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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892731/is-arachidonic-acid-stimulation-really-a-test-for-the-response-to-aspirin-time-to-think-again
#1
Bartosz Olechowski, Alexander Ashby, Mark Mariathas, Vikram Khanna, Michael Mahmoudi, Nick Curzen
Platelets play a key role in pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. Activated platelets initiate thrombus formation. Antiplatelet therapy (APT) modifies these properties. APT involves aspirin. The existence of "aspirin resistance" is reported in many populations with cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of this phenomenon is highly variable, affecting more than 50% of patient subgroups in some papers. Areas covered: This review describes the prevalence of "aspirin resistance", analyses why there is so much apparent variation and addresses whether the commonly used tests of aspirin response are in fact accurately assessing its functional performance...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866916/blood-coagulation-in-immunothrombosis-at-the-frontline-of-intravascular-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Florian Gaertner, Steffen Massberg
While hemostasis is the physiological process that prevents blood loss after vessel injury, thrombosis is often portrayed as a pathologic event involving blood coagulation and platelet aggregation eventually leading to vascular occlusion and tissue damage. However, recent work suggests that thrombosis can also be a physiological process, termed immunothrombosis, initiated by the innate immune system providing a first line of defense to locally control infection. Fibrin forms the structural basis of immunothrombotic clots and its assembly involves the concerted action of coagulation factors, platelets and leukocytes...
November 17, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#3
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814786/usefulness-of-mean-platelet-volume-to-predict-significant-coronary-artery-disease-in-patients-with-non-st-elevation-acute-coronary-syndromes
#4
Tuncay Taskesen, Harsimran Sekhon, Igor Wroblewski, Mikhail Goldfarb, Muhammad B Ahmad, Quang T Nguyen, Ibtihaj A M Fughhi, Adi Gidron, Shahriar Dadkhah
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is characterized by unstable plaque with thrombotic process involving central role of platelets. The diagnosis and prediction of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in non-ST-elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) can be challenging. The central role of platelets in acute atherothrombosis in NSTE-ACS spurred appreciable interest in the diagnostic and predictive role of platelet activity. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is one of the most promising laboratory markers in patients with CAD. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the diagnostic and predictive value of high MPV levels in patients with NSTE-ACS with significant CAD...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789143/prognostic-significance-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-lower-limb-amputee-patients
#5
S Ralevic, J Perunicic, R Lasica, J Marinkovic, T Blagojevic, I Simanic, M Asanin, G Stankovic
OBJECTIVE: In patients with risk factors or established atherothrombosis, atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a poor prognosis compared with patients without AF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AF in patients with lower limb amputation (LLA) and its association with cardiovascular death and adverse cardiovascular events in long-term follow-up. METHODS: Observational prospective study of consecutive patients after index major (transfemoral and transtibial) LLA...
December 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766315/cross-linking-gpvi-fc-by-anti-fc-antibodies-potentiates-its-inhibition-of%C3%A2-atherosclerotic-plaque-and-collagen-induced-platelet-activation
#6
Janina Jamasbi, Remco T A Megens, Mariaelvy Bianchini, Kerstin Uhland, Götz Münch, Martin Ungerer, Shachar Sherman, Alexander Faussner, Richard Brandl, Christine John, Johannes Buchner, Christian Weber, Reinhard Lorenz, Natalie Elia, Wolfgang Siess
To enhance the antithrombotic properties of recombinant glycoprotein VI fragment crystallizable (GPVI-Fc), the authors incubated GPVI-Fc with anti-human Fc antibodies to cross-link the Fc tails of GPVI-Fc. Cross-linking potentiated the inhibition of human plaque- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation by GPVI-Fc under static and flow conditions without increasing bleeding time in vitro. Cross-linking with anti-human-Fc Fab2 was even superior to anti-human-Fc immunoglobulin G (IgG). Advanced optical imaging revealed a continuous sheath-like coverage of collagen fibers by cross-linked GPVI-Fc complexes...
April 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766047/microrna-in-atherothromobosis-is-it-useful-as-a-disease-marker
#7
REVIEW
Satoshi Fujii, Tomonori Sugiura, Yasuaki Dohi, Nobuyuki Ohte
Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of death. Data from animal experiments suggest that atherosclerosis involves an inflammatory process of the vascular wall under hyperlipidemia. Atherothrombosis can become a serious complication of atherosclerosis leading to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Clinical applications to use this knowledge remain scarce. The plasma levels of vascular endothelium-enriched microRNA (miRNAs) in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease could serve as a disease marker...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725801/early-effects-of-treatment-low-dose-atorvastatin-on-markers-of-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-patients-with-myocardial-infarction
#8
Olga Gruzdeva, Evgenya Uchasova, Yulia Dyleva, Olga Akbasheva, Victoria Karetnikova, Olga Barbarash
Dyslipidemia is one of the primary causes of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, attention has been focused on the development of drugs that normalize lipid levels and exert an effect on markers of atherothrombosis, insulin resistance (IR), and inflammation. Atorvastatin is a drug with not only lipid-lowering potential, but it has multiple non-lipid effects. This study aimed to evaluate atorvastatin effects on lipid, adipokine, IR, and inflammatory statuses in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) in an in-hospital setting...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720831/imaging-flow-cytometry-in-the-assessment-of-leukocyte-platelet-aggregates
#9
Henry Hui, Kathy A Fuller, Wendy N Erber, Matthew D Linden
Platelets are subcellular blood elements with a well-established role in haemostasis. Upon activation platelets undergo granule exocytosis, resulting in α-granule P-Selectin being expressed on the cell membrane. This allows binding of activated platelets to P-Selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) expressing leukocytes, forming leukocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs). Whole blood flow cytometry (FCM) has demonstrated that elevated circulating LPAs (especially monocyte LPAs) are linked to atherothrombosis in high risk patients, and that activated platelet binding influences monocytes towards a pro-adhesive and pro-atherogenic phenotype...
October 5, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709225/increased-circulating-resistin-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-oxidative-stress-and-platelet-activation-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Francesca Santilli, Rossella Liani, Patrizia Di Fulvio, Gloria Formoso, Paola Simeone, Romina Tripaldi, Thor Ueland, Pål Aukrust, Giovanni Davì
Resistin is an adipokine that promotes inflammation and insulin resistance by targeting several cells including platelets. We hypothesised that in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), resistin may foster in vivo oxidative stress, thromboxane-dependent platelet activation and platelet-derived inflammatory proteins release, key determinants of atherothrombosis. A cross-sectional comparison of circulating resistin, sCD40L, as a marker of platelet-mediated inflammation, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), endothelial dysfunction marker, Dickkopf (DKK)-1, reflecting the inflammatory interaction between platelets and endothelial cells, and urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and 11-dehydro-TxB2, reflecting in vivo lipid peroxidation and platelet activation, respectively, was performed between 79 T2DM patients and 30 healthy subjects...
November 30, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694321/inverse-agonism-at-the-p2y12-receptor-and-ent1-transporter-blockade-contribute-to-platelet-inhibition-by-ticagrelor
#11
Riyaad Aungraheeta, Alexandra Conibear, Mark Butler, Eamonn Kelly, Sven Nylander, Andrew Mumford, Stuart Mundell
Ticagrelor is a potent antagonist of the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) and consequently an inhibitor of platelet activity effective in the treatment of atherothrombosis. Here, we sought to further characterise its molecular mechanism of action. Initial studies showed that ticagrelor promoted a greater inhibition of ADP-induced Ca(2+) release in washed platelets versus other P2Y12R antagonists. This additional effect of ticagrelor beyond P2Y12R antagonism was in part as a consequence of ticagrelor inhibiting the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) on platelets, leading to accumulation of extracellular adenosine and activation of Gs-coupled adenosine A2A receptors...
September 30, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680665/angina-and-future-cardiovascular-events-in-stable-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-insights-from-the-reduction-of-atherothrombosis-for-continued-health-reach-registry
#12
Alon Eisen, Deepak L Bhatt, P Gabriel Steg, Kim A Eagle, Shinya Goto, Jianping Guo, Sidney C Smith, E Magnus Ohman, Benjamin M Scirica
BACKGROUND: The extent to which angina is associated with future cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease has long been debated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Included were outpatients with established coronary artery disease who were enrolled in the REACH registry and were followed for 4 years. Angina at baseline was defined as necessitating episodic or permanent antianginal treatment. The primary end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648176/study-of-atherogenic-lipid-profile-high-sensitive-c-reactive-protein-neurological-deficit-and-short-term-outcome-in-stroke-subtypes
#13
Aparna Pandey, Amit Shrivastava, Ashok Solanki
BACKGROUND: Stroke is one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide and has significant clinical and socioeconomic impact. Hyperlipidemia and inflammation play major roles in atherothrombosis and in stroke. This study is conducted to compare the high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and the lipid profile parameters between stroke patients and control group and demonstrate correlation between markers, neurological deficit, and short-term outcome. METHODS: We have studied a total 162 patients according to inclusion criteria...
July 6, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631489/differential-expression-of-micrornas-in-endarterectomy-specimens-taken-from-patients-with-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-carotid-plaques
#14
Birgit Markus, Karsten Grote, Michael Worsch, Behnoush Parviz, Andreas Boening, Bernhard Schieffer, Mariana S Parahuleva
OBJECTIVE: Stroke and transient ischemic attacks are considered as clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic disease due to on-going vascular inflammation and finally atherothrombosis of the carotid arteries. MicroRNAs (miRNA/miR) are known to be involved in vascular inflammation and plaque destabilization. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression profile of selected miRNAs in endarterectomy specimen from carotid arteries that were taken from patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630570/role-of-platelet-derived-microvesicles-as-crosstalk-mediators-in-atherothrombosis-and-future-pharmacology-targets-a-link-between-inflammation-atherosclerosis-and-thrombosis
#15
REVIEW
Lina Badimon, Rosa Suades, Eduardo Fuentes, Iván Palomo, Teresa Padró
Reports in the last decade have suggested that the role of platelets in atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications may be mediated, in part, by local secretion of platelet-derived microvesicles (pMVs), small cell blebs released during the platelet activation process. MVs are the most abundant cell-derived microvesicle subtype in the circulation. High concentrations of circulating MVs have been reported in patients with atherosclerosis, acute vascular syndromes, and/or diabetes mellitus, suggesting a potential correlation between the quantity of microvesicles and the clinical severity of the atherosclerotic disease...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609643/platelet-wdr1-suppresses-platelet-activity-and-associates-with-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Emilie Montenont, Christina Echagarruga, Nicole Allen, Elisa Araldi, Yajaira Suarez, Jeffrey S Berger
Platelet activity plays a major role in hemostasis with increased platelet activity likely contributing to the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. We sought to identify associations between platelet activity variability and platelet related genes in healthy controls. Transcriptional profiling of platelets revealed that WD-40 repeat domain 1 (WDR1), an enhancer of actin depolymerizing factor activity, is downregulated in platelet mRNA from subjects with a hyperreactive platelet phenotype. We used the human megakaryoblastic cell line MEG-01 as an in vitro model for human megakaryocytes and platelets...
September 8, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588731/residual-ischemic-risk-and-its-determinants-in-patients-with-previous-myocardial-infarction-and-without-prior-stroke-or-tia-insights-from-the-reach-registry
#17
Jérémie Abtan, Deepak L Bhatt, Yedid Elbez, Emmanuel Sorbets, Kim Eagle, Yasuo Ikeda, David Wu, Mary E Hanson, Hakima Hannachi, Puneet K Singhal, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Gregory Ducrocq
BACKGROUND: Although the rate of in-hospital ischemic events after myocardial infarction (MI) has dramatically decreased, long-term residual risk may remain substantial. However, most of the information on current residual risk is derived from highly selected randomized trials. HYPOTHESIS: In patients with previous MI and no prior ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), residual ischemic risk increases over time. METHODS: Using the international Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) registry, we analyzed baseline characteristics and 4-year follow-up of patients with previous MI and no history of stroke/TIA to describe annual rates of recurrent ischemic events globally and by geography...
September 2, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558929/plasma-thrombin-cleaved-osteopontin-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-acute-atherothrombotic-ischemic-stroke
#18
Saya Ozaki, Mie Kurata, Yoshiaki Kumon, Shirabe Matsumoto, Masahiko Tagawa, Hideaki Watanabe, Shiro Ohue, Jitsuo Higaki, Takanori Ohnishi
We investigated whether thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal is useful as a blood biomarker of acute atherothrombotic ischemic stroke. Acute ischemic stroke patients were prospectively evaluated with brain magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac evaluations for etiological diagnosis according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. They were divided into the atherothrombotic and non-atherothrombotic groups. Thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal, osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, S100B, C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels were measured from blood samples collected at admission...
August 25, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544604/prognostic-value-of-myeloperoxidase-concentration-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-treated-with-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#19
Michal Kacprzak, Marzenna Zielinska
: Inflammation plays an important role on every stage of atherosclerosis. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a leukocyte-derived enzyme that participates in the innate immunity, probably is involved in many stages of atherothrombosis. According to the recent studies, MPO is related with unfavorable outcome in patients with chest pain and acute coronary syndromes. Its role in prediction of outcomes after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unclear. The aim of the study was to assess if elevated MPO level is a predictor of long-term adverse cardiac events in patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI)...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540959/vitamin-d-levels-and-high-residual-platelet-reactivity-in-patients-receiving-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-with-clopidogrel-or-ticagrelor
#20
Monica Verdoia, Patrizia Pergolini, Roberta Rolla, Chiara Sartori, Matteo Nardin, Alon Schaffer, Lucia Barbieri, Veronica Daffara, Paolo Marino, Giorgio Bellomo, Harry Suryapranata, Giuseppe De Luca
Suboptimal platelet inhibition still represents an important challenge, especially for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). However, very few are known so far on the predictors of high-residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) despite antiplatelet strategies. Increasing attention has been paid in the last years to the role of vitamin D in atherothrombosis. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of vitamin D levels on platelet function in patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT)...
September 2016: Platelets
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