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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440755/dysfunctional-immunometabolic-effects-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-increased-cardiometabolic-risk-potential-epidemiological-alert-in-america
#1
Martin Rosas-Peralta, Michael F Holick, Gabriela Borrayo-Sánchez, Alejandra Madrid-Miller, Erick Ramírez-Árias, Efrain Arizmendi-Uribe
Vitamin D deficiency is a serious public health problem worldwide that affects not only skeletal health, but also a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, there is still skepticism because of the lack of randomized, controlled trials to support association studies on the benefits of vitamin D for non-skeletal health. This review was based on articles published during the 1980-2015 obtained from the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, MEDLINE and PubMed, and focuses on recent challenges with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and how to achieve optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from dietary sources, supplements, and sun exposure...
March 2017: Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413027/matrix-metalloproteinases-and-platelet-function
#3
Paolo Gresele, Emanuela Falcinelli, Manuela Sebastiano, Stefania Momi
Platelets contain and release several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), including MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, and -14 and TIMP-1, -2, and -4. Although devoid of a nucleus, platelets also synthesize TIMP-2 upon activation. Platelet-released MMPs/TIMPs, as well as MMPs generated by other cells within the cardiovascular system, modulate platelet function in health and disease. In particular, a normal hemostatic platelet response to vessel wall injury may be transformed into pathologic thrombus formation by the release from platelets and/or by the local generation of some MMPs...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393620/progressively-worsening-premature-coronary-artery-disease-adding-anticoagulation-stabilizes-reverses-clinical-symptomatic-disease-progression-in-thrombophilic-atherothrombotic-patients-a-pilot-study
#4
Matan Rothschild, Vybhav Jetty, Christopher Mahida, Ping Wang, Marloe Prince, Naila Goldenberg, Charles J Glueck
In 35 patients with 116 severe premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (median age: 48 years), 14 having worsening CVD despite maximal intervention, we evaluated thrombophilia and speculated that anticoagulation might arrest-reverse progressive thrombophilic-atherothrombotic CVD. Thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis in the 35 patients was compared to 110 patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) without CVD and to 110 healthy normal controls. Efficacy-safety of anticoagulation was prospectively assessed in 14 of the 35 patients whose CVD worsened over 2 years despite maximal medical-surgical intervention...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384127/which-is-the-ideal-marker-for-early-atherosclerosis-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-osa-carotid-intima-media-thickness-or-mean-platelet-volume
#5
Nurhan Sarioglu, Gulen Demirpolat, Fuat Erel, Mehmet Kose
BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be closely associated with cardiovascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is widely used for assessment of atherosclerosis. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a new marker associated with atherothrombosis. In this study, we aimed to detect early atherosclerosis by measuring carotid intima-media thickness and to investigate the relationship between MPV and IMT and OSA severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study population consisted of 158 patients who underwent polysomnography and did not have any overt cardiac disease or risk factors...
April 6, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372708/acute-stroke-and-transient-ischemic-attack-in-the-outpatient-clinic
#6
REVIEW
Salvador Cruz-Flores
Ischemic stroke is cause of substantial death and disability in the United States. Transient ischemic attack, a precursor to ischemic stroke, conveys a high risk of recurrent stroke within 90 days from event. These conditions are highly preventable and treatable. The cause is heterogenous and includes atherothrombosis, cardioembolism, lacunar disease, or cryptogenic, and some uncommon causes, such as arterial dissection and prothrombotic states. The emergent evaluation includes establishing time of onset, vital signs, glucose level, and severity of the deficit...
May 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371087/effects-of-clopidogrel-on-inflammatory-cytokines-and-adhesion-molecules-in-human-endothelial-cells-role-of-nitric-oxide-mediating-pleiotropic-effects
#7
Alvaro Cerda, Monica Pavez, Victor Manriquez, Andre Ducati Luchessi, Pamela Leal, Felipe Benavente, Cristina Moreno Fajardo, Luis Salazar, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo Hirata
INTRODUCTION: Clopidogrel is commonly used in prevention and treatment of atherothrombosis. Some previous studies have suggested a pleiotropic effect of clopidogrel; however, when this drug causes platelet-independent effects on endothelial function remains unclear. AIMS: To evaluate the influence of clopidogrel on inflammatory biomarkers and adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells and the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this process. METHODS: TNFα-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were exposed to clopidogrel...
April 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349255/alcohol-and-red-wine-consumption-but-not-fruit-vegetables-fish-or-dairy-products-are-associated-with-less-endothelial-dysfunction-and-less-low-grade-inflammation-the-hoorn-study
#8
B C T van Bussel, R M A Henry, C G Schalkwijk, J M Dekker, G Nijpels, E J M Feskens, C D A Stehouwer
PURPOSE: Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are key phenomena in the pathobiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their dietary modification might explain the observed reduction in CVD that has been associated with a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables and fish, low in dairy products and with moderate alcohol and red wine consumption. We investigated the associations between the above food groups and endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in a population-based cohort of Dutch elderly individuals...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336528/platelet-cd36-promotes-thrombosis-by-activating-redox-sensor-erk5-in-hyperlipidemic-conditions
#9
Moua Yang, Brian C Cooley, Wei Li, Yiliang Chen, Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar, Na'il O Scoggins, Scott J Cameron, Craig N Morrell, Roy L Silverstein
Atherothrombosis is a process mediated by dysregulated platelet activation that can cause life-threatening complications and is the leading cause of death by cardiovascular disease. Platelet reactivity in hyperlipidemic conditions is enhanced when platelet scavenger receptor CD36 recognizes oxidized lipids in LDL particles, a process which induces an overt prothrombotic phenotype. The mechanisms by which CD36 promotes platelet activation and thrombosis remain incompletely defined. In this study, we identify a mechanism for CD36 to promote thrombosis by increasing activation of MAP kinase ERK5, a protein kinase known to be exquisitely sensitive to redox stress, through a signaling pathway requiring Src kinases, NADPH oxidase, superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide...
March 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302625/silencing-of-anticoagulant-protein-c-evokes-low-incident-but-spontaneous-atherothrombosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#10
Amber B Ouweneel, Marco Heestermans, Robin A F Verwilligen, Marion J J Gijbels, Pieter H Reitsma, Miranda van Eck, Bart J M van Vlijmen
OBJECTIVE: Murine atherosclerosis models do not spontaneously develop atherothrombotic complications. We investigated whether disruption of natural anticoagulation allows preexisting atherosclerotic plaques to progress toward an atherothrombotic phenotype. APPROACH AND RESULTS: On lowering of plasma protein C levels with small interfering RNA (siProc) in 8-week Western-type diet-fed atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, one out of 4 mice displayed a large, organized, and fibrin- and leukocyte-rich thrombus on top of an advanced atherosclerotic plaque located in the aortic root...
March 16, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285267/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-in-high-vascular-risk
#11
Louis Potier, Ronan Roussel, Yedid Elbez, Michel Marre, Uwe Zeymer, Christopher M Reid, Magnus Ohman, Kim A Eagle, Deepak L Bhatt, Philippe Gabriel Steg
OBJECTIVE: ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely prescribed in patients with high cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, whether both classes have equivalent effectiveness to prevent CV events remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of major CV events between ACEI and ARB users. METHODS: The Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health registry is an observational study who enrolled 69 055 individuals with high CV risk...
March 11, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279371/carotid-plaque-lipid-content-and-fibrous-cap-status-predict-systemic-cv-outcomes-the-mri-substudy-in-aim-high
#12
Jie Sun, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Niranjan Balu, Moni B Neradilek, Daniel A Isquith, Kiyofumi Yamada, Gádor Cantón, John R Crouse, Todd J Anderson, John Huston, Kevin O'Brien, Daniel S Hippe, Nayak L Polissar, Chun Yuan, Thomas S Hatsukami
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether and what carotid plaque characteristics predict systemic cardiovascular outcomes in patients with clinically established atherosclerotic disease. BACKGROUND: Advancements in atherosclerosis imaging have allowed assessment of various plaque characteristics, some of which are more directly linked to the pathogenesis of acute cardiovascular events compared to plaque burden. METHODS: As part of the event-driven clinical trial AIM-HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcomes), subjects with clinically established atherosclerotic disease underwent multicontrast carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect plaque tissue composition and high-risk features...
March 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271069/hypofibrinolytic-state-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-aggravated-by-the-metabolic-syndrome-before-clinical-manifestations-of-atherothrombotic-disease
#13
Elsa Aburto-Mejía, David Santiago-Germán, Manuel Martínez-Marino, María Eugenia Galván-Plata, Eduardo Almeida-Gutiérrez, Mardia López-Alarcón, Jesús Hernández-Juárez, Antonio Alvarado-Moreno, Alfredo Leaños-Miranda, Abraham Majluf-Cruz, Irma Isordia-Salas
Background. Metabolic and genetic factors induce plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) overexpression; higher PAI-1 levels decrease fibrinolysis and promote atherothrombosis. Aim. To assess PAI-1 antigen levels among subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) plus Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) before clinical manifestations of atherothrombosis and the contribution of metabolic factors and 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene on the variability of PAI-1. Methods. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional assay in a hospital in Mexico City from May 2010 to September 2011...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264687/hyperglycemia-enhances-arsenic-induced-platelet-and-megakaryocyte-activation
#14
Jonathan D Newman, Christina T Echagarruga, Yoscar M Ogando, Emilie Montenont, Yu Chen, Edward A Fisher, Jeffrey S Berger
OBJECTIVE: Low to moderate inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The mechanism of increased CVD risk from iAs exposure in DM has not been adequately characterized. We evaluated whether increasing concentrations of glucose enhance the effects of iAs on platelet and megakaryocyte activity, key steps in atherothrombosis. METHODS: Healthy donor whole blood was prepared in a standard fashion and incubated with sodium arsenite in a range from 0 to 10 µM...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263045/interrelationship-between-venous-and-arterial-thrombosis
#15
Pavel Poredos
In the past, arterial and venous thrombosis have been accepted as two completely different diseases. Recently, the thesis of two separate pathogenetic mechanisms of venous and arterial thrombosis has been challenged by accumulation of evidence which suggest that patients with atherothrombosis are at increased risk for venous thrombosis. Pathophysiological studies indicated that etiopathogenetic mechanisms of both diseases are similar and that coagulation and platelet activation participate in both venous and arterial thrombogenesis...
March 6, 2017: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260523/obesity-and-inflammation-and-altered-clopidogrel-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics
#16
Nicholas B Norgard, Scott V Monte
BACKGROUND: Clopidogrel is a key antiplatelet drug that has substantial interpatient variability in pharmacodynamic response. Patients with lesser degrees of platelet inhibition in response to clopidogrel appear to be at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to atherothrombotic events and represents a group of patients who are in need of optimized antithrombotic therapy. Central to the obesity-related risk of atherothrombosis is a pro-thrombotic state characterized by increased levels of coagulation factors, impaired fibrinolysis and platelet hyper-reactivity, which results from the interaction among the features clustering in obesity: insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction...
March 1, 2017: Drug Metabolism Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251104/effect-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-on-acute-and-subacute-models-of-inflammation-in-male-wistar-rats-an-experimental-study
#17
Urmila Anil Kagal, Netravathi Basavaraj Angadi, Somnath Mallikarjun Matule
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has reached alarming proportions due to the rapidly increasing rates of this disease worldwide. Preclinical and clinical studies have revealed elevated levels of inflammatory markers in a vast number of illnesses such as T2DM, obesity, and atherothrombosis collectively called metabolic syndrome leading to adverse cardiovascular events. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors which are the enhancers of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP -1), could have anti-inflammatory potential which could help in reducing cardiovascular complications of diabetes and benefit patients suffering from the metabolic syndrome...
January 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242049/high-density-lipoproteins-are-modulators-of-protease-activity-implications-in-inflammation-complement-activation-and-atherothrombosis
#18
REVIEW
Scott M Gordon, Alan T Remaley
High density lipoproteins (HDL) represent a compositionally diverse population of particles in the circulation, containing a wide variety of lipids and proteins. Gene ontology functional analysis of the 96 commonly identified HDL binding proteins reveals that almost half of these proteins are either proteases or have known roles in protease regulation. Here, we discuss the activities of some of these proteins in regard to their roles in regulating proteases involved in inflammation, coagulation, and complement activation, particularly in the context of atherosclerosis...
April 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209798/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-atherosclerosis-and-atherothrombosis
#19
REVIEW
Yvonne Döring, Oliver Soehnlein, Christian Weber
Neutrophil extracellular traps expelled from suicidal neutrophils comprise a complex structure of nuclear chromatin and proteins of nuclear, granular, and cytosolic origin. These net-like structures have also been detected in atherosclerotic lesions and arterial thrombi in humans and mice. Functionally, neutrophil extracellular traps have been shown to induce activation of endothelial cells, antigen-presenting cells, and platelets, resulting in a proinflammatory immune response. Overall, this suggests that they are not only present in plaques and thrombi but also they may play a causative role in triggering atherosclerotic plaque formation and arterial thrombosis...
February 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193831/%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i-recognition-drives-th1-inflammation-in-atherosclerotic-plaques-of-patients-with-primary-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#20
Marisa Benagiano, Maria Gerosa, Jacopo Romagnoli, Michael Mahler, Maria O Borghi, Alessia Grassi, Chiara Della Bella, Giacomo Emmi, Amedeo Amedei, Elena Silvestri, Lorenzo Emmi, Domenico Prisco, Pier Luigi Meroni, Mario M D'Elios
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent arterial/venous thrombosis and miscarriages in the persistent presence of autoantibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins (aPLs), such as β2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI). In addition to the aPL thrombophilic effect, arterial thrombosis was related to accelerated atherosclerosis in animal models; however, contrasting findings were reported in primary APS patients with regard to the increased number of plaques or abnormal arterial wall thickness. We investigated the cytokine production induced by β2GPI in activated T cells that infiltrate in vivo atherosclerotic lesions of primary APS patients with atherothrombosis...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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