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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773270/systemic-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-new-insights-into-pathogenesis-and-cytokine-directed-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Manuela Pardeo, Claudia Bracaglia, Fabrizio De Benedetti
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is considered as a polygenic autoinflammatory disease. The prominent systemic clinical features, the marked elevation of inflammatory markers, and the absence of autoantibodies make this disease very different from the other juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) forms. Innate immune mechanisms appear to play a central role: the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines of innate immunity is a typical feature of sJIA. Increased understanding of the role of these cytokines has been translated into therapeutic approaches...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769438/cytometry-tof-identifies-alveolar-macrophage-subtypes-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#2
Eric D Morrell, Alice Wiedeman, S Alice Long, Sina A Gharib, T Eoin West, Shawn J Skerrett, Mark M Wurfel, Carmen Mikacenic
Studies in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro have shown clear evidence that multiple macrophage polarization states exist. The extent to which different alveolar macrophage (AM) polarization states exist in homeostasis or in the setting of severe injury such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is largely unknown. We applied single-cell cytometry TOF (CyTOF) to simultaneously measure 36 cell-surface markers on CD45+ cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage from healthy volunteers, as well as mechanically ventilated subjects with and without ARDS...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767342/characterization-of-xanthine-dehydrogenase-and-aldehyde-oxidase-of-marsupenaeus-japonicus-and-their-response-to-microbial-pathogen
#3
Yo Okamura, Mari Inada, Gehad Elsaid Elshopakey, Toshiaki Itami
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in many physiological processes. In particular, the sterilization mechanism of bacteria using ROS in macrophages is a very important function for biological defense. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and aldehyde oxidase (AOX), members of the molybdo-flavoenzyme subfamily, are known to generate ROS. Although these enzymes occur in many vertebrates, some insects, and plants, little research has been conducted on XDHs and AOXs in crustaceans. Here, we cloned the entire cDNA sequences of XDH (MjXDH: 4328 bp) and AOX (MjAOX: 4425 bp) from Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and random amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766733/-hemophagocytic-lymfohistiocytosis-in-adults-review-and-case-report
#4
Jiří Šrámek, Thomas Karvunidis, Daniel Lysák, Martin Harazim, Michal Karas, Pavel Jindra
Hemophagocytic lymfohistiocytosis (HLH) is rare, life-threatening condition, characterized by excessive activation of immune system with subsequent proinflammatory state resulting in multiorgan failure. Most frequently, it appears in infancy as a primary disorder caused by mutation of immune-regulatory genes. Increasingly, HLH is being diagnosed as a secondary - adult - form, which occurs as a result of aberrant immune response. Viral or bacterial systemic infections, malignancy with a predominance of lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmune diseases are the most common triggers...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761267/porcine-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-mediates-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-multiplication-and-regulates-the-inflammatory-reaction
#5
Peidian Shi, Lilin Zhang, Jiashun Wang, Dong Lu, Yi Li, Jie Ren, Menglu Shen, Lei Zhang, Jinhai Huang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) shows characteristic antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection and causes porcine systemic inflammation, which is similar to a type I allergic reaction; however, the role of porcine FcεRI in ADE is still unclear. In this study, the expression of different Fc receptors (FcRs) on macrophages was investigated in a PRRSV 3D4/21 cell infection model in the presence or absence of PRRSV antibody. The transcription level of FcγII and FcεRI was significantly up-regulated under PRRSV-antibody complex infection...
May 14, 2018: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760073/regulation-of-myeloid-cell-phagocytosis-by-lrrk2-via-wave2-complex-stabilization-is-altered-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Kwang Soo Kim, Paul C Marcogliese, Jungwoo Yang, Steve M Callaghan, Virginia Resende, Elizabeth Abdel-Messih, Connie Marras, Naomi P Visanji, Jana Huang, Michael G Schlossmacher, Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy, Ruth S Slack, Anthony E Lang, David S Park
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 ( LRRK2 ) has been implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), yet its pathogenic role remains unclear. A previous screen in Drosophila identified Scar/WAVE (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-family verproline) proteins as potential genetic interactors of LRRK2 Here, we provide evidence that LRRK2 modulates the phagocytic response of myeloid cells via specific modulation of the actin-cytoskeletal regulator, WAVE2. We demonstrate that macrophages and microglia from LRRK2-G2019S PD patients and mice display a WAVE2-mediated increase in phagocytic response, respectively...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755364/early-effects-of-a-low-fat-fructose-rich-diet-on-liver-metabolism-insulin-signaling-and-oxidative-stress-in-young-and-adult-rats
#7
Raffaella Crescenzo, Luisa Cigliano, Arianna Mazzoli, Rosa Cancelliere, Rosa Carotenuto, Margherita Tussellino, Giovanna Liverini, Susanna Iossa
The increase in the use of refined food, which is rich in fructose, is of particular concern in children and adolescents, since the total caloric intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome are increasing continuously in these populations. Nevertheless, the effects of high fructose diet have been mostly investigated in adults, by focusing on the effect of a long-term fructose intake. Notably, some reports evidenced that even short-term fructose intake exerts detrimental effects on metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the metabolic changes induced by the fructose-rich diet in rats of different age, i...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754152/brain-natriuretic-peptide-regulated-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-lipopolysaccharide-lps-activated-macrophages-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-mapk-pathways
#8
Xiong Li, Hao Peng, Jiongxing Wu, Yangcheng Xu
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) on IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 secretion in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro and to explore the related signaling pathways of the regulation mechanisms of BNP in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). MATERIAL AND METHODS MTT assay was used to evaluate the effects of rhBNP on cell viabilities. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce inflammation response...
May 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754142/cholestatic-jaundice-a-unique-presentation-leading-to-the-diagnosis-of-hlh-with-hodgkin-lymphoma-hiv-and-ebv
#9
Hira Shaikh, Soorih Shaikh, Amir Kamran, Prerna Mewawalla
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of dysregulated immune activity with macrophage activation that can manifest as pancytopenia, coagulopathy and other laboratory abnormalities, usually progressing to multiorgan failure and death. This report documents the rarely reported association between HLH and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) with simultaneous HIV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and complete resolution with chemotherapy. The patient initially presented with cholestatic jaundice. He was then found to have HL associated with HLH with coexistent HIV and EBV viraemia...
May 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753732/niacin-action-in-the-atherogenic-mixed-dyslipidemia-of-metabolic-syndrome-insights-from-metabolic-biomarker-profiling-and-network-analysis
#10
Martin Adiels, M John Chapman, Paul Robillard, Michel Krempf, Martine Laville, Jan Borén
BACKGROUND: Niacin as an adjunct to statin treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk is questioned. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interrelationships between the effects of niacin on mixed dyslipidemia and a spectrum of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. METHODS: Obese, nondiabetic, hypertriglyceridemic males (n = 19) with low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels received extended-release nicotinic acid for 8 weeks. Multiple biomarkers were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, enzymatic/absorptiometric, or multiplex biochip assays...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753026/chronic-hyperinsulinemia-promotes-meta-inflammation-and-extracellular-matrix-deposition-in-adipose-tissue-implications-of-nitric-oxide
#11
Durgesh Kumar, Kripa Shankar, Saraswati Patel, Abhishek Gupta, Salil Varshney, Sanchita Gupta, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Anil N Gaikwad
Various imperative studies support the notion that hyperinsulinemia (HI) itself serves as the common link between adipose tissue inflammation (ATI) and metabolic syndrome. However, the contribution of HI mediated ATI and its metabolic consequences are yet to be explored. We induced chronic HI per se in mice by administration of exogenous insulin for 8 weeks through mini-osmotic pumps. For the reduction of circulating insulin in response to excess calorie intake, we have partially ablated β-cells by using streptozotocin (STZ) in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) and genetic mice models (db/db)...
May 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747820/gangliosides-and-autoimmune-peripheral-nerve-diseases
#12
John A Goodfellow, Hugh J Willison
A wide range of neuroimmunological diseases, referred to as autoimmune neuropathies, affect the peripheral nervous systems (PNS). The PNS is structurally diverse with complex anatomical compartments enriched in many different myelin and neuronal glycolipids, notably gangliosides. Autoimmune neuropathies are a proportion of autoimmune neuropathies mediated by autoimmune attack due to antibodies reactive with these compartmentally localized gangliosides. Antiganglioside antibodies are principally associated with the acute paralytic disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and are also found in several chronic autoimmune neuropathy syndromes...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745476/clinical-impact-of-optical-coherence-tomography-findings-on-culprit-plaque-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-the-oct-formidable-study-registry
#13
Mario Iannaccone, Geraud Souteyrand, Giampaolo Niccoli, Massimo Mancone, Gennaro Sardella, Corrado Tamburino, Christian Templin, Sebastiano Gili, Giacomo G Boccuzzi, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo
BACKGROUND: Aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of the culprit plaque features assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: The OCT-FORMIDABLE register enrolled retrospectively all consecutive patients who perform OCT on culprit plaque in patients with ACS in nine European centres. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of culprit plaque rupture (CPR) in patients experiencing major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs)...
May 10, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743312/survival-of-mice-with-gastrointestinal-acute-radiation-syndrome-through-control-of-bacterial-translocation
#14
Fujio Suzuki, Bradford D Loucas, Ichiaki Ito, Akira Asai, Sumihiro Suzuki, Makiko Kobayashi
Macrophages (Mϕ) with the M2b phenotype (Pheno2b-Mϕ) in bacterial translocation sites have been described as cells responsible for the increased susceptibility of mice with gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome to sepsis caused by gut bacteria. In this study, we tried to reduce the mortality of mice exposed to 7-10 Gy of gamma rays by controlling Pheno2b-Mϕ polarization in bacterial translocation sites. MicroRNA-222 was induced in association with gamma irradiation. Pheno2b-Mϕ polarization was promoted and maintained in gamma-irradiated mice through the reduction of a long noncoding RNA growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (a CCL1 gene silencer) influenced by this microRNA...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742693/a-successful-treatment-of-severe-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-caused-by-occult-pulmonary-infection-associated-with-hemophagocytic-syndrome-a-case-report
#15
Weihong Shi, Mingyang Duan, Ligang Jie, Weifeng Sun
RATIONALE: A 27-year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythaematosus (SLE) developed hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) secondary due to an unrecognized infection that led to severe SLE with a prolonged recovery. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient showed a high spiking fever and myalgia. Laboratory data revealed pancytopenia and immunological abnormalities. Pulse methylprednisone plus intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) failed to improve the clinical symptoms and laboratory data...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739174/cytokine-profile-and-immunoglobulin-e-mediated-serological-food-hypersensitivity-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea
#16
Ryo Katsumata, Manabu Ishii, Suni Lee, Yukiko Handa, Takahisa Murao, Minoru Fujita, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Takemi Otsuki, Akiko Shiotani
Background/Aims: Food interaction, including food hypersensitivity, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D). Since only a few studies have been reported about the relationship between food hypersensitivity and IBS-D, we elucidate the prevalence of serological food hypersensitivity in patients with IBS-D and the characteristics of gastrointestinal symptoms and serum cytokine profiles in patients with IBS-D and serological food hypersensitivity...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734775/characterization-of-an-n-terminal-non-core-domain-of-rag1-gene-disrupted-syrian-hamster-model-generated-by-crispr-cas9
#17
Jinxin Miao, Baoling Ying, Rong Li, Ann E Tollefson, Jacqueline F Spencer, William S M Wold, Seok-Hwan Song, Il-Keun Kong, Karoly Toth, Yaohe Wang, Zhongde Wang
The accumulating evidence demonstrates that Syrian hamsters have advantages as models for various diseases. To develop a Syrian hamster ( Mesocricetus auratus ) model of human immunodeficiency caused by RAG1 gene mutations, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system and introduced an 86-nucleotide frameshift deletion in the hamster RAG1 gene encoding part of the N-terminal non-core domain of RAG1. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that these hamsters (referred herein as RAG1-86nt hamsters) had atrophic spleen and thymus, and developed significantly less white pulp and were almost completely devoid of splenic lymphoid follicles...
May 6, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731256/antiretroviral-therapy-potentiates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance
#18
Mark E Pepin, Lindsey E Padgett, Ruth E McDowell, Ashley R Burg, Manoja K Brahma, Cassie Holleman, Teayoun Kim, David Crossman, Olaf Kutsch, Hubert M Tse, Adam R Wende, Kirk M Habegger
OBJECTIVE: Breakthroughs in HIV treatment, especially combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), have massively reduced AIDS-associated mortality. However, ART administration amplifies the risk of non-AIDS defining illnesses including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, collectively known as metabolic syndrome. Initial reports suggest that ART-associated risk of metabolic syndrome correlates with socioeconomic status, a multifaceted finding that encompasses income, race, education, and diet...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729383/ameliorative-potential-of-lavandula-stoechas-in-metabolic-syndrome-via-multitarget-interactions
#19
S S Kulabas, H Ipek, A R Tufekci, S Arslan, I Demirtas, R Ekren, U Sezerman, T B Tumer
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Decoction and infusion prepared from aerial parts of Lavandula stoechas L. (L. stoechas) have been traditionally used as remedy against several components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated disorders including type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases by Anatolian people. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim is to elucidate the potential ameliorative effects of L. stoechas aqueous extracts on insulin resistance and inflammation models through multitarget in vitro approaches and also to elucidate mechanism of action by analyzing transcriptional and metabolic responses...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725611/fingolimod-associated-pml-with-mild-iris-in-ms-a-clinicopathologic-study
#20
Shuhei Nishiyama, Tatsuro Misu, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo, Yoshiki Takai, Kentarou Takei, Naoki Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kuroda, Ryuta Saito, Mika Watanabe, Teiji Tominaga, Ichiro Nakashima, Kazuo Fujihara, Masashi Aoki
Objective: To clarify the clinical, neuropathologic, and virologic characteristics of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and its immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a patient with fingolimod-treated MS. Methods: A case study. Results: A 34-year-old patient with MS using fingolimod for 4 years had a gradual progression of right hemiparesis and aphasia with a new subcortical white matter lesion in the precentral gyrus by initial MRI...
January 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
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