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atherothrombosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149823/olive-oil-related-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-atherosclerosis-potential-clinical-implications
#1
Tanakal Wongwarawipat, Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Dimitrios Bertsias, Gerasimos Siasos, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory process which can result in atherothrombosis and a number of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It is believed to be caused by multiple processes that involve inflammation and immunity. Mediterranean Diet (MedD) has been discovered to possess anti-inflammatory properties and associated with a reduction in the CVD risk and mortality. Its main component, extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), is believed to be largely responsible for these effects and therefore, has been investigated in various studies...
November 15, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139042/obesity-and-altered-aspirin-pharmacology
#2
REVIEW
Nicholas B Norgard
Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to atherothrombotic events and represents a group of patients who are in need of optimized antithrombotic therapy. Central to the obesity-related risk of atherothrombosis is a pro-thrombotic state characterized by increased levels of coagulation factors, impaired fibrinolysis, and platelet hyper-reactivity, which results from the interaction among the features clustering in obesity: insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099757/oxidative-stress-in-human-atherothrombosis-sources-markers-and-therapeutic-targets
#3
REVIEW
Jose Luis Martin-Ventura, Raquel Rodrigues-Diez, Diego Martinez-Lopez, Mercedes Salaices, Luis Miguel Blanco-Colio, Ana M Briones
Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The underlying pathology is a chronic pathological vascular remodeling of the arterial wall involving several pathways, including oxidative stress. Cellular and animal studies have provided compelling evidence of the direct role of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis, but such a relationship is not clearly established in humans and, to date, clinical trials on the possible beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy have provided equivocal results...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097390/differential-impact-of-serial-measurement-of-nonplatelet-thromboxane-generation-on-long-term-outcome-after-cardiac-surgery
#4
Nikolaos Kakouros, Tyler J Gluckman, John V Conte, Thomas S Kickler, Katherine Laws, Bruce A Barton, Jeffrey J Rade
BACKGROUND: Systemic thromboxane generation, not suppressible by standard aspirin therapy and likely arising from nonplatelet sources, increases the risk of atherothrombosis and death in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the RIGOR (Reduction in Graft Occlusion Rates) study, greater nonplatelet thromboxane generation occurred early compared with late after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, although only the latter correlated with graft failure. We hypothesize that a similar differential association exists between nonplatelet thromboxane generation and long-term clinical outcome...
November 2, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097387/neopterin-as-an-effect-modifier-of-the-cardiovascular-risk-predicted-by-total-homocysteine-a-prospective-2-cohort-study
#5
Espen Ø Bjørnestad, Robert A Borsholm, Gard F T Svingen, Eva R Pedersen, Reinhard Seifert, Øivind Midttun, Per M Ueland, Grethe S Tell, Kaare H Bønaa, Ottar Nygård
BACKGROUND: Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is related to plasma neopterin, an indicator of interferon-γ-mediated immune activation, and both biomarkers positively predict cardiovascular risk. We examined whether the association between tHcy and subsequent risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was modified by systemic concentrations of neopterin and C-reactive protein among patients with coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: By Cox modeling, we explored the association between tHcy and risk of AMI in 4164 patients with suspected stable angina pectoris...
November 2, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056511/cantos-ushers-in-a-new-calculus-of-inflammasome-targeting-for-vascular-protection-and-maybe-more
#6
Subodh Verma, Lawrence A Leiter, Deepak L Bhatt
Despite overwhelming basic science linking inflammation to the pathobiology of atherothrombosis, the specific clinical evidence indicating cardiovascular benefits from anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy has been lacking. The CANTOS trial (Ridker et al., 2017a) now provides the first largescale proof of concept that inflammasome targeting can reduce cardiovascular events-and, surprisingly, lung cancer.
November 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976391/-antithrombotic-therapy-in-the-elderly-are-there-differences
#7
Mahmut Şahin
Atherothrombotic disease increase with age and that the prevalence of the elderly population is continuously growing. Antithrombotic therapy represents the cornerstone of prevention of atherothrombosis. The choice of the antithrombotic therapy in elderly patients remains an ongoing challenge. Althoug the benefits of antiplatelet therapy in the elderly are demonstrated, the elderly are generally more vulnerable to the adverse effects of antithrombotic drugs. Because of them, understanding strategies of antithrombotic management in elderly is important...
September 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958334/antiplatelet-agents-for-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-coronary-atherothrombosis
#8
REVIEW
Carlo Patrono, Joao Morais, Colin Baigent, Jean-Philippe Collet, Desmond Fitzgerald, Sigrun Halvorsen, Bianca Rocca, Agneta Siegbahn, Robert F Storey, Gemma Vilahur
Antiplatelet drugs provide first-line antithrombotic therapy for the management of acute ischemic syndromes (both coronary and cerebrovascular) and for the prevention of their recurrence. Their role in the primary prevention of atherothrombosis remains controversial because of the uncertain balance of the potential benefits and risks when combined with other preventive strategies. The aim of this consensus document is to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet drugs, and to provide practicing cardiologists with an updated instrument to guide their choice of the most appropriate antiplatelet strategy for the individual patient presenting with different clinical manifestations of coronary atherothrombosis, in light of comorbidities and/or interventional procedures...
October 3, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939294/the-novel-compound-mp407-inhibits-platelet-aggregation-through-cyclic-amp-dependent-processes
#9
Chung-Shuen Lin, Tso-Hsiao Chen, I-Hsin Lin, An-Rong Lee, Tz-Chong Chou
Platelet hyperactivity plays a critical role for initiating several vascular diseases such as atherothrombosis. Therefore, development of effective antiplatelet agents is necessary for ameliorating platelet-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of the new synthesized compound, MP407 on platelet aggregation and further elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that MP407 dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production, intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, platelet membrane GPIIb/IIIa expression, and the phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, p38MAPK, and phospho (Ser) PKC substrate (p47)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930554/diet-microparticles-and-atherothrombosis
#10
Lina Badimon, Rosa Suades, Javier Crespo, Teresa Padro, Gemma Chiva-Blanch
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death worldwide, and is principally caused by atherosclerosis, with subsequent thrombus formation, eventually provoking an acute myocardial infarction or a stroke. The formation and progression of the atherosclerotic plaques responds to multiple factors including certain diets. Intensive research has elucidated the role of diet in cardiovascular disease and has led to public health policies focusing on educating the population on the role of nutrition in cardiovascular health...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927896/niacin-and-heart-disease-prevention-engraving-its-tombstone-is-a-mistake
#11
REVIEW
Harold Robert Superko, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Howard N Hodis, John R Guyton
Niacin (nicotinic acid) has been used for primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention for over 40 years. Until recently clinical trials incorporating niacin as part of an intervention strategy consistently demonstrated reduction in clinical events and lesion improvement, including ≥6% absolute mortality reduction. Two large clinical event trials in 2011 (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and 2014 (Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) concluded that niacin added to statin therapy did not provide clinical event benefit over statin alone...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878675/inhibition-of-collagen-induced-platelet-aggregation-by-the-secobutanolide-secolincomolide-a-from-lindera-obtusiloba-blume
#12
Sang-Hyuk Jung, Joo-Hui Han, Hyun-Soo Park, Jung-Jin Lee, Seo Young Yang, Young Ho Kim, Kyung-Sun Heo, Chang-Seon Myung
Atherothrombosis is one of the main underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases. In addition to treating atherothrombosis with antithrombotic agents, there is growing interest in the role of natural food products and biologically active ingredients for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of secolincomolide A (3) isolated from Lindera obtusiloba Blume on platelet activity and identify possible signaling pathways. In our study, the antiplatelet activities of 3 were measured by collagen-induced platelet aggregation and serotonin secretion in freshly isolated rabbit platelets...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867523/drip-and-ship-thrombolytic-therapy-for-acute-ischemic-stroke
#13
Ichiro Deguchi, Satoko Mizuno, Shinya Kohyama, Norio Tanahashi, Masaki Takao
BACKGROUND: Neuroendovascular therapy is a common treatment for patients with acute ischemic stroke of the anterior circulation who fail to respond to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. However, although most hospitals can provide recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy, many cannot perform neuroendovascular therapy. Thus, use of a drip-and-ship treatment-liaison system allowing recombinant tissue plasminogen activator-treated patients to be transferred to facilities offering neuroendovascular therapy is important...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855423/plant-based-food-cyanidin-3-glucoside-modulates-human-platelet-glycoprotein-vi-signaling-and-inhibits-platelet-activation-and-thrombus-formation
#14
Yanling Yao, Yanqiu Chen, Reheman Adili, Thomas McKeown, Pingguo Chen, Guangheng Zhu, Dan Li, Wenhua Ling, Heyu Ni, Yan Yang
Background: Platelets play an important role in hemostasis, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is a major platelet receptor that interacts with exposed collagen on injured vessel walls. Our previous studies have shown that anthocyanins (a type of natural plant pigment) attenuate platelet function; however, whether anthocyanins affect collagen-induced GPVI signaling remains unknown.Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the effects of cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-g, one of the major bioactive compounds in anthocyanins) on platelet activation and thrombosis and the GPVI signaling pathway...
October 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845751/antiinflammatory-therapy-with-canakinumab-for-atherosclerotic-disease
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Paul M Ridker, Brendan M Everett, Tom Thuren, Jean G MacFadyen, William H Chang, Christie Ballantyne, Francisco Fonseca, Jose Nicolau, Wolfgang Koenig, Stefan D Anker, John J P Kastelein, Jan H Cornel, Prem Pais, Daniel Pella, Jacques Genest, Renata Cifkova, Alberto Lorenzatti, Tamas Forster, Zhanna Kobalava, Luminita Vida-Simiti, Marcus Flather, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Hisao Ogawa, Mikael Dellborg, Paulo R F Rossi, Roland P T Troquay, Peter Libby, Robert J Glynn
BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical data suggest that reducing inflammation without affecting lipid levels may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis has remained unproved. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of canakinumab, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin-1β, involving 10,061 patients with previous myocardial infarction and a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level of 2 mg or more per liter...
September 21, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816059/atherothrombosis-and-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-and-management-in-elderly
#16
Francesco Violi, Lorenzo Loffredo, Roberto Carnevale, Pasquale Pignatelli, Daniele Pastori
SIGNIFICANCE: The incidence of cardiovascular events (CVEs) increases with age, representing the main cause of death in an elderly population. Aging is associated with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may affect clotting and platelet activation, and impair endothelial function, thus predisposing elderly patients to thrombotic complications. Recent Advances: There is increasing evidence to suggest that aging is associated with an imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant status...
November 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807460/metabolic-syndrome-cluster-does-not-provide-incremental-prognostic-information-in-patients-with-stable-cardiovascular-disease-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-aim-high-trial
#17
Radmila Lyubarova, Jennifer G Robinson, Michael Miller, Debra L Simmons, Ping Xu, Beth L Abramson, Marshall B Elam, Todd M Brown, Ruth McBride, Jerome L Fleg, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Woubeshet Ayenew, William E Boden
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a well-known risk factor for the development of cardiovascular (CV) disease; yet, controversy persists whether it adds incremental prognostic value in patients with established CV disease. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to determine if MS is associated with worse CV outcomes in patients with established CV disease treated intensively with statins. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes trial, in which patients with established CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia (n = 3414) were randomly assigned to receive extended release niacin or placebo during a mean 36-month follow-up, to assess whether the presence of MS or the number of MS components contributed to CV outcomes...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797175/role-of-lipids-and-intraplaque-hypoxia-in-the-formation-of-neovascularization-in-atherosclerosis
#18
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Andrey V Grechko, Alexander N Orekhov
According to the current paradigm, chronic vascular inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The plaque progression is typically completed with rupture and subsequent acute cardiovascular complications. Previously, the role of adventitial vasa vasorum in atherogenesis was underestimated. However, investigators then revealed that vasa vasorum neovascularization can be observed when no clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis is present. Vasa vasorum is involved in various proatherogenic processes such as intimal accumulation of inflammatory leukocytes, intimal thickening, necrotic core formation, intraplaque haemorrhage, lesion rupture and atherothrombosis...
December 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751543/adpase-cd39-fused-to-glycoprotein-vi-fc-boosts-local-antithrombotic-effects-at-vascular-lesions
#19
Heidrun Degen, Oliver Borst, Melanie Ziegler, Ann-Katrin Mojica Munoz, Janina Jamasbi, Britta Walker, Silvia Göbel, Julia Fassbender, Kristin Adler, Richard Brandl, Götz Münch, Reinhard Lorenz, Wolfgang Siess, Meinrad Gawaz, Martin Ungerer
BACKGROUND: GPVI (Glycoprotein VI) is the essential platelet collagen receptor in atherothrombosis. Dimeric GPVI-Fc (Revacept) binds to GPVI binding sites on plaque collagen. As expected, it did not increase bleeding in clinical studies. GPVI-Fc is a potent inhibitor of atherosclerotic plaque-induced platelet aggregation at high shear flow, but its inhibition at low shear flow is limited. We sought to increase the platelet inhibitory potential by fusing GPVI-Fc to the ectonucleotidase CD39 (fusion protein GPVI-CD39), which inhibits local ADP accumulation at vascular plaques, and thus to create a lesion-directed dual antiplatelet therapy that is expected to lack systemic bleeding risks...
July 27, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747613/increased-carotid-artery-lesion-inflammation-upon-treatment-with-the-cd137-agonistic-antibody-2a
#20
Leif Å Söderström, Hong Jin, April S Caravaca, Maria L Klement, Yuhuang Li, Anton Gisterå, Ulf Hedin, Lars Maegdefessel, Göran K Hansson, Peder S Olofsson
BACKGROUND: Increased inflammatory activity destabilizes the atherosclerotic lesion and may lead to atherothrombosis and symptomatic cardiovascular disease. Co-stimulatory molecules, such as CD137, are key regulators of inflammation, and CD137 activity regulates inflammation in experimental atherosclerosis. Here, we hypothesized that CD137 activation promotes carotid artery inflammation and atherothrombosis.Methods and Results:In a model of inducible atherothrombosis with surgical ligation of the right carotid artery and a subsequent placement of a polyethene cuff, elevated levels of CD137 and CD137 ligand mRNA in atherothrombotic vs...
July 26, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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