-hemopressin-and-rvd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-administration-in-rats
#13
Sheila Leone, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sara Martinotti, Claudio Ferrante, Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Csaba Tömböly, Luciano De Petrocellis, Michele Vacca, Luigi Brunetti, Giustino Orlando
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays an important role in regulating emotional disorders, and is involved, directly or indirectly, in psychiatric diseases, such as anxiety and depression. Hemopressin, a hemoglobin α chain-derived peptide, and RVD-hemopressin(α), a N-terminally extended form of hemopressin, act as antagonist/inverse agonist and negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor, respectively. METHODS: Considering the possible involvement of these peptides on emotional behaviour, the aim of our study was to investigate the behavioural effects of a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of hemopressin (0...
December 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098189/an-update-on-non-cb-1-non-cb-2-cannabinoid-related-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#14
REVIEW
Paula Morales, Patricia H Reggio
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been shown to be of great importance in the regulation of numerous physiological and pathological processes. To date, two Class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been discovered and validated as the main therapeutic targets of this system: the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 ), which is the most abundant neuromodulatory receptor in the brain, and the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2 ), predominantly found in the immune system among other organs and tissues. Endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands (endocannabinoids) and the enzymes involved in their synthesis, cell uptake, and degradation have also been identified as part of the ECS...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978077/am1241-alleviates-mptp-induced-parkinson-s-disease-and-promotes-the-regeneration-of-da-neurons-in-pd-mice
#15
Jun Shi, Qiong Cai, Jingxing Zhang, Xiaolie He, Yigang Liu, Rongrong Zhu, Lingjing Jin
The main pathological feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In this study, we investigated the role of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) agonist AM1241 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity in a mouse model of PD. Upon treatment with AM1241, the decreased CB2R level in the PD mouse brain was reversed and the behavior score markedly elevated, accompanied with a dose-dependent increase of dopamine and serotonin. In addition, western blot assay and immunostaining results suggested that AM1241 significantly activated PI3K/Akt/MEK phosphorylation and increased the expression of Parkin and PINK1, both in the substantia nigra and hippocampus...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935605/pyridoxine-improves-hippocampal-cognitive-function-via-increases-of-serotonin-turnover-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-and-its-association-with-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-interacting-protein-and-the-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-pathway
#16
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Jin Young Chung, Moo-Ho Won, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon, Dae Young Yoo, In Koo Hwang
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated the effects of pyridoxine on hippocampal functions and changes in protein profiles based on the proteomic approach. METHODS: Eight-week-old mice received intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline (vehicle) or 350mg/kg pyridoxine twice a day for 21days. RESULTS: Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 was up-regulated, while CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (CRIP1) was down-regulated, in the pyridoxine-treated group...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933969/psychopharmacological-advances-in-eating-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Hubertus Himmerich, Janet Treasure
Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are the primary eating disorders (EDs). The only psychopharmacological treatment options for EDs with approval in some countries include fluoxetine for BN and lisdexamfetamine for BED. Given the high comorbidity and genetic correlations with other psychiatric disorders, it seems possible that novel medications for these conditions might also be effective in EDs. Areas covered: The current scientific literature has increased our understanding of how medication could be beneficial for patients with EDs on a molecular, functional and behavioral level...
January 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925883/novel-therapeutics-in-glaucoma-management
#18
Claudio Bucolo, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Filippo Drago, Michele Reibaldi, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Teresio Avitabile, Maurizio Uva
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death and alterations of visual field. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered the main risk factor of glaucoma, even though other factors cannot be ruled out, such as epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the ultimate promising experimental drugs to manage glaucoma has been provided. In particular, we have focused on purinergic ligands, KATP channel activators, gases (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide), non-glucocorticoid steroidal compounds, neurotrophic factors, PI3K/Akt activators, citicoline, histone deacetylase inhibitors, cannabinoids, dopamine and serotonin receptors ligands, small interference RNA, and Rho kinase inhibitors...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858691/pharmacological-challenge-studies-with-acute-psychosocial-stress
#19
REVIEW
Kathryne Van Hedger, Anya K Bershad, Harriet de Wit
Chronic stress is known to affect many psychiatric disorders, and studies of responses to acute stress may reveal processes that ultimately lead to maladaptive responses to chronic stress. Many studies have used simulated public speaking tasks to induce stress in the laboratory and, of interest to this review, the tasks have been used to assess the effects of both therapeutic and nonmedical drugs on stress reactivity. Here we review 38 studies that examined effects of single doses of drugs on subjective, cardiovascular and hormonal responses to an acute social stressor in healthy volunteers...
November 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826537/actions-and-regulation-of-ionotropic-cannabinoid-receptors
#20
Luciano De Petrocellis, Massimo Nabissi, Giorgio Santoni, Alessia Ligresti
Almost three decades have passed since the identification of the two specific metabotropic receptors mediating cannabinoid pharmacology. Thereafter, many cannabinoid effects, both at central and peripheral levels, have been well documented and characterized. However, numerous evidences demonstrated that these pharmacological actions could not be attributable solely to the activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors since several important cannabimimetic actions have been found in biological systems lacking CB1 or CB2 gene such as in specific cell lines or transgenic mice...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
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