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Gozde Baran, Tugce Ozdemir Gultekin, Oguz Baran, Cigdem Deniz, Salim Katar, Gulsen Babacan Yildiz, Talip Asil
Background and purpose: To assess the anatomical distribution of the ischemic strokes of the brainstem, the effect of anatomical distribution on clinical features and prognosis, and the association between etiology and anatomical involvement. Methods: A retrospective search of the patient database of our institution was performed for a total of 227 patients who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty of Bezmialem Vakif University between January 2012 and September 2014...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Kristina Busygina, Janina Jamasbi, Till Seiler, Hans Deckmyn, Christian Weber, Richard Brandl, Reinhard Lorenz, Wolfgang Siess
Interaction of Von Willebrand factor (VWF) with platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib and of collagen with GPVI is essential for thrombus formation on ruptured or eroded atherosclerotic plaques (atherothrombosis). GPIb and GPVI signal through Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) which can irreversibly be blocked by oral application of ibrutinib, an established therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with long term safety. We found that ibrutinib and the novel Btk-inhibitors acalabrutinib and ONO/GS-4059 block GPVI-dependent static platelet aggregation in blood exposed to human plaque homogenate and collagen but not to ADP or arachidonic acid...
March 20, 2018: Blood
Lina Badimon, Esther Peña, Gemma Arderiu, Teresa Padró, Mark Slevin, Gemma Vilahur, Gemma Chiva-Blanch
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a short pentraxin mainly found as a pentamer in the circulation, or as non-soluble monomers CRP (mCRP) in tissues, exerting different functions. This review is focused on discussing the role of CRP in cardiovascular disease, including recent advances on the implication of CRP and its forms specifically on the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis and angiogenesis. Besides its role in the humoral innate immune response, CRP contributes to cardiovascular disease progression by recognizing and binding multiple intrinsic ligands...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Miriam Sjåstad Langseth, Trine Baur Opstad, Vibeke Bratseth, Svein Solheim, Harald Arnesen, Alf Åge Pettersen, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Ragnhild Helseth
Background Neutrophil extracellular traps, comprising chromatin and granule proteins, have been implicated in atherothrombosis. Design and methods We investigated whether the circulating neutrophil extracellular traps markers, double-stranded DNA and myeloperoxidase-DNA were associated with clinical outcome and hypercoagulability in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Patients with angiographically verified stable coronary artery disease ( n = 1001) were included. Follow-up was 2 years, recording 106 clinical endpoints (unstable angina, non-haemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction or death)...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
E P Panchenko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Kardiologiia
N B Perepech, I E Mikhaylova
This review is devoted to the use of antiaggregants. We consider here pathogenesis of intraarterial thrombosis, mechanism of action of antiaggregants, and recommendations on the use of drugs of this class for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and prevention of atherothrombotic complications of stable ischemic heart disease. Information on mechanisms of development and causes of resistance to antiaggregants is also presented. Finally we discuss the problem of safety of therapy with antiaggregants, methods of lowering the risk of bleeding, and prevention of aspirin induced gastropathy...
February 2018: Kardiologiia
Michaela Finsterbusch, Waltraud C Schrottmaier, Julia B Kral-Pointner, Manuel Salzmann, Alice Assinger
Platelets, besides their specialised role in haemostasis and atherothrombosis, actively modulate innate and adaptive immune responses with crucial roles in immune surveillance, inflammation and host defence during infection. An important prerequisite for platelet-mediated changes of immune functions involves direct engagement with different types of leukocytes. Indeed, increased platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLAs) within the circulation and/or locally at the site of inflammation represent markers of many thrombo-inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, acute lung injury, renal and cerebral inflammation...
February 20, 2018: Platelets
Syed Raza Shah, Zainab Abbasi, Mazia Fatima, Rohan Kumar Ochani, Waqas Shahnawaz, Muhammad Asim Khan, Syed Arbab Shah
IL-1 cytokines are mainly responsible for controlling a series of pro-inflammatory reactions induced in response to pathogen mediated tissue injury. Among the IL-1 cytokine family, IL-1 β results in upregulation of genes responsible for boosting immune system reactivity and inflammatory response. With growing pathophysiological relevance of IL-1β in a myriad of disease pathogenesis, new biological drugs have been developed in recent years. One such drug, Canakinumab, targeting IL-1β has been recently approved for clinical use...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Gregory D Sloop, Joseph J Weidman, John A St Cyr
The authors hypothesize that thrombosis causes both the complications of atherosclerosis as well as the underlying lesion, the atherosclerotic plaque, which develops from the organization of mural thrombi. These form in areas of slow blood flow, which develop because of flow separation created by changing vascular geometry and elevated blood viscosity. Many phenomena typically ascribed to inflammation or "chronic oxidative stress", such as the development of fatty streaks, "endothelial dysfunction," "vulnerable plaques," and the association of mild elevations of C-reactive protein and cytokines with atherothrombosis are better explained by hemorheologic and hemodynamic abnormalities, particularly elevated blood viscosity...
December 5, 2017: Curēus
Takuya Fukuoka, Yoshihiko Nakazato, Hitoshi Kawasaki, Kei Ikeda, Tomotsugu Furuya, Akifumi Miyake, Takashi Mitsufuji, Yasuo Ito, Kazushi Takahashi, Nobuo Araki, Norio Tahahashi, Toshimasa Yamamoto
Objective The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical features of ischemic patients for whom cigarette smoking was the sole risk factor for ischemic stroke. Methods Among the 1,329 patients (male, n=833; female, n=496) with acute ischemic stroke who were admitted to our hospital between April 2005 and September 2016, 346 (26%) were smokers (male, n=308 [36.9%]; female, 38 [7.6%]). In 42 (3.1%; male, n=41; female, n=1) cases, cigarette smoking was considered to be the sole risk factor for ischemic stroke...
February 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Toshihisa Anzai
Inflammation and fibrosis play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is caused by rupture of inflamed atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent atherothrombosis. Recent studies have shown that inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict ACS development and have demonstrated the effectiveness of new therapeutic approaches targeting inflammation. Studies have also shown that an enhanced inflammatory response after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with cardiac rupture, ventricular aneurysm formation, and exacerbation of left ventricular (LV) remodeling...
February 7, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
James D Otvos, John R Guyton, Margery A Connelly, Sydney Akapame, Vera Bittner, Steven L Kopecky, Megan Lacy, Santica M Marcovina, Joseph B Muhlestein, William E Boden
BACKGROUND: The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes trial showed no incremental benefit of extended-release niacin (ERN) therapy added to simvastatin in subjects with cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ERN treatment on lipoprotein particles and GlycA, a new marker of systemic inflammation, and their relations with incident CVD events including mortality...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Nikoletta Pechlivani, Ramzi A Ajjan
Cardiovascular disease remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. The risk of vascular ischemia is increased in this population and outcome following an event is inferior compared to individuals with normal glucose metabolism. The reasons for the adverse vascular profile in diabetes are related to a combination of more extensive atherosclerotic disease coupled with an enhanced thrombotic environment. Long-term measures to halt the accelerated atherosclerotic process in diabetes have only partially addressed vascular pathology, while long-term antithrombotic management remains largely similar to individuals without diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Mariam Ebrahim, Janina Jamasbi, Kristin Adler, Remco T A Megens, Yacine M'Bengue, Xavier Blanchet, Kerstin Uhland, Martin Ungerer, Richard Brandl, Christian Weber, Natalie Elia, Reinhard Lorenz, Götz Münch, Wolfgang Siess
Platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI) acts as a decisive collagen receptor in atherothrombosis. Besides collagen, injured atherosclerotic plaques expose tissue factor (TF) that triggers fibrin formation. Two recent studies reported that platelet GPVI also functions as fibrin receptor, which would importantly widen the mode of action of GPVI-targeted antithrombotic drugs. We studied the binding of two GPVI fusion proteins to fibrin under static and arterial flow conditions. Fibrin was prepared from purified fibrinogen or generated more physiologically from endogenous fibrinogen by coagulating plasma with thrombin...
February 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
H M H Spronk, T Padro, J E Siland, J H Prochaska, J Winters, A C van der Wal, J J Posthuma, G Lowe, E d'Alessandro, P Wenzel, D M Coenen, P H Reitsma, W Ruf, R H van Gorp, R R Koenen, T Vajen, N A Alshaikh, A S Wolberg, F L Macrae, N Asquith, J Heemskerk, A Heinzmann, M Moorlag, N Mackman, P van der Meijden, J C M Meijers, M Heestermans, T Renné, S Dólleman, W Chayouâ, R A S Ariëns, C C Baaten, M Nagy, A Kuliopulos, J J Posma, P Harrison, M J Vries, H J G M Crijns, E A M P Dudink, H R Buller, Y M C Henskens, A Själander, S Zwaveling, O Erküner, J W Eikelboom, A Gulpen, F E C M Peeters, J Douxfils, R H Olie, T Baglin, A Leader, U Schotten, B Scaf, H M M van Beusekom, L O Mosnier, L van der Vorm, P Declerck, M Visser, D W J Dippel, V J Strijbis, K Pertiwi, A J Ten Cate-Hoek, H Ten Cate
Atherothrombosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality and long-term morbidity. Platelets and coagulation proteases, interacting with circulating cells and in different vascular beds, modify several complex pathologies including atherosclerosis. In the second Maastricht Consensus Conference on Thrombosis, this theme was addressed by diverse scientists from bench to bedside. All presentations were discussed with audience members and the results of these discussions were incorporated in the final document that presents a state-of-the-art reflection of expert opinions and consensus recommendations regarding the following five topics: 1...
February 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Nina A Hilkens, Ale Algra, L Jaap Kappelle, Philip M Bath, László Csiba, Peter M Rothwell, Jacoba P Greving
OBJECTIVE: To study the early time course of major bleeding and its subtypes in patients with cerebral ischemia on dual and single antiplatelet therapy. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis on individual patient data from 6 randomized clinical trials (Clopidogrel Versus Aspirin in Patients at Risk of Ischaemic Events [CAPRIE], Second European Stroke Prevention Study [ESPS-2], Management of Atherothrombosis With Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients [MATCH], Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization, Management, and Avoidance [CHARISMA], European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial [ESPRIT], and Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes [PRoFESS]) including 45,195 patients with a TIA or noncardioembolic ischemic stroke...
February 20, 2018: Neurology
Hirotoshi Watanabe, Takeshi Morimoto, Hiroki Shiomi, Kyohei Yamaji, Satoshi Shizuta, Yutaka Furukawa, Yoshihisa Nakagawa, Kazushige Kadota, Kenji Ando, Ryuzo Sakata, Michiya Hanyu, Noboru Nishiwaki, Tatsuhiko Komiya, Takeshi Kimura
BACKGROUND: The contemporary medications for secondary prevention like statins and antithrombotic agents are targeting to delay the progression of atherothrombosis. However, there is limited data on the relation between death and progressive coronary atherothrombosis. This study sought to evaluate what proportion of death after coronary revascularization is related to documented progressive coronary atherothrombosis. METHODS: We reviewed the detailed causes of death among 15,231 patients receiving their first coronary revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG registry cohort-2, dividing into two groups; 13,839 patients with clinical success and without major complication (uncomplicated) and the other 1392 patients (complicated)...
December 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Guillaume Even, Kevin Guedj, Jamila Khalou-Lachet, Anh-Thu Gaston, Antonino Nicoletti, Giuseppina Caligiuri, Sandrine Delbosc
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
James Hamilton, Hatice Hasturk, Alpdogan Kantarci, Thomas Van Dyke, Alkystis Phinikaridou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Max L Senders, Xuchu Que, Young Seok Cho, Calvin Yeang, Hannah Groenen, Francois Fay, Claudia Calcagno, Anu E Meerwaldt, Simone Green, Phuong Miu, Mark E Lobatto, Thomas Reiner, Zahi A Fayad, Joseph L Witztum, Willem J M Mulder, Carlos Pérez-Medina, Sotirios Tsimikas
BACKGROUND: Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) are proinflammatory, and elevated levels in plasma predict cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop novel positron emission tomography (PET) probes to noninvasively image OSE-rich lesions. METHODS: An antigen-binding fragment (Fab) antibody library was constructed from human fetal cord blood. After multiple rounds of screening against malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) epitopes, the Fab LA25 containing minimal nontemplated insertions in the CDR3 region was identified and characterized...
January 23, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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